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Redox reaction chemical reactions in which both oxidation and reduction occur simultaneously.

1) Oxidation

gain of oxygen, O2 by a substance loss of hydrogen, H2 from a substance a loss of electrons occurs when there is an increase in oxidation number

2) Reduction

loss of oxygen, O2 by a substance gain of hydrogen, H2 from a substance a gain of electrons occurs when there is an decrease in oxidation number

1.

Oxidation and Reduction in Terms of Gain and Loss of Oxygen

2CuO (s) + C (s) > 2Cu (s) + CO2 (g)

Reduction: CuO loses its oxygen to form copper. CuO (oxidising agent) is being reduced. Oxidation: Carbon gains oxygen to form CO2. Carbon (reducing agent) is said to be oxidised.

PbO (s) + CO (g) > Pb (s) + CO2 (g)

Reduction: PbO loses its oxygen to form lead. PbO (oxidising agent) is being reduced. Oxidation: Carbon monoxide (CO) gains oxygen to form CO2. Carbon monoxide (reducing agent) is said to be oxidised.

H2 (g) + CuO (s) > H2O (l) + Cu (s)

Reduction: CuO loses its oxygen to form copper. CuO (oxidising agent) is being reduced. Oxidation: Hydrogen (H2) gains oxygen to form H2O. Hydrogen (reducing agent) is said to be oxidised.

2.

Oxidation and Reduction in Terms of Gain and Loss of Hydrogen

H2S (g) + Cl2 (g) > S (s) + 2HCl (g)

Reduction: Cl2 gains hydrogen to form hydrogen chloride. Cl2 (oxidising agent) is being reduced. Oxidation: Hydrogen sulphide loses hydrogen to form sulphur. Hydrogen sulphide (reducing agent) is said to be oxidised.

2NH3 (g) + 3Br2 (g) > N2 (g) + 6HBr (g)

Reduction: Bromine gains hydrogen to form hydrogen bromide. Br2 (oxidising agent) is being reduced. Oxidation: Ammonia loses hydrogen to form nitrogen. Ammonia (reducing agent) is said to be oxidized.

Oxidation number is the charge that the atom of the element would have if complete transfer of electron takes place.
IUPAC nomenclature name inorganic compounds in order to avoid confusion due to elements have variable oxidation numbers. (i) Free elements have an oxidation number of zero. Na = 0 Mg = 0 C=0 H2 = 0 Br2 = 0 (ii) Oxidation number of a simple monoatomic ions is the same as its charge. Na+ ion = +1 Mg2+ ion = +2 O2- ion = -2 Cl- ion = -1 H+ ion = +1 (iii) Sum of the oxidation number for a neutral compound is zero. CaH2 (+2) + 2(-1) =0 Sum of oxidation number is 0 Al2O3 2(+3) + 3(-2) =0 Sum of oxidation number is 0 Iodine, Bromine, Chlorine, Nitrogen, Oxygen, Fluorine > Electronegativity increase Cl2O 2(+1) + (-2) =0 Sum of oxidation number is 0. (Chlorine, bromine and iodine usually have the oxidation number of -1 except when combine with a more electronegative element.) HClO (+1) + (+1) + (-2) =0 Sum of oxidation number is 0. (Chlorine, bromine and iodine usually have the oxidation number of -1 except when combine with a more electronegative element.) (iv) Polyatomic ion, the sum of the oxidation numbers of all the atoms equals the charge on the ion. SO4 2(+6) + 4 (-2) = +6 + (-8) = -2 Sum of oxidation number is -2

Cr2O722(+6) + 7(-2) = -2 Sum of oxidation number is -2 (v) Calculating the oxidation numbers of elements in compounds or ions. K2Cr2O7 2 (+1) + 2x + 7 (-2) = 0 x = +6 Oxidation number of chromium in K2Cr2O7 is +6 NO3x + 3(-2) = -1 x = +5 Oxidation number of nitrogen in NO3- is +5 Hydrogen peroxide, H2O2 2(+1) + 2x = 0 x = -1 Oxidation number of oxygen in H2O2 is -1 (and not -2) (Usually oxidation number for combined oxygen usually is -2 except in peroxides) F2O 2(-1) + x = 0 x = +2 Oxidation number of oxygen in F2O is +2 (and not -2) (Usually oxidation number for combined oxygen usually is -2 except in fluorine compounds) NaH (+1) + x = 0 x = -1 Oxidation number of hydrogen in NaH is -1 (and not +1) (Usually oxidation number for combined hydrogen usually is +1 except in metal hydrides) AlH3 (+3) + 3x = 0 x = -1 Oxidation number of hydrogen in AlH3 is -1 (and not +1) (Usually oxidation number for combined hydrogen usually is +1 except in metal hydrides) MgH2 (+2) + 2x = 0 x = -1 Oxidation number of hydrogen in MgH2 is -1 (and not +1) (Usually oxidation number for combined hydrogen usually is +1 except in metal hydrides) (vi) Some metals show different oxidation numbers. Compound MnSO4 MnO2 K2MnO4 KMnO4 Compound K2CrO4 K2Cr2O7 Oxidation number of manganese +2 +4 +6 +7 Oxidation number of chromium +6 +6

(vii) Usually non-metals have negative oxidation numbers but Cl, Br & I can have positive or negative oxidation number. Compound HCl Oxidation number of chlorine -1

ClO2 HClO4

+4 +7

Stay tune for the next installment in the Oxidation and Reduction series with focus on the difference between redox reaction and non-redox reactions.

3.

Oxidation and Reduction in Terms of Changes in Oxidation Numbers

Redox reactions oxidation number of all elements change. Rusting of iron, combustion, displacement of metal from its salt solution, displacement of halogen from its halide solution and electrolysis are redox reaction. -10 . -3 -2 -1 0 +1 +2 +3 +10 <- Reduction || Oxidation ->

H2 (g) + CuO (s) > H2O (l) + Cu (s) Hydrogen: 0 > +1 (Oxidised to water & Hydrogen is a reducing agent) Copper oxide: +2 > 0 (Reduced to copper & Copper oxide is a oxidising agent) 2Zn (s) + O2 (g) > 2ZnO (s) Zinc: 0 > +2 (Oxidised to zinc ion & Zinc is a reducing agent) Oxygen: 0 > -2 (Reduced to oxide ion & Oxygen is an oxidising agent) 2Mg (s) + CO2 (g) > 2MgO (s) + C (s) Magnesium: 0 > +2 (Oxidised to magnesium ion & Magnesium is a reducing agent) Carbon dioxide: +4 > 0 (Reduced to carbon & Carbon dioxide is an oxidising agent) Br2 (l) + 2HI (aq) > 2HBr (aq) + I2 (s) Hydroiodic acid / Hydrogen iodide: -1 > 0 (Oxidised to iodine & Hydroiodic acid is a reducing agent) Bromine: 0 > -1 (Reduced to hydrobromic acid & Bromine is a oxidising agent)

Non-redox reactions oxidation number of all elements remain unchanged. Precipitation, decomposition and neutralisation are not redox reaction (non-redox reaction) Precipitation:

AgNO3 (aq) + NaCl (aq) > AgCl (s) + NaNO3 (aq) +1 +5 3(-2) +1 -1 +1 -1 +1 +5 3(-2)

No change in the oxidation numbers. Decomposition:

ZnCO3 (s) > ZnO (s) + CO2 (g) +2 +4 3(-2) +2 -2 +4 2(-2)

No change in the oxidation numbers.

Neutralisation:

NaOH (aq) + HCl (aq) > NaCl (aq) + H2O (l) +1 -2 +1 +1 -1 +1 -1 2(+1) -2

No change in the oxidation numbers. Revision time: Questions to ask yourself at this point: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Do you understand what is a redox reaction? Can you write the two half reactions out of a redox reaction? Do you understand the concept of oxidation number? Give three examples of an oxidising agent and the example of the reaction involved. Give three examples of a reducing agent and the example of the reaction involved. Can you differentiate a redox reaction with a non-redox reaction? What is the characteristics of a non-redox reaction?

4.

Oxidation and Reduction in Terms of Electron Transfer

2I- (aq) > I2 (aq) + 2e Oxidation: Iodide ion, I- is a reducing agent because it donates/loses electrons to become I2. Br2 + 2e > 2Br- (aq) Reduction: Bromine water, Br2 is an oxidising agent because it receives/accepts electrons from I- to form bromide ions, Br-. > Overall reaction: 2I- (aq) + Br2 > I2 (aq) + 2Br- (aq)

Conversion of Fe2+ Ions to Fe3+ Ions and Vice Versa

A) Common oxidising agent (change Fe2+ ions to Fe3+ ions):

bromine, Br2 chlorine, Cl2 hydrogen peroxide, H2O2 concentrated nitric acid, HNO3 acidified potassium manganate(VII), KMnO4 solution acidified potassium dichromate(VI), K2Cr2O7 solution

Fe2+ (aq) > Fe3+ (aq) + e Oxidation: Iron(II) ion, Fe2+ is a reducing agent because it donates/loses one electron to become Fe3+. Br2 (aq) + 2e > 2Br- (aq) Reduction: Bromine water, Br2 is an oxidising agent because it receives/accepts electrons from Fe2+ to form bromide ions, Br-. > Observation: iron(II) sulphate solution changes colour from pale green to yellowish-brown. > Overall reaction: 2Fe2+ (aq) + Br2 (aq) > 2Fe3+ (aq) +2Br- (aq) B) Common reducing agent (change Fe3+ ions to Fe2+ions):

zinc powder, Zn aluminium, Al Magnesium, Mg Calcium, Ca

Sulphur dioxide, SO2 Hydrogen sulphide, H2S Sodium sulphide solution, Na2SO3 Tin(II) chloride solution, SnCl2 Potassium iodide, KI

Zn (s) > Zn2+ (aq) + 2e Oxidation: Zinc powder, Zn is a reducing agent because it donates/loses two electrons to form zinc ions, Zn2+. Fe3+ (aq) + e > Fe2+ (aq) Reduction: Iron(III) ion, Fe3+ is an oxidising agent because it receives/accepts one electron to become Fe2+. > Observation: iron(III) sulphate solution changes colour from yellowish-brown to pale green. > Overall reaction: 2Fe3+ (aq) + Zn (aq) > 2Fe2+ (aq) + Zn2+ (aq) C) Investigate the presence of iron(II) and iron(III) ions Reagent NaOH solution / NH3 solution NaOH solution / NH3 solution Potassium hexacyanoferrate(II) solution Potassium hexacyanoferrate(II) solution Potassium hexacyanoferrate(III) solution Potassium hexacyanoferrate(III) solution Potasium / Ammonium thiocyanate solution Potasium / Ammonium thiocyanate solution Ions Fe2+ Fe3+ Fe2+ Fe3+ Fe2+ Fe3+ Fe2+ Fe3+ Observations Green precipitate,insoluble in excess alkali Brown precipitate,insoluble in excess alkali Light blue precipitate Dark blue precipitate Dark blue precipitate Greenish-brown solution Pale red colouration Blood-red colouration

Displacement of Metals from Their Salt Solution

More electropositive metal is more reactive metal and it will displace a less reactive metal from the solution. Reactivity Series Metal Potassium Sodium Calcium Magnesium Aluminium Zinc Iron Tin Lead Hydrogen Copper Silver Equation K (s) > K+ (aq) + e Na (s) > Na+ (aq) + e Ca (s) > Ca2+ (aq) + 2e Mg (s) > Mg2+ (aq) + 2e Al (s) > Al3+ (aq) + 3e Zn (s) > Zn2+ (aq) + 2e Fe (s) > Fe2+ (aq) + 2e Sn (s) > Sn2+ (aq) + 2e Pb (s) > Pb2+ (aq) + 2e H (s) > H+ (aq) + e Cu (s) > Cu2+ (aq) + 2e Ag (s) > Ag+ (aq) + e

Going up the table: 1. 2. 3. Tendency of metals to form positive ions increases. Electropositivity increases. Strength as reducing agent increases.

(The focus should be on the strength of the reducing agent) Going down the table: 1. 2. 3. Tendency of metals to receive electrons increases. Electropositivity decreases. Strength as oxidising agent increases.

(The focus should be on the strength of the oxidising agent) a) Magnesium ribbon + Lead(II) nitrate solution

Mg (s) > Mg2+ (aq) + 2e Oxidation: Magnesium ribbon, Mg is a reducing agent because it is more electropositive than lead. Pb2+ (aq) + 2e > Pb (s) Reduction: Lead(II) ion, Pb2+ is an oxidising agent because it receives/accepts two electrons to become lead. Observation: i) Deposition of dark brown solid (lead) on the magnesium ribbon. ii) The magnesium ribbon dissolves. Overall reaction: Pb2+ (aq) + Mg (s) > Pb (s) + Mg2+ (aq)

b) Zinc strip + Copper(II) sulphate solution

Zn (s) > Zn2+ (aq) + 2e Oxidation: Zinc strip, Zn is a reducing agent because it is more electropositive than copper. Cu2+ (aq) + 2e > Cu (s) Reduction: Copper(II) ion, Cu2+ is an oxidising agent because it receives/accepts two electrons to become copper. Observation: i) Deposition of brown solid (copper) on the zinc strip. ii) The blue colour of CuSO4 becomes paler / The blue solution turns to colourless. iii) The zinc strip dissolves. Overall reaction: Cu2+ (aq) + Zn (s) > Cu (s) + Zn2+ (aq)

c) Copper strip + Magnesium sulphate solution

No changes. Magnesium is more electropositive than copper. Observation:No changes. There is no redox reaction occurs.

Mnemonic method for memorising the reactivity series Students typically will form sentences (sometimes naughty ones) to memorise the series in a mnemonic way. Berry Berry Easy would like to share with you some famous ones such as:

Paddy Still Could Marry A Zulu In The Lovely Honolulu Causing Many Strange Gazes. Potassium Sodium Calcium Magnesium Aluminium Zinc Iron Tin Lead Hydrogen Copper Mercury Silver Gold (In the above statement, there is addition of Mercury and Gold. No harm memorising those too)


Halogen Iodine Bromine Chlorine

Displacement of Halogen (Group 17) from Its Halide Solution

Halogen elements in Group 17 of the Periodic Table Example: chlorine, bromine and iodine. Halogen Identification Colour in (conc.) aq. solution Reddish-brown Brown Pale yellow Colour in (dilute) aq. solution Yellow Yellow Colourless Colour in 1,1,1trichloroethane Purple Brown Colourless

Strength of oxidising agent in halogen Cl2, Br2. I2 < Oxidising power increases Chlorine Bromine No changes Iodine No changes No changes

Halide / Halogen Potassium chloride Potassium bromide

Chlorine displace bromine from KBr solution Potassium iodide Chlorine displace iodine Bromine displace from KI solution iodine from KI solution .

Set I

Redox Reactions by the Transfer of Electrons at a Distance

Reducing agent

Oxidising agent

Iron(II) sulphate, Acidified potassium FeSO4 solution dichromate(VI), K2Cr2O7 solution Observation The electrode in the iron(II) sulphate, FeSO4 solution acts as the negative terminal, whereas the electrode in the acidified potassium dichromate(VI), K2Cr2O7 solution acts as the positive terminal. Iron(II) sulphate solution changes from pale green to yellow/brown. It gives blood-red colouration with potassium thiocyanate solution (KSCN) Acidified potassium dichromate(VI), K2Cr2O7 solution changes colour from orange to green.

Test on the solution in the reducing agent arm of U-tube Add a few drops of potassium thiocyanate, KSCN solution Inference Electrons flow from iron(II) sulphate, FeSO4 solution to acidified potassium dichromate(VI), K2Cr2O7 solution Iron(III) ions are present. Iron(II) ions are oxidised to iron(III) ions.

Dichromate(VI) ions are reduced to chromium(III) ions.


Set II

Oxidation half-equation: Fe2+(aq) > Fe3+(aq) + e Reduction half-equation: Cr2O72-(aq) + 14H+(aq) + 6e > 2Cr3+(aq) + 7H2O(l) Overall reaction: Cr2O72-(aq) + 6Fe2+(aq) 14H+(aq) > 2Cr3+(aq) + 6Fe3+(aq) + 7H2O(l)

Reducing agent

Test on the solution in the reducing agent arm of U-tube Iron(II) sulphate, Acidified manganate(VII), Add sodium hydroxide, NaOH FeSO4 solution KMnO4 solution solution Observation Inference

Oxidising agent

The electrode in the iron(II) sulphate, FeSO4 solution acts as the negative terminal, whereas the electrode in the acidified potassium manganate(VII), KMnO4 solution acts as the positive terminal. Iron(II) sulphate solution changes from pale green to yellow/brown. It formed a brown precipitate when the brown solution is tested with sodium hydroxide solution (NaOH) Purple acidified manganate(VII), KMnO4 solution turns colourless.

Electrons flow from iron(II) sulphate, FeSO4 solution to acidified potassium manganate(VII), KMnO4 solution Iron(III) ions are present. Iron(II) ions are oxidised to iron(III) ions.

Manganate(VII) ions are reduced to manganese(II) ions.


Set III

Oxidation half-equation: Fe2+(aq) > Fe3+(aq) + e Reduction half-equation: MnO4-(aq) + 8H+(aq) + 5e > Mn2+(aq) + 4H2O(l) Overall reaction: MnO4-(aq) + 5Fe2+(aq) + 8H+(aq) > Mn2+(aq) + 5Fe3+(aq) + 4H2O(l)

Reducing agent

Oxidising agent

Potassium iodide, Bromine water, Br2 KI solution Observation The electrode in the potassium iodide, KI solution acts as the negative terminal, whereas the electrode in the bromine water acts as the positive terminal. Colourless potassium iodide solution turns brown. It formed a dark blue colouration when the brown solution is tested with starch solution. Brown bromine water turns colourless.

Test on the solution in the reducing agent arm of U-tube Add a few drops of starch solution Inference Electrons flow from potassium iodide, KI solution to bromine water, Br2 (aq). Iodine is present.Iodide ions have oxidised to iodine.

Bromines are reduced to bromide ion.

Oxidation half-equation: 2I-(aq) > I2(aq) + 2e Reduction half-equation: Br2(aq) + 2e > 2Br-(aq) Overall reaction: Br2(aq) + 2I-(aq) > 2Br-(aq) + I2(aq)

Other pairs of reducing agent and oxidising agent Reducing agent Potassium iodide,KI solution Potassium iodide,KI solution Potassium bromide,KBr solution Oxidising agent Iron(III) sulphate,Fe2(SO4)3 solution Acidified potassium dichromate(VI),K2Cr2O7 solution Chlorine, Cl2 water

Rusting as a Redox Reaction


Rust / hydrated iron(III) oxide, Fe2O3xH2O formed slowly at the surface of iron when it exposed to the damp air. Rusting a redox reaction that take places between iron and oxygen to form hydrated iron(III) oxide and this is a slow reaction. 4Fe(s) + 3O2(g) + 2xH2O(l) > Fe2O3xH2O(s)

Corrosion a redox reaction that take places between a metal and the gases in air. Metal is oxidised to form an oxide layer on the surface. Metal atoms lose electrons to form positive ions. 1. 2. 3. Group 1 metals are very reactive. Metals are exposed to air will corrode rapidly and become tarnished. Aluminium, lead and zinc corrode rapidly in the air and forms an oxide layer. The oxide layer is hard, non-porous, impermeable and difficult to crack. This protects the aluminium, lead and zinc below it from further corrosion.

Example: Corrosion of metal. Zn(s) > Zn2+(aq) + 2e Cu(s) > Cu2+(aq) + 2e K, Na, Ca, Mg, Al, Zn, Fe, Sn, Pb, Cu, Hg, Ag, Au <Tendency of metal to corrode increases. Process of Rusting of Iron 1. 2. 3. 4. Anode (negative terminal) concentration of oxygen is lower and iron rust (oxidation process) to form iron(II) ions: Fe(s) > Fe2+(aq) + 2e Cathode (positive terminal) concentration of oxygen is higher and oxygen gains electrons that reduced to hydroxide ions: O2(g) + 2H2O(l) + 4e > 4OH-(aq) Fe2+ ions and OH- ions combine to form iron(II) hydroxide, Fe(OH)2 Oxygen further oxidises iron(II) hydroxide, Fe(OH)2 to hydrated iron(III) oxide, Fe2O3xH2O. 2Fe(OH)2(s) > Fe2O3xH2O(s)

The Effect of Other Metals on the Rusting of Iron Potassium hexacyanoferrate(III), K3Fe(NO)6 is used to detect Fe2+ ions (produces dark blue colour in the presence of Fe2+). Phenolphthalein is used to detect OH- ions (produces pink colour in the presence of OH-). Test tube Fe only Control Observation Intensity of blue colour is low. Pink colour is not present. Inference Observation Blue colour is not present. Intensity of pink colour is very high. Inference Reaction Oxidation:Fe(s) > Fe2+(aq) + 2e Reduction:O2(g) + 2H2O(l) + e > 4OH-(aq)OH- ions react with Fe2+ ions to form Fe(OH)2. Fe nail rusts a little. Reaction Oxidation:Mg(s) > Mg2+(aq) + 2e Reduction:O2(g) + 2H2O(l) + e > 4OH-(aq) Mg is corroded and Fe nail does not rust.

Test tube Fe & Mg

i) Fe act as the (+) terminal (cathode) ii) Mg act as the (-) terminal (anode) Test tube Fe & Zn Observation Blue colour is not present. Reaction Oxidation:Zn(s) > Zn2+(aq) + 2e

Intensity of pink colour Reduction:O2(g) + 2H2O(l) + e > 4OH-(aq) is high. Inference Zn is corroded and Fe nail does not rust. i) Fe act as the (+) terminal (cathode) ii) Zn act as the (-) terminal (anode) Test tube Fe & Sn Observation Intensity of blue colour is high. Pink colour is not present. Inference Reaction Oxidation:Fe (s) > Fe2+(aq) + 2e Reduction:O2(g) + 2H2O(l) + e > 4OH-(aq)OH- ions react with Fe2+ ions to form Fe(OH)2. Fe nail rusts quickly (high rate).

i) Sn act as the (+) terminal (cathode) ii) Fe act as the (-) terminal (anode) Test tube Fe & Cu Observation Intensity of blue colour is very high. Pink colour is not present. Inference Reaction Oxidation:Fe (s) > Fe2+(aq) + 2e Reduction:O2(g) + 2H2O(l) + e > 4OH-(aq)OH- ions react with Fe2+ ions to form Fe(OH)2. Fe nail rusts very quickly (the highest rate).

i) Cu act as the (+) terminal (cathode) ii) Fe act as the (-) terminal (anode)

Iron nail does not rust if it has contacted with more electropositive metals (Mg and Zn). Iron nail rusts quickly if it has contacted with less electropositive metals (Sn and Cu).

Prevention of Rusting of Iron The rate of rusting of iron decreases if the iron (Fe) in contact with any of these metals: K, Na, Ca, Mg, Al and Zn. The rate of rusting of iron increases if the iron (Fe) in contact

with any of these metals: Sn, Pb, Cu, Hg, Ag and Au. a strong electrolyte (salt and acid) is present.

Ways Used for Prevention of Rusting 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Painting Protect iron surface (prevent from contacting with air and water) Coat with plastic Used in metal netting Apply oil and grease Protective coating for machine part Alloying the iron Alloying the iron with 18% chromium and 8% nickel that provide a protective oxide coating. a) Tin plating (less electropositive metal) Cans of food (iron) is covered with a thin layer of tin to provide a protective oxide coating to the cans. b) Chrome plating Cathodic protection / Electrical protection (more electropositive metal) a) Galvanising (coat with zinc metal) Zinc layer provides a protective oxide coating and zinc is oxidized instead of iron. Iron cannot form ions, so it will not rust. b) Sacrificial protection Blocks of magnesium are attached at the intervals of the water piping system & zinc bars are attached to the part of the ship submerged in sea water.

6.

The Reactivity Series of Metals and Its Application


1. Metal form metal oxides when burnt in air (excess). Metal + Oxygen > Metal oxide Example: 2Zn(s) + O2(g) > 2ZnO(s) 2. The more reactive a metal is, the more vigorously it burns in oxygen. Reactivity of Metals K, Na, Ca, Mg, Al, Zn, Fe, Sn, Pb, Cu, Hg, Ag, Au < increase in reactivity of metals 3. Reactivity of Metals with Oxygen. Metal Magnesium (Mg) Observation Burns vigorously with a very brilliant white flame.The residue is white when hot and cold. Burns quickly with a bright flame.The residue is yellow when hot and white when cold. Glows very brightly.The residue is reddish-brown when hot and cold. Glows brightly.The residue is brown when hot and yellow when cold. Glows faintly.The residue is black when hot and cold. Inference Equation The reactivity of Mg 2Mg(s) + O2(g)> towards O2 is very 2MgO(s) high.Magnesium oxide is formed. The reactivity of Zn 2Zn(s) + O2(g)> towards O2 is 2ZnO(s) high.Zinc oxide is formed. The reactivity of Fe towards O2 is medium.Iron(III) oxide is formed. The reactivity of Pb towards O2 is low.Lead(II) oxide is formed. The reactivity of Cu towards O2 is very low.Copper(II) oxide is formed. 2Fe(s) + O2(g)> 2Fe2O3(s)

Zinc (Zn)

Iron (Fe)

Lead (Pb)

2Pb(s) + O2(g)> 2PbO(s)

Copper (Cu)

2Cu(s) + O2(g)> 2CuO(s)

Glass wool prevents metal powder mixes with potassium manganate(VII) Solid potassium manganate(VII) liberates oxygen gas when it is heated / decomposed.

2KMnO4(s) -> K2MnO4(s) + MnO2(s) + O2(g) heat

Other than potassium manganate(VII),

- solid potassium chlorate(V) with manganese(IV) oxide as a catalyst. MnO2 2KClO3(s) -> KCl(s) + 3O2(g) heat - solid potassium nitrate 2KNO3(s) -> KNO2(s) + O2(g) heat 4. Position of Carbon in the Reactivity Series of Metals

Reactivity Series K, Na, Ca, Mg, Al, C, Zn, Fe, Sn, Pb, Cu, Hg, Ag, Au < increase in reactivity a) Metal + Carbon dioxide > Metal oxide + Carbon Any metal above carbon in the reactivity series can displace oxygen from carbon dioxide. Example: 2Mg(s) + CO2(g) > 2MgO(s) + C(s) Mg: Reducing agent CO2: Oxidising agent MgO: White residue C: Black spots > Therefore, magnesium is more reactive than carbon. (If the metal is less reactive than carbon, the metal is unable to remove oxygen from carbon dioxide.) b) Carbon + Metal oxide > Carbon dioxide + Metal Any metal below carbon in the reactivity series can displace carbon from its oxide. Example: C(s) + 2ZnO(s) > 2Zn(s) + CO2(g) C: Reducing agent ZnO: Oxidising agent Zn: Grey residue > Therefore, zinc is less reactive than carbon. (If carbon is less reactive than the metal, the carbon is unable to remove oxygen from metal oxide.)

Position of Hydrogen in the Reactivity Series of Metals


Reactivity Series K, Na, Ca, Mg, Al, C, Zn, H, Fe, Sn, Pb, Cu, Hg, Ag, Au < increase in reactivity Metal oxide + Hydrogen > Metal + Water Any metal below hydrogen in the reactivity series, hydrogen will reduce the oxide of metal to metal. Example 1:

CuO(s) + H2(g) > Cu(s) + H2O(l) Observation: Burns quickly with a bright flame. The black solid turns brown solid. H2: Reducing agent CuO: Oxidising agent Hydrogen is more reactive than copper.

Example 2:

PbO(s) + H2(g) > Pb(s) + H2O(l) Observation: Burns with a bright flame. The yellow solid turns grey solid. H2: Reducing agent PbO: Oxidising agent

Hydrogen is more reactive than lead.

Example 3:

Fe2O3(s) + 3H2(g) > 2Fe(s) + 3H2O(l) Observation: Glows dimly. The reddish-brown solid turns grey solid. H2: Reducing agent Fe2O3: Oxidising agent Hydrogen is more reactive than iron.

Example 4:

ZnO(s) + H2(g) > no reaction Observation: No glow is observed. It turns yellow when hot and white when cold. Hydrogen is unable to reduce zinc oxide. Hydrogen is less reactive than zinc.

Redox Reactions in Electrolytic Cell and Chemical Cell


Similarities

redox reaction. Anode: oxidation Cathode: reduction Electrons flow from anode to cathode in the external circuit

Differences Differences Structure Electrodes Flows of electrons Electrolytic Cell Chemical Cell / Voltaic Cell (Electrolysis) With electrical supply. No electrical supply. Can be the same or difference Must be two different metals. metal (graphite or platinum). From anode to cathode From more electropositive through external circuit. metal to less electropositive metal through external circuit. Electrical energy to chemical Chemical energy to electrical energy. energy. Anode.Oxidation occurs. Cathode.Reduction occurs. Anions release electrons at the anode. Oxidising agent gain electrons. Cathode.Reduction occurs. Anode.Oxidation occurs. Cations gain electrons from the cathode. 1) Redox Reactions in Electrolytic Cell Example 1: Electrolysis of molten zinc chloride Reducing agent releases electrons.

Transformation of energy At positive terminal

At negative terminal

Electrodes: Carbon Ions present: Cl- and Zn2+ Anode: Oxidation / 2Cl-(l) > Cl2(g) + 2e / Cl- ions act as reducing agent. Cathode: Reduction / Zn2+(l) + 2e > Zn(s) / Zn2+ ions act as oxidising agent.

Example 2: Electrolysis of copper(II) sulphate solution.

Electrodes: Carbon Ions present: Cu2+, SO42-, H+, OHOH- ions are discharged because OH- ion is below SO42- ion in electrochemistry series. Anode: Oxidation / 4OH-(aq) > O2(g) + 2H2O(l) + 4e / Oxygen gas is liberated. Cu2+ ions are discharged because Cu2+ ion is below H+ ion in electrochemistry series. Cathode: Reduction / Cu2+(aq) + 2e > Cu(s) / Cu2+ ions are reduced to copper metal (brown layer formed). > Overall equation: Cu2+(aq) + 4OH-(aq) > O2(g) + 2H2O(l) + Cu(s)

Example 3: Electrolysis of copper(II) sulphate solution.

Electrodes: Copper Ions present: Cu2+, SO42-, H+, OHOH- ions and SO42- ion are not discharged. Anode: Oxidation / Cu(s) > Cu2+(aq) + 2e / Copper anode (electrode) dissolves. Cu2+ ions are discharged because Cu2+ ion is below H+ ion in electrochemistry series. Cathode: Reduction / Cu2+(aq) + 2e > Cu(s) / Cu2+ ions are reduced to copper metal.

Example 4: Electrolysis of concentrated sodium chloride solution.

Electrodes: Carbon Ions present: Na+, Cl-, H+, OHCl- ions are discharged because of the higher concentration. (Concentration of Cl- ion is high, the ion is selectively discharged rather than the OH- ion, the one that is placed below the electrochemical series.) Anode: Oxidation / 2Cl-(aq) > Cl2(g) + 2e / Chlorine gas (green gas with choking smell) is liberated. H+ ions are discharged because Na+ ion is below H+ ion in electrochemistry series. (H+ ions and Na+ ion are placed very far apart in the electrochemical series, the concentration factor becomes unimportant.) Cathode: Reduction / 2H+(aq) + 2e > H2(g) / Hydrogen gas is liberated. > Overall equation: 2Cl-(aq) + 2H+(aq) > Cl2(g) + H2(g)

2) Redox Reactions in Chemical Cell Example 1: Daniel cell

Anode (negative terminal): Oxidation / Zinc strip immerses in zinc sulphate solution. Zn(s) > Zn2+(aq) + 2e / Zinc strip becomes thinner. Cathode (positive terminal): Reduction / Copper strip immerses in copper(II) sulphate solution. Cu2+(aq) + 2e > Cu(s) / A brown layer formed around copper strip. / Concentration Cu2+ ions decreases cause the intensity blue colour of solution decreases. Zinc is more electropositive than copper. Electrons are flowed from zinc strip to copper strip through the external circuit. (Note: Conventionally, electrons flow in the opposite direction of electrical current). > Overall equation: Zn(s) + Cu2+(aq) > Zn2+(aq) + Cu(s)

More Chemical Cells


1. Primary cells are not rechargeable and can be used only once. 2. Secondary cells are rechargeable when cells are exhausted and can be reused again. A. Dry Cell

Anode (-): Zinc / Zn(s) > Zn2+(aq) + 2e / reducing agent Cathode (+): Graphite (carbon) rod / 2NH4+(aq) + 2e > 2NH3(g) + H2(g) / oxidising agent

Electrolyte: Moist paste of ammonium chloride, zinc chloride and a little water. Overall reaction: Zn(s) + 2NH4+(aq) > Zn2+(aq) + 2NH3(g) + H2(g) Uses: touchlight, toys, clock, remote control and radio.

B. Alkaline Cell

Anode (-): Zinc / Zn(s) > Zn2+(aq) + 2e / reducing agent Cathode (+): Manganese(IV) oxide / 2MnO2(s) + H2O(l) +2e > Mn2O3(s) + 2OH-(aq) / oxidising agent Electrolyte: Potassium hydroxide paste. Overall reaction: Zn(s) + 2MnO2(s) + H2O(l) > Zn2+(aq) + Mn2O3(s) + 2OH-(aq) Heavy use and longer shelf life. Zinc corrodes more slowly. Higher power. More stable current and voltage.

C. Mercury Cell

Anode (-): Zinc / Zn(s) > Zn2+(aq) + 2e / reducing agent Cathode (+): Mercury(II) oxide / Hg2+(aq) + 2e > Hg(l) / oxidising agent Electrolyte: Potassium hydroxide paste. Overall reaction: Zn(s) + Hg2+(aq) > Zn2+(aq) + Hg(l) Danger to the environment and mercury need to recycle. Uses: Watches, camera and small devices.

D. Lead-acid Accumulator

Anode (-): Lead / Pb(s) + SO42-(aq) > PbSO4(s) + 2e / reducing agent Cathode (+): Lead(IV) oxide / PbO2(s) + 4H+(aq) + SO42-(aq) + 2e > PbSO4(s) + 2H2O(l) / oxidising agent Electrolyte: Sulphuric acid. Overall reaction: / Pb(s) + PbO2(s) + 4H+(aq) + 2 SO42-(aq) > 2PbSO4(s) + 2H2O(l) Uses: Automobiles.

E. Nickel-Cadmium Cell

Anode (-): Cadmium / Cd(s) + 2OH-(aq) > Cd(OH)2(s) + 2e / reducing agent Cathode (+): Nickel(IV) oxide / NiO2(s) + 2H2O(l) + 2e > Ni(OH)2(s) + 2OH-(aq) / oxidising agent Electrolyte: Porous separator soaked in potassium hydroxide solution. Overall reaction: Cd(s) + NiO2(s) + 2H2O(l) > Cd(OH)2(s) + Ni(OH)2(s) Suffer from memory effect hold less charge. Toxic heavy metal. Expensive. Uses: Toys, laptops, and mobile phones.

F. Rechargeable Chemical Cell i) Nickel-metal hydride (NiMH)

Anode (-): hydrogen-absorbing alloy. Cathode (+): Nickel(IV) oxide. Contains rare earth elements such as titanium, vanadium, zirconium, cobalt, manganese and aluminium that are more environmentally friendly. Higher capacity than NiCd. Higher self-discharge rate. Uses: digital cameras and mobile phones.

ii) Lithium-ion (Li-Ion)

Smaller and lighter. Anode (-): Carbon. Cathode (+): Metal oxide (cobalt oxide / manganese oxide). Electrolyte: Lithium salt in an organic solvent (ether). Inflammable and can easily explode when exposed to high temperature. Uses: Portable electronic.

iii) Lithium-polymer (Li-Poly)

Very small, thin and light. Anode (-): Carbon. Cathode (+): Metal oxide. Electrolyte: Lithium salt in a solid polymer composite (polyacrylonitrile). Not flammable. Uses: MP3, PDAs and laptops.

G. Other Chemical Cells i) Fuel Cells

Anode (-): Fuel (hydrogen / hydrocarbon / alcohol). Cathode (+): Oxygen. Non-polluting product. Uses: space vehicles and military applications.

ii) Solar Cells

Made of semiconductor materials (crystalline silicon). Solar energy converted to electric energy. Non-polluting product. High cost. Uses: space satellites, irrigation pumps, calculator and telecommunications.