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SPS Science F3 02

SPS Science F3 02

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Chapter

2

Blood Circulation and Transport
Sistem Peredaran dan Pengankutan
Daigram F 3_Chp 2

WORD

UP!

Artery – Arteri Heart – Jantung Phloem – Floem Transpiration – Transpirasi Vein – Vena Xylem – Xilem

Circulatory and transport system
take place in take place in

Humans
through

Plants
have

Phloem Blood
flows in

Xylem
transport transport

co is ns

Veins
flows in

Food

ts of

Arteries
transport

flows in

Water and mineral salts

Blood capillaries • Red blood cells • White blood cells • Platelets • Plasma

PMR Past-year Questions
Year
2006 2007 2008 2009 2010

Paper 1
Q27, Q30 Q29 Q25, Q28 Q28 Q28

Paper 2 Sec. A Sec. B

Deoxygenated blood
transport

connect

Oxygenated blood Arteries and veins

14

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Learning Objective
2.1 The transport system in humans

2.1
AIM

INQUIRY
Experiment

The structure of the heart
Struktur jantung

Inquiry-discovery

To study the structure of the heart
Mengkaji struktur jantung

CHAPTER

MATERIALS

Charts, models or transparencies about the human heart, blue and red coloured pencils
Carta, model atau transparensi tentang jantung manusia, pensel berwarna biru dan merah

2

PROCEDURE

1 Study the diagram of the heart from the charts, models or transparencies.
Kaji rajah tentang struktur jantung daripada carta, model atau transparensi.

2 Identify the parts of the heart and label them on the diagram given.

Kenal pasti bahagian-bahagian jantung serta labelkannya pada rajah yang diberikan.

3 Colour the parts of the heart that contains oxygenated blood with red and deoxygenated blood with blue.
Warnakan bahagian jantung yang membawa darah beroksigen dengan warna merah dan darah terdeoksigen dengan warna biru.

Aorta
Aorta

Semilunar valve
Injap sabit

Vena cava
Vena kava

Bicuspid valve
Injap bikuspid

Right atrium
Atrium kanan

Pulmonary vein
Vena pulmonari

Left ventricle
Ventrikel kiri

Tricuspid valve
Injap trikuspid

Left atrium
Atrium kiri

Pulmonary artery
Arteri pulmonari

Right ventricle
Ventrikel kanan

OBSERVATION

(a) pulmonary artery/arteri pulmonari

(f) aorta/aorta (g) pulmonary vein/vena pulmonari

(b) vena cava/vena kava

(h) left atrium/atrium kiri (c) right atrium/atrium kanan (i) semilunar valve/ injap sabit (d) tricuspid valve/injap trikuspid (j) bicuspid valve/injap bikuspid (e) right ventricle/ventrikel kanan

(k) left ventricle/ventrikel kiri

ANALYSIS

1 State the function of the heart./Nyatakan fungsi jantung. pump blood To to all parts of the body.
Mengepam darah ke seluruh badan.

2 What is the function of the valve?/Apakah fungsi injap? one To ensure that blood flows in only
Memastikan darah mengalir dalam satu

direction.
arah sahaja.

3 Name the largest artery and vein in the body. (a) Artery/Arteri:
2.1 LO • State the function of the heart Identify the structure of the human heart

Namakan arteri dan vena yang terbesar dalam badan.

Aorta/Aorta 15

(b) Vein/Vena:

Vena cava/Vena kava

2.1 LO • Compare and contrast oxygenated blood and deoxygenated blood

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4 Why is the wall of the left ventricle thicker than the right ventricle? In the left ventricle, blood is pumped all parts of the body. under high pressure

Mengapakah dinding ventrikel kiri lebih tebal daripada dinding ventrikel kanan?

TSTS
• Generating ideas Menjanakan idea

to

tekanan yang lebih kuat Dalam ventrikel kiri, untuk mengepam darah ke seluruh badan.

diperlukan

CHAPTER

5 Why is the wall of the ventricle thicker and stronger than the atrium?
Mengapakah dinding ventrikel adalah lebih tebal dan lebih kuat berbanding dengan dinding atrium?

TSTS
• Generating ideas Menjanakan idea

2
CONCLUSION

The ventricles need to pump blood
Ventrikel perlu mengepam darah

out of the heart
keluar dari jantung

.
.

The function of the
Jantung

heart

is to pump blood to all parts of the body.

berfungsi untuk mengepam darah ke seluruh badan.

2.2

DISCUSSION
Activity

Blood circulatory system and types of blood vessels
Sistem peredaran darah dan jenis salur darah

Mastery

(A) Based on the guides given in the diagram, complete the flow chart below to show how blood circulates from the vena cava through the heart, until to all parts of the body. Then, colour the parts of the blood circulatory system which contain oxygenated blood with red and deoxygenated blood with blue.

Berdasarkan panduan yang diberi dalam rajah, lengkapkan carta alir di bawah untuk menunjukkan peredaran darah bermula dari vena kava, melalui jantung sehingga ke seluruh badan. Kemudian, warnakan bahagian sistem peredaran darah yang mengandungi darah beroksigen dengan warna merah dan darah terdeoksigen dengan warna biru.
lungs

peparu 5 10 6

1 Vena cava
Vena kava

10 Aorta
Aorta

semilunar valve
injap sabit 2 3 1 4

semilunar valve
injap sabit 7 8 9

2 Right atrium
Atrium kanan

Semilunar valve
Injap sabit

3 Tricuspid valve
Injap trikuspid

9 Left atrium

Ventrikel kiri

4 Right ventricle
Ventrikel kanan
blood capillary
kapilari darah

8 Bicuspid valve
Injap bikuspid

Semilunar valve
Injap sabit

7 Left ventricle
Atrium kiri

Key/Petunjuk: Blood vessel
Salur darah

Valve
Injap

5 Pulmonary artery
Arteri pulmonari

6 Pulmonary vein
Vena pulmonari

Heart chamber
Ruang jantung

Lungs Peparu 16

2.2 LO • Illustrate the path of blood flow in the circulatory system • Compare and contrast the structure of the arteries, veins and capillaries

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(B) Compare arteries, veins and blood capillaries in the diagrams below./Bandingkan arteri, vena dan kapilari
darah dalam rajah di bawah. 2004 Sec. A, Q4

One-cell
Satu sel

Thin

Nipis

Thick
Tebal

Elastic
Kenyal Satu

Less elastic
Kurang

Kurang kenyal

Valves
Injap

High

Tinggi

Muscular
Berotot

One

Less muscular

CHAPTER

Artery/Arteri
muscle layer small lumen
lumen kecil lapisan berotot

Blood capillary/Kapilari darah
very narrow lumen
lumen sangat kecil

Vein/Vena
big lumen
lumen besar

2

The wall is elastic muscular

thick and

,

The wall is

one-cell

thick to facilitate the absorption of substances.
satu sel Dinding setebal untuk memudahkan peresapan bahan melaluinya.

to withstand

thin • The wall is less elastic and less muscular . valves • Has to aid the flow of blood in one direction.
• Dinding nipis dan . , kurang kenyal kurang berotot

,

high the pressure of blood passing through it.
Dinding kenyal tebal dan ,

berotot untuk menahan darah yang mengalir deras di bawah tekanan tinggi .

injap • Mempunyai untuk membolehkan darah mengalir dalam satu arah.

2.3
AIM

INQUIRY
Experiment

The human blood circulatory system
Sistem peredaran darah dalam manusia

Inquiry-discovery

2004 Sec. A, Q4

To observe and study the diagram of the human blood circulatory system

Memerhati rajah sistem peredaran darah manusia untuk mengkaji proses peredaran darah
MATERIALS

Charts, models or transparencies about the human blood circulatory system
Carta, model atau transparensi tentang sistem peredaran darah manusia

PROCEDURE

1 Study the human blood circulatory system from the charts, models or transparencies. 2 Label the blood circulatory system on the diagram given.
Labelkan sistem peredaran darah pada rajah yang disediakan.

Perhatikan carta, model, atau transparensi yang menunjukkan sistem peredaran darah manusia.

3 Mark on the diagram, using arrows, ( ) to show the flow of oxygenated blood and broken line arrows ( ), to show the flow of deoxygenated blood.

Tandakan pada rajah dengan anak panah ( ) untuk menunjukkan pengaliran darah beroksigen dan anak panah bergaris putus ( ) untuk menunjukkan pengaliran darah terdeoksigen.
Refer to Essential Science Form 3, 2.1 Blood circulatory system, p.19; Essential Science PMR, 19.1 Blood circulatory system, p. 316

2.3 LO • Describe the circulatory system

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OBSERVATION

Human blood circulatory system
Sistem peredaran darah manusia (a) pulmonary artery
arteri pulmonari

Lung capillary
Kapilari peparu

(b) pulmonary vein
vena pulmonari

(d) aorta/aorta heart/jantung

(c) vena cava/vena kava

CHAPTER

BLOG!
Two fluids flow through the circulatory system, i.e. blood and lymph. The cardiovascular system consists of blood, the heart and blood vessels.

2
X Y Blood capillary
Kapilari darah

Pulmonary circulation/Peredaran pulmonari Transports deoxygenated blood from the and flows the oxygenated blood back to the
Membawa darah terdeoksigen dari jantung ke dan mengembalikan darah beroksigen ke jantung

heart heart

to the .

lungs

to be oxygenated,

Heart → Lung → Heart
untuk menjadikannya beroksigen,

peparu .

Jantung → Peparu → Jantung

Systemic circulation/Peredaran sistemik Transports oxygenated blood from the flows the deoxygenated blood back to the
Membawa darah beroksigen dari mengembalikan darah terdeoksigen ke
ANALYSIS

heart heart

to all .

tissues

of the body and

Heart → Body tissues → Heart
tisu badan dan

jantung jantung .

ke semua

Jantung → Tisu badan → Jantung

1 Complete the spaces provided in the boxes above on pulmonary circulation and systemic circulation.
Lengkapkan ruang dalam petak-petak di atas tentang peredaran pulmonari dan peredaran sistemik.

2 Name a type of artery which carries deoxygenated blood.
Namakan sejenis arteri yang mengangkut darah terdeoksigen.

Pulmonary artery
Arteri pulmonari

3 Name a type of vein which carries oxygenated blood.
Namakan sejenis vena yang mengangkut darah beroksigen.

Pulmonary vein
Vena pulmonari

4 Based on the above human blood circulatory system, determine the parts of the following cross-section of two types of blood vessels (either X or Y).

Berdasarkan sistem peredaran darah di atas, tentukan bahagian keratan rentas dua jenis salur darah yang berikut (sama ada X atau Y).
thick wall thin wall
dinding nipis

dinding tebal

Y

X

Explain why the cross-section of blood vessels X and Y differ in structure. Blood vessel Y has to withstand
Salur darah Y perlu menahan

Terangkan mengapa keratan rentas salur darah X dan Y berbeza dari segi struktur.

higher blood pressure
tekanan darah yang lebih tinggi

.
.

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5 Why is it said that humans have a double blood circulatory system? Blood
Darah
CONCLUSION

Mengapakah manusia dikatakan mempunyai sistem peredaran darah ganda dua?

passes through the heart
mengalir melalui jantung

twice
dua kali

in a complete circulation.
dalam satu peredaran lengkap.

CHAPTER

The human blood circulatory system consists of and
dan

pulmonary circulation
peredaran pulmonari

systemic circulation
peredaran sistemik

.
.

Sistem peredaran darah dalam manusia terdiri daripada

2

Learning Objective
2.2 Human blood

2.4
AIM MATERIALS

INQUIRY
Experiment

Blood cells
Sel-sel darah

Inquiry-discovery

To study the human blood cells/Mengkaji sel-sel darah manusia Charts, transparencies or slides of human blood showing red blood cells, white blood cells and platelets
Carta, transparensi atau slaid darah manusia yang menunjukkan sel darah merah, sel darah putih, dan platlet

BLOG!
A single drop (1 mm3) of blood contains 5 million red blood cells, 10 000 white blood cells and 50 000 platelets. The average life span of a red blood cell is 120 days.

APPARATUS PROCEDURE

Microscope/Mikroskop

1 Study the given charts, transparencies or slides showing red blood cells, white blood cells and platelets. 2 Draw your observations about human blood cells in the chart provided. Then, state the shape of the blood cells.

Kaji carta, transparensi atau slaid darah yang menunjukkan sel darah merah, sel darah putih dan platlet.

Lukis pemerhatian anda tentang sel-sel darah manusia dalam carta yang diberi. Kemudian, nyatakan bentuk bagi sel-sel darah.

OBSERVATION

Type of blood cells/Jenis sel darah

Sel darah merah

Red blood cell

White blood cell
Sel darah putih

Platelet
Platlet

Structure/Struktur:

Structure/Struktur:
nucleus
nukleus

Structure/Struktur:

Shape/Bentuk: Biconcave disc/Ceper
dwicekung
2.4 LO • State the constituents of blood and their functions

Shape/Bentuk: Not fixed/Tidak tetap

Shape/Bentuk: Small bits/Serpihan kecil

19

Refer to Essential Science Form 3, 2.2 Human blood, p. 24; Essential Science PMR, 19.2 Human blood, p. 317

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ANALYSIS

1 State the function of the blood cells in the table below: Blood cell/Sel darah Red blood cell/Sel darah merah White blood cell/Sel darah putih Platelet/Platlet Function/Fungsi To transport oxygen/Mengangkut oksigen To kill bacteria/Membunuh bakteria To clot blood/Membekukan darah

CHAPTER

2 Which of the blood cells contain a nucleus?/Sel darah yang manakah mengandungi nukleus? White blood cell/Sel darah putih 3 State the place where blood cells are formed./Nyatakan tempat terhasilnya sel-sel darah. Bone marrow/Sumsum tulang 4 Name one organ in the body where old red blood cells are destroyed. The liver/Hati 5 State two other functions of blood./Nyatakan dua fungsi lain darah. temperature (a) Maintains the body at 37 °C.
Mengekalkan suhu badan pada 37 °C. Nyatakan satu organ di mana sel darah merah yang tua dimusnahkan dalam badan.

2
CONCLUSION

(b) Transports
Mengangkut bahan

digested
tercerna

substances such as food in the body.
seperti makanan dalam badan.

Human blood consists of

red blood cells

, white blood cells and
sel darah putih dan

platelets
platlet

.
.

Sel darah manusia terdiri daripada

sel darah merah ,

2.5

DISCUSSION
Activity

Human blood groups
Kumpulan darah manusia

Constructivism

1 Mark '3' at the people with the blood group which are suitable to be donated to the patients.
Tandakan '3' pada orang dengan kumpulan darah yang sesuai didermakan kepada pesakit.

(a)
A

Donors/Penderma

(b)
O

Donors/Penderma A

3

B

AB

3

3

B

3

AB

3

O

3

Recipient (patient)/Penerima (pesakit) A
2.5 LO • Match the blood group of the donor to that of the recipient

Recipient (patient)/Penerima (pesakit) AB

20

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2 Mark '3' at the patients who are able to receive blood from the donors. (a) 3
A Donor O/Penderma O

Tandakan '3' pada pesakit yang dapat menerima darah daripada penderma tertentu.

(b) 3
AB A

Donor B/Penderma B

3
AB

CHAPTER

2

3
B Recipients (patients)/Penerima (pesakit)

3
O

3
B Recipients (patients)/Penerima (pesakit) O

3 People with blood group O are called

universal donors/penderma universal universal recipients/penerima universal substitute
gantian

4 People with blood group AB are called

Orang dengan kumpulan darah O disebut

. . for blood.
untuk darah.

5 Blood donation is important because there is no
Menderma darah adalah penting kerana tiada
Learning Objective
2.3 The transport system in plants

Orang dengan kumpulan darah AB disebut

2.6
AIM

INQUIRY
Experiment

Preparation of leaf stoma slide
Penyediaan slaid stoma daun

Inquiry-discovery

To observe a leaf stoma using a light microscope

Memerhatikan stoma daun di bawah mikroskop cahaya
MATERIALS

Leaf (example: Aloe vera), light microscope, forceps, slides, cover glass, small knife
Daun (contoh: lidah buaya), mikroskop cahaya, forsep, sisip kaca, kaca penutup, pisau kecil

PROCEDURE

1

2

Use a small knife to cut a thin piece of the bottom surface of a leaf. 3

Potong satu bahagian nipis pada permukaan bawah daun dengan pisau kecil.

Bend the leaf and remove the cut piece with forceps. 4

Bengkokkan daun dan tanggalkan bahagian nipis yang dipotong dengan forseps.

Place the piece on a glass slide. Add a drop of water. Then, cover with a cover glass.
Letakkan lapisan daun tersebut di atas sisip kaca dan titiskan setitik air. Kemudian, tutup dengan kaca penutup.

Use the low power lens of a light microscope to look at the stoma. Then, use a high-powered lens.

2.6 LO • Describe the function of the stomata

Perhatikan stoma daun di bawah mikroskop cahaya dengan kuasa rendah diikuti oleh kuasa tinggi.

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5 Draw and label the stoma that is observed.
Lukis dan labelkan pemerhatian bagi stoma.

OBSERVATION

guard cell

BLOG!
Plants are able to conserve water by having thick waxy cuticles or resins on their leaves or stems.

sel pengawal

CHAPTER

stoma
stoma

epidermis cell
sel epidermis

2
ANALYSIS

1 What is a stoma?/Apakah itu stoma? A pore/An opening
Liang/Bukaan

on the surface of the leaf.
pada permukaan daun.

2 State two functions of the stoma./Nyatakan dua fungsi stoma daun. air (a) Allows to enter and leave the leaf.
Membenarkan udara masuk dan keluar dari daun.

(b) Enables

water vapour
wap air

to be released from the leaf during
keluar dari daun semasa

transpiration
transpirasi

.
.

Membenarkan

3 Name the structure which controls the opening and closing of the stoma.
Namakan struktur yang mengawal pembukaan dan penutupan stoma.

Guard cells/Sel pengawal 4 (a) Predict the size of the stoma on a hot day./Ramalkan saiz stoma pada hari yang panas. Small/Kecil TSTS (b) Give an inference for your answer./Berikan inferens kepada ramalan anda. loss of water To reduce the from the leaf.
Untuk mengurangkan
CONCLUSION • Predicting Meramal

TSTS
• Making inferences Membuat inferens

kehilangan air

daripada daun.

The
Stoma

stomata

are openings on the surface of the leaf.
adalah bukaan yang terdapat di permukaan daun.

2.7
AIM

Experiment

GUIDED

Factors that affect the rate of transpiration
Faktor-faktor yang mempengaruhi kadar transpirasi

Inquiry-discovery

To study the factors that affect the rate of transpiration
Mengkaji faktor-faktor yang mempengaruhi kadar transpirasi

2008 Sec. B, Q8

MATERIALS

Balsam plant (with clean roots), water, oil, cotton wool, anhydrous calcium chloride
Pokok keembung (dengan akar yang bersih), air, minyak, kapas, kalsium klorida kontang

APPARATUS

Conical flask 250 ml, measuring cylinder, electronic balance
Kelalang kon 250 ml, silinder penyukat, penimbang elektronik

A
PROBLEM STATEMENT HYPOTHESIS

How does temperature affect the rate of transpiration?
Bagaimanakah faktor suhu mempengaruhi kadar transpirasi?

The higher the temperature, the higher the rate of transpiration.
Semakin tinggi suhu, semakin tinggi kadar transpirasi.
Refer to Essential Science Form 3, Laboratory Activity 2.2, p. 29; Essential Science PMR, Transpiration, p. 320

2.7 LO • Identify the factors affecting the rate of transpiration • Describe how the factors affect the rate of transpiration

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VARIABLES

(a) that is kept constant: The intensity of light/air movement/air humidity
yang dimalarkan: Keamatan cahaya/pergerakan udara/kelembapan udara yang dimanipulasikan: Suhu

(b) that is manipulated: Temperature (c) that responds/yang bergerak balas: The rate of transpiration/Kadar transpirasi

CHAPTER

PROCEDURE

balsam plant

pokok keembung

BLOG!
Transpiration process is useful to plants. This process cools plants down and allows mass flow of minerals to the plants.

2

cotton wool
kapas

oil conical flask
kelalang kon

minyak

water/air electronic balance

penimbang elektronik

1 Fill a conical flask with 200 ml of water./Isikan kelalang kon dengan 200 ml air. 2 Put a balsam plant inside the conical flask./Masukkan pokok keembung ke dalam kelalang kon. 3 Pour a layer of oil over the water surface in the conical flask.
Tuangkan satu lapisan minyak di permukaan air dalam kelalang.

4 Weigh the conical flask and its contents as shown in the diagram above. 5 Record the initial reading of the electronic balance in a table.
Rekod bacaan awal penimbang elektronik dalam jadual. Biarkan radas kawalan dalam makmal sains.

Timbang kelalang kon dan kandungannya seperti yang ditunjukkan dalam rajah di atas.

6 Leave the apparatus which act as a control in the science laboratory. 7 Repeat steps 1 to 5 and place the apparatus in a hot place (for example, a car park or a bicycle shed).
Ulangi langkah 1 hingga 5 dan letakkan radas di tempat yang panas (seperti di tempat meletak kereta atau pondok basikal). Rekod bacaan akhir penimbang elektronik selepas 2 jam.

8 Record the final readings of the electronic balance after 2 hours.

B
PROBLEM STATEMENT HYPOTHESIS

How does light intensity affect the rate of transpiration?

Bagaimanakah keamatan cahaya mempengaruhi kadar transpirasi?

The higher the intensity of light, the higher the rate of transpiration.
Semakin tinggi keamatan cahaya, semakin tinggi kadar transpirasi.

VARIABLES

(a) that is kept constant: The temperature/air movement/air humidity
yang dimalarkan: Suhu/pergerakan udara/kelembapan udara

(b) that is manipulated/yang dimanipulasikan: The intensity of light/Keamatan cahaya (c) that responds/yang bergerak balas: The rate of transpiration/Kadar transpirasi
PROCEDURE

1 Repeat the experiment in Section A (procedures 1 to 5). 2 Leave the apparatus in a dark cupboard./Biarkan radas dalam almari yang gelap. 3 Record the results in the same table./Rekod keputusan dalam jadual yang sama. How does air movement affect the rate of transpiration?
Ulangi eksperimen pada Bahagian A (langkah 1 hingga 5).

C
PROBLEM STATEMENT HYPOTHESIS

Bagaimanakah pergerakan udara mempengaruhi kadar transpirasi?

The faster the air movement, the higher the rate of transpiration.
Semakin laju pergerakan udara, semakin tinggi kadar transpirasi.
Refer to Essential Science Form 3, Experiment 2.3, p. 30; Essential Science PMR, Experiment 19.2, p. 321

23

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VARIABLES

(a) that is kept constant/yang dimalarkan: Temperature/light intensity/air humidity
Suhu/keamatan cahaya/kelembapan udara

(b) that is manipulated/yang dimanipulasikan: Air movement/Pergerakan udara (c) that responds/yang bergerak balas: The rate of transpiration/Kadar transpirasi

CHAPTER

PROCEDURE

1 Repeat the experiment in Section A (procedures 1 to 5).
Ulangi eksperimen dalam Bahagian A (langkah 1 hingga 5).

2 Place the apparatus in the science laboratory under a fast-moving fan.
Letakkan radas di dalam makmal sains di bawah kipas yang bergerak laju.

2
D
PROBLEM STATEMENT HYPOTHESIS VARIABLES PROCEDURE RESULTS ANALYSIS
SPS_Science_F3_02.indd 24

3 Record the results in the same table./Rekod keputusan dalam jadual yang sama.

How does air humidity affect the rate of transpiration?
Bagaimanakah kelembapan udara mempengaruhi kadar transpirasi?

The higher the air humidity, the lower the rate of transpiration.
Semakin lembap udara, semakin rendah kadar transpirasi.

(a) that is kept constant/yang dimalarkan: Temperature/light intensity/air movement
Suhu/keamatan cahaya/pergerakan udara

(b) that is manipulated/yang dimanipulasikan: Air humidity/Kelembapan udara (c) that responds/yang bergerak balas: The rate of transpiration/Kadar transpirasi 1 Repeat the experiment in Section A by wrapping the shoot of the plant with a plastic bag containing anhydrous calcium chloride.
Ulangi eksperimen pada Bahagian A dengan membalut pucuk tumbuhan dengan beg plastik yang mengandungi kalsium klorida kontang.

2 Record the results in the same table./Rekod keputusan dalam jadual yang sama.

Experiment
Eksperimen

Initial reading, x (g)
Bacaan awal, x (g)

Final reading, y (g)
Bacaan akhir, y (g)

Jisim yang hilang (g)

Loss of mass (g)

Rate of transpiration
Kadar transpirasi

x–y = –––––– 2 (g hour–1/g jam–1)

Control set/Set kawalan Hot place/Tempat panas Dark place/Tempat gelap Moving air/Udara bergerak Dry air/Udara kering 1 What causes the decrease of mass of the plant in each experiment? The loss of
Kehilangan

Apakah yang menyebabkan pengurangan jisim tumbuhan dalam setiap eksperimen?

water
air

from the
daripada

shoots
pucuk

.
tumbuhan.

2 Name the process that causes the change in mass in each experiment. Transpiration/Transpirasi 24

Namakan proses yang berlaku yang menyebabkan perubahan pada jisim dalam setiap eksperimen.

6/8/11 11:05:18 PM

3 If the water level is marked on the conical flask at the beginning of the experiment, predict what can be seen at the end of the experiment.
Jika paras air ditandakan pada kelalang kon pada awal eksperimen, ramalkan apa yang akan diperhatikan pada akhir eksperimen.

The water level/Paras air

drops/turun

.

CHAPTER

4 What are the environmental factors that affect the rate of transpiration?
Apakah faktor persekitaran yang mempengaruhi kadar transpirasi? Suhu, keamatan cahaya, pergerakan udara, dan kelembapan udara

Temperature, light intensity, the movement of air and air humidity

2

5 The transpiration rate increases when the/Kadar transpirasi bertambah apabila higher/meningkat (a) temperature is/suhu (b) light intensity is/keamatan cahaya (c) air movement is/udara bergerak lebih (d) air is/udara lebih higher/bertambah faster/laju drier/kering

CONCLUSION

temperature The rate of transpiration is affected by air movement air humidity and .
Kadar transpirasi dipengaruhi oleh pergerakan udara dan suhu kelembapan udara . ,

,

light intensity
keamatan cahaya

,
,

REfLECTION

Plants lose water faster in higher light intensity because light stimulates the opening of stomata .
Tumbuhan kehilangan air lebih cepat dalam keamatan cahaya yang tinggi kerana cahaya merangsang pembukaan stoma .

APPLYINg IDEAS

Flower cuttings, branches, fruit or vegetables can be prevented from wilting if kept in a plastic water air bag that has some and . The bag must be airtight .
air . dan Keratan bunga, ranting, buah-buahan, atau sayur-sayuran dapat dicegah daripada menjadi layu dengan menyimpannya dalam beg plastik yang mengandungi sedikit udara . Beg tersebut haruslah kedap udara

water water vapour
wap air air

The apparatus set-up on the left can be used to study the factors that affect the rate of transpiration. The rate of the movement of the air bubble shows the rate of transpiration.
scale
skala

screw clip
klip skru

rubber tube
tiub getah

8 capillary tube
tiub kapilari

7

6

5

4

3

2

1

Susunan radas di sebelah kiri boleh digunakan untuk mengkaji faktor-faktor yang mempengaruhi kadar transpirasi. Kadar pergerakan gelembung udara menunjukkan kadar transpirasi.

air bubble

gelembung udara

25

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2.8

research
Activity

The positions of the xylem and the phloem in plants
Kedudukan xilem dan floem dalam tumbuhan

STS

The diagram below shows the position of vessels involved in the transport system of a dicotyledonous plant. Study the diagram carefully and answer the following questions.
Rajah di bawah menunjukkan kedudukan salur-salur yang terlibat dalam sistem pengangkutan suatu tumbuhan dikotiledon. Teliti rajah di bawah dan jawab soalan-soalan berikutnya.
X: Phloem/Floem

CHAPTER

(a) Label the vessels X and Y in the diagram.
Label salur-salur X dan Y dalam rajah itu.

2
Y: Xylem/Xilem Stem
Batang

(b) In a stem, where are the positions of vessels X and Y ? X: In the bark/Di bahagian kulit tumbuhan Y: In the centre/Di bahagian tengah

Di manakah terletaknya salur-salur X dan Y pada batang tumbuhan?

(c) What is the function of vessel X ?/Apakah fungsi salur X? To transport food (glucose)/Mengangkut makanan (glukosa) (d) What is the function of vessel Y?/Apakah fungsi salur Y? To transport water and mineral salts/Mengangkut air dan garam mineral

2.9

INQUIRY
Experiment

The transportation of water from the root to the leaf through the xylem
Pengangkutan air dari akar ke daun melalui xilem

Inquiry-discovery

AIM

To study the transportation of water from the root to the leaf through the xylem
Mengkaji pengangkutan air dari akar ke daun melalui xilem

MATERIALS

Microscope, slides, cover glass, balsam plant, eosin solution (colouring), red-coloured pencil
Mikroskop, sisip kaca, kaca penutup, pokok keembung, larutan eosin (pewarna), pensel berwarna merah

APPARATUS PROCEDURE

500 ml beaker, knife/Bikar 500 ml, pisau 1 Fill a conical flask three-quarters full with water. 2 Add a few drops of eosin solution to the water.
Titiskan beberapa titik larutan eosin ke dalam air. Bersihkan akar sepohon pokok keembung. Isikan satu kelalang kon tiga per empat penuh dengan air.

3 Clean the roots of a balsam plant.

4 Place the balsam plant in the conical flask and leave it for one day.

balsam plant conical flask
kelalang kon

pokok keembung

Dirikan pokok keembung di dalam kelalang kon dan biarkan radas selama satu hari.

red-coloured water
air berwarna merah

5 After one day, cut very thin slices of the root, stem and leaf of the balsam plant and observe them under a microscope.

Selepas satu hari, potong senipis yang boleh keratan rentas bagi akar, batang dan daun pokok keembung dan perhatikan di bawah mikroskop.

Science BLOG!
Aquatic plants absorb water and minerals from their surroundings. They also get support from the water.

6 Draw what you observe and colour the red parts with a red-coloured pencil.
Lukis pemerhatian anda dan warnakan bahagian merah dengan pensel berwarna merah.

2.8 LO • Identify the locations of xylem and phloem 2.9 LO • Investigate the pathway of water in a cut stem using a suitable stain • Describe the functions of xylem and phloem

26

Refer to Essential Science Form 3, Laboratory Activity 2.4, p. 33; Essential Science PMR, The importance of transpiration to a plant, p. 323

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OBSERVATION

xylem/xilem

xylem/xilem

xylem/xilem

CHAPTER

Cross-section of root
Keratan rentas akar

Cross-section of leaf
Keratan rentas daun

Cross-section of stem
Keratan rentas batang

2

ANALYSIS

1 Name the red parts of the plant./Namakan bahagian tumbuhan yang diwarnakan merah. The xylem/Xilem 2 What is the function of the xylem?/Apakah fungsi xilem? Transports
Mengangkut

water
air

and
dan

mineral salts

from the
dari

roots
akar

to the
ke

leaves
daun

.
.

garam mineral

3 Why was red-coloured water used?/Mengapakah air berwarna digunakan? To show that water
air

is carried from the
dibawa dari

roots
akar

to the
ke

leaves
daun .

.

Untuk menunjukkan

4 Why is it important for water to be transported to the leaf from the root?
Apakah kepentingan air diangkut ke atas daun dari akar?

To enable green leaves to carry out
Untuk membolehkan daun hijau menjalankan

photosynthesis
fotosintesis

.
.

5 Why does a plant that is snapped from its base, die after a while? Water through the
Air
CONCLUSION

Mengapakah bahagian batang pokok yang patah di pangkalnya akan mati selepas beberapa lama?

cannot be carried from the roots to the leaves xylem .
tidak dapat diangkut dari akar ke bahagian daun melalui

TSTS
• Making inferences Membuat inferens

xilem

.

Water and mineral salts are carried to the leaves through the/Air dan garam mineral diangkut xylem/xilem ke daun melalui .

2.10

INQUIRY
Experiment

The transportation of the products of photosynthesis through the phloem
Pengangkutan hasil fotosintesis melalui floem

Inquiry-discovery

2010 Sec. A, Q6(a), (b) & (d)
AIM

Mengkaji pengangkutan hasil fotosintesis melalui floem
MATERIALS APPARATUS

To study the transportation of the products of photosynthesis through the phloem

A hibiscus plant/Pokok bunga raya A knife/Pisau
Refer to Essential Science Form 3, Laboratory Activity 2.5, p. 34; Essential Science PMR, Laboratory Activity 19.3, p. 324

2.10 LO • Describe the functions of the xylem and phloem

27

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PROCEDURE AND OBSERVATION

Observation

CHAPTER

hibiscus plant

bark that has been ringed
bahagian kulit kayu dibuang

swollen part

bahagian bengkak

pokok bunga raya

2
ANALYSIS CONCLUSION
SPS_Science_F3_02.indd 28

1 Cut and remove a ring of bark stem from the branch of a hibiscus plant. 2 Rub paraffin oil on the exposed part.
Sapu minyak parafin pada bahagian batang pokok yang terdedah.

Potong dan buangkan sebahagian kulit kayu daripada dahan sepohon pokok bunga raya.

3 Water the plant daily and leave the plant for two to three weeks.

Siram pokok itu setiap hari dan biarkan pokok itu selama dua hingga tiga minggu.

4 Draw what you observe about the stem of the plant at the end of the activity in the space provided above.

Lukis pemerhatian anda tentang keadaan batang pokok pada akhir aktiviti dalam ruang yang disediakan di atas. Terangkan mengapa bahagian gelang yang terdedah disapu dengan parafin.

1 Explain why the exposed ringed part is wiped with paraffin. To prevent the
Untuk mengelakkan

loss of water
kehilangan air

from the stem tissues of the plant.
daripada tisu batang tumbuhan.

2 What happens to the part above the ring? Explain your answer. It becomes
Menjadi

Apakah yang berlaku kepada bahagian atas gelang? Terangkan jawapan anda.

swollen
bengkak

.
.

Food
Makanan

accumulates at the part above the ring.
terkumpul di bahagian atas gelang.

3 What was in the part of the woody stem that was removed?
Apakah kandungan kulit kayu yang telah dibuang?

Phloem

Floem

4 What is the function of the phloem?/Apakah fungsi floem? food from the leaves to other parts of the plant. To transport
Mengangkut makanan dari daun ke bahagian tumbuhan yang lain.

5 (a) What happens to the part below the ring?
Apakah yang berlaku kepada bahagian bawah gelang?

It contracts and wilts.
Mengecut dan menjadi layu.

(b) Explain your answer./Terangkan jawapan anda. Plant tissues do not receive their
Tisu tumbuhan tidak mendapat

food supply
bekalan makanan

.
.

6 If the plant is left for a longer period, the lower part of the stem will die more quickly than the upper part of the ring. Give your reasons. food can travel up but as a product of photosynthesis, cannot travel down.
Air menuruni batang. dapat naik tetapi makanan Sekiranya tumbuhan tersebut dibiarkan, batang di bahagian bawah gelang mati lebih awal daripada bahagian batang di atas gelang. Berikan alasan anda. TSTS

Water

,

• Generating ideas Menjanakan idea

hasil daripada fotosintesis tidak dapat

The food produced by photosynthesis are transported through the
Makanan yang terhasil daripada fotosintesis diangkut melalui

phloem
floem .

.

28

6/8/11 11:05:21 PM

PMR

Key To Success

Questions in this section contain concepts and facts that are frequently tested in the PMR exam. Make sure you can answer all the questions correctly.

1 Label the structures of the heart shown below.
Labelkan struktur jantung yang berikut.

CHAPTER

(a) Pulmonary artery/Arteri pulmonari (b) Vena cava/Vena kava (c) Right atrium/Atrium kanan (d) Tricuspid valve/Injap trikuspid (e) Right ventricle/Ventrikel kanan Diagram 1/Rajah 1 2 Fill in the blanks./Isikan tempat kosong. (a) All the veins carry deoxygenated blood except
Semua vena membawa darah terdeoksigen kecuali

(j) (i)

Aorta/Aorta Pulmonary vein/Vena pulmonari

2

(h) Semilunar valve/Injap sabit (g) Bicuspid valve/Injap bikuspid (f) Left ventricle/Ventrikel kiri

3 State the types of blood circulation systems.
Nyatakan jenis-jenis sistem peredaran darah. lungs

pulmonary vein/vena pulmonari (b) All the arteries carry oxygenated blood except
Semua arteri membawa darah beroksigen kecuali

peparu

Pulmonary circulation
Peredaran pulmonari

pulmonary artery/arteri pulmonari

heart

jantung

Systemic circulation
Peredaran sistemik

blood capillaries
kapilari darah

Diagram 2/Rajah 2

4 Determine these types of blood vessels and fill in the blanks with suitable words.
Tentukan jenis salur-salur darah dan isikan tempat kosong dengan perkataan yang sesuai.

deoxygenated blood
darah terdeoksigen

darah beroksigen

oxygenated blood

(a) Vein/Vena Function/Fungsi: Carries deoxygenated blood
terdeoksigen

(b) Blood capillary
Kapilari darah

(c) Artery/Arteri Function/Fungsi: Carries oxygenated blood
beroksigen

Membawa darah

Membawa darah

Diagram 3/Rajah 3

29

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5 Fill in the blanks with suitable words about human blood cells.
Isikan tempat kosong dengan perkataan yang sesuai tentang sel darah menusia.

(a)

(b)

nucleus
nukleus

(c)

CHAPTER

Red blood cell
Sel darah merah

White blood cell
Sel darah putih

Platelet
Platlet

Function:
Fungsi:

Carries oxygen
Membawa oksigen

Function:
Fungsi:

Kills bacteria
Membunuh bakteria

Function:
Fungsi:

Clots blood
Membekukan darah

2
(d) (f)

White blood cells/Sel darah putih
Semua jenis sel darah dihasilkan dalam

contain nucleus/mengandungi nukleus. bone marrow/sumsum tulang haemoglobin/hemoglobin . .

(e) All types of blood cells are produced in the Red blood cells contain
Sel darah merah mengandungi

6 (a) Fill in the blanks./Isikan tempat-tempat kosong. (i) People with blood group O are called
Orang yang mempunyai kumpulan darah O disebut

universal donors/penderma universal universal recipients/penerima universal

. .

(ii) People with blood group AB are called
Orang yang mempunyai kumpulan darah AB disebut

(b) Complete the table with the correct blood group./Lengkapkan jadual di bawah dengan kumpulan darah yang betul. Blood group of donor O AB A B Blood group of recipient
Kumpulan darah penerima

Kumpulan darah penderma

Blood group of recipient
Kumpulan darah penerima

Kumpulan darah penderma

Blood group of donor

A, B, AB, O AB A, AB B, AB

AB O A B

A, B, AB, O O A, O B, O

7 Label the stoma and guard cell in Diagram 4. Then, state the functions of stoma and guard cell.
Labelkan stoma dan sel pengawal dalam Rajah 4. Kemudian, nyatakan fungsi stoma dan sel pengawal.

(a) Guard cell/Sel pengawal (b) Stoma/Stoma

Function/Fungsi: Controls the size of the stoma/Mengawal
saiz stoma

Function/Fungsi: Allows air to enter and release from the leaf/Membenarkan udara masuk dan keluar
dari daun

Diagram 4/Rajah 4

8 Factors affecting the rate of transpiration are:/Faktor-faktor yang mempengaruhi kadar transpirasi adalah: (a) The temperature/Suhu (b) The intensity of light/Keamatan cahaya (c) Air movement/Pergerakan udara (d) Air humidity/Kelembapan udara

30

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9 Label the structures and state their functions./Labelkan struktur dan nyatakan fungsinya.
(a) Phloem/Floem Function/Fungsi: To transport food/Mengangkut makanan

CHAPTER

Diagram 5/Rajah 5

(b) Xylem/Xilem Function/Fungsi: To transport water and mineral salts/Mengangkut air dan
garam mineral

2

(c) State the function of transpiration./Nyatakan satu fungsi transpirasi.
Helps to transport water and mineral salts from the roots to all parts of the plant.
Membantu mengangkut air dan garam mineral dari akar ke bahagian lain tumbuhan.

10

ringed part
bahagian digelang

(a) What is gathered at X after two weeks?
Apakah yang terkumpul di X selepas dua minggu?

Food/Makanan
X

(b) Give an inference of the situation in Diagram 6.
Berikan inferens tentang keadaan dalam Rajah 6.

Phloem has been removed./Floem telah dibuang. Diagram 6/Rajah 6

PMR
PAPER

Enhancement Corner

2
3 The aorta is different from the pulmonary artery because it
Aorta berbeza daripada arteri pulmonari kerana aorta A has a valve/mempunyai injap mempunyai dinding setebal satu sel

1

Each question is followed by four options, A, B, C and D. Choose the best answer.
1 Which blood vessel transports deoxygenated blood?
Salur darah yang manakah membawa darah terdeoksigen?

Tiap-tiap soalan diikuti oleh empat pilihan jawapan, A, B, C dan D. Pilih jawapan yang terbaik. 2 The function of the heart is to
Jantung berfungsi untuk

A exchange gases
pertukaran gas

A Pulmonary vein
Vena pulmonari

B excrete carbon dioxide
perkumuhan karbon dioksida

B Aorta
Aorta

C digest food
mencernakan makanan

B has a one-cell thick wall

C Pulmonary artery
Arteri pulmonari

D Renal artery
Arteri ginjal

D pump blood throughout the body
mengepam badan darah ke seluruh

C carries oxygenated blood
membawa darah beroksigen

D carries blood under high pressure
membawa darah di bawah tekanan tinggi

C

D

C

31

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4 Diagram 1 shows a longitudinal section of a human heart.
Rajah 1 menunjukkan membujur jantung manusia. X keratan

6 Which of the following statements is true about the human blood circulatory system?
Antara pernyataan berikut, yang manakah benar tentang sistem peredaran darah manusia?

The function of this blood cell is to
Sel darah ini berfungsi untuk

A transport oxygen
mengangkut oksigen

B kill bacteria
membunuh bakteria

Y

A Oxygenated blood is carried in the pulmonary artery
Darah beroksigen diangkut dalam arteri pulmonari
CLONE 2006

C clot blood
membekukan darah

CHAPTER

D transport carbon dioxide
mengangkut karbon dioksida

B Pulmonary circulation transports only deoxygenated blood
Peredaran pulmonari hanya mengangkut darah terdeoksigen sahaja

B 9 Which of the following blood groups is the universal donor?
Antara kumpulan darah yang berikut yang manakah penderma universal?

2
Diagram 1/Rajah 1 X A Oxygenated blood
Darah beroksigen

What types of blood are carried in blood vessels X and Y ?
Apakah jenis darah yang dibawa dalam salur darah X dan Y ?

C Deoxygenated blood is pumped to the whole body through the systemic circulation
Darah terdeoksigen dipamkan ke seluruh badan melalui peredaran sistemik

A Blood group A
Kumpulan darah A

Y Deoxygenated blood
Darah terdeoksigen

B Blood group B
Kumpulan darah B

B Deoxygenated blood
Darah terdeoksigen

Oxygenated blood
Darah beroksigen

D Vena cava carries deoxygenated blood from all parts of the body to the heart
Vena kava mengangkut darah terdeoksigen dari semua bahagian badan ke jantung
CLONE 2007

C Blood group AB
Kumpulan darah AB

D Blood group O
Kumpulan darah O

C L ON E 2004

D 10 A person who has blood type O can only receive blood from a donor with
Seorang yang mempunyai kumpulan darah O boleh menerima darah daripada seorang penderma yang mempunyai kumpulan darah

C Deoxygenated blood
Darah terdeoksigen

Deoxygenated blood
Darah terdeoksigen

D

D Oxygenated blood
Darah beroksigen

Oxygenated blood
Darah beroksigen

7 Diagram 3 shows the human blood circulatory system.
Rajah 3 menunjukkan peredaran darah manusia. sistem

A blood type O only
O sahaja

B blood type AB only B
Q

AB sahaja
P

C blood types O and AB only
O dan AB sahaja

5

Diagram 2.1 shows three types of blood vessels.
Rajah 2.1 menunjukkan tiga jenis salur darah. blood capillary artery
arteri kapilari darah

D blood types O, A, B and AB
S R

O, A, B dan AB
C L ON E 2000 CLONE 2006

A

B

vena

vein

Diagram 3/Rajah 3 Which of the following shows the correct sequence of the blood flow?
Antara yang berikut, yang manakah menunjukkan urutan peredarah darah yang betul?

11 A type of blood cell destroys bacteria in the blood. This blood cell
Sejenis sel darah berfungsi untuk memusnahkan bakteria dalam darah. Sel darah ini

A

C D

Diagram 2.1/Rajah 2.1

I has a nucleus
mempunyai nukleus

A B C D Diagram 2.2/Rajah 2.2 Which part, A, B, C or D has the cross-section shown in Diagram 2.2?

P→Q→S→R P→R→S→Q Q→P→R→S S→R→Q→P

C L ON E 2010

II is formed in the bone marrow
dihasilkan dalam sumsum tulang

B

III has a fixed shape
mempunyai bentuk yang tetap

8 Diagram 4 shows a blood cell.
Rajah 4 menunjukkan satu sel darah.

A I and II only
I dan II sahaja

B I and III only
I dan III sahaja

Antara bahagian A, B, C dan D, yang manakah menunjukkan keratan rentas seperti yang ditunjukkan pada Rajah 2.2?

C II and III only
II dan III sahaja

D I, II and III
I, II dan III

B

Diagram 4/Rajah 4

A

32

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Questions 12 and 13 are based on Diagram 5.
Soalan 12 dan 13 adalah berdasarkan Rajah 5.

13 What is the function of X ?
Apakah fungsi X ?

A Transports food
Mengangkut makanan

15 Diagram 6 shows a plant with a ring of bark removed.
Rajah 6 menunjukkan batang suatu tumbuhan yang kulitnya telah dibuang. bark that has been ringed
bahagian kulit yang digelang

Diagram 5 shows the cross-section of the stem of a balsam plant.
Rajah 5 menunjukkan keratan rentas batang suatu pokok keembung. X Y

B Transports water
Mengangkut air

C Make food in the stem
Membuat makanan pada batang

CHAPTER

D Removes excretory substances
Menyingkirkan bahan perkumuhan

A 14 What is transported by the xylem?
Apakah yang diangkut oleh xilem?

stem

batang

X

2

Diagram 6/Rajah 6 What makes part X swell after one week?
Apakah yang menyebabkan bahagian X bengkak selepas seminggu?

I Glucose Diagram 5/Rajah 5 12 What are structures X and Y ?
Apakah struktur X dan Y ? Glukosa

II Water
Air

III Mineral salts
Garam mineral

A Food accumulates at part X
Makanan terkumpul di bahagian X

X A Phloem
Floem

Y Cambium
Kambium

A I and II only
I dan II sahaja
CLONE 2003

B Water accumulates at part X
Air terkumpul di bahagian X

B Xylem
Xilem

Phloem
Floem

B I and III only
I dan III sahaja

C Water and minerals cannot be transported up
Air dan garam mineral tidak dapat diangkut ke atas

C Phloem
Floem

Xylem
Xilem

C II and III only
II dan III sahaja

D Cambium
Kambium

Xylem
Xilem

C L ON E 2008

D I, II and III
I, II dan III

D The bark at part X loses water
Bahagian kulit di X kehilangan air

C

C

A

PAPER

2

Section A/Bahagian A
Answer all the questions./Jawab semua soalan.
1 Diagram 1 shows two types of blood cells, X and Y.
Rajah 1 menunjukkan dua jenis sel darah X dan Y.

(a) Name cells X and Y./Namakan sel X dan Y. X: Red blood cells/Sel darah merah Y: White blood cells/Sel darah putih (b) What is the function of blood cell X?
Apakah fungsi sel darah X?

To transport oxygen/Mengangkut oksigen (c) What is the function of blood cell Y?
Apakah fungsi sel darah Y?

X

Y

Diagram 1/Rajah 1

To kill bacteria/Membunuh bakteria (d) Name the red pigment in red blood cells./Namakan pigmen merah dalam sel darah merah. Haemoglobin/Hemoglobin (e) How is cell X different from cell Y?/Apakah yang membezakan sel darah X dan Y? Cell X does not have a nucleus. Cell Y has a nucleus.
Sel darah X tidak mempunyai nukleus manakala sel darah Y mempunyai nukleus.

33

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2

C L ON E 2004

Sec. A, Q4

Diagram 2 shows the human blood circulatory system.
Rajah 2 menunjukkan sistem peredaran manusia.
peredaran pulmonari

pulmonary artery
arteri pulmonari

pulmonary circulation

(a) Label Diagram 2 using the following information:
Labelkan Rajah 2 dengan maklumat berikut:

Pulmonary circulation
Peredaran pulmonari X Y

Systemic circulation
Peredaran sistemik

CHAPTER

(b) Label the pulmonary artery in Diagram 2.
systemic circulation
peredaran sistemik

Labelkan arteri pulmonari dalam Rajah 2.

(c) Mark using arrows (→) to show the flow of deoxygenated blood.
Tandakan dengan anak panah (→) untuk menunjukkan arah pengaliran darah terdeoksigen.

2
Diagram 2/Rajah 2 (d)
Nyatakan dua perbezaan struktur salur darah X dan Y.

(i) Draw the cross-section of the structure of blood vessels X and Y in the space below.
Lukis struktur keratan rentas salur darah X dan Y dalam ruang di bawah.

(ii) State two differences between blood vessels X and Y. Lumen of X is big whereas lumen of Y is small. Muscular layers of X is thin whereas muscular layers of Y is thick.
Lumen X adalah besar manakala lumen Y adalah kecil. Lapisan otot X adalah nipis manakala lapisan otot Y adalah tebal. Y X

Section B/Bahagian B
Answer all the questions./Jawab semua soalan.
3 (a) Diagram 3.1 shows two plants, X and Y. Plant X is put under the shade while plant Y is exposed to sunlight. State one inference about plants X and Y.
Tumbuhan X diletakkan di bawah tempat teduh manakala tumbuhan X diletakkan di bawah cahaya Matahari. Nyatakan satu inferens tentang pokok X dan Y.
C L ON E 2008
Sec. B, Q8

herbaceous plant
tumbuhan herba

Plant Y wilted under the hot sun.
Pokok Y layu di bawah cahaya matahari yang terik. X Y

Diagram 3.1/Rajah 3.1 (b) Diagram 3.2 shows three sets of apparatus used to study the factors that affect the rate of transpiration. The apparatus was left for two hours. The positions of the air bubbles are recorded in Table 3.3.
Rajah 3.2 menunjukkan tiga set radas yang digunakan untuk mengkaji faktor-faktor yang mempengaruhi kadar transpirasi. Radas dibiarkan selama dua jam. Kedudukan gelembung udara dicatat dalam Jadual 3.3.

7.5

7

6.5

6

5

4

3

gelembung udara

air bubble

electric fan

kipas elektrik

gelembung udara

air bubble

air bubble

gelembung udara

Condition P/Keadaan P

Condition Q/Keadaan Q Diagram 3.2/Rajah 3.2

Condition R/Keadaan Q

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(i)

Record the position of the air bubble in Q in Table 3.3.
Catatkan kedudukan gelembung udara di Q dalam Jadual 3.3.

Condition
Keadaan

(ii) Based on the readings in Table 3.3, draw a bar chart to show the positions of the air bubble with the different conditions.
Berdasarkan bacaan dalam Jadual 3.3, lukis satu carta bar untuk menunjukkan kedudukan gelembung udara dalam keadaan yang berlainan.

Kedudukan gelembung udara/cm

Position of the air bubble/cm 6.9 5.5 3.5

P Q R

CHAPTER

(iii) State the variables involved in this experiment.
Nyatakan pemboleh ubah yang terlibat dalam eksperimen ini.

Table 3.3/Jadual 3.3
Position of air bubble/cm/Kedudukan gelembung udara/cm

2

Manipulated variable
Pemboleh ubah yang dimanipulasikan

Condition of experiment
Keadaan eksperimen

7.0 6.5

Responding variable
Pemboleh ubah yang bergerak balas

Position of the air bubble

Kedudukan gelembung udara

6.0 5.5

(iv) What will happen to the position of the air bubble if the apparatus in Q is left for more than two hours?
Apakah yang akan berlaku kepada kedudukan gelembung udara jika radas dalam Q dibiarkan melebihi dua jam?

5.0 4.5 4.0 3.5 3.0 Condition P Q R
Keadaan

Increases (moves to the left)
Bertambah (bergerak ke kiri)

(c) Table 3.4 shows the positions of the air bubble of apparatus in P that was left for more than two hours.
Jadual 3.4 menunjukkan kedudukan gelembung udara bagi radas dalam P yang dibiarkan melebihi dua jam.

Masa yang diambil/jam

Time taken/hour 2 3 4 5

Kedudukan gelembung udara/cm

Position of the air bubble/cm 6.9 7.3 7.7 8.1

Table 3.4/Jadual 3.4 (i) Predict the position of the air bubble if the apparatus in P was left for 5 hours. Write your answer in Table 3.4.
Ramalkan kedudukan gelembung udara jika radas dalam P dibiarkan selama 5 jam. Tulis jawapan anda dalam Jadual 3.4.

(ii) State one hypothesis relating the time taken for the plant that exposed under the sunlight and the position of the air bubble.
Nyatakan satu hipotesis yang menghubungkaitkan masa yang diambil oleh tumbuhan yang terdedah kepada cahaya matahari dengan kedudukan gelembung udara.

When the time taken increases, the position of the air bubble also increases.
Apabila masa yang diambil bertambah, kedudukan gelembung udara juga bertambah.

(iii) What is the operational definition of ‘the rate of transpiration’?
Apakah definisi secara operasi untuk ‘kadar transpirasi’?

The rate of transpiration is the rate of movement of the air bubble.
Kadar transpirasi adalah kadar pergerakan gelembung udara.

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