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Boiler Draft System

Draft (Draught):
Difference between the atmospheric pressure and the static
pressure of combustion gases in a furnace, gas passage, flue or stack.
Driving force for the gas movement.
Product of Combustion to be taken through a tortuous path
It is to be dispersed in atmosphere according to the prevailing
environmental regulations
Induction of sufficient quantity of air for
complete combustion
Removal of the product of combustion
Stack
&
Fan
Boiler Draft System
Draft System
Natural Draft
Mechanical
Draft
Forced Draft
Induced Draft
Balanced
Draft
Natural Draft: No power needed, lesser control, for smaller system

Forced Draft: Leakage of gas through the system, less volume
(mass) flow rate

Induced Draft: Infiltration of air, larger volume (mass) flow rate
Draft
Draft : A flow of air and combustion gases in steam generating units is
required to supply the combustion air and to remove the remove the
gaseous combustion products. This flow, confined to ducts, boiler
settings, heat exchangers, flues and stack is created and sustained by
stacks and fans. Draft is a term commonly used to designate static
pressure in a furnace, air or gas passage, or stack.
Stacks seldom provide sufficient natural draft to cover the requirements
of the modern boiler units. The 200 feet(60m) high stack with 490 F(250
C) average gas temperature will develop theoretical natural draft of
approximately 1.15 in. of water, whereas resistance to gas and air flow
may be as high as 50 inches. There higher draft loss systems require the
use of mechanical draft equipment and a wide variety of fan designs
and types is available to meet this need.
Draft is controlled by ID fans by varying their control damper position or
speed whereas, in implosion control the outlet dampers of ID fans are
made to close to control the negative pressure excursion.


A typical stack or chimney

Conical Shape to increase
velocity

Better structural stability

Stack alone is not sufficient
to create draft. Fans are
needed
A typical stack or chimney
DESIGN OF STACK
STACK EFFECT:- difference in pressure caused by difference in
elevation between two locations in a vertical ducts or passages
conveying heated gases at zero gas flow.
( )
2
2 2
1 1
stack draft effect driving pressure, N/m
of gravity, 9.8 m/s g 1 kgm/Ns
elevation between point 1 and 2 (m)
density of air
SE a g SE
c c a g
c
a
g g
P z z P
g g v v
g acceleration
z

| |
A = = A =
|
|
\ .
= =
=
=
3
3
3
3
at atmospheric pr. (kg/m )
density of flue gas (kg/m )
specific volume of air at atmospheric pr. (m / )
specific volume of flue gas (m / )
g
a
g
average
v kg
v average kg
=
=
=
Stack flow loss











For natural draft units stack flow losses are typically less than 5%
6
2 2
2 2
2 2
stack flow loss, lb/ft (N/m )
= friction factor
= length of stack, ft (m)
= stack diameter, ft (m)
G= mass flux = m/A, lb/h.ft (kg/m )
A=stack cross sectional area, ft ( )
32
2 2
2 2
l
c
P
f
L
D
s
m
g
L G G
P f v v
l
D g g
c c
A =
=
A = +
2 2
.17 lbm ft/lbf s (1 kgm/Ns )
Stacks for Natural Draft units
The required height and diameter of stacks for Natural Draft units depend
on:-
1. Draft loss through the boiler from the point of balanced draft to the stack
entrance
2. Average temperature of the gases passing up the stack and the temperature
of the surrounding air
3. Required gas flow from the stack
4. Barometric pressure
Important points to be considered to determine stack height and diameters:-
1. Temperature of surrounding air and gases entering the stack
2. Drop in temperature of the gases within the stack due to heat loss to
atmosphere and air infiltration.
3. Stack draft loss associated with the gas flow rate.
7
Stacks for Natural Draft units

Leak tight connections- Cold air leak increases flow friction,
reduces stack effect, erosion potential of the stack

Erosion due to particulate matter, acid corrosion

Effect of erosion and corrosion is more at the entrance and
where the gas has to take a sharp turn

Abrasion resistant material and corrosion shields at those
locations is a good maintenance practice
Stack operation and maintenance
Schematic representation of a balanced draft system
Balanced Draft System
Fans
A fan moves a quantity of air or gas by adding sufficient energy to the
stream to initiate motion and overcome all resistance to flow. The fan
consists of a bladed rotor, or impeller, which does the actual work, and
usually a housing to collect and direct the air or gas discharged by the
impeller. The power required depends upon the volume of the air or gas
moved in unit time, the pressure difference across the fan and the
efficiency of the fan and its drive. There are essentially two different
kinds of fans , 1) The centrifugal fan in which gas or air accelerates
radially outward in a rotor from heel to tip of blades, discharging into
surrounding scroll casing. And 2) The axial flow fan in which the gas or
air is accelerated parallel to the fan axis, similar to the ordinary desk
fan, but with a casing added to develop static pressure. The axial fans
can be a single stage or multiple stage fan. Both the types of fans are
used in practice though axial fans with variable blade pitch control are
preferred for their part load efficiency .

Forced Draft Fan, Induced Draft Fan, Primary air fan, Gas recirculation
fan, Seal Air fans, Scanner Air fan, Igniter air fan.
Types of fan
Centrifugal Fan ( forward Curved, backward curved, radial, aerofoil
shaped)
Axial Fan Axial reaction and axial impulse.
Fans provided in 500 MW Trombay unit 5 (Typical example)
FD Fans :2 axial reactive single stage Variable pitch with 6.6 KV, 990
RPM. 2700 KW motors
PA Fans :2 axial reactive double stage Variable pitch with 6.6 KV, 1480
RPM. 2750 KW motors
ID Fans: 4 radial with 6.6 KV, 740 RPM, 2050 KW motors
Fans
Fans
The fans are called Primary Air(PA), Secondary Air(SA), Induced
Draft(ID) fans , Gas Recirculation (GR) fans, Seal Air fans, Scanner Air
fans and Igniter fans depending on the application of their use. FGD
units are provided with booster fans to boost up the pressure.
Fan control : To meet varying requirements of the system, common
methods of fan output control are damper control, variable-speed
control and blade pitch control in case of axial flow fans. Variable speed
control is the most efficient method of controlling fan output since it
also reduces power consumption. From the relationships of speed to
capacity, pressure and power it follows that by reducing speed by one
half, fan output will drop one half, pressure one fourth, and horsepower
one eighth.

Different options of
Vane control
Fan Performance
Fan performance is best expressed in graphical form. These functional
relations are the fan characteristic curves. In these curves capacity in
cfm is shown horizontally as the independent variable and head (static
pressure), shaft horse power and static efficiency are dependent
variables plotted vertically. Fan speed is constant. Since fan operation
for a given capacity must match single values of head and horsepower
on the characteristic curves, a balance between fan static pressure and
system resistance is required. If the system resistance for a given
capacity is less than the head indicated on the fan characteristic curve,
additional variable flow resistance, such control damper, must be added
to the system. Varying the operating speed to yield a family of curves,
will change the numerical performance values of the characteristics.
However, the nature of the curves remains substantially unaltered.
Performance at different speeds for the same efficiency can be related
by the following :
1. Capacity is directly proportional to speed.
2. Head is directly proportional to speed squared.
3. Power output is directly proportional to speed cubed.

Fan Performance
System resistance along with the fan static pressure characteristics at
various speeds, both as function of volumetric flow rate are plotted. If
the fan operates at constant speed, any output less than that shown at
the intersection of the system resistance and specified rpm curves must
be obtained by throttling the excess fan head. This results in wastage in
power that can be avoided by using a variable speed drive.
Backwardly curved blade wheels are generally selected for forced draft
service because the high speed is suitable for standard motor drive. The
power demand is self limiting, and the static efficiency is high. These
fans may be satisfactorily operated in parallel.
Induced draft fans operate in gas of much higher temperature and may
handle gases laden with dust. Forwardly curved blade wheels run at the
lowest speed to develop a given pressure, hence are frequently chosen
for induced draft service so that the centrifugal stresses in the wheels
will be least. The forward curvature reduces the blade depth, but gives a
large inlet opening for the gas. conditions.
Fan Performance
Fan Safety Factors : To make sure that the fans will not limit a boilers
performance, margins of safety are added to the calculated or net fan
requirements to arrive at satisfactory test block specification. These
margins are intended to cover conditions encountered in operation that
can be specifically evaluated. For example, variation in fuel ash
characteristics or unusual operating conditions may foul heating
surfaces. The unit then requires additional draft. A need for rapid load
increase or a short emergency overload often calls for overcapacity of
the fans. The customary margins to allow for such conditions are 15 to
20 % increase in the net weight flow of air or gas, 15to 20% increase in
net head, and 25F increase in the air or gas temperature at the fan inlet.
an be specifically evaluated.

Fan Performance
General performance requirements for force draft fans.
Reliability : Modern boilers must operate continuously for long periods
(up to 18 months) without shut down for repairs or maintenance. The
fan must be well balanced, and the blades so shaped that they will not
collect dirt and disturb this balance.
Efficiency : High efficiency over a wide range of output is necessary
because boilers operate under varying load conditions.
Pressure : Fan pressure should vary uniformly with output over the
capacity range. This facilitates damper control and assures minimum
disturbance of air flow when minor adjustments to the fuel burning
equipment change the system resistance.
Fan Performance
Capacity : When two or more fans operate in parallel, the pressure out-
put curves should have characteristics similar to the straight blade or
backward curve blade fans in order to share the load equally near the
shut off point.
Horsepower : Motor driven fans require self limiting horse power
characteristics, so that driving motor cannot overload. This means that
the horsepower should reach a peak and drop off near the full load fan
output.
ID fans : Induced draft fans has the same basic requirements as forced
draft fan except that it handles high temperature gas which may contain
erosive ash. Flat, forward curved and occasionally backward curved
blades with less curvature are used. Excessive maintenance from
erosion is sometimes avoided by protecting casing and blades with
replaceable wear strips. Bearings, usually water cooled have radiation
shields on the shaft between rotor and bearings to avoid overheating.


Typical Fan Characteristic Curves
Control options for centrifugal
fans
Damper control
Lowest capital cost
Ease of operation-automatic
control
List expensive fan drive
Continuous, not step
operation
Wastage of power
Performance control characteristics
Areas of constant efficiencies run parallel to the boiler resistance line-
high efficiency over a wide boiler load range
Control range is very large both above and below the maximum
efficiency
The lines of constant blade angle are actually individual fan curves-as
the curves are very steep, change in resistance produces very little
volume change.
As the blade angle can be adjusted from minimum to maximum flow
change is nearly linear
Variable blade pitch, together with the high cost of energy and the
decreased amount of particulates in the gas streams, have increased in
the axial fans in the power plant applications.
Axial fans
Stall Condition :The significant of the axial fan characteristic is the
stall area to the left of the peak pressure point. This is caused by
the fan blade stalling in much the same way as an aeroplane wing
stalls. If the fan is operated in this region, because of the
accidental blockage in the flow, it continues to pump energy into
the gas/air without developing significant flow. The fan housing
can overheat rapidly under such conditions.
The angular relationship between the air flow impinging on the
blade of a fan and the blade itself is known as the angle of
attack. In axial flow fan, when this angel exceeds a certain limit,
the air flow over the blade separates from the surface and
centrifugal force then throws the air outwards, towards the rim of
blades. This action causes a build up of pressure at the blade tip,
and this pressure increases until it can be relived at the clearance
between the tip and the casing. Under this condition the operation
of the fan becomes unstable, vibration sets in and the flow starts
to oscillate. The risk of stall increases if a fan is oversized or if the
system resistance increase excessively.

Axial Fans
Stall is aerodynamic phenomenon which occurs when a fan
operates beyond its performance limits and flow separation occurs
around the blade.
A typical problem with the stall region would occur with two axial
fans operating in parallel. If one fan were operated first at low
furnace load, it would be impossible to bring up the second fan in
service through its stall region without reducing load on the first
fan.

Stalling of Axial Fans
Axial Fan Stalling
Stall prevention
When axial fans are sized properly and the resistance curve is
parabolic chances of stall is less
Possibility of stall increases when the fan is over sized compare to
volume capacity, System resistances increases significantly or fans
are operated improperly
Noise in a Fan
Single tone noise is generated when the concentrated flow
encounters a stationary object after leaving the rotating blade
passage.
The distance between the blades and the stationary objects affects
the sound
The blade passing frequency and its first harmonic is most dominant.
Broad band noise is produced by the fluid passing through the fan
housing, contains a range of frequencies
Noise in a Fan
Single tone noise is generated when the concentrated flow encounters a stationary object after
leaving the rotating blade passage.
The distance between the blades and the stationary objects affects the sound
The blade passing frequency and its first harmonic is most dominant.
Broad band noise is produced by the fluid passing through the fan housing, contains a range of
frequencies
Sound radiates from the inlet opening, the discharge duct and the fan housing. All three areas
should be analyzed separately and treated in appropriate manner. Inlet sound level from the
primary air fans and forced draft fans can
be reduced by absorption silencer
Fan casing noise can be minimized by mineral wool insulation and
acoustic lagging
Fan discharge noise needs more detail analysis to have
cost effective solutions
For forced draft fans and primary air fans, absorption discharge silencer is sufficient
For induced draft fans additionally thermal insulation
and lagging are needed.
Stack outlet noise can be reduced by discharge silencer.
However, it is not suitable for coal fired units
as the panels gets plugged by fly ash
Noise Control
PA fan
Primary Air fan : The fan consist of the following components:
a) Suction bend, with an inlet and an outlet side pipe for volume
measurements
b)Fan housing with guide vanes (stage 1)
c) Main bearings (anti-friction bearings)
d) Rotor consisting of shaft, two impellers with adjustable blades and
pitch control mechanism.
e) Guide vane housing with guide vanes (stage 2)
f) Diffuser with an outlet-side pipe for pressure measurements.
Suction bend, fan housing and diffuser are welded structural steel
fabrications, reinforced by flanges and gusets, resting on foundation on
supporting feet. On its impeller side, the suction bend is designed as an
inlet nozzle. Guide vanes of axial flow type are installed in the fan and
guide vane housings, in order to guide the flow.
Suction bend and diffuser are flexibly connected to the fan housing via
expansion joints.
PA Fan
Fan and guide vane housing are horizontally split, so that the rotor can
be removed without having to dismount the servomotor. The fan is
driven from the inlet side. The main bearings are accommodated in the
core of the fan housing. The impellers are fitted to the shaft in overhung
position. The centrifugal and axial forces of the impeller blades are
absorbed by the blade bearings. For this purpose the blade shaft is held
in a combination, of radial and axial antifriction bearings. Each blade
bearing is sealed off by means of seals.
Blade pitch control unit : An oil hydraulic servomotor flanged to the
impeller and rotating with it adjusts the blades during operation. The
servomotor consists of piston, cylinder and control parts.
At pitch control, the translational movement of the servomotor piston is
converted into rotational movement of the blade shafts via adjusting
levers, so that the blade angles are variable.
Fans
Oil System : The main bearings and hydraulic servomotor are supplied
with oil from a common oil tank. Two oil pumps are mounted on the
tank. One is operated as a main pump, whereas the other one is used as
standby pump. The latter is started via the pressure switch, in the event
of control oil pressure declines.
FD fans construction is similar to that of PA fan. But FD fan is a single
stage fan.
Induced draft fans : There are four ID fans provided per boiler, 3
operating and one standby. (some 500 MW boiler are provided with 3 ID
fans, two operating and one standby). These fans are single stage
double inlet centrifugal fans.
The principal elements of the fan are :
Housing, inlet dampers, rotor with bearings and shaft seal.
Regulation : The capacity of ID is changed by varying the speed(either by
VFD or hydraulic coupling) and also by adjustable inlet dampers
arranged in front of impeller.
Fans
Scanner Air Fan : The function of scanner air fan is to provide a
continuous supply of clean air to purge and cool the flame scanners. Air
for the system is drawn from the FD fan discharge ducts through a filter
by one the two scanner fans then discharged through distribution pipe
work to each flame scanner. One of the fans is provided with DC supply.
In case of AC failure DC scanner fan gets started. An emergency damper
is provided in the suction duct to facilitate suction from atmosphere.
The discharge from each fan includes a pneumatically operated isolating
damper which will open and close in response to signals from FSSS. A
pressure switch is provided to initiate the automatic start up of the
standby fan if scanner duct to furnace differential becomes less than 6
inches.
Seal Air Fans : These fans take suction from cold PA header and boost up
pressure for providing sealing air to coal mills/feeders.
Igniter Air Fans : These fans take suction from FD fan discharge duct and
provide air for igniters.
Air / draft system Operation (typical)
System operation(start up of unit) : During unit start up all air and flue
gas duct dampers should in start up position.
1. ID fan outlet shut off dampers open, inlet control dampers closed.
2. FD Fan outlet shutoff dampers and blade pitch open ( FD fan blade
pitch should be closed before the fan is started).
3. Primary air outlet shutoff dampers and blade closed.
4. Gas recirculation fan outlet shut off and control dampers closed.
5. Air heater gas inlet and outlet, air inlet and outlet dampers should
be open.
6. Over fire dampers closed.
7. Windbox (secondary) auxiliary air dampers open or modulating.
8. One set of pulveriser seal air filter and booster fan shut off dampers
open.
9. One igniter fan shut off damper open.
Air / draft system Operation (typical)
It is assumed that the unit will be started two ID, two FD fans, both
airpreheaters and both PA fans in service. In case only one set of
above equipment is available dampers associated with the idle
equipment should be closed.
Caution : The ID fans may be capable of developing drafts in excess of
furnace design pressure (Implosion). Therefore the operator must take
care to establish and maintain air flow path through the unit, prior to
starting ID fan and prior to opening the ID fan inlet control dampers by
insuring that the other dampers in the system are in the start up
positions. ID fan inlet control dampers must be kept closed until after
the fan is started. In case of variable speed operation the speed is kept
at minimum. This procedure will minimize the possibility of developing
excessive negative pressure in the unit during starting procedure.
Implosion : Condition of very high negative pressure arising during
operation of the unit due to various reasons, such as loss of fuel,
malfunction of draft and or fan controls, ash build up in boiler path etc.
It is the phenomenon contrary to explosion.


Fuel Firing System
Fuel firing system: Fuel Oil System The fuel oil system prepares fuel
oil for use in burners (16 per boiler, 4 per elevation) to establish initial
boiler light up of the main fuel(coal) and for sustaining boiler low load
requirements up to 15% MCR load. Fuel oil system comprises of fuel oil
pumps, oil heaters, filters, steam tracing lines. The system ensures
proper pressure and temperature of oil(viscosity for atomization) to be
burned in the burners.
Coal System : The coal system prepares the main fuel(pulverized coal)
for firing it in boiler furnace. The raw coal from coal bunker is fed to mill
via feeder, where it is pulverized for optimum combustion efficiency.
Primary air transports the pulverized coal to coal burners at each corner.
Windbox Assembly : The fuel firing equipment consists of four windbox
assemblies located in the furnace corners. Each windbox assembly is
divided in its height into number of sections or compartment, the coal
compartments (fuel air compartment) and intermediate air
compartments (auxiliary air compartment). Some of the auxiliary air
compartments between coal nozzles contain oil guns. Secondary air is
supplied
WINDBOX ARRANGEMENT ALONG WITH OF DAMPERS
Close Coupled Over Fire Air SystemOVER
FIRE AIR COMPARTMENTS

OVERFIRE AIR IS INTRODUCED INTO
THEFURNACE TANGENTIALLY THROUGH
TWO ADDITIONAL AIR COMPARTMENTS,
TERMED AS OVERFIRE AIR PORTS,
DESIGNED AS VERTICAL EXTENSIONS OF
THE CORNER WINDBOXES.

THE OVERFIRE AIR PORTS ARE SIZED
TOHANDLE 15 PERCENT OF TOTAL
WINDBOX AIR FLOW

AT DESIGN LEVELS OF OVERFIRE, A
20TO 30% REDUCTION IN NOX
FORMATIONIS ACHIEVED

Wind Box (Scanners and Igniters)
OF2
OF1
AA
A
AB
B
BC
C
CD
D
DE
E
EF
F
FG
G
GH
H
HH
Scanners Ignitors
Boiler and auxiliaries secondary air distribution
FD fans supply secondary air. Air from each fan passes over a SCAPH and
then through RAPH to a wind box surrounding boiler furnace. At the
sides of the furnace the ducts supply air to each burner/air nozzle
elevations in the burner box. Each elevation is fitted with a
pneumatically operated regulating damper which is controlled by
Secondary Air Damper Control System (SADC) to maintain optimum
secondary air distribution for combustion with varying fuels and firing
conditions. Five basic types of burner dampers are used :
a) Coal/air dampers which admit air immediately around the pulverized
fuel nozzle (primary stage of combustion). b) Secondary air dampers,
which admit air around the coal /air and P.F nozzles and hence are
involved in the later stages of combustion. These dampers are
controlled to maintain the desired differential pressure between the
secondary air to burners and the furnace. c)Oil/secondary air dampers,
when burning oil, the associated damper will modulate according to oil
header pressure. d) Bottom tier secondary air dampers is utilised to
maintain clear conditions in the lower furnace. e) Overfire damper
which direct air over the coal flame to minimize Nox production.

ID FAN A
B C
D
A
FD FAN
B
PA 5B
PA 5A
GR 5A
GR 5B
ESP
RAPH-5A
RAPH-5B
AIR FROM ATMOS
FD A
AIR FROM ATMOS
R
A
P
H
B
FD B
R
A
P
H
A
FROM GRF - B
FROM GRF - A
IGNITOR AIR FAN
FURNACE
SECONDARY AIR CIRCUIT
35 DEG C
35 deg
350 DEG

-10 mm
S
C
A
P
H
B
S
C
A
P
H
A
SD- 2
SD
7.1
7.2
SD9
.1
9.2
SD-1
SD-5
SD-6
SD
10.1
10.2
350 DEG
SD
8.1
8.2
Flue gas system
R
A
P
H
A
R
A
P
H
B
5 A
5 B
5 C
5 D
ESP
GD- GD-
3.1
3.2
GD-7
GD
11A
11B
GD-15 GD-23
GD-
GD-19
GD-
4.1
4.2
GD-10
GD
14A
14B
GD-18
GD-26
GD-22
12A
12B
13A
13B
GD 29.1 29.2
GD 30.1 30.2
GD 31.1 31.2
16
17
20
24
21
25
GD 5.1 5.2
8
9
ID A
ID B
ID C
ID D
Stack
GD
27.1
27.2
GD
28.1
28.2
PA 5B
PA 5A
RAPH-5A
RAPH-5B
Primary Air System
In unit 5 furnace draft is controlled by inlet guide vane.
In unit 6 furnace draft is controlled by speed of the ID fans through VFD,
IGV always remains 100 % open
Starting sequence .
FAN STARTING SEQUENCE
ID FAN
FD FAN
2
ND
ID FAN
2
ND
FD FAN
3
RD
ID FAN
4
TH
ID FAN
Permissive for Starting Fan
6.6 KV Breaker racked in.
Breaker in remote not on local.
Fan Lube oil / control oil pr. ok
ACW flow through LO cooler not low.
LO tank Level not low.
A Clear Path Logic satisfied.
Outlet Damper close
Inlet Damper Open
IGV / Blade pitch in minimum position.
Any bearing temp. not hi