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PATHOPHYSIOLOGY

-Life style
-Family causes
Causes:

Increased basal hepatic Insulin resistance/impared


glucose production secretion of pancreas

Gastrointestinal Decreased insulin-


absorption of stimulated glucose
glucose uptake

HYPERGLYCEMIA
HYPERGLYCEMIA

Changes in medium to
large blood vessels

Blood vessel walls


thicken (sclerose)

Plaques adheres
to the vessel wall

Blockage of blood flow


of coronary artery

CORONARY ARTERY
DISEASE
HYPERGLYCEMIA

Increase
concentration of
glucose in the
blood

Hyperosmolality of
the blood

Increase blood
viscousity

Increase pressure of the


blood against the blood
vessel wall

HYPERTENSIVE
CARDIOVASCULAR
DISEASE
disease
Hyperglycemia Hypertensive cardiovascular

Glumerulonephritis Hypoperfusion of the


kidney

Decrease renal function

Nephropathy

Inability to filter
blood

Inability to
concentrate urine

Excretion of protein Retention of


to the urine metabolic waste
(albuminuria) products
NEPHROPATHY

Pericarditis, pericardial Hyperkalemia due to


effusion, and pericardial decrease excretion of
tamponade due to potassium, metabolic
uremic acid acidosis, catabolism,
food intake

Essential Hypertension Anemia due to decrease


due to sodium and water production of
retention erythropoeitin

Bone disease due to


increase phosphate
and decrease calcium
in the blood
HYPERGLYCEMIA

Thickening of
Increase osmolality capillary basement
of the blood membrane

Decrease
microvascular
circulation

RETINOPATHY