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Modul Bahasa Inggris USM-STAN

BAHASA INGGRIS
BAB I : TENSES
A. Pengantar Tenses adalah perubahan bentuk kata kerja dalam kalimat yang berhubungan dengan Waktu (saat kejadian). Dalam bahasa inggris secara lengkap terdapat 16 macam tenses, namun yang sering digunakan hanya 12 macam yaitu : B. Present 1. Simple Present Tense a. Pola Kalimat SUBJECT + V1 +___ I You We They SUBJECT + v +s,es + ___ He She It

They go to work by bus everyday. He earns his living by selling books. b. Fungsi 1. Untuk menyatakan kebenaran umum The sun rises in the east and sets down in the west. 2. Untuk menyatakan kebiasaan yang masih berlangsung We watch television in the evening 3. Dalam bahasa drama, komentar radio dan sejenisnya. When Lisa Reading a novel, the phone rings, she picks it up and listens quietly.. c. Keterangan waktu Every morning/day/week/month/year Once, twice, three times, four times Occasionally, now and then, on and off, nowadays, habitually, frequently Juga sering digunakan keterangan keseringan, seperti : always, ussually, Sometimes, often, never, seldom. 2. Present Continuous Tense a. Pola Kalimat SUBJECT + TO BE + V-ing (is, am, are) Mother is still cooking in the kitchen now. 1 BINA ARTHA CENDEKIA

Modul Bahasa Inggris USM-STAN b. Fungsi 1. Untuk menyatakan suatu peristiwa yang sedang berlangsung pada waktu sekarang. They are still playing at moment. 2. Untuk menyatakan kegiatan yang sedang berlangsung dan belum tentu sedang berlangsung ketika pernyataan dikemukakan. She is studying English and learning French this year. Catatan : Beberapa kata kerja tidak dapat dipakai dalam bentuk continuous antara lain: Kata kerja berhubungan dengan panca indera (feel, hear, see, smell, notice, observe) Kata kerja berhubungan dengan perasaan atau emosi (adore, appreciate, care, detest fear, hate, like, love, mind, want, wish) Kata kerja berkaitan dengan aktivitas mental (agree, believe, expect, forget, mean, perceive ,realize, recall, recognize, remember, understand) c. Keterangan Waktu Now, at the moment, this afternoon, this evening, right now, today. Kata kerja seperti : Look !, Listen !, Watch !, Notice !(imperative) 3. Present Perfect Tense a. Pola Kalimat SUBJECT + HAVE / HAS + V-3 + ____ I have seen the wolves in the forest. b. Fungsi 1. Untuk menyatakan sesuatu perbuatan yang terjadi pada waktu lampau (waktunya tidak tertentu) John Smith has written a number of short stories. 2. Untuk menyatakan peristiwa yang pernah dilakukan dan mungkin dilakukan lagi di waktu yang akan datang. I have gone to Bali. 3. Untuk menyatakan perbuatan yang dimulai pada waktu lampau dan baru saja berakhir waktu bicara. I havent met you for a month.(sekarang sudah bertemu) c. Keterangan Waktu Since, for,.,just (baru saja),lately, recently, as yet, (hingga kini), so far(hingga kini) up to the present (hingga sekarang). 4. Present Perfect Continuous Tense a. Pola Kalimat SUBJECT + HAVE / HAS + BEEN + V-ing We have been studying English for six years. b. Fungsi 1. Untuk menyatakan suatu perbuatan yang dimulai dilakukan pada waktu lampau Sekarang masih berlangsung dan mungkin masih akan dilanjutkan. 2 BINA ARTHA CENDEKIA

Modul Bahasa Inggris USM-STAN Mr.Jones has been listening to the radio for an hour. 2. Untuk kata kerja live present Perfect Continuous mempunyai arti sama dengan Present Perfect. I have been living in Jakarta for two years = I have lived in Jakarta for two years (I still live in Jakarta now) c. Keterangan Waktu For ,since.,the whole day,all the morning, for the last., fornow. C. Past 1. Simple Past Tense a. Pola Kalimat SUBJECT + V-2 + O + ____ He presented his paper at seminar yesterday. Mother bought a new carpet last Sunday. b. Fungsi 1. Untuk menyatakan suatu kegiatan yang terjadi pada waktu tertentu di masa lampau. He met Lina yesterday. 2. Untuk menyatakan suatu kebiasaan yang terjadi pada waktu lampau. He always carried his umbrella last season. c. Keterangan Waktu Last week/month/year,ago, this morning, this afternoon, just now, yesterday 2.Past Continuous Tense a. Pola Kalimat SUBJECT + was / were + V-ing She was reading the magazine when he came. While they were talking the guests knocked on the door. b. Fungsi 1. Untuk melukiskan suatu peristiwa yang sedang terjadi pada waktu lampau. His wife was cooking in the kitchen. 2. Untuk melukiskan suatu peristiwa yang sedang berlangsung pada waktu lampau di mana kejadian laimterjadi dan biasanya disertai anak kalimat yang diawali dengan When/While/as. When I was walking to school, I met Ana. As she was having breakfast the phone rang. Dalam contoh diatas dapat kita melihat bahwa When I was walking to school,as she was having breakfast, while they were playing, peristiwa-peristiwa tersebut sedang berlangsung peristiwa lain terjadi. c. Bentuk was / were going to dapat digunakan untuk menyatakan keinginan di masa lampau tetapi keinginan tersebut tidak dilaksanakan. I was going to publish my book (but I didnt). They were going to climb the mountain (but it was cloudy). 3. Past Perfect Tense a. Pola Kalimat 3 BINA ARTHA CENDEKIA

Modul Bahasa Inggris USM-STAN

SUBJECT + HAD + V-3 The thief had escaped when police came. b. Fungsi 1. Untuk menyatakan suatu peristiwa yang terjadi sebelum peristiwa berikutnya muncul di masa lampau . They went home after they had finished the work. 2. Untuk menyatakan suatu peristiwa yang terjadi selama periode tertentu hingga kedua terjadi pada waktu lampau. The family had waited for an hour when the doctor arrived. 3. Untukmenyatakan kegiatan yang terjadi berulang-ulang sebelum peristiwa kedua muncul di waktu lampau. His mother had given him medicine for three days before she took him to the hospital. c. Keterangan Waktu When + clause (past tenses). 4. Past Perfect Continuous Tense Past Perfect Continuous Tense menyatakan suatu kejadian yang berlangsung hingga peristiwa lain muncul di waktu lampau. Perbedaan Past Perfect Continuous Tense, Past Perfect Continuous Tense lebih menekankan pada proses berlangsungnya suatu peristiwa. a. Pola Kalimat SUBJECT + HAD + BEEN + V-ing He had been working in that company for two years when the World War II Broke out. b. Fungsi Untuk melukiskan suatu peristiwa yang sudah berlangsung terjadi sebelum saat tertentu pada waktu lampau peristiwa itu masih berlangsung atau tepat berhenti sebelum peristiwa lain menyertai. Contoh : 1. John had been working there for five years when the world war II ended. John worked there. He worked there for five years. Then the world war II ended and John was still working there and (we dont know whether John would still work there or not after the war). D. Future b 1. Future Tense a. Pola Kalimat SUBJECT + SHALL / WILL + V-1 + ____ The examonation will start next week. b. Fungsi

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Modul Bahasa Inggris USM-STAN 1. Untuk menyatakan pendapat, anggapan, spekulasi, tentang kejadian yang akan datang, biasanya diikuti probably, possible, perhaps, surely. (Im sure ) he will pass the exam. 2. Untuk melukiskan suatu peristiwa yang akan terjadi. Ill come back the day after tommorow. 3. Untuk menyatakan maksud / kemauan I will not see her again (saya menolak bertemu dia). 4. Untuk mengumumkan suatu rencana formal dalam radio atau surat kabar yang akan terjadi di masa yang akan datang. The Prime Minister will open the museum next week. 5. Untuk menyatakan kehendak Dalam penggunaan ini pronoun menggunakan will. She will study hard. 6. Untuk menyatakan sesuatu yang terjadi di masa yang mendatang bukan karena keinginan atau kehendak subjek (pelaku). I dan We menggunakan shall sedang lainnya menggunakan will. He will be twenty-five next month. 2. Future Continuous Tense a. Pola Kalimat SUBJECT + shall / will + be + V-ing _____ She will be watering the flowers at four tommorow. b. Fungsi 1. Untuk menyatakan suatu peristiwa kegiatan yang sedang berlangsung ketika peristiwa lain terjadi di waktu yang akan datang masih berlangsung sesudahnya. This time next week U will be studying hard. 2. Untuk menyatakan dua kegiatan yang sedang terjadi pada preiode waktu yang sama mendatang. Kedua kegiatan yang sedang berlangsung tetapi main claus (induk kalimat) yang berbentuk Future Continuous The family will be thinking about farm while they are sitting in the sea shore. c. Keterangan Waktu When + Clause (present), at the usual next week, at this time tommorow, at three oclock tommorow. 3. Future Perfect Tense a. Pola Kalimat SUBJECT + SHALL / WILL + HAVE + V-3 + _____ By the end of this week she will have finished reading the novel. b. Fungsi 1. Untuk menyatakan suatu peristiwa yang telah terjadi sebelum peristiwa berikutnya terjadi yang akan datang. Future Perfect digunakan untuk kegiatan yang lebih dulu terjadi. The mechanics will have worked on the car before the race starts. 2. Untuk menyatakan aktivitas dalam periode waktu tertentu sebelum aktivitas lain terjadi yang akan datang. He will have run for five hours by the time of finish. 5 BINA ARTHA CENDEKIA

Modul Bahasa Inggris USM-STAN c. Keterangan Waktu By then : menjelang waktu By = menjelang, by next week/month/year By the end of = = menjelang akhir Into two weeks/months/years = dalam dua minggu/bulan/tahun. Before + clause (present), when + clause (present). 4. Future Perfect Continuous Tense Future Perfect Continuous digunakan untuk menyatakan suatu kegiatan yang akan telah berlangsungselama periode waktu tertentu sebelum kegiatan lain muncul di waktu yang akan datang. a.Pola Kalimat SUBJECT + SHALL / WILL + HAVE + BEEN + V-ing +_____ We will have been studying English for six years next year. b. Keterangan Waktu By + keterangan waktu ______ for + keterangan waktu Next + keterangan waktu ____ for + keterangan waktu When + Keterangan waktu ___ for + keterangan waktu

SOAL SOAL LATIHAN


1.What are you looking for? My wallet; I dont know where I ____ it. A.have been putting B.am putting C.had put D.was putting E.have put 2. Anwar was promoted president of your company last week wasn,t he? A.had worked B.has been working C.was working D.would work E.worked 3. She____the shoes for five minutes when one of the heels came off. A.am only wearing. B.was only wearing. C. had only been wearing. D.have only been wearing. E.only wearing . 6 BINA ARTHA CENDEKIA

Modul Bahasa Inggris USM-STAN 4. So, you have finished typing those letters! When did you do it? When you ____the meeting. A.were attending B.attend C.have attended D.attended E.had attended 5. Several hotels in this region are closing down. Thats because tourism itself____since last year. A.is declining B.had declining C.declined D.was declining E.has been declining

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Modul Bahasa Inggris USM-STAN

BAB II : SUBJUNCTIVE
A. Pengantar Sesuai dengan ruang lingkup materi, kalimat subjunctive yang diperkenalkan dalam bab ini adalah kalimat subjunctive yang menggunakan wish(ingin), if only (jika,hanya jika),would rather(lebih suka) dan as if atau as though (seolah-olah). Kalimat subjunctive yang menggunakan wish,if only dan would rather digunakan untuk menyatakan suatu keinginan. Sedang kalimat subjunctive yang menggunakan as if atau as though digunakan untuk menyatakan sifat atau keadaan yang tidak benar adanya. Kata kerja atau to be yang digunakan dalam kalimat subjunctive selalu dalam bentuk Past Tense, baik Simple Past maupun Past Perfect Tense. B.Bentuk Kalimat Subjunctive Dan Fakta a. Present Subjunctive Kalimat subjunctive ini menunjukkan pada keadaan sekarang. Kata kerja yang digunakan dalam bentuk Simple Past Tense. To be untuk semua kata ganti adalah were. Contoh : 1. I wish she were here. (faktanya : she isnt here). 2. He wishes I went to the meeting . (faktanya : I dont go to the meeting). 3. If only they were my friends. (faktanya : They arent my friends) 4. If only he didnt ask me (faktanya : He asks me). 5. I would rather you told me the news. (faktanya : You dont tell me the news). 6. He behaves as if he were the owner of the hotel. (faktanya : He isnt the owner of the hotel). 7. She stares at me as though she didnt know me. (faktanya : She knows me) b. Past Subjunctive Past Subjunctive menunjukkan pada keadaan waktu lampau. Kata kerja yang digunakan bentuknya Past Perfect Tense. Contoh : 1. I wish she had been here. (faktanya : She wasnt here). He wishes I had gone to the meeting. (faktanya : I didnt go to the meeting). 2. If only they had been my friends. (faktanya : They were not my friends). 3. If only he hadnt asked me. (faktanya : He asked me). 4. She would rather he had been at home with me yesterday. 8 BINA ARTHA CENDEKIA

Modul Bahasa Inggris USM-STAN (faktanya : He wasnt at home with me yesterday) I would rather you had told me the news. (faktanya : You didnt tell me the news). 5. He behaved as if he had been the owner of the hotel. (faktanya : he wasnt the owner of the hotel). She stared at me as thogh she hadnt known me. (faktanya : She knew me). SOAL-SOAL LATIHAN 1. Fatimah wished to buy the book. A. she had enough money B. she had had enough money C. she has had enough money D. she will have enough money E. she has enough money 2. If only she me about her problem yesterday. A. told B. has told C. had told D. tells E. was telling 3. I am thirsty. The subjunctive is . A. I wish I am not thirsty. B. I wish I was not thirsty. C. I wish I were not thirsty. D. I wish I were thirsty E. I wish I was thirsty. 4. He wishes it a holiday today. A. had been B. were C. was D. be E. is 5. His daughter wished he a motorcycle. A. will have bought B. had bought C. bought D. buy E. buys

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Modul Bahasa Inggris USM-STAN

BAB III : CONDITIONAL SENTENCES


A. Pengantar Setiap kalimat conditional terdiri atas dua klausa, yaitu Main Clause dan if Clause. Sususnan atau letak Main Clause dapat berada di depan dan juga dibelakang. Perbedaan letak main Clause ini sama sekali tidak mempengaruhi arti. Main Clause dalam kalimat pengandaian selalu memiliki modal, sedang If Clause tidak. Modal yang paling sering digunakan adalah : will atau shall an Modal yang lain adalah can,may,must,have to dan ought to. Modal ini bisa dalam bentuk present atau past tense sesuai dengan tipe kalimat pengandaiannya. Sesuai dengan namanya, kalimat pengandaian menyatakan suatu hal yang diharapakan terjadi, akan tetapi kenyataan belum atau tidak terjadi sebagaimana yang diharapakan. Contoh : Main Clause If Clause 1. I will come to the party if Susi invites me 2. We shall go together if We have enough time Susunan kalimat di atas bisa diubah dengan memindahkan Main Clause di bagian belakang kalimat, sehingga susunannya menjadi : 1. If Susi invites me, I will go to the party 2. If we have enough time, we shall go together. B. Tipe-Tipe Kalimat Kondisional a. Tipe I (Future Conditional Sentences) Kalimat pengandaian tipe I menunjuk pada peristiwa yang diharapkan terjadi pada waktu yang akan datang, sehingga mungkin terjadi atau tidak. Modal pada Main Clause dan kata kerja pada If Clause semuanya dalm bentuk present. Contoh : 1. They will visit you if you meet them. (Artinya : They may visit you, you may meet they). 2. I can go for a swim the weather is not bad, (Artinya : I may go for a swim, the weather may not be bad). b.Tipe II Kalimat pengandaian tipe II untuk menyatakan sesuatu yang bertentangan dengan fakta pada waktu sekarang sehingga tidak mungkin terjadi atau kemungkinan kecil terjadi pada waktu sekarang. Modal pada Main Clause dan kata kerja atau to be dan If Clause semuanya dalam bentuk Past Tense. To be untuk semua pronoun adalah were. Contoh : 1. They would visit you if you met them. (Artinya : They dont visit you because you dont meet them). 2. I could go for a swim if the weather were not bad. (artinya : I cant go for a swim because the weather is bad). c. Tipe III

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Modul Bahasa Inggris USM-STAN Kalimat pengandaian tipe III menunjuk pada peristiwa yang akan terjadi di waktu lampau, digunakan untuk menyatakan sesuatu yang bertentangan dengan kenyataan pada waktu lampau sehingga tidak mungkin terjasi pada waktu sekarang. Modal pada Main Clause dalam bentuk Past Tense ditambah dengan have dan kata kerja atau to be bentuk ketiga, sedang kata kerja If Clause dalam bentuk Past Perfect Tense. Contoh : 1. They would have visited you if you had met them. (Artinya : They didnt visit you because you didnt meet them). 2. I could have gone for a swim if the had not been bad. (Artinya : I couldnt go for a swim because the weather was bad). C. Kalimat Kondisional Tanpa If If Clause pada kalimat pengandaian tidak harus selalu dimulai dengan kata if. Kata-kata lain yang mempunyai makna setara adalah : on condition that (dengan syarat bahwa), provided that (asalkan) dan unless (kecuali jika). If juga bisa dihilangkan dengan menggubnakan inversi atau susun balik. Bentuk inversi ini hanya bisa digunakan pada kalimat pengadaian tipe II yang memiliki to be were dan kalimat pengandaian tipe-III. Contoh : 1. We shall go if we have enough time. We shall go on condition that we have enough time. We shall go provided that we have enough time. We shall not go unless we have enough time. 2. If she were sick, she couldnt do the work. Were she sick, she couldnt do the work. 3. If we had had enough time, we should have gone together. Had we had enough time we should gone together. SOAL-SOAL LATIHAN 1. He ___ come if you call him. A. would B. would have C. would rather D. will E. will have 2. I wont come if you ___ me. A. dont invite B. did not invite C. have been invitation D. has been invited E. have invite

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Modul Bahasa Inggris USM-STAN 3. You ___ go this afternoon if you want to. A. can B. would C. should D. would have E. would have been 4. She wouldnt have arrived at the station on time unless her father had driven her there. It means .___. A. She arrives at the station on time B. She came late to the station C. She did not miss the train D. Her father did not drive her to the station E. She didnt go to the station 5. If it ___ today, I would not go to the school. A. rained B. rains C. had rained D. rain E. will rain

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Modul Bahasa Inggris USM-STAN

BAB IV : CAUSATIVE HAVE AND GET


Pengantar Causative haveadalah sususnan kalimat menggunakan have yang digunakan untuk menyatakan suatu pekerjaan yang dikerjakan orang lain untuk subject. Jadi have ini berarti menyuruh atau memerintah. Kata kerja lain yang dapat untuk menggantikan have adalah kata kerja get. Dari dua kata kerja tersebut terdapat sedikit perbedaan dalam susunannya. A. Susunan causative Have dan Get a. Causative have dan get dengan objek aktif Di sini obyek melakukan kegiatan sesuai dengan keinginan subjek. Adapun susunan kalimatnya sebagai berikut : S + HAVE + O-1 + V-1 + O-2 Contoh : I have the mechanic repair my car (Saya menyuruh montir itu memperbaiki mobil saya). Apabila mengunakan get susunan kalimatnya sebagai berikut : S + GET + O-1 + to V-1 + O-2 Mother gets my sister to tidy up her room. (Ibu menyuruh adik saya merapikan kamarnya). b. Causative have dan get dengan objek pasif Dalam susunan ini subjek menghendaki seseorang untuk melakukan sesuatu terhadap objek penderita. Adapun susunan kalimatnya sebagai berikut : S + HAVE + O + V-3 Contoh : The manager had the letter typed soon. (Manajer itu menyuruh surat itu diketik segera). Apabila menggunakan get pola kalimatnya sebagai berikut : S + get + O + V-3 Contoh : I get my trousers shortened (Saya menyuruh celana panjang saya dipendekkan)

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Modul Bahasa Inggris USM-STAN SOAL-SOAL LATIHAN 1. I cant accompany my little sister to go to school, but Ive got to have her ___. A. accompanied B. to accompany C. accompanying D. to accompanying E. accompany 2. Ill get my sister ___ my new dress. A. sew B. sewed C. sews D. to sew E. sewing 3. Lisa had the gardener ___ the grass. A. plant B. plants C. planted D. planting E. to plant 4. Rangga forgot to bring his glasses, so he had somebody ___ the announcement. A. reading B. to read C. to reading D. reads E. read 5. Choki is a lazy boy. Yes, he always wants ___ for him. A. to have everything done B. everything having been done C. have everything done D. to has everything done E. everything has done

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Modul Bahasa Inggris USM-STAN

BAB V : INFINITIVE
A. Pengantar Pada prinsipnya infinitive adalah kata kerja yang meggunakan to maupun yang tidak menggunakn to. Pembahasan mengenai infinitive dalam bab ini hanya terbatas pada arti dan pemakaian kata kerja, baik yang menggunakan to maupun yang tidak menggunakan to secara khusus. Untuk mempermudah pembahasan digunakan istilah to infinitive yang menggunakan to dan infinitive tanpa to (bare infinitive) untuk infinitive yang tidak menggunakan to. B. Penggunaan To Infinitive a. Sebagai Subjek Contoh : To drive fast needs a lot of pratice. b. Sebagai Modifier (penjelas / pembatas) To-infinitive digunakan sebagai modifier (penjelas) dari : 1. Kata benda (modifier of a noun) Contoh : We need a lot of water to drink. 2. Kata sifat (modifier of an adjective) Contoh : She was sad to hear that terrible news. 3. Kata kerja (modifier of a verb) Contoh : The president was invited to open yhe conference. 4. Kata tanya atau frase yang dimulai dengan kata tanya (modifier of a WHWord Or a WH-Phrases). Contoh : She was conviced when to start the business. C. Kata Kerja Yang Harus Diikuti To-infinitive Kata kerja berikut ini harus diikuti to-infinitive Advise force mean want Allow hope need wish Ask intend permit would like Bag invite promise tell Decide instruct propose teach Expect learn warn urge Pola kalimat yang digunakan adalah : 1. S + V + TO-INFINITIVE + ___ Contoh : The Lady decided to go abroad 2. S + V + O + TO-INFINITIVE + ____ Contoh : The headmaster asked us to wear the uniform every Saturday. D. Pengunaan Infinitive Tanpa To (Bare Infinitive) a. Setelah Modal (can, could, may; might, shall, should, ought to, will, would, must). b. Setelah kata : need not, dare not (tidak berani), would rather (lebih suka), had better (sebaiknya) dan would sooner (lebih suka) 15 BINA ARTHA CENDEKIA

Modul Bahasa Inggris USM-STAN Contoh : 1. We had better tell him that you list it. 2. she would rather go than stay at home c. Setelah kata kerja sensasi, presepsi dan causative-have, kecuali dalam bentuk passive. Contoh : 1. She saw the boy steal the money 2. The teacher has his students clean the classroom 3. Birth Control has helped decrease the population growth. Jika digunakan dalam bentuk pasif kata kerja tersebut harus diikuti oleh bto-infinitive (dalam bentuk pasif). Contoh : 1. She was heard to leave the house 2. He was found to smoke in the class KECUALI : let Contoh : 1. They let him go Passive : He was let go 2. He lets Amir enter the room. Passive : Amir is let enter the room d. Beberapa katakerja yang bisa diikuti infinitive tanpa to : Feel hear see look at Get make watch let Have notice know listen to Help observe Kata kerja presepsi dan sensasi di atas juga bisa diikuti kata kerja bentuk ing, kecuali : let have, know, dan help. Contoh : 1. They saw the thief run away. I saw the thief running away. 2. I notice him sleep under the tree. 3. She heard the boy call for help. Perbedaan bentuk infinitive tanpa to dan kata kerja bentuk ing dalam pemakaian ini terletak pada sempurna tidaknya peristiwa yang dilakukan. Kata kerja bentuk ing (V-ing) menunjukkan sedang berlangsungnya peristiwa kapan dimulai dan kapan berakhirnya tidak diketahui. Sedang bentuk infinitive tanpa to menunjukkan lengkapnya peristiwa tersebut, sejak dari awal sampai akhir e. Dalam dependent clause setelah adjective yang mengandung arti penting Misal : important, necessary, essential, etc. Contoh : It is important that she take the course Kadang-kadang infinitive tanpa to dalam dependen tclause semacam di atas didahului oleh should. Contoh : 1. I suggest that they should take a vacation 2. It is important that we should take a vacation

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Modul Bahasa Inggris USM-STAN SOAL-SOAL LATIHAN 1. I called you up this morning ___ you about the news. A. tell B. telling C. to tell D. told E. to telling 2. Its difficult ___ to English correctly if you dont practice. A. spelling B. spelled C. spells D. to spell E. spell 3. The girl begged the robber ___. A. not to take her money B. dont take my money C. do not take my money D. didnt take my money E. did not take my money 4. What did Ali promise you yesterday? ___ together in library. A. We study B. Studying C. In studying D. Studied E. To study 5. The fact that he was put into prison for something he had not done made his wife __. A. crying B. to cry C. cry D. cried E. has been cried

BAB VI : MODAL AND MODAL PERFECT


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Modul Bahasa Inggris USM-STAN Modal adalah bagian dari auxiliary (kata kerja bantu) sehingga dapat diperlakukan seperti kata kerja bantu. Adapun fungsinya memberikan tambahan arti pada kata kerja. Modal selalu diikuti kata kerja bentuk I tanpa to (infinitive without to). A. Modal 1. Can a. Menyatakan kemampuan (ability) Contoh : She can speak three languages b. Menyatakan ijin (permission) Contoh : Can I borrow your dictionary? 3. May a. Menyatakan ijin (permission) Contoh : May I read this book? b. Menyatakan kemungkinan (possibility) Contoh : He may come late this morning 2. Could Menyatakan kemampuan pada waktu lampau. Contoh : She couldswim well when She was young. 4. Might a. Bentuk lampau dari may Contoh : She said that I might go home early b. Menyatakan kemungkinan besar (strong possibility). Contoh : She might be at home today.

5. Must a. Menyatakan kebutuhan (necessity) Contoh : We must eat nutrious food. b. Menyatakan kesimpulan (conclusion) Contoh : He has been in England for year. He must speak English fluently B. Modal Perfect 1. Must + have + V-3 Untuk menyatakan suatu kepastian atau kesimpulan tentang sesuatu yang terjadi pada waktu lampau. (past conclusion). Contoh : The oil was frozen. It must have been very cold last night. 2. Might + have + V-3 Untuk menyatakan kemungkinan pada waktu lampau (past possibility). Contoh : Lany came late this morning, she might hve missed the bus. 3 .Should + have + V-3 = ought to + have + V-3 Untuk menyatakan saran yang seharusnya dilakukan pada waktu lampau (past suggestion). Contoh : Lena has an examination today but she saw the film last night, She should have been studying for her exam. 4. Could + have + V-3 Untuk menyatakan kemampuan (capability) untuk melakukan sesuatu pada waktu lampau tetapi tidak digunakan. Contoh : We didnt go out last night ; we could have gone to the cinema but we decided to stay at home. Mrs.Nancy was rich; she could have bought a motor car if she wanted.

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Modul Bahasa Inggris USM-STAN SOAL-SOAL LATIHAN 1. It ___ rain tomorrow. A. may B. should C. would D. shouldnt have E. bring 2. Youve got a lot of time. You ___ to hurry. A. dont have B. do C. have D. may E. can 3. They were plenty of tickets left for the concert. We ___ have bought them in advance. A. wouldnt B. must not C. might not D. could not E. shouldnt 4. They ___ discussing the matter when I came. A. are B. was C. were D. had E. been 5. I ___ to sit on the bus this morning because it was too crowded. A. cant B. couldnt C. isnt able to D. wasnt able to E. had been

BAB VII : CONCORD (AGREEMENT)


A. Pengantar 19 BINA ARTHA CENDEKIA

Modul Bahasa Inggris USM-STAN Concord atau agreement adalah persesuaian unsur-unsur pembentuk suatu kata, frase atau kalimat sesuai dengan kaidah kebahasaan yang berlaku pada suatu bahasa. B. Jenis-Jenis Concord : a. Concord of person (persesuaian kata ganti orang) Concord ini menunjuk pada persesuaian antara kata benda dengan kata ganti orang yang menunjukkan. Contoh : 1. John is my brother. He is a doctor. (Concord : John he ) 2. The girl under the tree waved her hand. (Concord : wentlast week) b. Concord of tense (persesuaian tenses) dalam bahasa Inggris bentuk kata kerja senantiasa berubah-ubah sesuai dengan kata keterangan waktu yang mengikutinya. 1. They go to the movie every week (Concord : goeveryweek) 2. They went to the movie last week. (Concord : went last week) c. Concord of number (persesuaian jumlah) Concord ini meliputi persesuaian antara : 1. Subjek dan Predikat : PREDIKAT SUBYEK to be to do to have to verb I am do have go We, You, They are do have go He, She, It is does has goes Contoh : 1. He has finished reading the book (Concord : Hehas) 2. We go to school by bus (Concord : Bettygoes) Collective nouns dapat berpredikat tunggal atau jamak. Dianggap tunggal apabila dipandang kesatuannya dan dianggap jamak bilamenunjuk kepada anggotaanggotanya. Contoh : 1. The team is good. 2. The team are playing seriuously. 3. The village has been visited by the president. 4. The Village have worked hard for a week. Everybody, everyone, nobody, no one,anybody dan anyone, menggunakan predikat bentuk tunggal tetapi kata gantinya jamak. Contoh 1. Everybody was running as fast as they could 2. No one knows where their king puts the crown

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Modul Bahasa Inggris USM-STAN Beberapa kata benda yang bentuknya jamak tetapi selalu digunakan dengan predikat (to be atau kata kerja) bentuk tunggal, antara lain : cards, billiards, dominos, mathematics, mechanics, physics, economics, phonetics, optics, statistics. Contoh : Billiards is an easy game. Ukuran jarak, waktu dan uang dianggap tunggal. Contoh : Five hundred miles is quite far for them. Nama judul buku (buku, cerita, film) dan beberapa benda yang disatukan dianggap tunggal. Contoh : Romeo and Juliet is a good story. Tetapi : 1. The number of workers takes a rest. 2. A number of cards are painted red. Noun and attributive : No. Attributive Uncountable 1. a / an 2. the v 3. some v 4. many 5. much v 6. few 7. little v 8. a lot of v 9. this / that v 10. these / those 11. each / every 12. all of v 13. one 14. two / three / four Contoh : This man is my brother.

Noun Tunggal v v v v v v -

Jamak v v v v v v v v

Nama bilangan tidak boleh ditulis dalam bentuk jamak, kecuali jika menunjukkan kelipatan dari bilangan tersebut. Contoh : Two hundred two hundred books d. Concord of gender (persesuaian jenis kelamin) Contoh : John is my brother. He is a good student. SOAL-SOAL LATIHAN

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Modul Bahasa Inggris USM-STAN 1. Each girl must contribute ___ share of the expenses. A. hers B. no word added C. herself D. her E. she 2. The committee has begun ____ meeting. A. her B. his C. their D. its E. ours 3. The name of a river passing through some big towns ___ the title of a very popular Indonesian song. A. has become B. have become C. it has become D. to have become E. having become 4. An increase in the number of students ___ expected next year. A. is B. are C. was D. were E. will 5. Due to the current financial condition, our budget plan for 1998/1999 ___. A. it needs reviewing B. needs to be reviewed C. need to review D. is needed to be reviewed E. needs review

BAB VIII : GERUND


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Modul Bahasa Inggris USM-STAN A. Pengantar Gerund adalah kata kerja dalam bentuk ing yang berfungsi sebagai kata benda gerund bisa digunakan sebagai subjek, objek, komplemen, dan penjelas kata benda lainnya. B. Fungsi Gerund 1. Sebagai Subjek Contoh : Cooking is a good hobby. 2. .Sebagai Objek Contoh : I dont like smoking Beberapa kata yang mengikuti gerund : Admit (mengakui) fancy (menghayalkan) Appreciate (menghargai) forgive (memnfaatkan) Avoid (menghindari) keep (terus menerus) Anticipate (mengantisipasi) mind (berkeberatan) Consider (mempertimbangkan) neglect (meremehkan) Continue (meneruskan) practise (mempraktekkan) Deny ( menyangkal) postpone (menunda) Delay (menunda) pardon (memaafkan) Detest (membenci) prevent (mengcegah) Enjoy (menikmati) resist (menahan) Excuse (menolak) risk (mengambil resiko) Finish (menyelesaikan) understand (memahami) b. Objek kata depan (preposisi) Contoh : He gave up drinking beer Beberapa preposisi yang perlu diketahui adalah : at, after, before, from, in, on, of, under, up, though, about, without, for, and to. Preposisi yang paling sulit dikenali adalah : to karena di samping infinitive. Karena itu untuk mempermudah memahaminya, hafalkanlah bentuk to yang harus diikuti gerund dalam kelompok kata berikut ini : To be used to To be accustomed to To object to (terbiasa) (terbiasa) (berkeberatan) to take to (menyukai) to look forward to (menanti-nanti) to be averse to (terbiasa)

Contoh : 1. I am used to drinking coffe. c. Sebagai Komplemen Contoh : My hobby is drawing. Gerund sebagai komplemen selalu diletakkan setelah to be (am, is, are, was, were) d. Sebagai penjelas kata benda noun modifier : Contoh : the waiting room is very large. e. Sebagai menyatakan larangan Contoh : No smoking C. Perbedaan Gerund dan To Infinitive Beberapa kata kerja yang bisa diikuti gerund dan to infinitive : 23 BINA ARTHA CENDEKIA

Modul Bahasa Inggris USM-STAN Advise Allow Attempt Begin Continue Forget Hate Like intend love prefer regret remember start stop try

Diantara kata kerja diatas, ada kata kerja yang memiliki perbedaan yang sangat kontras apabila diikuti oleh gerund dan to-infinitive. Contoh : I stop to smoke (Artinya : berhenti dari melakukan perbuatan tertentu baru kemudian merokok). I stop smoking. (Artinya : berhenti dari perbuatan merokok untuk kemudian melakukan perbuatan yang lain). D. Perbedaan Gerund dan Active Participle : Gerund dan Active Participle memiliki bentuk yang sama, yaitu kata kerja bentuk ing Sekalipun bentuknya sama, keduanya memiliki fungsi yang berbeda. Dari segi arti, gerund mengandung makna : peristiwa yng sedang berlangsung. Contoh : 1. The running boy is anwar, (active Participle) (The boy who is running is Anwar= Anak yang sedang berlari itu Anwar) 2. The running shoes are very expensive.(gerund) (Sepatu yang digunakan untuk berlari itu sangat mahal) 3. The walking man wants to meet you. (Activeparticiple) (orang yang sedang berjalan itu ingin menemuimu) 4. The old man needs a walking stick. (gerund) (orang tua itu memerlukan tongkt untuk berjalan) E. Gerund setelah Possesive Adjective : Seperti umumnya kata benda, gerund bisa diletakkan setelah possesive adjective dan pronoun bentuk object. Contoh : Her coming late makes her mother angry. SOAL SOAL LATIHAN 1. Would you mind___your pet snake somewhere else? A. to put B. to putting C. putting D. put E. puts 2. X : Do you like swimming? Y : NO, I prefer___to swimming. 24 BINA ARTHA CENDEKIA

Modul Bahasa Inggris USM-STAN A. play badminton B. played badminton C. playing badminton D. has played badminton E. had played badminton 3. This knife needs___ it is dull. A. to be sharpening B. to sharpen C. sharpen D. sharpens E. sharpening 4. We were astonished at ___ a good score for TOEFL in spite of his poor English. A. her could get B. his being able to get C. to be able to get D. being able to get E. be able to get 5. She was very sad because her father did not approve of___too often. A. I saw her B. me to see her C. my seeing her D. me seeing her E. that I see her

BAB IX : PARTICIPLE
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Modul Bahasa Inggris USM-STAN A. Pengantar Dalam bahasa Inggris dikenal dua macam participle : * Present Participle (Active Paticiple) dan * Past Participle Active Participle dan Past Participle memiliki bentuk dan arti berbeda. Active Participle adalah kata kerja dalam bentuk ing dan artinya menunjuk kepada aktivitas yang bersifat aktif (melakukan pekerjaan), sedang Past Participle adalah kata kerja bentuk ke-3 dan artinya menunjuk kepada aktivitas yang bersifat pasif (dikenai pekerjaan). Perhatikan contoh berikut ini : 1. Active (Present Participle) : Running water = air yang sedang mengalir 2. Past Participle : Poured water = air yang tertumpah / ditumpahkan B. Penggunaan Active (Present) Participle a. Sebagai Adjective Contoh : 1. The boiling water is very hot. 2. the waiting man reads a magazine. b. Untuk membentuk Continuous Tense. Contoh : 1. We are studying English now. 2. You have been dreaming. c. Setelah kata kerja tertentu (Verb of Perception). Pola kalimat yang digunakan adalah : S + V + O + Active Participle + Contoh : I hear the girl singing a new song. Kata kerja yang bisa digunakan dalam pola seperti ini adalah : See hear feel notice Watch leave find catch Smell observe keep d. Apabila ada dua peristiwa yang terjadi secara simultan (bersamaan) dan dilakukan oleh seorang subyek. Contoh : He rode away. He wishtled as he went. =He rode away whistling. =Whistling, he rode away. e. Apabila ada dua peristiwa yang dilakukan oleh seorang subyek secara berurutan, maka peristiwa yang terjadi lebih dulu bisa dituliskan dengan menggunakan active participle. Contoh : He opened the drawer and took out a revolver. =Opening the drawer, he took out a revolver. f. Apabila peristiwa yang kedua merupakan bagian atau akibat dari peristiwa yang pertama, peristiwa yang kedua bisa dituliskan dengan menggunakan active participle Contoh : 26 BINA ARTHA CENDEKIA

Modul Bahasa Inggris USM-STAN As he knew her address, he sent her a letter. =Knowing her address, he sent her a letter. C. Penggunaan Past Participle a. Sebagai Adjective Contoh : The stolen money has been found. b. Untuk membuat kalimat pasif. Contoh : She was asked to open the meeting. c. Setelah kata kerja tertentu (Verb of Perception) apabila obyeknya pasif. Pola kalimat yang digunakan adalah : S + V + O + PAST PARTICIPLE + Contoh : You will see the work finished on time. d.Untuk menggantikkan subjek + kata kerja pasif apabila subyek tersebut disebutkan secara berulang. Contoh : Beny came in. He was followed by his wife. =Beny came in, followed by his wife. D. Present Participle dan Past Participle Sebagai Adjective Contoh : They play was boring.(Permainan itu membosankan). SOAL SOAL LATIHAN 1. They watched the soldiers ___ down the secret. A. marched B. marching C. to march D. be marching E. are maching 2. I heard him ___ very carefully in order not to wake the others. A. is unlocking the door B. unlocked the door C. when unlocking the door D. he unlock the door E. unlock the door 3. Having finished her work, the maid went home. The underlined words mean ___. A. Although she had finished her work B. After she had finished her work C. She had to finish her work D. If she had finishing her work E. She was finishing her work

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Modul Bahasa Inggris USM-STAN 4. Students ___ to attend a student conference in the United States should be able to speak English fluently. A. choose B. were chosen C. chosen D. they choose E. have been chosen 5. The window pane ___ by Edi has not been repaired yet. A. was broken B. broken C. be broken D. breaking E. broke

BAB X : CONJUCTION
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Modul Bahasa Inggris USM-STAN Konjungsi atau kata penghubung ber fungsi menghubungkan kata dengan kelompok kata dalam suatu kalimat. Konjungsi dapat dibedakan menjadi dua macam yaitu coordinate conjuction (konjungsi setara) dan subordinate conjuction atau konjungsi bertingkat. Konjungsi setara (co-ordinate conjuction) seperti misalnya and, but, or dan nor. Jenis konjungsi ini menghubungkan kata benda dengan kata benda, kata kerja dengan kata kerja, kata dengan kelompok kata, klausa dengan klausa dan sebagainya. Contoh : I lost my books and my pens. Konjungsi seperti di atas dapat digabungkan dengan kata-kata lain seperti misalnya : both and, not only , but also, either or, neither.nor . Dalam bab ini akan dibahas konjungsi bertingkat (subordinate conjuction) karena hal ini sangat penting dan perlu dikuasai bagi para siswa. 1. Accordingly : karena itu Contoh : STAN is famous college in indonesia; accordingly many students wants to study there. 2. After all : bagaimanapun juga Contoh : There are many good school; after all our school is the best. 3. All the same : namun demikian Contoh : The government has given them a new market places; all the same some of them keep selling their things at dirty place. 4. Consequently : akibatnya Contoh : His father died five years ago; consequently all the responsiblities to raise the children fell or his mother. 5. For = Since = because = as = Karena Contoh : Everyone is looking for him, for he is the only person who knows where the keys is. 6. Hence : karena alasan itu, dengan demikian, mulai saat ini. Contoh : He was born when his parents woerked in Irian, hence he is named Irianto. 7. In order that : supaya Contoh : We must study hard;in order that we can pass the exam. 8. In case : kalau-kalau Contoh : Youd better take an umbrella;in case it rains. 9. In the meantime : sementara itu, dalam waktu yang bersamaan. Contoh : Go to the shop and buy me a magazine;in the mean time Ill take bath. 10. Moreover = futhermore = lagipula = terlabih lagi Contoh : Desy is beautiful; moreover she is very bright. 11. Namely : yaitu Contoh : There is only one student who fails the exam,namely Lena. 12. Nevertheless : however = namun demikian Contoh : She is poor;nevertheless she is happy. 13. On the contrary = on the other hand = sebaliknya Contoh : He loves rock music; on the contrary his father hates very much. 14. Otherwise : jika tidak 29 BINA ARTHA CENDEKIA

Modul Bahasa Inggris USM-STAN Contoh : Please study hard;otherwise youll fail the exam. 15. Say : taruhlah Contoh : Can you lend me money;say five thousand rupiahs. SOAL SOAL LATIHAN I was late because I chugat the wrong bus. It means I chaught the wrong bus: ___ I was late. A. although B. but C. so that D. since E. when
1.

___ his good performance as a student, he is always nervous when doing exams. A. Unless B. Although C. Instead of D. Even though E. Despite
2. 3.

I told Tommy to take the recruiting test seriously,___ he would not be

accepted. A. but B. and C. so D. for E. or His two last musical shows were not professionally conducted. Youre right; ___ , had contacted Kris, a professional in the entertainment business, for his next show. A. so that B. in addition C. therefore D. in spite of that E. moreover
4. 5.

My uncle doesnt eaern much; ___ he can send his children to college.

A. however B. and C. therefore D. so E. hence

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Modul Bahasa Inggris USM-STAN

BAB XI : ADVERB
A. Adverb of frequency (keterangan keseringan) 31 BINA ARTHA CENDEKIA

Modul Bahasa Inggris USM-STAN Kelompok I = always rarely Ever, scarcerly Generally, seldom hardly, sometimes never, often occasionally

Adverb of frequency yang termasuk kelompok I penempatannya dalam kalimat adalah sebelum kata kerja utama. Contoh : 1. The sun always rises in the east 2. His wife never goes to the shop 3. I can hardly never hear such a song 4. They dont often go to bed late 5. He is never advised by this mother 6. Do you usually study last night? 7. Have you ever been to Paris? 8. Does she occasionally arrive at night? Untuk memberikan jawaban pendek (short responses) bisa diletakkan sebelum to be, to do atau modal. Contoh : X : Do you ussually go to school on foot? Y : Yes, I usually do : Yes, I sometimes do : No, I never do Atau : No, never Adverb of frequency yang mengandung arti negative seperti : never, hardly, rarely, bisa diletakkan di depan kalimat untuk menekankan arti, akan tetapi kalimatnya bersususnan inversi. Contoh : 1. Never has she met us 2. Rarely do we eat rice there 3 Hardly will he write love letters Apabila kalimatnya memiliki have to (harus), adverb of frequency diletakkan di depan suku kata tersebut. Contoh : I often have to cook my own breakfast. Adverb of frequency bisa diletakkan sebelum used to atau antaara used dan to. Contoh : He always used to help his mother Kelompok I : every day / week / month / year Once (sekali) a week / month Every other day Now and then Again and again Adverb of frequency yang termasuk dalam kelompok II pada akhir kalimat Contoh : We have English Lessons every week 32 BINA ARTHA CENDEKIA

Modul Bahasa Inggris USM-STAN B. Adverb of degree (keterangan tahapan, tingkatan) : Contoh : Almost quite nearly only Enough soon fairly also Just (hanya) rather extremely merely Already too Adverb jenis ini biasa digunakan untuk menerangkan adjective atau yang lain diletakkan di depan kata yang diterangkan. Contoh : It was too hot to work. Enough diletakkan setelah kata yang diterangkan, kecuali jika sebagai adjective (untuk menerangkan kata benda). Contoh ; He didnt work quickly enough. Adverb of degree juga bisa digunakan untuk menerangkan kata kerja dan diletakkan sebelum kata kerja utama. Contoh : 1. You nearly missed the bus 2. Leni still hopes to meet him 3. They soon found what they wanted 4. The students quite understand the lessons 5. We are merely waiting for the bus. 6. H e didnt only know you. 7. The post have already come. Only memiliki posisi yang bervariasi, kata ini diletakkan berdekatan dengan kata yang diterangkan. Contoh : He only had an apple (not anything else). C. Adverb of manner (keterangan cara) Pada umumnya adverb of manner dibentuk dari adjective + ly Contoh : Adjective Adverb Careful carefully Lazy lazily Kecuali : Ada beberapa adjective yang dijadikan sebagai adverb tanpa harus menambahkan akhiran-ly, yaitu: Deep early much Far high little Fast low leisurely Hard late near 33 BINA ARTHA CENDEKIA

Modul Bahasa Inggris USM-STAN Contoh : It is a fast train.(adj) The train fast.(adv) Adverb of manner diletakkan setelah kata kerja dan setelah objek, jika kalimatnya memiliki obyek. Contoh : He studies hard. He studies English hard. D. Adverb of place (keterangan tempat). Adverb of place diletakkan setelah kata kerja dan setelah obyek langsung jika kalimatnya memiliki obyek. Contoh : They played there They played football there. Keterangan tempat yang spesifik diletakkan sebelum keterangan tempat yang lebih luas. Contoh : They worked in room 10 in the hotel. E. Adverb of time (keterangan waktu). Contoh : Then now everyday Still soon at seven Yet last week next week Pada umumnya adverb of time diletakkan pada akhir kalimat, tetapi jika digunakan untuk menekanakan makna bisa juga pada awal kalimat. Khusus untuk still diletakkan sebelum kata kerja atau setelah to be. Contoh : He will come here tommorow Tommorow he will come here Adverb of time yang lebih pendek jangka waktunya diletakkan sebelum adverb of time yang lebih lama. Contoh : We arrived at five oclock yesterday.

SOAL-SOAL LATIHAN 1. I did not go anywhere last holiday ___. A. I stayed at only home 34 BINA ARTHA CENDEKIA

Modul Bahasa Inggris USM-STAN B. I stayed only at home C. I only stayed at home D. I stayed only at home. E. only I stayed at home 2. The days were short ___ it was December. A. despite B. in spite C. so that D. for E. unless 3. He seems ___ that his eyes are red. A. such a sad B. such sad C. such sadly D. so sad E. so sadly 4. Aisyah looks much ___ she really is. A. young as B. younger than C. as young as D. more young than E. young than 5. She brings her umbrella ___ she goes. A. because B. so that C. until D. wherever E. where

DAFTAR PUSTAKA

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Modul Bahasa Inggris USM-STAN ______,1994 Kurikulum dan GBPP Bidang Studi Bahasa Inggris Kelas 3 SMU yang Disempurnakan. Jakarta. Frank Matrcella, 1972, Modern English, Prentice-Hall. New Jersey. Hoenby A.S. et. Al. 1954. The Adveted Learns London Dictionary of Current English. Oxford University Press Amen House E.C.4. Krohn Robert, 1971. English Sentence Srtucture, The University Press. Murphy Raymond, 1986. English Grammar in Use, Gambridge University Press. Quick Radolph & Greenbaum. A University Grammar of English, Longman GroupLimited. England. Thompson A.J. & University A.V, 1977, A Pratical English Grammar 2nd Edition. Oxford University Press Walton Street. Oxford AXZ GDP. Wilcox Peterson Praticia, 1980, Changing times Changing Tenses Teaching Division Educational and Cultural Affair International Communication Agency. United State of America.

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