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The Adventures of Tintin


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The Adventures of Tintin (French: Les Aventures de Tintin) is a series of comic albums created by Belgian artist Georges Remi (19071983), who wrote under the pen name of Herg. The series is one of the most popular European comics of the 20th century, with translations published in more than 50 languages and more than 200 million copies [1] of the books sold to date. The series first appeared in French in Le Petit Vingtime, a children's supplement to the Belgian newspaper Le XXe Sicle on 10 January 1929. The success of the series saw the serialised strips published in Belgium's leading newspaper Le Soir and spun into a successful Tintin magazine. Then in 1950, Herg created Studios Herg, which produced the canon series of twenty-four albums. The Adventures of Tintin have been adapted for radio, television, theatre, and film. The series is set during a largely realistic 20th century. Its hero is Tintin, a young Belgian reporter. He is aided in his adventures by his faithful fox terrier dog Snowy (Milou in the original French edition). Later, popular additions to the cast included the brash and cynical Captain Haddock, the highly intelligent but hearing-impaired Professor Calculus (Professeur Tournesol) and other supporting characters such as the incompetent detectives Thomson and Thompson (Dupont et Dupond). Herg himself features in several of the comics as a background character, as do his assistants in some instances. The comic strip series has long been admired for its clean, expressive drawings in Herg's signature ligne claire style. [2][3][4][5] Its engaging,[6] well-researched[6][7][8] plots straddle a variety of genres: swashbuckling adventures with elements of fantasy, mysteries, political thrillers, and science fiction. The stories within the Tintin series always feature slapstick humour, offset by dashes of sophisticated satire and political/cultural commentary.

The Adventures of Tintin

The main characters and others from The Castafiore Emerald, one of the later books in the series. In the centre of the group is Tintin, the eponymous hero of the series.

Created by

Herg

Publication information Publisher Casterman Le Lombard Egmont Publishing Title(s) Tintin in the Land of the Soviets Tintin in the Congo Tintin in America Cigars of the Pharaoh The Blue Lotus The Broken Ear The Black Island King Ottokar's Sceptre The Crab with the Golden Claws The Shooting Star The Secret of the Unicorn Red Rackham's Treasure The Seven Crystal Balls Prisoners of the Sun Land of Black Gold

Contents
1 List of titles 2 History 3 Synopsis 3.1 Characters 3.1.1 Tintin and Snowy 3.1.2 Captain Haddock 3.1.3 Professor Calculus 3.1.4 Supporting characters

Destination Moon Explorers on the Moon The Calculus Affair The Red Sea Sharks Tintin in Tibet The Castafiore Emerald Flight 714 Tintin and the Picaros Tintin and Alph-Art

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3.2 Settings 4 Research 5 Influences 6 Reception 6.1 Awards 6.2 Tintinology and literary criticism 6.3 Controversy 7 Adaptations and memorabilia 7.1 Cinema 7.2 Television and radio 7.3 Documentaries 7.4 Theatre 7.5 Exhibitions 7.6 Video game 7.7 Memorabilia and merchandise 7.8 Stamps and coinage 7.9 Parody and pastiche 8 Translation into English 8.1 British 8.2 American 9 Legacy 10 References 10.1 Footnotes 10.2 Bibliography 10.2.1 Books 10.2.2 Articles 10.2.3 Online sites 11 Further reading 12 External links

Formats

Original material for the series has been published as a strip in the comics anthology(s) Le Petit Vingtime, Le Soir and Tintin and a set of graphic novels.

Original language Genre

French Action/adventure

Publication date 1929 1976 Main character(s) Tintin Snowy Captain Haddock Professor Calculus Thomson and Thompson Creative team Writer(s) Artist(s) Herg Herg with Bob de Moor Edgar P. Jacobs Jacques Martin Roger Leloup Colourist(s) Edgar P. Jacobs Josette Baujot Fanny Rodwell Creator(s) Herg Reprints The series has been reprinted, at least in part, in Dutch, English, and German.

List of titles
These are the twenty-four comic albums of the canon series as named in English.

The publication dates are those of the original French versions. Book 1 was at first prevented republication by Herg and was never subsequently redrawn in a colour edition. Books 2 to 9 were re-published in colour and in a fixed 62-page format (19431947 & 1955). Book 10 was the first to be originally published in colour and, along with books 11 to 15, set a middle period for Herg marked by war and changing collaborators. Books 16 to 23 (and revised editions of books 4, 7 & 15) are creations of Studios Herg. Book 24 is an unfinished work, published posthumously. 1. Tintin in the Land of the Soviets (19291930, 1930) 2. Tintin in the Congo (19301931, 1931, 1946) 3. Tintin in America (19311932, 1932, 1945) 4. Cigars of the Pharaoh (19321934, 1934, 1955) 5. The Blue Lotus (19341935, 1936, 1946) 6. The Broken Ear (19351937, 1937, 1943) 7. The Black Island (19371938, 1938, 1943, 1966) 8. King Ottokar's Sceptre (19381939, 1939, 1947) 13. The Seven Crystal Balls (19431946, 1948) 14. Prisoners of the Sun (19461948, 1949) 15. Land of Black Gold (19481950, 1950, 1971) 16. Destination Moon (19501953, 1953) 17. Explorers on the Moon (19501953, 1954)

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9. The Crab with the Golden Claws (19401941, 1941, 1943) 10. The Shooting Star (19411942, 1942) 11. The Secret of the Unicorn (19421943, 1943) 12. Red Rackham's Treasure (1943, 1944)

18. The Calculus Affair (19541956, 1956) 19. The Red Sea Sharks (19561958, 1958) 20. Tintin in Tibet (19581959, 1960) 21. The Castafiore Emerald (19611962, 1963) 22. Flight 714 (19661967, 1968) 23. Tintin and the Picaros (19751976, 1976) 24. Tintin and Alph-Art (1986, 2004)

Apart from the series, a comic not written by Herg was released based on the film Tintin et le lac aux requins. Tintin and the Lake of Sharks (1972) Herg attempted and then abandoned one comic. Le Thermozro (1958)

History
Georges Remi came up with the character of Tintin, a young boy reporter, whilst working at the Belgian newspaper Le XXe Sicle (The 20th Century). Writing under his pen name, Herg pioneered the new character in the story Tintin in the Land of the Soviets. This comic, which involved Tintin battling the socialist authorities in the Soviet Union, was serialised in Le XXe Sicle's supplement for children, Le Petit [9] Vingtime (The Little Twentieth), from 10 January 1929 until 11 May 1930. The series was an instant success; sales of the Thursday edition of the newspaper, the day the supplement appeared, were to increase by 600%. Herg went on to pen a string of Adventures of Tintin, sending his character to real locations such as the Belgian Congo, the United States, Egypt, India, China, and the United Kingdom, and also to fictional countries of his own devising, such as the Latin American republic of San Theodoros and the East European kingdom of Syldavia. The eighth Tintin adventure, King Ottokar's Sceptre (1939), involved Tintin battling the forces of fictional fascist state Borduria, whose leader, named Msstler, was a combination of Nazi German leader Adolf [10] Hitler and Italian Fascist leader Benito Mussolini. In May 1940, Nazi Germany invaded Belgium as World War II broke out across Europe, and although Herg initially considered fleeing into a self-imposed exile, he ultimately decided to stay in his [11] To ensure their own dominance, the Nazi occupied homeland. authorities closed down Le XXe Sicle, leaving Herg [12] In search of employment, he was given a job as an unemployed. illustrator at Belgium's leading newspaper, Le Soir (The Evening), which was allowed to continue publication under German [13] On 17 October 1940 he was made editor of the management. paper's children's supplement, Le Soir Jeunesse, in which he set [14] In this new, more about producing new Tintin adventures. repressive political climate, Herg could no longer explore political themes in his Adventures of Tintin lest he be arrested by the Gestapo. As Tintinologist Harry Thompson noted, Tintin's role as a reporter came to an end, to be replaced by his new role as an [15] explorer, something which was not a politically sensitive topic.

Himself an anti-fascist, Herg focused his series The Adventures of Tintin on non-political themes to avoid trouble with the Gestapo (pictured here) during the period of Nazi occupation.

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With the end of the war, Herg left Le Soir and, in 1949, accepted an invitation to continue The Adventures of Tintin in the new Tintin magazine (Le journal de Tintin). Finally, Herg's Tintin series reached the height of its success in 1950 when he created Studios Herg. The studios produced eight new Tintin albums, coloured and reformatted several old Tintin albums, and ultimately completed twenty-three albums of the canon series. Studios Herg continued to release additional publications until Herg's death in 1983. In 1986, a twenty-fourth unfinished album was released, the Studios were disbanded, and its assets were transferred to the Herg Foundation. The Adventures of Tintin continue to entertain new generations of Tintin fans today.

Synopsis
Characters
Main article: List of The Adventures of Tintin characters Tintin and Snowy Main articles: Tintin (character) and Snowy (character) Tintin is a young Belgian reporter who becomes involved in dangerous cases in which he takes heroic action to save the day. Almost every adventure features Tintin hard at work in his investigative journalism, but seldom is he seen actually turning in a story. He is a young man of neutral attitudes with whom the audience can identify; in this respect, he represents the everyman. Readers and critics have described Tintin as a well-rounded yet open-ended, intelligent and imaginative character, noting that his rather neutral personalitysometimes labelled as blandpermits a balanced reflection of the evil, folly and foolhardiness which surrounds him. His Boy Scout ideals, which represent Herg's own, are never compromised by the character, and his status allows the reader to assume his position within the story, rather than merely following the adventures of a strong protagonist. [16] Tintin's iconic representation enhances this aspect, with Scott McCloud noting that it "allows readers to mask [17] themselves in a character and safely enter a sensually stimulating world." Snowy (Milou in the original version), a white fox terrier, is Tintin's four-legged companion. The bond between Snowy and Tintin is very deep as they have saved each other from perilous situations many times. Snowy frequently "speaks" to the reader through his thoughts (often displaying a dry sense of humour), which are supposedly not heard by the human characters in the story. Snowy has nearly let Tintin down on occasion, particularly when distracted by a bone. Like Captain Haddock, he is fond of Loch Lomond brand Scotch whisky, and his occasional bouts of drinking tend to get him into trouble, as does his arachnophobia. Captain Haddock Main article: Captain Haddock Captain Archibald Haddock, a seafaring captain of disputed ancestry (he may be of Belgian, French, or Scottish origin) is Tintin's best friend, who was introduced in The Crab with the Golden Claws. Haddock was initially depicted as a weak and alcoholic character, but later became more respectable. He evolves to become genuinely heroic and even a socialite after he finds a treasure captured by his ancestor, Sir Francis Haddock. The Captain's coarse humanity and sarcasm act as a counterpoint to Tintin's often implausible heroism; he is always quick with a dry comment whenever the boy reporter seems too idealistic. Captain Haddock lives in the luxurious mansion Marlinspike Hall. Haddock uses a range of colourful insults and curses to express his feelings, such as "billions of blue blistering barnacles" (sometimes just "blistering barnacles", "billions of blistering barnacles", or "blue

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blistering barnacles"), "ten thousand thundering typhoons" (sometimes just "thundering typhoons"), "troglodyte", "bashi-bazouk", "visigoths", "kleptomaniac", "ectoplasm", "sea gherkin", "anacoluthon", "pockmark", "nincompoop", "abominable snowman", "nitwits", "scoundrels", "steam rollers", "parasites", "vegetarians", "floundering oath", "carpet seller","blundering Bazookas", "Popinjay", "bragger", "pinheads", "miserable slugs", "ectomorph", "maniacs", "freshwater swabs", "miserable molecule of mildew", and "Fuzzy Wuzzy", but nothing that is actually considered a swear word. Haddock is a hard drinker, particularly fond of rum and of Scotch whisky; his bouts of drunkenness are often used for comic effect. Captain Haddock remained without a first name until the last completed story, Tintin and the Picaros. Professor Calculus Main article: Professor Calculus Professor Calculus, an absent-minded professor and half-deaf physicist, is a regular character alongside Tintin, Snowy, and Captain Haddock. He was introduced in Red Rackham's Treasure, and based partially on Auguste Piccard,[18] a Swiss physicist. His presence was initially not welcomed by the leading characters, but through his generous nature and his scientific ability he develops a lasting bond with them. Eventually, at the end of the album Land of Black Gold, he has become a resident of Marlinspike Hall. Calculus has a tendency to act in an aggressive manner when someone says he's "acting the goat." He is a fervent believer in dowsing, and carries a pendulum for that purpose. Calculus's deafness is a frequent source of humour, as he repeats back what he thinks he has heard, usually in the most unlikely words possible. He does not admit to being near-deaf and insists he is only a little hard of hearing in one ear. Supporting characters Herg's supporting characters have been cited as far more developed than the central character, each imbued with a strength of character and depth of personality which has been compared with that of the characters of Charles Dickens.[19] Herg used the supporting characters to create a realistic world in which to set his protagonists' adventures. To further the realism and continuity, characters would recur throughout the series. It has been speculated that the occupation of Belgium and the restrictions imposed upon Herg forced him to focus on characterisation to avoid depicting troublesome political situations. [20] The major supporting cast was developed during this period. Thomson and Thompson are two bumbling detectives who, although unrelated, look like twins [21] They provide much of the whose only discernible difference is the shape of their moustaches. comic relief throughout the series, being afflicted with chronic spoonerisms and comic pratfalls. They are thoroughly incompetent in their tasks, always bent on arresting the wrong character, but in spite of this they somehow get entrusted with delicate missions. The detectives usually wear bowler hats and carry walking sticks, except when abroad: during those missions they insist on wearing the "costume" of the locality they are visiting so as to blend into the local population, but instead manage to dress in folkloric attire that actually makes them stand apart. The detectives were in part based on Herg's father Alexis and uncle Lon, identical twins who often took walks together wearing matching bowler hats while carrying matching walking sticks. Bianca Castafiore is an opera singer whom Haddock absolutely despises. She seems to constantly be popping up wherever he goes, along with her maid Irma and pianist Igor Wagner. She is comically foolish, whimsical, absent-minded, and talkative, and seems unaware that her voice is shrill and appallingly loud. Her specialty is the Jewel Song (Ah! je ris de me voir si belle en ce miroir) from Gounod's opera, Faust, and sings this at the least provocation, much to Haddock's dismay. She tends to be melodramatic in an exaggerated fashion and is often maternal toward Haddock, of whose dislike she remains ignorant. She often confuses words, especially names, with other words that

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rhyme with them or of which they remind her; "Haddock" is frequently replaced by malapropisms such as "Paddock", "Harrock", "Padlock", "Hopscotch", "Drydock", "Stopcock", "Maggot", "Bartk", "Hammock", and "Hemlock", while Nestor, Haddock's butler, is confused with "Chestor" and "Hector." Her own name means "white and chaste flower," a meaning to which Professor Calculus refers when he offers a white rose to the singer in The Castafiore Emerald. She was based upon opera divas in general (according to Herg's perception), Herg's Aunt Ninie who was known for [22] her "shrill" singing of opera, and, in the post-war comics, on Maria Callas. Other recurring characters include Nestor the butler, Chang the loyal Chinese boy, Jolyon Wagg the infuriating (to Haddock) insurance salesman, General Alcazar the South American leader, Kalish Ezab the Arab emir, Abdullah the emir's mischievous son, Dr. J.W. Mller the evil Nazi German doctor, Oliveira de Figueira the friendly salesman who can sell even the most trivial of items, Cutts the Butcher who is repeatedly telephoned by accident by Haddock and whose phone number is repeatedly confused with Haddock's, Rastapopoulos, the criminal mastermind, and Allan, Rastapopoulos' henchman and formerly Haddock's first mate.

Settings
Main article: Settings in The Adventures of Tintin The settings within Tintin have also added depth to the strips. Herg mingles real and fictional lands into his stories, along with a base in Belgium from where the heroes set off (originally 26 Labrador Road, but later Marlinspike Hall). This is best demonstrated in King Ottokar's Sceptre, in which Herg creates two fictional countries (Syldavia and Borduria) and invites the reader to tour them in text through the [6] insertion of a travel brochure into the storyline. Other fictional lands include San Theodoros, San Paolo, and Nuevo Rico in South America, the kingdom or administrative region of Gaipajama in India, [23] which replaced the setting of Mandate Palestine used in the and Khemed on the Arabian Peninsula first edition of Land of Black Gold. Along with these fictitious locations, actual nations were employed such as Belgium, Switzerland, the United Kingdom, the United States, the Soviet Union, Congo, Peru, India, Egypt, Indonesia, Nepal, Tibet, and China. Other actual locales used were the Sahara Desert, the Atlantic Ocean and the Moon.

Research
Herg's extensive research began with The Blue Lotus, Herg stating: "it was from that time that I undertook research and really interested myself in the people and countries to which I sent Tintin, out of [7] a sense of responsibility to my readers". Herg's use of research and photographic reference allowed him to build a realised universe for Tintin, going so far as to create fictionalised countries, dressing them with specific political cultures. These were heavily informed by the cultures evident in Herg's lifetime. Pierre Skilling has asserted that Herg saw monarchy as "the legitimate form of government", noting that democratic "values seem [24] Syldavia in particular is described in underrepresented in [such] a classic Franco-Belgian strip". considerable detail, Herg creating a history, customs, and a language which is actually a Slavian-looking transcript of Marols, the Flemish dialect of Brussels. He set the country in the Balkans, and it is, by his [25] The country finds itself threatened by neighbouring Borduria own admission, modeled after Albania. with an attempted annexation appearing in King Ottokar's Sceptre. This situation parallels the Italian conquest of Albania and of Czechoslovakia and Austria by expansionist Nazi Germany prior to World [26] War II. Herg's use of research would include months of preparation for Tintin's voyage to the moon in the two-part storyline spread across Destination Moon and Explorers on the Moon. His research for the storyline was noted in New Scientist: "The considerable research undertaken by Herg enabled him to

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come very close to the type of space suit that would be used in future Moon exploration, although his portrayal of the type of rocket that was actually used was a long way off the mark". The moon rocket is [27] based on the German V-2 rockets.

Influences
In his youth Herg admired Benjamin Rabier and suggested that a number of images within Tintin in the Land of the Soviets reflected this influence, particularly the pictures of animals. Ren Vincent, the Art Deco designer, also had an impact on early Tintin adventures: "His influence can be detected at the [28] Herg beginning of the Soviets, where my drawings are designed along a decorative line, like an 'S'..". also felt no compunction in admitting that he had stolen the image of round noses from George [29] McManus, feeling they were "so much fun that I used them, without scruples!" During the extensive research Herg carried out for The Blue Lotus, he became influenced by Chinese and Japanese illustrative styles and woodcuts. This is especially noticeable in the seascapes, which are [30][31] reminiscent of works by Hokusai and Hiroshige. Herg also declared Mark Twain an influence, although this admiration may have led him astray when depicting Incas as having no knowledge of an upcoming solar eclipse in Prisoners of the Sun, an error [8] attributed by T.F. Mills to an attempt to portray "Incas in awe of a latter-day 'Connecticut Yankee'".

Reception
Awards
On 1 June 2006, the Dalai Lama bestowed the International Campaign for Tibet's Light of Truth Award [32] The award was in upon the character of Tintin, along with South African Archbishop Desmond Tutu. recognition of Herg's book Tintin in Tibet, which the Executive Director of ICT Europe Tsering Jampa [33] In noted was "for many ... their introduction to the awe-inspiring landscape and culture of Tibet". 2001 the Herg Foundation demanded the recall of the Chinese translation of the work, which had been released with the title Tintin in China's Tibet. The work was subsequently published with the correct [34] Accepting on behalf of the Herg Foundation, Herg's widow Fanny Rodwell translation of the title. declared: "We never thought that this story of friendship would have a resonance more than 40 years [32] later".

Tintinology and literary criticism


Main article: List of books about Tintin The study of The Adventures of Tintin is known as Tintinology, with its followers being varyingly known [3][35] One notable Tintinologist is as Tintinologists, Tintinophiles, Tintinolators, Tintinites or Herglogues. the Belgian Philippe Goddin, who published Herg et Tintin reporters: Du Petit vingtime au Journal Tintin (1986, later republished in English as Herg and Tintin Reporters: From "Le Petit Vingtieme" to "Tintin" Magazine in 1987) and Herg et les Bigotudos (1993) amongst other books on the series. In 1983, Benot Peeters published Le Monde d'Herg, subsequently published in English as Tintin and the World of Herg [36] Although Goddin and Peeters were native French-speakers, the English reporter Michael Farr in 1988. also published works on Tintinology such as Tintin, 60 Years of Adventure (1989), Tintin: The Complete [37] Tintin & Co. (2007)[38] and The Adventures of Herg (2007), as had English Companion (2001), [39] screenwriter Harry Thompson, the author of Tintin: Herg and his Creation (1991). The Adventures of Tintin have also been examined by literary critics, primarily in French-speaking Europe. In 1984, Jean-Marie Apostolids published his study of the Adventures of Tintin from a more

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"adult" perspective as Les Mtamorphoses de Tintin, although it would only appear in English as The [40] In reviewing Apostolids' book, Nathan Metamorphoses of Tintin, or Tintin for Adults in 2010. Perl-Rosenthal of The New Republic thought that it was "not for the faint of heart: it is densely-packed [41] Following Apostolids's work, French with close textual analysis and laden with psychological jargon." psychoanalyst Serge Tisseron examined the series in his books Tintin et les Secrets de Famille ("Tintin and [42] and Tintin et le Secret d'Herg ("Tintin and Herg's the Family Secrets"), which was published in 1990, [43] Secret"), published in 1993. The first English-language work of literary criticism devoted to the series was Tintin and the Secret of Literature, written by the novelist Tom McCarthy and published in 2006. In this book, McCarthy compares Herg's work with that of Aeschylus, Honor de Balzac, Joseph Conrad and Henry James and [44] McCarthy considered the argues that the series contains the key to understanding literature itself. [45] containing "a mastery of plot and symbol, theme and Adventures of Tintin to be "stupendously rich", [46] which, influenced by Tisseron's psychoanalytical readings of the work, he believed could be sub-text" [47] to implicit sexual deciphered to reveal a series of recurring themes, ranging from bartering [48] that Herg had featured throughout the series. Reviewing the book in The Telegraph, Toby intercourse Clements argued however that McCarthy's work, and literary criticism of Herg's comic strips in general, cut "perilously close" to simply feeding "the appetite of those willing to cross the line between enthusiast [2] and obsessive" in the Tintinological community.

Controversy
The earliest stories in The Adventures of Tintin have been criticised for both displaying animal cruelty as well as racial stereotypes, violent, colonialist, and even fascist leanings, including caricatured [51] portrayals of non-Europeans. While the Herg Foundation has presented such criticism as navet, and scholars of Herg such as Harry Thompson have claimed that "Herg did what he was told by the [51] Herg himself felt that his background made it impossible to avoid prejudice, stating Abb Wallez", [29] that "I was fed the prejudices of the bourgeois society that surrounded me." In Tintin in the Land of the Soviets, the Bolsheviks were presented without exception as villains. Herg drew on Moscow Unveiled, a work given to him by Wallez and authored by Joseph Douillet, the former Belgian consul in Russia, that is highly critical of the Soviet regime, although Herg contextualised this by [29] In the noting that in Belgium, at the time a devout Catholic nation, "Anything Bolshevik was atheist". story, Bolshevik leaders are motivated only by personal greed and by a desire to deceive the world. Tintin discovers, buried, "the hideout where Lenin, Trotsky, and Stalin have collected together wealth stolen [51] from the people". Herg later dismissed the failings of this first story as "a transgression of my youth". By 1999, some part of this presentation was being noted as far more reasonable, with British weekly newspaper The Economist declaring: "In retrospect, however, the land of hunger and tyranny painted by [52] Herg was uncannily accurate". Tintin in the Congo has been criticised as presenting the Africans as nave and primitive. In the original work, Tintin is shown at a blackboard addressing a class of African children. "Mes chers amis," he says, "je vais vous parler aujourd'hui de votre patrie: La Belgique" ("My dear friends, I am going to talk to you today about your fatherland: Belgium"). Herg redrew this in 1946 to show a lesson in mathematics. [53][54] Herg later admitted the flaws in the original story, excusing it by noting: "I portrayed these [29] The perceived problems with this Africans according to ... this purely paternalistic spirit of the time". [55] as being "all to do with rubbery lips and heaps of dead book were summarised by Sue Buswell in 1988 [51] "Dead animals" animals" although Thompson noted this quote may have been "taken out of context". refers to the fashion for big game hunting at the time of the work's original publication. Drawing on Andr Maurois' Les Silences du colonel Bramble, Herg presents Tintin as a big-game hunter, accidentally killing fifteen antelope as opposed to the one needed for the evening meal. However,
[49][50]

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concerns over the number of dead animals did lead the Scandinavian publishers of Tintin's adventures to request changes. A page which presented Tintin killing a rhinoceros by drilling a hole in the animal's back and inserting a stick of dynamite was deemed excessive, and Herg substituted a page in which the [56] In 2007 the UK's Commission rhino accidentally discharges Tintin's rifle while he slept under a tree. for Racial Equality called for the book to be pulled from the shelves after a complaint, stating that "it beggars belief that in this day and age that any shop would think it acceptable to sell and display 'Tintin [57][58] In August 2007, a complaint was filed in Brussels, Belgium, by a Congolese student, In The Congo'." claiming the book was an insult to the Congolese people. Public prosecutors are investigating, however, the Centre for Equal Opportunities and Opposition to Racism warned against excess political [59] correctness. Some of the early albums were altered by Herg in subsequent editions, usually at the demand of publishers. For example, at the instigation of his American publishers, many of the black characters in Tintin in America were re-coloured to make their race white [60] The Shooting Star album originally had an American villain with the or ambiguous. Mr. Jewish surname of "Blumenstein". This proved to be controversial, as the character Bohlwinkel exhibited exaggerated stereotypically Jewish characteristics. "Blumenstein" was changed to an American with a less ethnically specific name, Mr. Bohlwinkel, in later editions and subsequently to a South American of a fictional country So Rico. Herg later discovered [26] that 'Bohlwinkel' was also a Jewish name.

Adaptations and memorabilia


Main article: Tintin books, films, and media The Adventures of Tintin has been adapted in a variety of media besides the original comic strip and its collections. Herg encouraged adaptations and members of his studio working on the animated films. After Herg's death, the Herg Foundation became responsible for authorising adaptations and [61] exhibitions.

Cinema
The Crab with the Golden Claws (1947) The first successful attempt to adapt one of the comics into a feature film. Written and directed by Claude Misonne and Joo B Michiels, the film was a black-and-white stop-motion puppet production created by a small [62] Belgian studio. Tintin and the Golden Fleece (1961) A French live action film was released, adapted not from one of Herg's Adventures of Tintin but instead from an original script written by Andr Barret and Rmo [63] Directed by Jean-Jacques Vierne and starring Forlani. Jean-Pierre Talbot as Tintin and Georges Wilson as Haddock, the plot revolves around the protagonists travelling to Istanbul in Turkey to collect the Golden Fleece, a ship left to Haddock in the will of his friend, Themistocle Paparanic. Whilst in the city however, Tintin and Haddock discover that a group of villains also want possession of the ship, believing that it would lead them to a [63] hidden treasure.

The French film poster for the 1961 film, Tintin and the Golden Fleece

Tintin and the Blue Oranges (1964) The success of the first Tintin live action film led to a second being released. Again based upon an original script, once more by Andr Barret, it was directed by [63] The plot revolves Philippe Condroyer and starred Talbot as Tintin and Jean Bouise as Haddock.
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around a new invention, the blue orange, that can grow in the desert and solve world famines, which has been devised by Calculus' friend, the Spanish Professor Zalamea. An emir whose interests are threatened by the invention of the blue orange proceeds to kidnap both Zalamea and [63] Calculus, and Tintin and Haddock travel to Spain in order to rescue them. Tintin and the Temple of the Sun (1969) The next feature film to be based upon the Adventures of Tintin was the animated, adapted from the comic books The Seven Crystal Balls and Prisoners of the Sun. Produced by Belvision, who had recently finished their television series based upon the Tintin stories, it was directed by Eddie Lateste and featured a critically acclaimed musical score by [64] In 1970, Belvision then released an animated promotional short, Tintin et la Franois Rauber. [65] SGM. Tintin and the Lake of Sharks (1972) based on an original script by Greg and subsequently adapted [66] into comic book form. The Adventures of Tintin: The Secret of the Unicorn (2011) Steven Spielberg directed a motion capture 3D film based on three stories published in the 1940s, The Crab with the Golden Claws [67] Peter Jackson's (1941), The Secret of the Unicorn (1943), and Red Rackham's Treasure (1944). company Weta Digital provided the animation and special effects. Jackson will co-direct and Spielberg will produce the second movie of the trilogy. [68]

Television and radio


Two animated television series have been made, both adaptations of the comic strips rather than original stories. The first was Herg's Adventures of Tintin, produced by Belvision. The series aired from 1958 to 1962, with 104 five-minute episodes produced. It was adapted by Charles Shows and then translated into French by Greg (Michel Regnier), then editor-in-chief of Tintin magazine. This series has been criticised [69] The second series was The for differing too greatly from the original books and for its poor animation. Adventures of Tintin, featuring twenty-one of the stories. It ran for three seasons (from 1991 to 1992), was co-directed by Stphane Bernasconi and Peter Hudecki, and was produced by Ellipse (France), and Nelvana (Canada), on behalf of La Fondation Herg. Traditional animation techniques were used on the series, adhering closely to the books to such an extent that some frames from the original albums were transposed directly to screen. The series was successful and it has aired in over fifty countries and was [70] This series aired in the US on HBO. released on DVD. BBC produced two "The Adventures of Tintin" radio series in 1992 and 1993 starring Richard Pearce as Tintin and Andrew Sachs as Snowy. Captain Haddock was played by Leo McKern in Series One and Lionel Jeffries in Series Two, Professor Calculus was played by Stephen Moore and Thomson and Thompson were played by Charles Kay.

Documentaries
Two documentaries have been made about Tintin and his creator Herg. I, Tintin (1976), a French documentary Tintin and I (Tintin et Moi), by Danish director Anders Hgsbro stergaard in 2003, a co-production of companies from Denmark, Belgium, France, and Switzerland. This documentary was based on a taped interview with Herg by Numa Sadoul from 1971. Although the interview was published as a book, Herg was allowed to edit the work prior to publishing and much of the interview was [71] The documentary was broadcast in the United States as "Tintin and I" on the PBS excised. [69] network, 11 July 2006.

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Theatre
Herg himself helped to create two Tintin stage plays; Tintin in India: The Mystery of the Blue Diamond (1941) and The Disappearance of Mr. Boullock (19411942), both of which were written with Jacques Van [72] In the late 1970s and early 1980s, two Tintin plays appeared in Melkebeke and performed in Brussels. London, adapted by Geoffrey Case for the Unicorn Theatre Company these were Tintin's Great American Adventure, based on the comic Tintin in America, which was shown across 19761977, and Tintin and the Black Island, which was based on The Black Island and shown in 1980. This second play later went on [73][74][75][76][77] tour. A musical based on The Seven Crystal Balls and Prisoners of the Sun premired on 15 September 2001 at the Stadsschouwburg (city theatre) in Antwerp, Belgium. It was entitled Kuifje De Zonnetempel (De Musical) and was broadcast on Canal Plus, before moving on to Charleroi in 2002 as Tintin Le Temple du [77][78][79][80] The Young Vic theatre company ran a musical version of Tintin in Tibet at the Barbican Soleil. [81] The production was directed by Rufus Arts Centre in London from December 2005 to January 2006. [81] The Herg Foundation organised the return of Norris, and was adapted by Norris and David Greig. this show to the West End theatre in December 2006 and January 2007 in order to celebrate the Herg centenary (2007).

Exhibitions
Herg's work on Tintin has formed the basis of many exhibitions, with the Herg Foundation creating a mobile exhibition in 1991. "The World of Herg" is described by the Foundation as being "an excellent introduction to Herg's work". Materials from this exhibition have also formed the basis for larger shows, namely "Herg the Draughtsman", an exhibition to celebrate the 60th anniversary of Tintin's creation, and the more recent "In Tibet With Tintin". In 2001 the Muse de la Marine staged an exhibition of items related to the sea which had inspired Herg. In 2002 the Bunkamura Museum of Art in Japan staged an exhibition of original drawings, as well as of the submarine and rocket ship invented in the strips by Professor Calculus. Barcelona has also hosted an exhibition on Tintin and the sea, "llamp de [61] rellamp" at the Maritime Museum in 2003. 2004 saw exhibitions in Holland, "Tintin and the Incas" at the Royal Museum of Ethnology; the "Tintin in the City" exhibition in the Halles Saint Gry in Brussels; and an exhibition focusing on Tintin's exploits at [61] The latter exhibition was in commemoration of the sea at the National Maritime Museum in London. 75th anniversary of the publication of Tintin's first adventure, and was organised in partnership with the [82] 2004 also saw the Belgian Centre for Comic Strip Art add an area dedicated to Herg Foundation. [61] Herg. The 100th anniversary of Herg's birth is commemorated with a large exhibition at the Paris museum for contemporary arts, Centre Georges Pompidou, from 20 December 2006 until 19 February 2007, featuring [83] all 120 original pages of The Blue Lotus.

Video game
A home computer game, Tintin on the Moon, was released by Infogrames in the late 1980s.

Memorabilia and merchandise


Images from the series have long been licensed for use on merchandise; the success of the Tintin magazine helping to create a market for such items. Tintin's image has been used to sell a wide variety of [84] There are now estimated to be over 250 separate items products, from alarm clocks to underpants. [85] related to the character available, with some becoming collectors items in their own right.

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Since Herg's death, the Herg Foundation have maintained control of the licenses, through Moulinsart, the commercial wing of the foundation. Speaking in 2002, Peter Horemans, the then director general at Moulinsart, noted this control: "We have to be very protective of the property. We dont take lightly any potential partners and we have to be very selective ... for him to continue to be as popular as he is, great [86] However, the Foundation has been criticised by scholars as care needs to be taken of his use." "trivialising the work of Herg by concentrating on the more lucrative merchandising" in the wake of a move in the late 1990s to charge them for using relevant images to illustrate their papers on the [87] series. NBC Universal acquired the rights to all of The Adventures of Tintin merchandise in North America. Tintin memorabilia and merchandise has allowed a chain of stores based solely on the character to become viable. The first shop was launched in 1984 in Covent Garden, London. Tintin shops have also opened in both Bruges and Brussels in Belgium, and in Montpellier, France. The British bookstore chain, Ottakar's, founded in 1987, was named after the character of King Ottokar from the Tintin book King Ottokar's Sceptre, and their shops stocked a large amount of Tintin [88] merchandise until their takeover by Waterstone's in 2006.

Stamps and coinage


Main article: Tintin on postage stamps Tintin's image has been used on postage stamps on numerous occasions, the first issued by the Belgian Post in 1979 to celebrate the day of youth [89] This was the first in a series of stamps with the images of philately. The Tintin Shop in Covent Belgian comic heroes, and was the first stamp in the world to feature a Garden, London comic book hero. In 1999, the Royal Dutch Post released two stamps, based upon the Destination Moon adventure, with the stamps selling out within hours of release. The French post office, Poste Franaise, then issued a stamp of Tintin and Snowy in 2001. To mark the end of the Belgian Franc, and also to celebrate the seventieth anniversary of the publication of Tintin in the Congo, two more stamps were issued by the Belgian Post on 31 December 2001. The stamps were also issued in the Democratic Republic of the Congo at the same time. 2002 saw the French Post issue stamped envelopes featuring Tintin, whilst in 2004 the Belgian post-office celebrated its own seventy-fifth anniversary, as well as the fiftieth anniversary of the publication of Explorers on the Moon and the thirty-fifth anniversary of the moon landings with a series of stamps [90] In 2007, to celebrate Herg's centennial, Belgium, based upon the Explorers on the Moon adventure. [91] France and Switzerland all plan to issue special stamps in commemoration. Besides stamps, Tintin has also been commemorated by coin several times. In 1995, Monnaie de Paris issued a set of 12 silver medallions to commemorate the 10th anniversary of Herg's death, which were available in a limited edition of 5000. Another coin was released to commemorate the 50th anniversary of the Tintin book Explorers on the Moon, again in a limited run, this time of 10,000. Belgium minted a [92] The limited edition commemorative coin to celebrate the 75th birthday of Tintin in January 2004. coin, composed of silver and featuring Tintin and Snowy, was limited to a minting of 50,000. Although it has a face value of 10, it is, as with other commemorative euro coins of this type (i.e. not a commemorative issue of a standard euro coin), only legal tender in the country in which it was issued [92] in this case, Belgium.

Parody and pastiche


Main article: List of Tintin parodies and pastiches

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During Herg's lifetime, parodies were produced of the Adventures of Tintin, with one of the earliest appearing in Belgian newspaper La Patrie after the liberation of the country from Nazi German occupation in September 1944. Entitled Tintin au Pays de Nazis ("Tintin in the Land of the Nazis"), the short and crudely drawn strip lampoons Herg for working for a Nazi-run newspaper during the [93] occupation.

A frame from Breaking Free, a

revolutionary socialist comic that parodies Following Herg's death, hundreds more unofficial parodies and pastiches of the Adventures of Tintin were produced, the Adventures of Tintin [94] Tom McCarthy covering a wide variety of different genres. divided such works into three specific groupings: those which are pornographic, those which are [95] In a number of cases, the actual name "Tintin" is replaced by political, and those which are artistic. [94] Some of these parodies, such something similar, like Nitnit, Timtim or Quinquin, within these books. as 1976's Tintin en Suisse ("Tintin in Switzerland") and Jan Bucquoy's 1992 work La Vie Sexuelle de Tintin ("The Sexual Life of Tintin") are pornographic in content, featuring Tintin and the other characters [94][95][96] Another such example of a Tintin parody was Tintin in Thailand, in engaged in sexual acts. which Tintin, Haddock and Calculus travel to the East Asian country for a sex holiday. The book circulated from December 1999 onwards, but in 2001 Belgian police arrested those responsible and [97] confiscated 650 copies for copyright violation.

Other parodies have been produced for political reasons, for instance Tintin in Iraq lampoons the world politics of the early 21st century, with Herg's character General Alcazar representing President of the [94] Written by the pseudonymous Jack Daniels, Breaking Free (1989) is a United States George W. Bush. revolutionary socialist comic set in Britain during the 1980s, with Tintin and his uncle (modelled after Captain Haddock) being working class Englishmen who turn to socialism in order to oppose the capitalist policies of the Conservative Party government of Margaret Thatcher. When first published in Britain, it caused an outrage in the mainstream press, with one paper issuing the headline that "Commie nutters [94] turn Tintin into picket yob!" Other comic creators have chosen to create stories that are more like fan fiction than parody. The Swiss [94] Similarly, comic creator Exem has produced a series of adventures about Tintin's "evil twin" Zinzin. the Canadian comic book writer and illustrator Yves Rodier has produced a number of Tintin works, none of which have been authorised by the Herg Foundation, including a 1986 "completion" of the [94] unfinished Tintin and Alph-art, which he drew in imitation of Herg's ligne-clair style. The response to these parodies has been mixed in the Tintinological community. Many Tintinologists [94] with this being the view taken by Nick despise them, seeing them as an affront to Herg's work, Rodwell of the Studio Herg, who declared that "None of these copyists count as true fans of Herg. If [94] Where they were, they would respect his wishes that no one but him draw Tintin's adventures." possible, Studio Herg have taken legal action against those known to be producing such items. Other Tintinologists have however taken a different attitude, considering such parodies and pastiches to be [94] tributes to Herg, and collecting them has become a "niche speciality".

Translation into English


British
Tintin first appeared in English in the weekly children's comic Eagle in 1951 in Vol 2:17 (3 August) and it ran in weekly parts in the lower half of the centrefold, beneath the cutaway drawings, until Vol 3:4 (2 May 1952). It was translated by a Frenchman in conjunction with Casterman, Tintin's publishers, and [98] starts by describing Tintin as "a French boy". Snowy was called by his French name "Milou".
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The process of translating Tintin into English was then commissioned in 1958 by Methuen & Co. Ltd. of [99] who worked London. It was a joint-operation, headed by Leslie Lonsdale-Cooper and Michael Turner, [100] Due in closely with Herg to attain an accurate translation as true as possible to the original work. part to the large amount of language-specific word play (such as punning) in the series, especially the jokes which played on Professor Calculus' partial deafness, it was always the intention not to translate literally, instead striving to sculpt a work whose idioms and jokes would be meritorious in their own right; however, in spite of the free hand Herg afforded the two, they worked closely with the original [100] text, asking for regular assistance to understand Herg's intentions. The British translations were also Anglicised to appeal to British customs and values. Milou, for example, was renamed Snowy at the translators' discretion. The opportunity was taken to make scenes set in Britain more true-to-life, such as ensuring that the British police were unarmed, and ensuring scenes of [100] the British countryside were more accurate for discerning British readers.

American
The works were also adapted for the American market by Golden Books, a branch of the Western Publishing Company in the 1950s. The albums were translated from French into American English with some blocks blanked except for the speech balloons. This was done to remove content considered to be [101] The albums were not very inappropriate for children, such as drunkenness and free mixing of races. [102] The edited albums later had their blanked popular and only six were published in mixed order. blocks redrawn by Herg to be more acceptable, and they currently appear this way in published editions around the world. Atlantic Monthly Press, in cooperation with Little, Brown and Company beginning in the 1970s, published the albums again. This time, the text features the originally translated British English text with alterations to non-universally understood words such as gaol, tyre, saloon and spanner. Currently, they are being published under the Joy Street imprint of Little, Brown and Company. Unlike in the United Kingdom, the books have always had very limited popularity in the United [103] However, from 1966 to 1979 Children's Digest included monthly installments of The States. Adventures of Tintin. These serializations served to greatly increase Tintins popularity in the United [104] States. At that time Children's Digest had a circulation of around 700,000 copies monthly.

Legacy
Tintin and his creator Herg have inspired many artists within comics. Most notably, Herg's ligne claire style has proven influential. Contributors to the Tintin magazine have employed ligne claire, and more recently, Jacques Tardi, Yves Chaland, Jason Little, Phil Elliott, Martin Handford, Geof Darrow, Eric Heuvel, and Garen Ewing have produced works utilising it. Tintin's legacy includes the establishment of a market for comic strip collections; the serialisation followed by collection model has been adopted by creators and publishers in France and Belgium. This system allows for greater financial stability, as creators receive money whilst working. This rivals the American and British model of work for hire. Roger Sabin has argued that this model allowed for "in [105] Paul Gravett has also noted that the use of detailed reference theory ... a better quality product". material and a picture archive, which Herg implemented from The Blue Lotus onwards, was "a turning [7] point ... in the maturing of the medium as a whole". In the wider art world, both Andy Warhol and Roy Lichtenstein have claimed Herg as one of their most important influences. Lichtenstein made paintings based on fragments from Tintin's comics, whilst Warhol utilised the ligne claire and even made a series of paintings with Herg as subject. He declared: "Herg has influenced my work in the same way as Walt Disney. For me, Herg was more than a comic [106] strip artist".

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In music, Tintin has been the inspiration to a number of bands and musicians. A British 1980s pop band [107] Stephen Duffy, lead singer of Duran took the name Thompson Twins after the Tintin characters. Duran before they struck fame, had a UK number 4 hit with "Kiss Me" under the name Stephen "Tintin" [108] An Duffy; he had to drop the nickname, however, under pressure of a copyright infringement suit. Australian psychedelic rock band and an American independent progressive rock band have used the name "Tin Tin", and British electronic dance music duo Tin Tin Out was similarly inspired by the character. South African singer/songwriter Gert Vlok Nel compares Tintin to God in his Afrikaans song "Waarom ek roep na jou vanaand", presumably because Tintin is a morally pure character. Scottish singer and actor Jimmy Somerville, as early as 1982, sported a new "look" with very short cut hair, and a kuifje ("small tuft" in Dutch) up-front, in a deliberate move to resemble Tintin character. Following this "breakthrough" in 80's fashions, lots of young gay men around the world adopted this new image for themselves, even to the point of advertising it as a I'm gay and I'm proud public statement to the embarrassment of Herg's entourage, who wasn't really into homosexual movement's supporting mind... Australian cartoonist Bill Leak often portrays Australia's round-faced former prime minister and subsequent foreign minister, Kevin Rudd, as Tintin. Herg has been lauded as "creating in art a powerful graphic record of the 20th century's tortured [109] whilst Maurice Horn's Encyclopaedia of World Comics declares history" through his work on Tintin. [110] French him to have "spear-headed the post-World War II renaissance of European comic art". philosopher Michel Serres noted that the 23 Tintin albums constituted a "chef-d'oeuvre" to which "the [111] work of no French novelist is comparable in importance or greatness". On 30 May 2010, a life-sized bronze statue of Tintin and Snowy, and more than 200 other Tintin items, including many original panels by Herg, sold for 1.08 million euros ($1.3 million USD) at a Paris [112] auction. Charles de Gaulle once said, in 1966 : "Mon seul rival international est Tintin". But then, he added : "Nous sommes les petits qui n'avons pas peur des grands" ("My only international rival is Tintin. We are the [113] This claim was spoken when De Gaulle decided to ban small ones, who aren't afraid of the big ones"). all NATO aircraft bases from France. The allusion to "the big ones", thus, refers to USA and USSR, just as Tintin wasn't afraid of Al Capone in America, nor of Colonel Sponsz in Eastern Europe The Amazing Race 19 used the detectives of The Adventures of Tintin as a challenge to find out that the contestants were going to Panama City.

References
Footnotes
1. ^ Kennedy, Maev (19 November 2003). "Museum aims to draw crowds with cartoon boy wonder aged 75" (http://books.guardian.co.uk/news/articles /0,6109,1088427,00.html) . The Guardian (UK). http://books.guardian.co.uk/news/articles /0,6109,1088427,00.html. Retrieved 12 September 2006. 2. ^ a b Clements 2006. 3. ^ a b Wagner 2006. 4. ^ Lichfield 2006. 5. ^ "Blistering barnacles! Tintin is a Pop Art idol" The Times (London); 29 December 2006; Ben Macintyre; p. 17 6. ^ a b c Thompson, Kim (February 2003). "Herg His Life and Work". The Comics Journal 1 (250): 176179. 7. ^ a b c Gravett, Paul (2005). Graphic Novels: Stories to Change Your Life. Aurum. ISBN 1-84513-068-5. 8. ^ a b Mills, T.F. (November 1983). "America Discovers Tintin". The Comics Journal 1 (86): 6068. 9. ^ Lofficier and Lofficier 2002. pp. 2223. 10. ^ Thompson 1991. p. 82. 11. ^ Thompson 1991. pp. 9192. 12. ^ Thompson 1991. pp. 9091.

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13. 14. 15. 16. ^ Thompson 1991. pp. 9293. ^ Thompson 1991. pp. 9899. ^ Thompson 1991. p. 112. ^ Faces of the week (http://news.bbc.co.uk /1/hi/magazine/4534602.stm) BBC News, Friday 16 December 2005 ^ McCloud, Scott (1993). Understanding Comics: The Invisible Art. Kitchen Sink Press. ISBN 0-87816-243-7. ^ Mauron, Pascal. "A small history of Swiss submarines" (http://www.brazosport.cc.tx.us /~nstevens/patches/swiss_sub/Piccards.pdf) (PDF). http://www.brazosport.cc.tx.us/~nstevens/patches /swiss_sub/Piccards.pdf. Retrieved 9 September 2006. ^ McCarthy, Tom (1 July 2006). "Review: From zero to hero" (http://arts.guardian.co.uk/features/story /0,,1809827,00.html) . The Guardian (London): p. 4. http://arts.guardian.co.uk/features/story /0,,1809827,00.html. ^ Yusuf, Bulent (14 November 2005). "Alphabetti Fumetti: H is for Herg" (http://www.ninthart.com /display.php?article=1123) . http://www.ninthart.com/display.php?article=1123. Retrieved 9 September 2006. ^ "How to tell a Thompson from a Thomson" (http://tintin.eugraph.com/tqsect/feature/tvst) . http://tintin.eugraph.com/tqsect/feature/tvst. Retrieved 9 September 2006. ^ Farr, Michael (March 2004). "Thundering Typhoons". History Today 54 (3): 62. ^ McLaughlin, Jeff, Comics as Philosophy, University Press of Mississippi, 2005, p.187 ^ Skilling, Pierre (2005). "The Good Government According to Tintin." In Jeff (EDT) McLaughlin (Ed.) Comics As Philosophy pp. 173234. University Press of Mississippi ISBN 1-57806-794-4 ^ Letter from Herg to Charles Lesne, 12 June 1939, cit. Assouline, Pierre (1996) Herg, Folio (p218) ^ a b Garen Ewing (1995). "In Defence of Herg" (http://www.tintinologist.org/articles/defence.html) . Vicious magazine/tintinologist.org. http://www.tintinologist.org/articles/defence.html. Retrieved 15 September 2006. ^ "Welcome to the Moon, Mr Armstrong". Pain, Stephanie New Scientist. Vol. 182, no. 2441, pp. 4849. 3 April. 2004 ^ "Herg et la ligne claire" (http://www.chez.com /tintim/ligneclaire/ligne_1.htm) (in French). http://www.chez.com/tintim/ligneclaire /ligne_1.htm. Retrieved 15 September 2006. ^ a b c d Sadoul, Numa; trans. Michel Didier from French, copyed. Kim Thompson (February 2003). "Interview Herg: Extracts from Entretiens avec Herg". The Comics Journal 1 (250): 180205. ^ G. Coatantiec (28 November 2005). "Herg, un grand dessinateur paysagiste"

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(http://www.objectiftintin.com /whatsnew_Tintin_2868.lasso) (in French). Objectif Tintin. http://www.objectiftintin.com /whatsnew_Tintin_2868.lasso. Retrieved 15 September 2006. ^ "The Tintin Trivia Quiz The Great Wave" (http://tintin.eugraph.com/tqsect/feature /wave.html) . http://tintin.eugraph.com/tqsect /feature/wave.html. Retrieved 15 September 2006. ^ a b BBC News 2006. ^ International Campaign for Tibet 2006. ^ BBC News 2002. ^ Freer 2010. ^ Peeters 1988. ^ Farr 2001. ^ Farr 2007. ^ Thompson 1991. ^ Apostolids 2010. ^ Perl-Rosenthal 2010. ^ Tisseron 1990. ^ Tisseron 1993. ^ McCarthy 2006. p. 10. ^ McCarthy 2006. p. 08. ^ McCarthy 2006. p. 32. ^ McCarthy 2006. pp. 1314. ^ McCarthy 2006. pp. 106109. ^ "Belgian to Ban 'Racist' Tintin in the Congo" / BBC News, wednesday, 28th April 2010 - 10:36 http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/europe/8648031.stm ^ "Ban racist book, says [UK] CRE" / The Telegraf, 12 July 2007 - 12:01 AM http://www.telegraph.co.uk /news/uknews/1557233/Ban-racist-Tintin-book-saysCRE.html ^ a b c d Thompson, Harry (1991). Tintin: Herg & His Creation (First ed.). Hodder & Stoughton. ISBN 0-340-52393-X. ^ The Economist 1999. ^ Cendrowicz 2010. ^ Farr 2001. p. 25. ^ Mail on Sunday Associated Newspapers 27 November 1988 ^ Michael Farr Tintin: The Complete Companion, John Murray (2001) ISBN 0-7195-5522-1 ^ "'Bid to ban "racist" Tintin book' on the BBC News website" (http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/entertainment /6294670.stm) . 12 July 2007. http://news.bbc.co.uk /1/hi/entertainment/6294670.stm. Retrieved 12 July 2007. ^ "CRE statement on the children's book 'Tintin In The Congo' on the CRE website" (http://web.archive.org/web/20071212081108/http: //www.cre.gov.uk/Default.aspx.LocID0hgnew0vq.RefLocID-0hg00900c002.Lang-EN.htm) . Archived from the original (http://www.cre.gov.uk /Default.aspx.LocID-0hgnew0vq.RefLocID0hg00900c002.Lang-EN.htm) on 12 December 2007. http://web.archive.org/web/20071212081108/http:

31.

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32. 33. 34. 35. 36. 37. 38. 39. 40. 41. 42. 43. 44. 45. 46. 47. 48. 49.

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//www.cre.gov.uk/Default.aspx.LocID0hgnew0vq.RefLocID-0hg00900c002.Lang-EN.htm. Retrieved 12 July 2007. ^ "Investigation into racism in "Tin Tin"" (http://www.expatica.com/actual /article.asp?subchannel_id=24&story_id=42631) . Expatica. 7 August 2007. http://www.expatica.com /actual/article.asp?subchannel_id=24& story_id=42631. Retrieved 7 August 2007. ^ T.F.Mills (1 February 1996). "The Adventures of Tintin: A History of the Anglo-American Editions" (http://web.archive.org/web/20060710195223/http: //www.regiments.org/special/essays/tbibeng.htm) . Archived from the original (http://www.regiments.org/special/essays /tbibeng.htm) on 10 July 2006. http://web.archive.org/web/20060710195223/http: //www.regiments.org/special/essays/tbibeng.htm. Retrieved 14 September 2006. ^ a b c d "Tintin.com" (http://tintin.francetv.fr/uk/) . http://tintin.francetv.fr/uk/. Retrieved 9 September 2006. ^ Lofficier and Lofficier 2002. p. 87. ^ a b c d Lofficier and Lofficier 2002. p. 88. ^ Lofficier and Lofficier 2002. p. 89. ^ Souvenirs du Zare (http://web.archive.org /web/20080704180145/http://www.lardc.com/zaire /divers/cs_tintin.php) ^ A. Da (3 January 2003). "Tintin en pleine forme" (http://www.leparisien.fr/loisirs-et-spectacles/tintinen-pleine-forme-03-01-2003-2003701841.php) (in French). Le Parisien. http://www.leparisien.fr /loisirs-et-spectacles/tintin-en-pleine-forme03-01-2003-2003701841.php. Retrieved 25 November 2009. ^ "I found a soul mate in Herg", Interview of Steven Spielberg by Claudine Mulard, Le Monde Special Issue December 2009 ^ "I am having a blast, Tintin is not work, it is just fun", Interview of Peter Jackson by Claudine Mulard, Le Monde, op.cit. ^ a b "Tintin and I at PBS" (http://www.pbs.org /pov/pov2006/tintinandi/index.html) . http://www.pbs.org/pov/pov2006/tintinandi /index.html. Retrieved 9 September 2006. ^ "Tintin" (http://www.belgium.be/eportal /application?languageParameter=en& pageid=contentPage&docId=25548) . .be federal portal. http://www.belgium.be/eportal /application?languageParameter=en& pageid=contentPage&docId=25548. Retrieved 14 September 2006. ^ Christensen, Af (November 2003). "Boy scout with strange dreams "Tintin et moi"" (http://web.archive.org/web/20060513183503/http: //www.dfi.dk/tidsskriftetfilm/32/boyscout.htm) . Archived from the original (http://www.dfi.dk

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Adventures_of_Tintin
/tidsskriftetfilm/32/boyscout.htm) on 13 May 2006. http://web.archive.org/web/20060513183503/http: //www.dfi.dk/tidsskriftetfilm/32/boyscout.htm. Retrieved 9 September 2006. ^ Sadoul, Numa (1975) (in French). Tintin et moi: entretiens avec Herg. Casterman. p. 143. ^ Geoffrey Case (Adapt), Tintin's Great American Adventure. Arts Theatre, London. 18 December 1976 to 20 February 1977. ^ Tony Wredden (dir), Geoffrey Case (adapt), Tintin and the Black Island. Arts Theatre, London. 18 December 1976 to 20 February 1977. ^ Hodgson, Leda (17 April 2008). "Leda Theatre Maketa" (http://www.theatremaketa.co.uk /leda.htm) . http://www.theatremaketa.co.uk /leda.htm. Retrieved 3 October 2008. Archived (http://www.webcitation.org/5bIGxk0KH) 3 October 2008. ^ The Royal Literary Fund Geoffrey Case (http://www.rlf.org.uk/fellowshipscheme /profile.cfm?fellow=203&menu=2) . Accessed 3 October 2008. Archived (http://www.webcitation.org/5bIGxTQ8L) 3 October 2008. ^ a b Herge & Tintin A Guide | A Guide to all things Herge (http://www.freewebs.com /jewm/playsandmusicals.htm) . Accessed 3 October 2008. Archived (http://www.webcitation.org /5bIHugf3M) 3 October 2008. ^ Agence France-Presse (14 December 2007). "Tintin fait une entre remarque sur le Broadway londonien" (http://www.ledevoir.com/2007/12 /14/168421.html?sendurl=t) . Le Devoir. Canada. http://www.ledevoir.com/2007/12 /14/168421.html?sendurl=t. Retrieved 3 October 2008. Archived (http://www.webcitation.org /5bIGXDHD7) 3 October 2008. ^ "Kuifje maakt opmerkelijke entree op West End" (http://www.hln.be/hln/nl/948/Kunst-Literatuur /article/print/detail/102935/Kuifje-maaktopmerkelijke-entree-op-West-End.dhtml) . De Persgroep Publishing. 13 December 2007. http://www.hln.be/hln/nl/948/Kunst-Literatuur /article/print/detail/102935/Kuifje-maaktopmerkelijke-entree-op-West-End.dhtml. Retrieved 3 October 2008. Archived (http://www.webcitation.org/5bIGNBOAj) 3 October 2008. ^ Charleroi cast. Tintin: Le Temple Du Soleil. Tabas&Co 5005, 2002. ^ a b "Rufus Norris to direct World Premiere of Tintin the Young Vic Christmas production at the Barbican Theatre" (http://web.archive.org /web/20061109085215/http://www.youngvic.org /press-releases) . Archived from the original (http://www.youngvic.org/press-releases) on 9 November 2006. http://web.archive.org

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/web/20061109085215/http://www.youngvic.org /press-releases. Retrieved 9 September 2006. ^ "The Adventures of Tintin at Sea a major new exhibition at the National Maritime Museum" (http://www.nmm.ac.uk/server /show/conWebDoc.11356) . http://www.nmm.ac.uk /server/show/conWebDoc.11356. Retrieved 9 100. September 2006. ^ Yahoo News on Pompidou exhibition (http://news.yahoo.com/s/afp/20061220/ts_afp /afpentertainmentfrancebelgiumexhibitioncartoontintin) ^ Conrad, Peter (7 March 2004). "He'll never act his age" (http://books.guardian.co.uk/departments 101. /childrenandteens/story/0,,1163706,00.html) . The Observer (London). http://books.guardian.co.uk /departments/childrenandteens/story /0,,1163706,00.html. ^ "Tintin and the till bells; Shopping" The Times (London); 12 November 1994; Denise Elphick; ^ "Tintin praises volunteer efforts" (http://www.dittonline.org/Archives 102. /DITT%20Newsletter%20No9.pdf) (PDF) (Press release). Dyslexia International Tools and Technologies. http://www.ditt-online.org/Archives /DITT%20Newsletter%20No9.pdf. Retrieved 2 September 2006. 103. ^ "This life: That's Tintin on the far right A battle is raging for Tintin's soul. Is he a French hero or a fascist propaganda tool?" The Observer (London); 3 January 1999; Martin Bright; p. 004 ^ "Tintin Among The Geriatrics Kitty Holland 104. celebrates the 70th birthday of Belgium's favourite son, and France's beloved adoptee, Tintin" Irish Times (Dublin); 9 January 1999; p. 62 105. ^ Kennealy 1991. ^ "Tintin celebrates 75th birthday in Belgium" Irish 106. Times (Dublin); 10 January 2004; TIM KING; p. 9. ^ AP (24 May 2006). "Tintin creator's centenary" (http://www.theage.com.au/news/world/tintincreators-anniversary/2006/05 /24/1148150265203.html) . The Age (Australia). 107. http://www.theage.com.au/news/world/tintincreators-anniversary/2006/05 108. /24/1148150265203.html. ^ a b "Euro coin honours Tintin and Snowy" (http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/europe /3379959.stm) . BBC. 8 January 2004. http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/europe 109. /3379959.stm. ^ McCarthy 2006. pp. 186187. ^ a b c d e f g h i j Coxhead 2007. ^ a b McCarthy 2006. p. 186. 110. ^ Perotte and Van Gong 2006. ^ BBC News 2001. ^ Howard Corn. Eagle Times magazine. Vol:2 No.4 Christmas Issue 1989. ^ "Telegraph obituary" (http://www.telegraph.co.uk

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/news/obituaries/culture-obituaries/booksobituaries/6029763/Michael-Turner.html) . The Daily Telegraph. UK. 14 August 2009. http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/obituaries /culture-obituaries/books-obituaries/6029763 /Michael-Turner.html. Retrieved 7 October 2010. ^ a b c Chris Owens (10 July 2004). "Interview with Michael Turner and Leslie Lonsdale-Cooper" (http://www.tintinologist.org/articles/mt-llcinterview.html) . tintinologist.org. http://www.tintinologist.org/articles/mt-llcinterview.html. Retrieved 15 September 2006. ^ "Tintin" (http://web.archive.org /web/20061207084737/http://homepages.cwi.nl /~dik/english/TINTIN.html) . CWI. Archived from the original (http://homepages.cwi.nl/~dik/english /TINTIN.html) on 7 December 2006. http://web.archive.org/web/20061207084737/http: //homepages.cwi.nl/~dik/english/TINTIN.html. Retrieved 5 January 2007. ^ "Tintin crosses the Atlantic: The Golden Press affair" (http://www.tintinologist.org/articles /goldenpress.html) . tintinologist.org. http://www.tintinologist.org/articles /goldenpress.html. Retrieved 5 January 2007. ^ "UK | Magazine | Confused by the cult of Tintin? You're not alone" (http://news.bbc.co.uk /1/hi/magazine/7820247.stm) . BBC News. 9 January 2009. http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/magazine /7820247.stm. Retrieved 5 December 2009. ^ Tintin Crosses The Atlantic: The Golden Press Affair (http://www.tintinologist.org/articles /goldenpress.html) ^ Sabin, Roger (1996). Comics, Comix & Graphic Novels (2005 ed.). Phaidon. ISBN 0-7148-3993-0. ^ "Tintin's 70 years of adventure" (http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/entertainment /252066.stm) . BBC News. 10 January 1999. http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/entertainment /252066.stm. Retrieved 9 September 2006. ^ Wilson, Dave (2004). Rock Formations. Cidermill Books. ISBN 0-9748483-5-2. ^ "Duffy, Stephen". Encyclopedia of Popular Music Duffy, 01-February-2007. Partial extract (http://www.mywire.com/a/Muze/Duffy-Stephen /637772?extID=10051) accessed on 10 March 2008. Archived (http://www.webcitation.org/5bILAkSNl) on 10 March 2008. ^ "Tintin and I. Film Synopsis" (http://www.pbs.org /pov/pov2006/tintinandi/about.html) . http://www.pbs.org/pov/pov2006/tintinandi /about.html. Retrieved 9 September 2006. ^ "Essay on Tintin" (http://www.hoboes.com /pub/Comics/Annotations%20and%20Information /Tintin/Tintin%20Essay%201%20of%202) . 2 May 1995. http://www.hoboes.com/pub/Comics /Annotations%20and%20Information/Tintin

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/Tintin%20Essay%201%20of%202. Retrieved 9 September 2006. 111. ^ A quiff history of time; Scrutiny The Sunday Times (London); 10 October 1993; Gilbert Adair; 112. ^ "Tintin auction in Paris fetches .3M" (http://www.cbc.ca/arts/books/story/2010/05 /30/tintin-sale.html) . CBC News. 30 May 2010. http://www.cbc.ca/arts/books/story/2010/05 /30/tintin-sale.html.

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113. ^ Reuters (5 March 1983). "OBITUARY; Georges Remi, creator of comic figure Tintin" (http://query.nytimes.com /gst/fullpage.html?res=9C07E0DE1739F936A35750C 0A965948260) . The New York Times. http://query.nytimes.com /gst/fullpage.html?res=9C07E0DE1739F936A35750C 0A965948260. Retrieved 12 September 2006.

Bibliography
Books
APOSTOLIDS, JEAN-MARIE (2010). The Metamorphoses of Tintin, or Tintin for Adults. Stanford: Stanford University Press. ISBN 978-0-8047-6031-7. ASSOULINE, PIERRE (2009). Herg, the Man Who Created Tintin. Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-539759-8. FARR, MICHAEL (2001). Tintin: The Complete Companion. London: John Murray. ISBN 978-0-7195-5522-0. FARR, MICHAEL (2007). Tintin & Co. London: Egmont. ISBN 978-1-4052-3264-7. GODDIN, PHILIPPE (2008). The Art of Herg, Inventor of Tintin: Volume 1, 19071937. San Francisco: Last Gasp. ISBN 978-0-86719-706-8. GODDIN, PHILIPPE (2009). The Art of Herg, Inventor of Tintin: Volume 2, 19371949. San Francisco: Last Gasp. ISBN 978-0-86719-724-2. LOFFICIER, JEAN-MARC AND LOFFICIER, RANDY (2002). The Pocket Essential Tintin. Harpenden, Hertfordshire: Pocket Essentials. ISBN 978-1-904048-17-6. MCCARTHY, TOM (2006). Tintin and the Secret of Literature. London: Granta. ISBN 978-1-86207-831-4. PEETERS, BENOT (1989). Tintin and the World of Herg. London: Methuen Children's Books. ISBN 978-0-416-14882-4. TAYLOR, RAPHAL (2011). Herg: The Genius of Tintin. London: Icon Books. ISBN 978-1-84831-275-3. THOMPSON, HARRY (1991). Tintin: Herg and his Creation. London: Hodder and Stoughton. ISBN 978-0-340-52393-3. TISSERON, SERGE (1990). Tintin et les Secrets de Famille. Sguier. TISSERON, SERGE (1993). Tintin et les Secrets d'Herg. Presses de la Cit.

Articles
Cendrowicz, Leo (4 May 2010). "Tintin: Heroic Boy Reporter or Sinister Racist?" (http://www.time.com/time/arts /article/0,8599,1986416,00.html) . TIME. http://www.time.com/time/arts/article/0,8599,1986416,00.html. Retrieved 11 March 2011. Clements, Tom (9 July 2006). "Tintin and the enigma of academic obsession" (http://www.telegraph.co.uk /culture/books/3653691/Tintin-and-the-enigma-of-academic-obsession.html) . The Telegraph (London). http://www.telegraph.co.uk/culture/books/3653691/Tintin-and-the-enigma-of-academic-obsession.html. Retrieved 11 March 2011. Coxhead, Gabriel (7 May 2007). "Tintin's new adventures" (http://www.guardian.co.uk/books/2007/may /07/booksforchildrenandteenagers.features11) . The Guardian (London). http://www.guardian.co.uk/books /2007/may/07/booksforchildrenandteenagers.features11. Retrieved 11 March 2011. Freer, Ian (December 2010). "The Boy with the World at his Feet". Empire: pp. 7080. International Campaign for Tibet (17 May 2006). "Tutu and Tintin to be honored by Dalai Lama" (http://web.archive.org/web/20060901200317/http://www.savetibet.org/news/newsitem.php?id=974) . Archived from the original (http://web.archive.org/web/20060901200317/http://www.savetibet.org /news/newsitem.php?id=974) on 1 September 2006. http://web.archive.org/web/20060901200317/http: //www.savetibet.org/news/newsitem.php?id=974. Retrieved 11 March 2011. Kenneally, Christopher (29 September 1991). "Comics Characters Beloved by Brussels" (http://query.nytimes.com/gst/fullpage.html?sec=travel&res=9D0CE7DD143AF93AA1575AC0A967958260) . The New York Times (New York City). http://query.nytimes.com/gst/fullpage.html?sec=travel&

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res=9D0CE7DD143AF93AA1575AC0A967958260. Retrieved 11 March 2011. Lichfield, John (27 December 2006). "Tintin's big art adventure" (http://www.independent.co.uk/news/world /europe/tintins-big-art-adventure-429869.html) . The Independent (London). http://www.independent.co.uk /news/world/europe/tintins-big-art-adventure-429869.html. Retrieved 11 March 2011. Perl-Rosenthal, Nathan (2 February 2010). "In and Out of History" (http://www.tnr.com/book/review/and-outhistory) . The New Republic. http://www.tnr.com/book/review/and-out-history. Retrieved 11 March 2011. Wagner, Erica (9 December 2006). "Tintin at the top" (http://entertainment.timesonline.co.uk /tol/arts_and_entertainment/article1088628.ece) . The Times (London). http://entertainment.timesonline.co.uk /tol/arts_and_entertainment/article1088628.ece. Retrieved 11 March 2011. "Lewd Tintin shocks Belgium" (http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/entertainment/1170301.stm) . BBC News. 14 February 2001. http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/entertainment/1170301.stm. Retrieved 11 March 2011. "Tintin 'frees' Tibet" (http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/entertainment/arts/2002554.stm) . BBC News. 22 May 2002. http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/entertainment/arts/2002554.stm. Retrieved 11 March 2011. "Dalai Lama honours Tintin and Tutu" (http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/europe/5040198.stm) . BBC News. 2 June 2006. http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/europe/5040198.stm. Retrieved 11 March 2011. "Great blistering barnacles" (http://www.economist.com/node/184533) . The Economist (London). 28 January 1999. http://www.economist.com/node/184533. Retrieved 11 March 2011.

Online sites
Perrotte, Patrick and Van Gong, Luc (2006). "Tintin en Suisse" (http://www.naufrageur.com/a-suisse.html#) . Tintin est Vivant!. http://www.naufrageur.com/a-suisse.html#. Retrieved 11 March 2010.

Further reading
Jessel, Stephen (29 November 1998). "Crazy for Tintin" (http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/europe /223861.stm) . BBC News. http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/europe/223861.stm. "Tintin on trial" (http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/europe/271249.stm) . BBC News. 4 February 1999. http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/europe/271249.stm. "Tintin conquers China" (http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/entertainment/arts/1346606.stm) . BBC News. 23 May 2001. http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/entertainment/arts/1346606.stm. Dowling, Stephen (9 January 2004). "Boy reporter still a global hero" (http://news.bbc.co.uk /1/hi/entertainment/arts/3382633.stm) . BBC News. http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/entertainment /arts/3382633.stm. Pandey, Geeta (28 September 2005). "Tintin ventures into India's rural markets" (http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/south_asia/4284356.stm) . BBC News. http://news.bbc.co.uk /1/hi/world/south_asia/4284356.stm. "Bid to ban 'racist' Tintin book" (http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/entertainment/6294670.stm) . BBC News. 12 July 2007. http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/entertainment/6294670.stm. "Book chain moves 'racist' Tintin" (http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/entertainment/6902195.stm) . BBC News. 17 July 2007. http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/entertainment/6902195.stm. Joly, Dom (29 October 2007). "Mad about the boy: Dom Joly's obsession with Tintin" (http://arts.independent.co.uk/books/features/article3104954.ece) . The Independent (London). http://arts.independent.co.uk/books/features/article3104954.ece. "Le Retour de Tintin", Le Monde Hors Srie, Exclusive Interviews with Steven Spielberg and Peter Jackson, December 2009 January 2010, 98 pages.

External links
Official website (http://www.tintin.com/en) Tintinologist.org (http://www.tintinologist.org/) long-established English-language fan site. Tintin around the World (http://www.tintinaroundtheworld.info/) a site about all Tintin translations

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http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Adventures_of_Tintin

Retrieved from "http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=The_Adventures_of_Tintin&oldid=505885854" Categories: Tintin 1929 comic debuts Action-adventure comics Metatitle pop Works by Herg This page was last modified on 5 August 2012 at 11:26. Text is available under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. See Terms of use for details. Wikipedia is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., a non-profit organization.

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