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Falsafah Pendidikan Kebangsaan Pendidikan di Malaysia adalah suatu usaha berterusan ke arah memperkembangkan lagi potensi individu secara

menyeluruh dan bersepadu untuk mewujudkan insan yang seimbang dan harmonis dari segi intelek, rohani, emosi, dan jasmani berdasarkan kepercayaan dan kepatuhan kepada Tuhan. Usaha ini adalah bagi melahirkan rakyat Malaysia yang berilmu pengetahuan, berketrampilan, berakhlak mulia, bertanggungjawab, dan berkeupayaan mencapai kesejahteraan diri serta memberi sumbangan terhadap keharmonian dan kemakmuran keluarga, masyarakat, dan negara.

Falsafah Pendidikan Guru Guru yang berpekerti mulia, berpandangan progresif dan saintifik, bersedia menjunjung aspirasi negara serta menyanjung warisan kebudayaan negara, menjamin perkembangan individu, dan memelihara suatu masyarakat yang bersatu padu, demokratik, progresif, dan berdisiplin.

Cetakan Jun 2010 Kementerian Pelajaran Malaysia


Hak cipta terpelihara. Kecuali untuk tujuan pendidikan yang tidak ada kepentingan komersial, tidak dibenarkan sesiapa mengeluarkan atau mengulang mana-mana bahagian artikel, ilustrasi dan kandungan buku ini dalam apa-apa juga bentuk dan dengan apa-apa cara pun, sama ada secara elektronik, fotokopi, mekanik, rakaman atau cara lain sebelum mendapat izin bertulis daripada Rektor Institut Pendidikan Guru, Kementerian Pelajaran Malaysia.

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MODUL INI DIEDARKAN UNTUK KEGUNAAN PELAJAR-PELAJAR YANG BERDAFTAR DENGAN BAHAGIAN PENDIDIKAN GURU, KEMENTERIAN PELAJARAN MALAYSIA BAGI MENGIKUTI PROGRAM PENSISWAZAHAN GURU SEKOLAH RENDAH (PGSR) IJAZAH SARJANA MUDA PERGURUAN. MODUL INI HANYA DIGUNAKAN SEBAGAI BAHAN PENGAJARAN DAN PEMBELAJARAN BAGI PROGRAM-PROGRAM TERSEBUT.

Cetakan Jun 2010 Institut Pendidikan Guru Kementerian Pelajaran Malaysia

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CONTENTS

PAGE

Falsafah Pendidikan Kebangsaan Falsafah Pendidikan Guru Kata-Alu-aluan Rektor Learners Guide Introduction Distribution of Topics (Interaction and Module) Learning Topic: Topic 3 - Technology in Mathematics Synopsis Learning outcomes Topic Framework

iii iv vi viii

1 1 1 2

Unit 1: Hardware 1.0 Synopsis 1.1 Learning outcomes 1.2 Unit Framework 1.3 Introduction 1.4 Hardware 1.4.1 Input devices 1.4.2 Output devices 1.4.3 Storage devices 1.5 Other Useful Hardware 1.5.1 Interactive whiteboard 1.5.2 Visualiser 1.5.3 Graphing calculator 13 14 16 3 3 4 4 5 7 10 12

Unit 2: Software 2.0 Synopsis 2.1 Learning outcomes 2.2 Unit Framework 2.3 Introduction 2.4 Teaching Packages 2.4.1 Types of instructional software 2.5 Teaching Software 2.5.1 Microsoft Office software 2.5.2 Geometers Sketchpad 2.5.3 Other mathematics software Unit 3: Internet and Online Instructions 3.0 Synopsis 3.1 Learning outcomes 3.2 Unit Framework 3.3 Introduction 3.4 Internet Search Engines 3.5 Online Instructions 3.5.1 E-mail 3.5.2 Video conferencing 3.5.3 Internet forums 3.5.4 Online learning Bibliography Panel of Module Writers Panel of Module Reviewers Module Icons 30 30 31 31 33 35 36 37 38 39 45 46 47 48 17 17 18 18 20 21 23 23 26 27

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PANDUAN PELAJAR

Modul ini disediakan untuk membantu anda menguruskan pembelajaran anda agar anda boleh belajar dengan lebih berkesan. Anda mungkin kembali semula untuk belajar secara formal selepas beberapa tahun meninggalkannya. Anda juga mungkin tidak biasa dengan mod pembelajaran arah kendiri ini. Modul ini memberi peluang kepada anda untuk menguruskan corak pembelajaran, sumber-sumber pembelajaran, dan masa anda. Pembelajaran arah kendiri memerlukan anda membuat keputusan tentang pembelajaran anda. Anda perlu memahami corak dan gaya pembelajaran anda. Adalah lebih berkesan jika anda menentukan sasaran pembelajaran kendiri dan aras pencapaian anda. Dengan cara begini anda akan dapat melalui kursus ini dengan mudah. Memohon bantuan apabila diperlukan hendaklah dipertimbangkan sebagai peluang baru untuk pembelajaran dan ia bukannya tanda kelemahan diri. Modul ini ditulis dalam susunan tajuk. Jangka masa untuk melalui sesuatu tajuk bergantung kepada gaya pembelajaran dan sasaran pembelajaran kendiri anda. Latihan-latihan disediakan dalam setiap tajuk untuk membantu anda mengingat semula apa yang anda telah pelajari atau membuatkan anda memikirkan tentang apa yang anda telah baca. Ada di antara latihan ini mempunyai cadangan jawapan. Bagi latihan-latihan yang tiada mempunyai cadangan jawapan adalah lebih membantu jika anda berbincang dengan orang lain seperti rakan anda atau menyediakan sesuatu nota untuk dibincangkan semasa sesi tutorial. Modul ini akan menggantikan satu kredit bersamaan dengan lima belas jam interaksi bersemuka dalam bilik kuliah. Tiada kuliah atau tutorial diadakan untuk tajuk-tajuk dalam modul ini. Walau bagaimanapun, anda boleh berbincang dengan pensyarah, tutor atau rakan anda melalui email jika terdapat masalah berhubung dengan modul ini. Anda akan mendapati bahawa ikon digunakan untuk menarik perhatian anda agar pada sekali imbas anda akan tahu apa yang harus dibuat. Lampiran A menerangkan kepada anda makna-makna ikon tersebut. Anda juga diperlukan untuk menduduki peperiksaan bertulis pada akhir kursus. Tarikh dan masa peperiksaan akan diberitahu apabila anda mendaftar. Peperiksaan bertulis ini akan dilaksanakan di tempat yang akan dikenal pasti. Tip untuk membantu anda melalui kursus ini. 1. Cari sudut pembelajaran yang sunyi agar anda boleh meletakkan buku dan diri anda untuk belajar. Buat perkara yang sama apabila anda pergi ke perpustakaan. 2. Peruntukkan satu masa setiap hari untuk memulakan dan mengakhiri pembelajaran anda. Patuhi waktu yang diperuntukkan itu. Setelah membaca modul ini teruskan membaca buku-buku dan bahan-bahan rujukan lain yang dicadangkan.

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3. Luangkan sebanyak masa yang mungkin untuk tugasan tanpa mengira sasaran pembelajaran anda. 4. Semak dan ulangkaji pembacaan anda. Ambil masa untuk memahami pembacaan anda. 5. Rujuk sumber-sumber lain daripada apa yang telah diberikan kepada anda. Teliti maklumat yang diterima. 6. Mulakan dengan sistem fail agar anda tahu di mana anda menyimpan bahanbahan yang bermakna. 7. Cari kawan yang boleh membantu pembelanjaran anda.

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INTRODUCTION
The MTE3106 Course (Resources in Mathematics) provides an

opportunity for students to explore the applications of various resources in teaching and learning Mathematics (refer to Allocation of Topics). In this course, you will be introduced to printed materials, manipulative teaching and learning aids, technology in Mathematics, Mathematics facilities and management of resources. This module focuses on Topic 3 of the Course Proforma which covers aspects of Technology in Mathematics. The module is divided into three subtopics or units, that is, Unit 1 Hardware, Unit 2 Software, and Unit 3 Internet and Online Instructions. In this module you will learn about some hardware in technology that are useful for teaching and learning mathematics. In addition, you will learn about suitable teaching software packages and courseware that can help learning of mathematics. Finally, you will learn about the use of the Internet and online technology to facilitate mathematics teaching and learning This module provides information as well as activities that require you do exercises, make notes, think about ideas or search information to facilitate the learning of the contents specified. For each sub-topic or unit, you are required to go through the information provided and do the activities suggested, and answer any questions given. Outcomes of the activities carried out must be filed up in your folio. If you have doubts about answers to questions, solutions to tasks or have any queries, note them down and clarify them with your lecturers via e-mail, OLL or during your face-to-face interactions. You are expected to plan and work independently, to pace and direct your own learning effectively, and most of all, go through this module thoroughly to optimise your learning. To consolidate your learning, you are advised to refer to resources available in your school such as software packages (e.g. ETeMS courseware) and software in your computer laboratories. You are also advised to use other readings and references from books or from the Internet. For this course, it is imperative that you have access to the Internet to help you understand and master the contents in this module.

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ALLOCATION OF TOPICS
The contents of this module will cover learning material equivalent to one credit of 15 hours face-to-face interaction. The table below describes the allocation of topics for both face-to-face interaction and module for this course.

(Allocation of Topics for Face-to-face Interaction and Learning through Module in accordance to the Course Pro forma)
Course Title Course Code Credit Contact Hours Language Of Delivery Prerequisite To Entry Semester Learning Outcomes Resources in Mathematics (Resos dalam Matematik) MTE3106 3(3+0) 45 hours English Nil Four (PGSR) 1. Choose appropriate and relevant mathematics resources 2. Demonstrate their understanding in using the resources 3. Produce creative manipulative materials to support teaching and learning in mathematics 4. Display effective management skills in planning and handling mathematics resources Synopsis This course provides an opportunity for students to explore the applications of various resources in teaching and learning Mathematics. Students will be introduced to printed materials, teaching and learning aids, technology in Mathematics, Mathematics facilities and management of resources. Kursus ini memberi peluang kepada pelajar untuk menerokai aplikasi pelbagai resos dalam pengajaran dan pembelajaran matematik. Pelajar akan diperkenalkan dengan bahan bercetak, alat bantu pengajaran dan pembelajaran, teknologi dalam Matematik, kemudahan-kemudahan Matematik dan pengurusan resos.

Topic

Content

Face-toface (Hours)

Module (Hours)

Total (Hours)

Printed materials Books o text, reference o Literature books Integrating literature in teaching and learning Mathematics Journals and articles Teaching and learning aids o Manipulative kits: geoboard, Dienes blocks, Cuisenaire rods, Base ten blocks o Nets and solids o Measuring instrument : weighing scale o Computing tools: calculators, abacus, rods & sticks Technology in Mathematics Hardware o Computers, LCD Software packages o Teaching packages o Teaching software and courseware Internet and online instructions Mathematics Facilities Mathematics Laboratory Mathematics garden Mathematics corners Management of resources Inventory and records Monitoring and maintenance Planning and budgeting Total

12

12

15

15

30

15

45

TOPIC 3

TECHNOLOGY IN MATHEMATICS

SYNOPSIS Apart from printed materials and hands-on manipulatives, computers and the associated technology of the Internet are also useful resources for mathematics teaching and learning. This module introduces you to current technological resources that can facilitate the teaching and learning of mathematics. These resources include the computer hardware, software packages, coursewares and the communicative and interactive technology of the Internet that affords online instructions.

LEARNING OUTCOME At the end of this module, you are expected to be able to (1) (2) differentiate between hardware and software identify some applications of hardware and software for teaching and learning mathematics (3) suggest some applications of the communication tools of Internet for learning (4) search the internet for resources for teaching and learning mathematics 1

TOPIC FRAMEWORK

TECHNOLOGY IN MATHEMATICS

HARDWARE

SOFTWARE

INTERNET AND ONLINE INSTRUCTIONS

Input devices

Output devices

Storage devices

Other hardware

Teaching Packages

Teaching Software

Types of Instructional Software

Microsoft Office

Geometers Sketchpad

Other software

History of the Internet

Internet Search Engines

Online Instructions

E-mail

Video conferencing

Internet forum

Online learning

UNIT 1

Hardware

1.0

Synopsis This unit covers aspects of the computer hardware, which is an integral component of new technology. The term `hardware will be explained and basic hardware components in a computer will also be introduced. This module also presents examples of the three main categories of hardware input, output and storage devices. In addition, it also highlights some useful hardware that are helpful for teaching and learning mathematics.

1.1

Learning Outcomes At the end of this unit, you are expected to be able to (a) (b) (c) (d) explain the meaning of hardware name the basic components of a desktop computer give examples of input, output and storage devices suggest some uses of hardware devices for teaching and learning (e) suggest some applications of the interactive whiteboard, visualiser and graphing calculator for teaching and learning mathematics 3

1.2

Unit Framework

HARDWARE

Input devices

Output devices

Storage devices

Other hardware

1.3

Introduction New technology in teaching and learning mathematics is grounded very much in the use of computer and its technology. Nowadays almost everyone has seen or used a computer for work or leisure. In fact, many of our everyday services like banking, purchasing books, paying bills, checking summons etc. can be done using the computers. In education, computers can facilitate teachers work, enhance students learning and help adminitrators in their work. For example, a teacher can use the computer to type her examination questions, a student can use the computer to learn about a particular topic, and the school principal can use the computer to organise students data. Thus, computers can make a teachers work better, a students learning more enriching, and a principals work more efficient. There are many applications of computer technology in teaching and learning of mathematics in schools. We will be looking into some of it in the next unit, but first lets take a look at the hardware that makes up a computer system.

1.4

Hardware The term computer hardware refers to the various external electronic components that are required for you to use a computer along with the hardware components inside the computer case. A desktop computer usually has the basic components made up of a system unit containing the central processing unit (CPU), a screen monitor, a keyboard, a mouse, speakers, and a microphone as shown in Figure 1.1.

(With CPU inside)

Figure 1.1: Main components of a computer system Do you know the function for each of the components shown in Figure 1.1? Lets find out.

Activity 1.1 Use your local library or the Internet, find out the function of these computer components: CPU unit, screen monitor, keyboard, mouse, speakers and microphone. File your answers in your folio.

The system unit is the main component that contains the processor (CPU) which is like the brain of the computer. The CPU does all the work for the computer. Specifically, it calculates the mathematics algorithms to direct data flow and control the operations of the other parts of the computer. Today all CPUs are microchip processors which can process information and data at very high speed. Nowadays we have microprocessors that are in excess of 3 GigaHertz! (3,000,000,000 GHz) You may have heard of Pentium, Intel Dual Core, Phenom, Opteron and others which are names of microprocessors developed by companies like Intel and AMD. You can take a look at the chronology of microprocessors development at this web site http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Microprocessor_chronology Apart from the CPU, there are many other parts inside the casing of the system unit that are put together to make the computer work well for a user to type texts, listen to songs, store videos, or connect to the Internet. Figure 1.2 shows a diagram of the main parts inside the system unit. You can read more at the following website http://www.howstuffworks.com/pc.htm

Figure 1.2: Main parts of the system unit 6

Computer hardware can be physically handled, that is, can be assembled, substituted or removed from the computer by any person wellversed with the parts. Apart from the internal components that are assembled inside the CPU, the computer hardware also include peripherals, that is, devices that are attached to a computer to expand its capabilities. Generally, the computer hardware peripherals can be categorised into three main components based on its function, namely: Input devices Output devices Storage devices

Figure 1.3 shows how these devices are related to the CPU in a computer. Information into the computer

Input devices

Information processed by the computer

CPU

Information in a form you can use or store

Output & Storage devices

Figure 1.3: Relationship between input, processing and output or storage devices. 1.4.1 Input devices Input devices are external devices, that is, outside the system unit of the computer that send information and instructions to the computer to perform some tasks. In other words, an input device lets you communicate with a computer to do something. The computer keyboard is one example of an input device. A keyboard is a typewriter-like device that allows the 7

user to type in text and commands to the computer. Some keyboards have special function keys or integrated pointing devices, such as a trackball or touch-sensitive regions that let the user's finger motions move an on-screen cursor, which is basically incorporating what we called a mouse. The computer mouse is another input device which is used to point and select items and commands on the screen. The mouse is a detection device that enables the user to control the motion of an on-screen pointer, or cursor, by moving the mouse on a flat surface. In doing so, the user can perform various functions such as opening a program or file. The mouse facilitates work by not requiring the user to memorise complicated commands. Do you know that the mouse was invented way back in 1963 by a researcher from Stanford University in USA? Since then, many types of computer mouse have been invented such as trackball mouse, touchpad mouse, optical mouse, cordless mouse and more. Figure 1.4 shows the functions of the parts of a typical mouse. The mouse can input information to the computer via a serial port, USB port, infrared or Bluetooth technology. You can find out more on how a mouse work in this web site http://computer.howstuffworks.com/mouse2.htm

Figure 1.4: Functions of the parts of a mouse 8

There are many other input devices such as joystick, digital camera, scanner, modem, Webcam, microphone, and voice recognition device. Activity 1.2 Access the internet and find out the function of each of this input device as shown in Table 1.1 below. Copy the table and file it in your folio when you are done. Table 1.1: Common Input Devices and Their Functions Input device Joystick Digital camera Scanner Modem Webcam Microphone Voice recognition device Function(s)

Activity 1.3 The digital camera can be put to good use for teaching and learning mathematics. Think of an activity to illustrate how a mathematics student can use the digital camera for learning or how a mathematics teacher can use the digital camera for teaching primary school mathematics. Record your ideas, file them in your folio and share them online in the OLL.

1.4.2 Output devices Output devices are external devices that transfer information from the computers CPU to the computer user. For example, the computer screen monitor is a display unit to convert information generated by the computer into visual information. A monitor relies on a video card that is located inside the computer to process the computer data into image details that the monitor can display. The older monitors use cathode ray tube (CRT) similar to the TV screen for displays. Nowadays there are high-resolution liquid crystal display (LCD) and plasma monitors that give very sharp and clear images. Watching a movie or playing computer games would be more enjoyable with these high-resolution computer screens! Figure 1.5 shows the difference in thickness between a CRT and an LCD monitor.

A CRT monitor

An LCD monitor

Figure 1.5: Comparison between a CRT and an LCD monitor Another common output device is the printer. A printer is a peripheral which produces a copy of readable text and/or graphics of documents. In other words, printers receive information from the computer and print them out in text and/or image form, usually on paper or transparencies. There are many types of printers dot-matrix printers, 10

laser printers and inkjet printers. Dot-matrix printers use tiny wires to impact upon an inked ribbon to form characters. Laser printers employ beams of light to draw images on a drum that then picks up fine black particles called toner. The toner is fused to a page to produce an image. Inkjet printers fire droplets of ink onto a page to form characters and pictures. Whichever printer you use, it is good advice to use paper sparingly to save our environment! The printer is a useful tool for teachers who can use them to print out worksheets, quizzes, pictorial diagrams, or photographs for their students to use. For example, a mathematics teacher who has created a file with diagrams of fraction charts could print out these diagrams for students to learn about fractions. Alternatively, if a mathematics teacher has scanned an interesting picture or photographed one using the digital camera, the images can be viewed directly in the display monitor or printed out using an ordinary printer or photo printer as shown in Figure 1.6.

Figure 1.6: Relationship between input and output images 11

If you are presenting a multimedia video about a topic of mathematics to your students, it would not be engaging if there is no sound. Can you imagine watching someone talk or sing but cannot hear a single word he is saying or singing? It would not be effective in getting the message across to the audience. This brings us to another useful output device for teaching and learning mathematics, that is, the speakers. Speakers take digital information from a computer file or from external audio devices like CDs or DVDs and transform it into actual sounds that we can hear. For example, if you have a recorded video clip of a teacher teaching about decimals, the speakers converts the digital information in the video clip into audio sounds which allow you to listen to the words said by the teacher.

Activity 1.4 Speakers are useful devices in a mathematics classroom. As a mathematics teacher, can you think of two uses of the speakers in a mathematics class? Record your ideas and file them in your folio.

Facsimiles or fax machines, photocopiers, plotters, projectors and headphones are some other output devices. In fact, improved output devices such as some multi-purpose printers can perform various functions like printing, photocopying and scanning all in a single machine. You can find out more about these devices in the Internet.

1.4.3 Storage devices Storage devices are designed to store digital information. Storage devices provide permanent storage of information for retrieval by computer until that information is deleted or changed. While computers have internal storage equipment such as the Random Access Memory (RAM), we will focus only on the external storage devices. These include 12

the floppy discs, compact discs (CDs), digital video discs (DVDs), the USB Flash Drive, and the removable hard drives. Figure 1.7 shows some common storage devices.

Figure 1.7: Common storage devices These storage devices store information in bytes a byte is a character, which is a letter, number or symbol. There are 256 standard characters used by almost all computers. A typical high-density floppy disc has 1.44 MB, which is equivalent to 1,000,000 bytes. Nowadays the floppy discs are of limited use with more devices with higher storage capacity being invented to store multimedia content. For example, a standard CD can hold up to 800 MB of data while a single-sided, double-layer DVD can store up to 8.5 GB of data, a USB Flash Drive can hold up to 200 GB, and a high-capacity external hard drive can store up to 500 GB of data!

1.5

Other Useful Hardware 1.5.1 Interactive Whiteboard An integrated system that makes use of both input and output devices is the interactive whiteboard. The interactive whiteboard (input device) has a large interactive display that connects to a computer and a projector (output device) and typically mounted on a floor stand or to a wall. The projector beams the image of computer onto a whiteboard and by writing or touching the interactive whiteboard screen, messages are input back to the computer. Thus, the computer sends out information 13

through the projector onto the whiteboard which then can capture new information to be sent back to the computer to change the original information. Figure 1.8 shows a simplified diagram on how the interactive whiteboard works.

Whiteboard: Every touch on the board is like a mouse-click on a computer screen. The whiteboard sends messages back to the computer changes occur and the image on the board changes in response

Projector: send messages to the projector and receives messages from the whiteboard

Computer: send messages to the projector and receives messages from the whiteboard

Figure 1.8: Simplified diagram on how the interactive whiteboard work

1.5.2 Visualiser In essence, a visualiser is a digital camera mounted on an arm that can capture image of objects placed on a base and the image can then be projected on a screen or an interactive whiteboard. Figure 1.9 shows some examples of visualisers. Visualisers are useful when a teacher

needs to show some objects or demonstrate some manipulation of objects that can be projected to the whole class. With most visualisers, you can zoom in and out, freeze and capture an image and then review the image captured. Software that accompanies the visualiser allows for further manipulation of the image or artefact such as time-lapse capture to track 14

changes over a period of time. Using the visualiser, teachers can display real world examples or student work for evaluation by the class as well as use the interactive whiteboard features, if connected to one, to highlight, underline and write on documents that are displayed. Students in the back of the room are able to see what the teacher is trying to show them. For example, in learning about shapes a teacher can use a visualiser to show how a cube is folded from a net and students can then follow the folding process. In this way, the students can be more engaged and involved in the learning process

Figure 1.9: Examples of visualisers

Activity 1.5 Visualisers can be used to show or demonstrate a number of things in a mathematics class. Think two uses of the visualiser in a mathematics class. Record your ideas, file them in your folio and share them in OLL.

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1.5.3 Graphing calculator A graphing calculator is a handheld calculator that is able to plot graphs, solve simultaneous equations and perform complicated

mathematical operations. Newer versions have programming capability where users can create customised programmes. These new models can also display graphics in colour and permit 3D graphing. Figure 1.10 shows a graphing calculator from Texas Instruments. Graphing calculator is an especially useful tool for secondary or tertiary mathematics while its use in primary mathematics may be limited. Nevertheless, some models are installed with interactive geometry software like Cabri 3D which can be used to teach about shapes in primary school mathematics.

Figure 1.10: An example of a graphing calculator

TAKE A BREAK ! Take a short break before you continue with the next unit. A computer joke: Hardware, that part of a computer which can be kicked. If you can only swear at it, it is software!!

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UNIT 2

Software

2.0

Synopsis This unit covers aspects of the computer software, without which the computer hardware cannot function. The term `software will be explained. This module also distinguishes the various types of instructional software. Examples of teaching software using Microsoft Office programmes, Geometers Sketchpad and other mathematics software will be used to illustrate how they can be utilised in teaching and learning mathematics.

2.1

Learning Outcomes At the end of this unit, you are expected to be able to (a) (b) (c) explain the meaning of software identify the types of instructional software give examples of using Microsoft Office programmes for teaching and learning mathematics (d) suggest some ideas of using the Geometers Sketchpad and other mathematics software for teaching and learning

mathematics 17

2.2

Unit Framework
SOFTWARE

Teaching Packages

Teaching Software

Types of Instructional Software

Microsoft Office

Geometers Sketchpad

Other software

2.3

Introduction The computer cannot run with only the physical hardware assembled. It needs programmes or written instructions to tell the computer hardware what to do. These programmes are the computer software. In other words, a computer software is a programme or a

sequence of intructions written to perform a specific task for a computer. This software is written in the language of computer programming where logic of the instructions can be read and carried out by the microprocessor in the computer. Computer software allows information to be processed by the microprocessor that together acts as the brain of the computer, telling the computer hardware what to do and when and how to do it. Without the software, the hardware is just a piece of device without function. Computer software translates an action such as clicking a mouse into a language that the computer hardware can follow and perform a task, like saving information into a floppy disc. On the other hand, without the hardware all written instructions in a piece of software cannot be executed and performed. It is like having the thoughts but without the brain and body to carry the thoughts! In short, both hardware and software are complementary and interdependent to make a computer work. 18

Software are created by computer programmers and software engineers. There are many types of computer software mainly categorised as system software or application software. System software helps run the computer hardware and the computer system. The Windows operating system is an example of a system software. Application software is software designed to help users perform a particular task that benefits them. For example, the Microsoft Word is an application software that helps you type out your text, SPSS ia a statistical application software that allows you to analyse data statistically, and Geometers Sketchpad is an application software to help students learn about geometry. While system software is important for computer to function, we will be focusing on application software in this unit.

Activity 2.1 There are many application software that you have come across and used either in your work or leisure. List down an example of each in Table 2.1 below. Copy the table and file it up in your folio. Table 2.1: Example of application software Function Typing text Making Presentations Watching movies Browsing the internet Sending an email Playing an audio file Burn a CD/DVD Example Microsoft Word

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2.4

Teaching packages A teaching package can be defined as consisting of one or more related programmes packaged together for an educational purpose. While the Microsoft Office suite packages a word processing programme, a presentation programme, a spreadsheet programme or an internet browsing programme which can be used to enhance instructional activities, this package of software may not always be used for teaching or instruction. We will see how this software package can be used for teaching later, but first let us look at some specific instructional or teaching package. Teaching package contains programme(s) that delivers all or part of a students instruction on a given topic or in some way assist the learning of the topic. Teaching package can be a courseware package that bundles together various lessons, tests, or other learning activities and materials. When our Ministry of Education (MOE) implemented the teaching of Mathematics and Science in English (ETeMS), interactive teaching packages were produced in collaboration with Telekom and Educational Technology Division of MOE to help teachers and students learn mathematics in that medium. These instructional packages are selfcontained stand-alone multimedia learning resources where teachers can use them in the classroom or students can use them on their own. These instructional packages present interactive tutorials to explain or facilitate some important mathematical concepts or procedures. They also contain drill and practice interactions that students can practice their mathematical skills as well as revision questions that allow students to test their skills. Figure 2.1 shows some screen shots of the Year 1 Courseware covering the learning outcome of finding the difference between two numbers through one-to-one matching. In this activity, students can listen to audio explanations, see pictorial representations, and use the mouse to select options and click and drag pictures. Feedback to their actions is given in the form of audio and visual cues. 20

Figure 2.1: Screen shots of the MOE Year 1 Teaching-learning Courseware for Mathematics

2.4.1 Types of instructional software There are a number of instructional software that can be incorporated into teaching-learning package or courseware. Robbyler, Edwards and Havriluk (1997) identified five main types of instructional software:

Drill ( or drill and practice software) Programmes that allow learners to work problems or answer questions and get feedback on correctness.

Tutorial software Programmes that act like tutors by providing all the information and instructional activities that a learner needs to master a given topic (e.g., information summaries, explanation, practice routines, feedback, and assessment)

21

Simulation software Programmes that model real or imagine systems to show how those systems or similar ones work

Instructional games Programmes designed to increase motivation by adding game rules to learning activities

Problem solving software Programmes that (a) teach directly (through explanation and/or practice) the steps in solving problems, or (b) help learners acquire problem-solving skills by given them opportunities to solve problems. Activity 2.2 Your school should have the teaching-learning coursware for ETeMS for mathematics. Pick a set of coursware for a particular year, for example, Year 2. Study the courseware carefully and try out some of the learning activities. State to what extent the different types of instructional software are incorporated in the package. Tick () or (x) for each type of software if it is present or not present in the courseware. For each software that is present describe how the activity is conducted int the courseware. Use Table 2.2 to help you organise your finding. Share your answers in the OLL and file them in your folio. Table 2.2: Types of software present in the Courseware Type of software Drill and practice Tutorial Simulation Instructional game Problem solving Present Description of activity

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2.5

Teaching software Various software are available that can be used to enhance the teaching and learning of mathematics in schools. Some of these software are not specific to mathematics but can be applied by teachers to facilitate teaching of mathematics, while others are designed specifically for learning mathematics. Lets take a look at some of the software.

2.5.1 Microsoft Office software The Microsoft Office package of programmes are interrelated desktop applications and services that can be used by mathematics teacher to enrich their teaching. An MS Office package may include the word processing software Microsoft Word, the presentation software Microsoft PowerPoint, the spreadsheet programme Microsoft Excel, and the publishing software Microsoft Publisher. The Table 2.3 shows the basic function of these programmes.

Table 2.3: Microsoft Office software and function Type of software Microsoft Word Microsoft Excel Microsoft PowerPoint Microsoft Publisher What it does Allows you to type up a document, such as a worksheet. Allows you to type in figures, use formulas and create charts. Allows you to create presentations composed of texts, graphics, movies and other objects for teaching, etc. Allows you to create brochures, greeting cards, newsletters, etc.

Microsoft Word itself is not designed specifically for teaching and learning of mathematics. However, it has some features in the application that can be used by mathematics teacher. For example, in the insert function there are 2D and 3D shapes which can be selected and drawn by teachers or students for learning purposes. Students can use drawn 2D 23

shape such as squares and triangles and describe their properties and then type them out using MS Word. The programme also has an Equation Editor in the Insert Object function menu. This feature is very useful for teachers to type out their questions involving mathematical symbols for worksheets and test papers. Figure 2.2 shows a composite diagram on how to select the Microsoft Equation in MS Word 2003.
1. Click Insert

2. Click Object

3. Select Microsoft Equation 3.0

4. Click OK

Figure 2.2: How to select the Microsoft Equation editor object Now lets try out the Equation Editor. Activity 2.3 Use the Microsoft Equation object to perform these tasks: (a) Type out three questions involving addition of fractions, subtraction involving mixed numbers, and multiplication involving whole numbers and fractions (b) Type out the solution in the standard written algorithm (long division form) for the following division problems (i) 344 8 (ii) 1055 6

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Microsoft Excel spreadsheets, Microsoft PowerPoint presentations and Microsoft Publisher brochures can all be designed for the context of learning mathematics. It depends on the creative effort of teachers to explore how these tools can be used for enhancing mathematics teaching and learning. For example you can go this to web view site an

http://www.microsoft.com/Education/DisplayFractions.aspx

example of how a spreadsheet can be used to display fraction computations. The following site at http://presentationsoft.about.com/od/powerpointlessonplans/ig/PowerPoint -Math-Lessons/Subtraction-Using-PowerPoint.htm shows a simple

illustration on how a teacher can create a PowerPoint presentation to teach subtraction involving missing addend problems. There are many more ideas that you can get from the Internet. Lets see how resourceful you are in searching ideas for teaching mathematics using Microsoft programmes. Activity 2.4 Search the Internet for ideas on how to use the following Microsoft programmes to enhance your teaching of primary school mathematics. Take notes of the teaching ideas and file them up in your folio. Share your ideas with your coursemates during face-to-face interactions or in the OLL. 1. Microsoft Word 2. Microsoft Powerpoint 3. Microsoft Excel [Suggestion: see this site http://www.fi.edu/qa98/me5/me5.html] 4. Microsoft Publisher

Other than Microsoft Office software, packages like Adobe Illustrator and CorelDraw contain graphic tools that can help mathematics teachers create diagrams for teaching purposes. 25

2.5.2 Geometers Sketchpad Apart from non-mathematical software like Microsoft Office programmes which can be utilised to facilitate mathematics teaching, there are also software that are designed specifically for teaching and learning mathematical concepts and skills. The Geometers Sketchpad is an example. This software is a dynamic interactive programme that helps students learn mathematical concepts in geometry, algebra and calculus by visualisation and interaction. It has the capability of allowing students to construct and explore geometrical shapes and properties in a dynamic interactive environment. Consequently, students can use the Geometers Sketchpad to build and investigate properties of mathematical models, objects, figures, diagrams and graphs. Figure 2.3 shows a screen shot of a Geometers Sketchpad activity that demonstrates the grouping concept to lead students to the place value concept.

Figure 2.3: Example of a Geometers Sketchpad activity You can get more teaching ideas from the Key Curriculum Press website, which is the developer of Geometers Sketchpad, at this address http://www.dynamicgeometry.com/General_Resources/Classroom_Activiti es.html 26

Activity 2.5 Go to this web site http://jwilson.coe.uga.edu/emt669/Student.Folders/Lewis.Millard /unit/DayOne.html You can download a Geometers Sketchpad file that can show the multiplication of fractions. Of course to open this file you need to install the programme in your computer.

2.5.3 Other mathematics software There are a number of programmes available on the Internet that are suitable for teaching and learning mathematics. Some of these programmes are free while others require you to purchase them. Many of these are drill and practice software which allow students to have (a) control over the level or pace of the practice, and (b) appropriate feedback for correct answers. For example, you can download a trial copy of a drill and practice mathematics quiz in this called web the site ABC

http://www.qmsoftware.com.au/SpellingGames.htm

Spelling and Math Games. This software allows students to practice mathematics questions at primary level with appropriate feedback; and correct responses are tracked to indicate performance. In addition, a teacher can design his/her own quizzes for specific learning outcome involving the basic operations for numbers, fractions, decimals and percentage. Figure 2.4 shows a screen shot of a sample mathematics quiz involving addition of fractions. You should download the software and take a look at the example. Although drill and practice software are good for rehearsal and revision of mathematical skills involving basic operations, they lack the capability to develop higher-order mathematical skills such as problem solving. Hence, developers have created more complex and integrated courseware that enables students to build problem solving skills. One 27

example is the Adventures of Jasper Woodburry Series developed by Vanderbilt University, USA. This series consists of 12 video-disc based adventures that focus on mathematical problem finding and problem solving. Each adventure provides multiple opportunities for problem solving, reasoning, communication and making connections to other areas such as science, social studies, literature and history. You can read more about this interesting series from this address http://peabody.vanderbilt.edu/projects/funded/jasper/intro/Jasperintro.html

Figure 2.4: Example of a mathematics teaching software

Activity 2.6 Surf the Internet and look for one example each of the following type of software or courseware that can help you in teaching and learning mathematics for primary school. (a) Drill and practice software (b) Problem solving software For each software or courseware comment on the usefulness for your teaching in your school. File your comments in the folio and share them in the OLL.

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TAKE A BREAK ! Take a break before you continue with the next unit. Here is a funny poem for you to relax your mind!
A Poem about Computers A computer was something on TV From a science fiction show of note. A window was something you hated to clean... And ram was the cousin of a goat..... Meg was the name of my girlfriend And gig was a job for the nights Now they all mean different things And that really mega bytes An application was for employment A program was a TV show A cursor used profanity A keyboard was a piano Memory was something that you lost with age A CD was a bank account And if you had a 3 1/2" floppy You hoped nobody found out Compress was something you did to the garbage Not something you did to a file And if you unzipped anything in public You'd be in jail for a while Log on was adding wood to the fire Hard drive was a long trip on the road A mouse pad was where a mouse lived And a backup happened to your commode Cut you did with a pocket knife Paste you did with glue A web was a spider's home And a virus was the flu I guess I'll stick to my pad and paper And the memory in my head I hear nobody's been killed in a computer crash But when it happens they wish they were dead! (Source: Easy Desk Software at http://www.easydesksoftware.com/compoem.htm)

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UNIT 3

Internet and Online Instructions

3.0

Synopsis This unit covers development of the Internet and its

applications. Specifically, the function of search engines will be explained. This module also discusses some uses of the

communication technology including e-mail, video conferencing, and Internet forum discussion. In addition, some aspects of online learning involving distance learning, e-learning and web-based learning will be discussed. Examples of mathematics resources site are also provided.

3.1

Learning Outcomes At the end of this unit, you are expected to be able to (a) (b) (c) state briefly the history of the Internet use suitable search engine to search for resources identify some uses of communication technology for teaching and learning (d) suggest some web-based resources for e-learning and webbased learning (e) identify suitable professional sites as resources for teaching and learning mathematics

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3.2

Unit Framework
INTERNET AND ONLINE INTRUCTIONS

History of the Internet

Internet Search Engines

Online Instructions

E-mail

Video conferencing

Internet forum

Online learning

3.3

Introduction A Brief History of the Internet Nowadays almost everyone is familiar with the Internet. In fact, some people cannot go a day without using the Internet! Many students and teachers are using the internet for various purposes connecting with friends, accessing information and news, viewing multimedia content and many more. While the Internet serves many purposes, it is the role of the Internet in facilitating learning both inside and outside the classroom that we are interested in. Before we look at how Internet facilitates teaching and learning of mathematics, do you know what the Internet is? Here is one summarised explanation from Wikipedia, an online encyclopedia. The Internet ia a global system of interconnected computer networks that use the standard Internet Protocol Suite (TCP/IP) to serve billions of users worldwide. It is a network of networks that consists of millions of private, public, academic, business, and government networks of local to global scope that are linked by a broad array of electronic and optical networking technologies. The Internet carries a vast array of information resources and services, most notably the inter-

linked hypertext documents of the World Wide Web (WWW) and the infrastructure to support electronic mail (Wikipedia, retrieved May 2010). 31

To understand more about how the network of networks is developed, lets take a brief look at how the Internet began.

Activity 3.1 Access the internet through this URL http://www.davesite.com/webstation/net-history.shtml and you will see a timeline of the history of the Internet. Fill up Table 3.1 below with the important events that shape the development of the Internet. Copy the table and file it in your folio. Table 3.1: A brief history of the Internet Year 1962 1968 1972 1973 1974 1976 1983 1988 1990 1992 1996 1999 Event(s)

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3.4

Internet Search Engines The Internet is a massive connection of networks with millions of addresses that provide various sources of data and information. To look up the relevant data or information requires search engines to search the World-Wide Web for related web pages, images, information and other types of files efficiently. Otherwise, it is quite impossible to look for what you need in a sea of information its like looking for a pin in an ocean! Search engines are special sites on the Web that are designed to help internet users find relevant information stored on other sites. There are differences in the ways various search engines work, but they all perform three basic tasks:

They search the Internet (i.e. the World Wide Web) -- or select pieces of the Internet -- based on important words.

They keep an index of the words they find, and where they find them.

They allow users to look for words or combinations of words found in that index.

You can read more about how search engines work in this web site with the address http://computer.howstuffworks.com/internet/basics/search-

engine.htm There are various search engines available to help students and teachers of mathematics to look for information and materials ranging from textual articles to multimedia videos. Mozilla Firefox, Google, Altavista, Yahoo! Search, Ask.com, Bing are some commonly used search engines. Some search engines are specialised to look up information on specific area. For example, YouTube is a search engine that help search for video files, Technorati specialises in looking up blogs (short for Web Logs), and Google Scholar search for academic materials. For a list of search engines go to this site http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_search_engines

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Lets practice some Internet search and surfing! Activity 3.2 Select a search engine of your choice and look up some websites that are relevant to primary school mathematics. Describe briefly how you can use the information from three websites to teach primary mathematics. File up your search and share your information in the OLL. Site 1: URL _________________________________________ Description of use:

Site 2: URL _________________________________________ Description of use:

Site 2: URL _________________________________________ Description of use:

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3.5

Online Instructions The Internet is becoming a useful mode of learning. Research has indicated that technology like the Internet plays a critical role in changing the classroom learning environments. Learning on the Internet or learning online has the potential to enrich the learning experience of many students. With its vast resources of information and capability to provide information at a click of a button, learners can have access to learning materials that are not confined to textbooks and libraries. And the ability to connect between users means the Internet can deliver instruction which is not limited by distance and time. There are many ways the technology provided by the Internet can change and enrich learning experiences. For example, a mathematics student from Malaysia can learn from another mathematics student in America at any time of the day through sharing ideas, comparing resources, and interacting with each other. Alternatively, a mathematics student can access suitable web sites that provide drill and practice exercises on a particular topic and learn at his own pace and time.

Activity 3.3 Think of some other ways that a mathematics student can learn using the Internet. Record your thoughts and share them online in the OLL. Learning mathematics via the Internet:

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For mathematics teachers, the Internet is an abundant resource provider that can help them make their teaching more constructive, engaging and rewarding for their students. The challenge lies in locating, accessing and integrating these materials meaningfully into their schools mathematics curricula and using the materials appropriately for teaching and learning of mathematics. The Internet is also a way of making connection between mathematics teachers around the world where they can network and share experiences, teaching resources and ideas. How can students and teachers of mathematics connect, communicate and collaborate using the Internet? Well, there are several ways it can be done.

3.5.1 E-Mail Every day all over the world, netizens or citizens of the Internet send out billions of email messages. The e-mail has become an indispensable communication tool for many people. The e-mail message is basically a simple text message sent to a recipient. Nowadays you can send an e-mail message with attachments which can be image, video and other digital files. To send and receive e-mails you need to have an e-mail client. You can use stand-alone e-mail clients like Microsoft Outlook, Outlook Express, Eudora, Pegasus or you can register for free e-mail services like Yahoo, Hotmail or Google Mail. As a teacher, you can use the e-mail to send mathematics assignment tasks, exercise questions, revision questions, information about class schedules, video of recorded teaching and many other learning materials to your students. In reply, the students can attach their solutions, queries, and project papers for you to check and provide feedback without having to use printed materials. Teachers can use the email to network with other mathematics teachers locally or globally in order to share and learn from each other.

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3.5.2 Video Conferencing Video conferencing allows people from two or more locations to communicate by seeing and hearing each other at the same time. They can exchange visual information in the form of videos as well as audio content. The simplest video conferencing is the point-to-point involving two people where you need the following:

A computer An Internet connection A telephone, if audio content is not provided online A PC with a microphone, a Webcam or digital video camera, and a video capture card

Video input from the camera and audio input from the microphone are converted to digital data that can be sent through the Internet or a wireless network. When the data reaches the participant of the conference, the video and audio are viewed and heard on a computer, television screen or mobile phone. Figure 3.1 shows a simplified diagram of how the video conference works.

Figure 3.1: A simple diagram of how video conferencing works 37

Activity 3.4 Video conferencing may help students learn mathematics when they are absent from the school for some reasons. Think about how a mathematics teacher can use video conferences to help the students learn what the teacher is teaching. File up your ideas and share them during your face-to-face interactions.

3.5.3 Internet Forums An internet forum or message board is an online discussion site where users can post comments to discuss a wide range of topics. Many distance learning programmes in universities incorporate this technology as part of the learning mode for their students. The advantage of this technology is the ability to allow groups of users to build online learning communities where learning is communicated and collaborated. For example, a mathematics teacher can set up an online discussion forum where his/her students can post comments, answers and solutions about a particular topic of mathematics. There are free software available where you can set up a discussion forum for a group of students. bbPress, phpBB, Vanilla, and Phorum are some free forum software. Apart from these you can subscribe to professional sites to take part in forum discussions. Figure 3.2 shows a screen capture of a forum discussion about fractions at the Math Forum@Drexel web site.

Activity 3.5 Search the Internet for other discussion forum sites that are useful for mathematics teachers. Jot down the address and comments on the topics discussed. File up your search in your folio.

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Figure 3.2: Example of mathematics discussion forum 3.5.4 Online learning The Internet has been used to deliver learning and instruction in recent years. A number of universities all over the world are embracing the technology to conduct distance learning. A common feature of distance learning programmes is that there is a separation of teacher and learner in time or place, or in both time and place. This process of extending learning opportunity away from the classrooms or lecture rooms means effective ways are needed to deliver instructional materials and resources to learners over a distance at various times. The advent of the Internet with its communicative feature plus the capability to send digital information quickly allows distance learning to be conducted via elearning. E-learning or electronic learning is any learning that uses the Internet to deliver some form of instruction to a learner or learners separated by time, distance or both (Reiser & Dempsey, 2002). Some universities who provides e-learning do so by providing assistance to learners through a Learning Management System (LMS). An LMS is a software application that is used to organise and provide access to online services for students and instructors. These services usually include

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access to course guides, notes, communication tools, as well as discussion forum. For example, Open University of Malaysia provides distance learning programmes via a blended mode of e-learning that incorporates an LMS with online discussion, e-mail communication and links to digital collection of resources.

Activity 3.6 There are many benefits of enrolling a course through elearning. Surf the Internet and jot down some benefits. File up your answers in the folio. Benefits of e-learning: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7.

E-learning is not necessary only carried out by institutions of higher learning. Organisations, professional institutions, commercial enterprises, or individuals can design and deliver e-learning to any interested parties. There are many web sites on the Internet that provide learning courses or specific learning content given either free or charged a payment. This form of learning where a learner can access a web site to learn comprehensively about some topics is often called web-based learning. Web-based learning materials may include content presentations, tutorials, practice questions and solutions, quizzes, video demonstrations, 40

educational games, virtual learning environments etc. and most of these are often interactive. Figure 3.3 shows a mathematics resource site that provides web-based learning materials with links to interactive

mathematics tools and activities for students and teachers.

Figure 3.3: A web site with interactive links for web-based learning A number of professional web sites are available online that provide useful resource materials for mathematics teachers and students. One such site is the NCTM Illuminations web site constructed by The National Council of Teachers of Mathematics (NCTM) in USA. This web site [URL:http://illuminations.nctm.org/] supports mathematics teachers with helpful and informative resources and links that help teachers develop professionally. In this site mathematics teachers can access mathematics teaching and learning activities, lesson plans, mathematics tools as well as links to other mathematics teaching and learning web sites. Both primary and secondary mathematics resources are available in this web site. Figure 3.4 shows the main web page of the NCTM Illuminations site. Another useful mathematics resource site for teaching and learning mathematics for all levels is TheMathForum@Drexel [URL:

http://mathforum.org/teachers/] where teachers can contribute, share and learn from each other too. 41

Figure 3.4: The NCTM Illuminations web site

In conclusion, there is a wealth of mathematics resources in the Internet that a resourceful teacher can utilised, especially in conjunction with the current hardware and software available. Embrace technology to enhance pedagogy!

Activity 3.7 Many more interesting and helpful web sites are available for mathematics teachers and students. Surf the net and identify (a) two web sites that are relevant to mathematics teachers to obtain teaching resources, and (b) two web sites that have interactive learning materials for primary school mathematics students. For each web site, do a screen capture of the page and provide a brief description on how it can be used by teachers or students. The results of this activity should be filed up in your folio and share your search results in the OLL or during your face-to-face interactions.

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Review Exercise It is time to review what you have learned from this module. Answer the following questions and file up your answers in your folio. 1. State the meaning of hardware of a computer. 2. Name three major types of hardware. 3. Give three examples of input devices 4. Give three examples of output devices 5. Give three examples of storage devicee 6. State one feature of an interactive whiteboard 7. Give one advantage of using a visualiser in a mathematics class 8. What is the difference between a system software and an application software? 9. Name the five main types of instructional software 10. Give one application of using MS Word in a mathematics class. 11. State one benefit of using Geometers Sketchpad in a mathematics classroom. 12. What is the benefit of using a problem solving software? 13. Name two internet search engines. 14. Give one use of the e-mail in mathematics teaching. 15. Describe one way video conference can be used for mathematics teaching and learning. 16. Give one example of web-based learning. 17. Give an example of a professional website that has good mathematics resources.

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Food for Thought Technology is increasingly used in education with huge amount spent in developing the infostructure for ICT in schools. Yet, some people question whether the financial investment is worth the returns from ICT in Education Discuss this issue with your coursemates in the OLL.

CONGRATULATIONS!
You have succeeded in completing this module. Learning is not achieved by chance, it must be sought for with ardor and attended to with diligence. Abigail Adams

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BIBLIOGRAPHY
Burns, M. (1992). About Teaching Mathematics. Maths Solution. Foresman, S. (2000). Interactive mathematics: Lessons and tools. NJ: Prentice Hall. Haylock, D. (2003). Understanding mathematics in the lower primary years. UK: Paul Chapman Publication. Jennings, S., & Dunne, R. (2003). I see maths books. vol 1-3. UK: Mashford Colour Press. National Curriculum Council. (1991). Prime calculators: Children and mathematics. UK: Simon and Schuster. Reiser, R.A., & Dempsey, J.A. (Eds.) (2002). Trends and issues in instructional design and technology. Upper Saddle River , New Jersey : Merrill/Prentice Hall. Robbyler, M.D., Edwards, J., & Havriluk, M.A. (1997). Integrating educational technology into teaching. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey: Merrill/Prentice Hall. Trautman, A. P., & Lichenberg, B. K. (2003). Mathematics: A good beginning . 6th ed. UK: Wadsworth/ Thompson Inc. Internet websites: http://www.davesite.com/webstation/net-history.shtml http://mathforum.org/teachers/ http://illuminations.nctm.org/ http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_search_engines http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Internet http://computer.howstuffworks.com/internet/basics/search-engine.htm http://www.coolmath.com/ http://peabody.vanderbilt.edu/projects/funded/jasper/intro/Jasperintro.html http://www.askdeb.com/blog/technology/what-is-computer-software/ http://www.rsclondon.ac.uk/fileadmin/docs/curriculum/staff_dev/learning_journey/documents/ag _smartboards.pdf http://www.jisc.ac.uk/uploaded_documents/Interactivewhiteboards.pdf http://www.innovationslearning.co.uk/subjects/maths/activities/year3/number_dea ns/question.asp http://www.rsclondon.ac.uk/fileadmin/docs/curriculum/staff_dev/learning_journey/documents/ag _smartboards.pdf

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PANEL OF MODULE WRITERS PROGRAM PENSISWAZAHAN GURU SEKOLAH RENDAH (MTE 3016 MATEMATIK PENDIDIKAN RENDAH)
NAME PANEL HEAD NAME: DR. LAM KAH KEI POSITION: SENIOR MATHEMATICS LECTURER E-MAIL: vlam@tm.net.my QUALIFICATIONS QUALIFICATIONS: 1. Doctorate (PhD) (Mathematics Education) 2. Master of Education (Curriculum & Instruction) 3. B.Sc.Ed (Hons.) (Biology, Mathematics) WORK EXPERIENCE: 1. Mathematics Lecturer: 1991 2008 2. Seniour Mathematics Lecturer: 2008 now

PANEL MEMBER NAME: JOHARI B. BAPOKUTTY POSITION: MATHEMATICS LECTURER E-MAIL: jbmptaakl@Hotmail.com

QUALIFICATIONS: 1. B.Sc.Ed.Physics, Mathematics WORK EXPERIENCE: 1. Mathematics Lecturer: 1995 1998 2. Examination Secretary: 1999 2008 3. Mathematics Lecturer/Unit Head: 2009 now

PANEL MEMBER NAME: JOHNSON A/L SAVARIMUTHU POSITION: MATHEMATICS LECTURER E-MAIL: johnsavarimuthu_1968@yahoo.com

QUALIFICATIONS: 1. M.Ed (Mathematics) 2. B.Ed (Mathematics) WORK EXPERIENCE: 1. Mathematics Lecturer: 2008 - now 2. School mathematics teacher: 1993 2007

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PANEL OF MODULE REVIEWERS PROGRAM PENSISWAZAHAN GURU SEKOLAH RENDAH (MTE 3106 MATEMATIK PENDIDIKAN RENDAH)
NAMA PANEL HEAD NAME: DR. LAM KAH KEI POSITION: SENIOR MATHEMATICS LECTURER E-MAIL: vlam@tm.net.my KELAYAKAN QUALIFICATIONS: 1. Doctorate (PhD) (Mathematics Education) 2. Master of Education (Curriculum & Instruction) 3. B.Sc.Ed (Hons.) (Biology, Mathematics) WORK EXPERIENCE: 1. Mathematics Lecturer: 1991 2008 2. Seniour Mathematics Lecturer: 2008 now

PANEL MEMBER NAME: JOHARI B. BAPOKUTTY POSITION: MATHEMATICS LECTURER E-MAIL: jbmptaakl@Hotmail.com

QUALIFICATIONS: 1. B.Sc.Ed.Physics, Mathematics WORK EXPERIENCE: 1. Mathematics Lecturer: 1995 1998 2. Examination Secretary: 1999 2008 3. Mathematics Lecturer/Unit Head: 2009 now

(NAMA) (JAWATAN) (EMEL)

(KELULUSAN) PHD/SARJANA/SARJANA MUDA/DIPLOMA/SIJIL (PENGALAMAN KERJA)

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ICONS
Break

Discussion

Reading material

Reference book

Exercise

Make notes

Checklist

Surf Internet

User Guide

Gather Information

Tutorial

Think

End

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