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IN T S
Digital Electronics B mn K thut my tnh Khoa Cng ngh thng tin Trng H Bch Khoa H Ni
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a ch lin h ca tc gi
Vn phng:
B mn K thut my tnh Khoa Cng ngh thng tin Trng i hc Bch Khoa H Ni P322 C1 S 1, i C Vit, H Ni T : 04 8696125

Ging vin: Nguyn Thnh Kin Mobile: +84983588135 Email:


kiennt@it-hut.edu.vn
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Mc ch mn hc
Cung cp cc kin thc c bn v:
Cu to Nguyn l hot ng ng dng

ca cc mch s (mch logic, IC, chip) Trang b nguyn l


Phn tch Thit k

cc mch s c bn To c s cho tip thu cc kin thc chuyn ngnh


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Ti liu tham kho chnh


Introductory Digital Electronics - Nigel P. Cook Prentice Hall, 1998 Digital Systems - Principles and Applications Tocci & Widmer - Prentice Hall, 1998 http://ktmt.shorturl.com

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Thi lng mn hc
Tng thi lng: 60 tit
L thuyt: 45 tit, ti ging ng Thc hnh: 15 tit.
M phng mt s mch in t s trong gio trnh s dng phn mm Multisim v8.0
Hng dn thc hnh ti phng my
C1-325, C Nguyt B mn KTMT lin h

Np bo co thc hnh km bi thi Khng c bo co thc hnh => 0 im.

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Ni dung ca mn hc

Chng 1. Gii thiu v in t s Chng 2. Cc hm logic Chng 3. Cc phn t logic c bn Chng 4. H t hp Chng 5. H dy

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in t s

Chng 1 GII THIU V IN T S

B mn K thut My tnh, Khoa Cng ngh Thng tin Trng i hc Bch Khoa H Ni
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Gii thiu v in t s

in t s

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Gii thiu v in t s (tip)


H thng in t, thit b in t
Cc linh kin in, in t (component) Cc mch in t (circuit) Cc thit b, h thng in t (equipment, system)

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Gii thiu v in t s (tip)


S v tng t:
Trong khoa hc, cng ngh hay cuc sng i thng, ta thng xuyn phi tip xc vi s lng S lng c th o, qun l, ghi chp, tnh ton nhm gip cho cc x l, c on phc tp hn C 2 cch biu din s lng:
Dng tng t (Analog) Dng s (Digital)

Dng tng t:
VD: Nhit , tc , in th ca u ra micro L dng biu din vi s bin i lin tc ca cc gi tr (continuous)

Dng s:
VD: Thi gian hin trn ng h in t L dng biu Bch Khoa Online: hutonline.net din trong cc gi tr thay i tng nc ri rc (discrete)
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Gii thiu v in t s (tip)


H thng s v tng t:
H thng s (Digital system)
L t hp cc thit b c thit k x l cc thng tin logic hoc cc s lng vt l di dng s VD: My vi tnh, my tnh, cc thit b hnh nh m thanh s, h thng in thoi ng dng: lnh vc in t, c kh, t

H thng tng t (Analog system)


Cha cc thit b cho php x l cc s lng vt l dng tng t VD: H thng m-ly, ghi bng t

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Gii thiu v in t s (tip)


Cng ngh s - u, nhc im so vi tng t
Dng cng ngh s thc hin cc thao tc ca gii php tng t

u im ca cng ngh s:
Cc h thng s d thit k hn:
Khng cn gi tr chnh xc U, I, ch cn khong cch mc cao thp

Lu tr thng tin d
C cc mch cht c th gi thng tin lu ty

chnh xc cao hn
Vic nng t chnh xc 3 ch s ln 4 ch s n gin ch cn lp thm mch h tng t, lp thm mch s nh hng U, I v thm nhiu

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Gii thiu v in t s (tip)


Cng ngh s - u, nhc im so vi tng t
Hn ch: Th gii thc ch yu l tng t
Cc s lng vt l trong thc t, t nhin ch yu l dng tng t. VD: nhit , p sut, v tr, vn tc, rn, tc dng chy

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X l thng tin S

Chuyn i cc u ra s v dng tng t thc t


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Gii thiu v in t s (tip)

S kt hp ca cng ngh s v tng t!

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in t s

Chng 2 CC HM LOGIC

B mn K thut My tnh, Khoa Cng ngh Thng tin Trng i hc Bch Khoa H Ni
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Ni dung chng 2

2.1. Gii thiu 2.2. i s Boole 2.2. Biu din cc hm logic di dng chnh quy 2.3. Ti thiu ha cc hm logic

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2.1. Gii thiu


Mch logic (mch s) hot ng da trn ch nh phn:
in th u vo, u vo hoc bng 0, hoc bng 1 Vi 0 hay 1 tng trng cho cc khong in th c nh ngha sn VD: 0 0.8V :0 2.5 5V :1

Cho php ta s dng i s Boole nh l mt cng c phn tch v thit k cc h thng s


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Gii thiu (tip)


i s Boole:
Do George Boole sng lp vo th k 19 Cc hng, bin v hm ch nhn 1 trong 2 gi tr: 0 v 1 L cng c ton hc kh n gin cho php m t mi lin h gia cc u ra ca mch logic vi cc u vo ca n di dng biu thc logic L c s l thuyt, l cng c cho php nghin cu, m t, phn tch, thit k v xy dng cc h thng s, h thng logic, mch s ngy nay.

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Gii thiu (tip)


Cc phn t logic c bn:
Cn gi l cc cng logic, mch logic c bn L cc khi c bn cu thnh nn cc mch logic v h thng s khc

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Gii thiu (tip)


Mc tiu ca chng: sinh vin c th
Tm hiu v i s Boole Cc phn t logic c bn v hot ng ca chng Dng i s Boole m t v phn tch cch cu thnh cc mch logic phc tp t cc phn t logic c bn

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Ni dung chng 2

2.1. Gii thiu 2.2. i s Boole 2.2. Biu din cc hm logic di dng chnh quy 2.3. Ti thiu ha cc hm logic

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21

1. Cc nh ngha
Bin logic: l 1 i lng c th biu din bng 1 k hiu no , v mt gi tr ch ly gi tr 0 hoc 1. Hm logic: l biu din ca nhm cc bin logic, lin h vi nhau thng qua cc php ton logic, v mt gi tr cng ly gi tr 0 hoc 1. Php ton logic: c 3 php ton logic c bn:
Php V - "AND" Php Hoc - "OR" Php o - "NOT"
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22

Cc nh ngha (tip)
Cc gi tr 0, 1 khng tng trng cho cc con s thc m tng trng cho trng thi gi tr in th hay cn gi l mc logic (logic level) Mt s cch gi khc ca 2 mc logic:
Mc logic 0 Sai (False) Tt (Off) Thp (Low) Khng (No) (Ngt) Open switch
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Mc logic 1 ng (True) Bt (On) Cao (High) C (Yes) (ng) Closed switch


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23

2. Biu din bin v hm logic


Dng biu Venn (le):
Mi bin logic chia khng gian thnh 2 khng gian con. Khng gian con th nht, bin nhn gi tr ng (=1), khng gian con th cn li, bin nhn gi tr sai (=0). VD: F = A AND B

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Biu din bin v hm logic (tip)


Dng biu thc i s:
K hiu php V AND: . K hiu php Hoc OR: + K hiu php o NOT: VD: F = A AND B hay F = A.B

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Biu din bin v hm logic (tip)


Dng bng tht:
Dng m t s ph thuc u ra vo cc mc in th u vo ca cc mch logic Bng tht biu din 1 hm logic n bin c:
(n+1) ct:
n ct u tng ng vi n bin ct cn li tng ng vi gi tr ca hm

2n hng:
tng ng vi 2n gi tr ca t hp bin

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Biu din bin v hm logic (tip)


Dng ba Cc-n:
y l cch biu din tng ng ca bng tht. Trong , mi trn ba tng ng vi 1 dng ca bng tht. Ta ca xc nh gi tr ca t hp bin. Gi tr ca hm c ghi vo tng ng.

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27

Biu din bin v hm logic (tip)


Dng biu thi gian:
L th biu din s bin i theo thi gian ca bin v hm logic VD: vi F = A . B

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28

3. Cc php ton logic c bn

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4. Tnh cht ca php ton logic c bn Tn ti phn t trung tnh duy nht trong php ton AND v OR
Ca php AND l 1: A . 1 = A Ca php OR l 0: A + 0 = A

Tnh cht giao hon


A.B = B.A A+B = B+A

Tnh cht kt hp
(A.B).C = A.(B.C) = A.B.C (A + B) + C = A + (B + C) = A + B + C
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30

Cc tnh cht (tip)


Tnh cht phn phi
(A + B).C = A.C + B.C (A.B) + C = (A + C).(B + C)

Tnh cht khng s m, khng h s


A.A.A. .A = A A+A+A+ +A = A

Php b
A= A A+ A =1
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A. A = 0

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31

5. nh l DeMorgan
o ca mt tng bng tch cc o thnh phn

( a + b) = a . b
o ca mt tch bng tng cc o thnh phn

(a.b) = a + b
Tng qut:

f (.,+, a1 , a2 ,..., an ) = f (+,., a1 , a2 ,..., an )


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32

6. Nguyn l i ngu
i ngu:
+ i ngu vi . 0 i ngu vi 1

V d:
(A + B).C = A.C + B.C (A.B) + C = (A + C).(B + C)

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33

Ni dung chng 2

2.1. Gii thiu 2.2. i s Boole 2.2. Biu din cc hm logic di dng chnh quy 2.3. Ti thiu ha cc hm logic

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2.2. Biu din cc hm logic di dng chnh quy

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1. Tuyn chnh quy


nh l Shannon: mt hm logic bt k c th c trin khai theo 1 trong cc bin di dng tng ca 2 tch logic nh sau:

F ( A1 , A2 ,..., An ) = A1.F (1, A2 ,..., An ) + A1.F (0, A2 ,..., An )


V d:

F ( A, B) = A.F (1, B) + A.F (0, B) = A.[ B.F (1,1) + B.F (1,0)] + A.[ B.F (0,1) + B.F (0,0)] = AB.F (1,1) + AB.F (1,0) + AB.F (0,1) + AB.F (0,0)
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p dng nhanh nh l Shannon

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2. Hi chnh quy
nh l Shannon: mt hm logic bt k c th c trin khai theo 1 trong cc bin di dng tch ca 2 tng logic nh sau:

F ( A1 , A2 ,..., An ) = [ A1 + F (0, A2 ,..., An )].[ A1 + F (1, A2 ,..., An )]


V d:

F ( A, B) = [ A + F (0, B)].[ A + F (1, B)] = ( A + [ B + F (0,0)].[B + F (0,1)]).( A + [ B + F (1,0)].[B + F (1,1)]) = [ A + B + F (0,0)].[ A + B + F (0,1)].[ A + B + F (1,0)].[ A + B + F (1,1)]
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38

p dng nhanh nh l Shannon

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39

3. Biu din hm logic di dng s

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40

Ni dung chng 2

2.1. Gii thiu 2.2. i s Boole 2.2. Biu din cc hm logic di dng chnh quy 2.3. Ti thiu ha cc hm logic

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41

2.3. Ti thiu ha cc hm logic


Mt hm logic c gi l ti thiu ho nu nh n c s lng s hng t nht v s lng bin t nht. Mc ch ca vic ti thiu ho: Mi hm logic c th c biu din bng cc biu thc logic khc nhau. Mi 1 biu thc logic c mt mch thc hin tng ng vi n. Biu thc logic cng n gin th mch thc hin cng n gin. C hai phng php ti thiu ho hm logic:
Phng php i s Phng php ba Cc-n Bch Khoa Online: hutonline.net
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42

1. Phng php i s

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Phng php nhm s hng

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Thm s hng c vo biu thc

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Loi b s hng tha


Trong v d sau, AC l s hng tha:

Ti thiu ha?

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46

Bi tp p dng
VD1: Ti thiu ha cc hm sau bng phng php i s: a. F ( A, B, C , D ) = ( A + BC ) + A.( B + C )( AD + C ) b. F ( A, B, C , D ) = ( A + B + C )( A + B + C )( A + B + C )( A + B + C )

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2. Phng php ba Cc-n


Quy tc lp ba Cc-n:
2 lin k nhau ch sai khc nhau 1 gi tr ca 1 bin (tng ng vi t hp bin khc nhau 1 gi tr) Ba Cc-n c tnh khng gian

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Ba Cc-n cho hm 2, 3, 4 bin

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Quy tc nhm (dng tuyn chnh quy)


Nhm cc lin k m gi tr ca hm cng bng 1 li vi nhau sao cho:
S lng cc trong nhm l ln nht c th c, ng thi s lng trong nhm phi l ly tha ca 2, V hnh dng ca nhm phi l hnh ch nht hoc hnh vung

Nhm c 2n loi b c n bin Bin no nhn c gi tr ngc nhau trong nhm th s b loi Cc nhm c th trng nhau mt vi phn t nhng khng c trng hon ton v phi nhm ht cc bng 1 S lng nhm chnh bng s lng s hng sau khi ti thiu ha (mi nhm tng ng vi 1 s hng)
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V d
F ( A, B, C ) = ABC + ABC + ABC + ABC + ABC + ABC F ( A, B, C ) = A + BC + BC

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51

Trng hp c bit
Nu gi tr hm khng xc nh ti mt vi t hp bin no :
K hiu cc khng xc nh bng du Nhm cc vi cc 1 Khng nht thit phi nhm ht cc

F ( A, B, C , D) = BC + BC
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52

Bi tp p dng
Ti thiu ha cc hm sau bng phng php ba Ccn:
a. F(A,B,C,D) = R(0,2,5,6,9,11,13,14) b. F(A,B,C,D) = R(1,3,5,8,9,13,14,15) c. F(A,B,C,D) = R(2,4,5,6,7,9,12,13) d. F(A,B,C,D) = R(1,5,6,7,11,13) v F khng xc nh vi t hp bin 12,15.

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in t s

Chng 3 CC PHN T LOGIC C BN

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54

Ni dung chng 3

3.1. Khi nim 3.2. Thc hin phn t AND, OR dng Diode 3.3. Thc hin phn t NOT dng Transistor 3.4. Cc mch tch hp s

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55

3.1. Khi nim


C 3 php ton logic c bn:
V (AND) HOC (OR) O (NOT)

Phn t logic c bn (mch logic c bn, cng logic) thc hin php ton logic c bn:
Cng V (AND gate) Cng HOC (OR gate) Cng O (NOT inverter)

Cc mch s c bit khc: cc cng NAND, NOR, XOR, XNOR


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56

1. Cng V (AND gate)


Chc nng:
Thc hin php ton logic V (AND) u ra ch bng 1 khi tt c cc u vo bng 1

Cng V 2 u vo:
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Bng tht: Biu thc: out = A . B


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2. Cng HOC (OR gate)


Chc nng:
Thc hin php ton logic HOC (OR) u ra ch bng 0 khi tt c cc u vo bng 0

Cng HOC 2 u vo:


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58

Bng tht: Biu thc: out = A + B


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3. Cng O (NOT inverter)


Chc nng:
Thc hin php ton logic O (NOT)

Cng O ch c 1 u vo:
K hiu:

Bng tht: Biu thc: out = A


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A 0 1

out 1 0
59

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4. Cng V O (NAND gate)


Chc nng:
Thc hin php O ca php ton logic V u ra ch bng 0 khi tt c cc u vo bng 1

Cng V O 2 u vo:
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60

Bng tht: Biu thc: out = A . B


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5. Cng HOC O (NOR gate)


Chc nng:
Thc hin php O ca php ton logic HOC u ra ch bng 1 khi tt c cc u vo bng 0

Cng HOC O 2 u vo:


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61

Bng tht: Biu thc: out = A + B


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6. Cng XOR (XOR gate)


Chc nng:
Exclusive-OR Thc hin biu thc logic HOC C LOI TR (php ton XOR - hay cn l php cng module 2) u ra ch bng 0 khi tt c cc u vo ging nhau

Cng XOR 2 u vo:


K hiu: A 0 0 1 1 B out 0 0 1 1 0 1 1 0
62

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7. Cng XNOR (XNOR gate)


Chc nng:
Exclusive-NOR Thc hin php O ca php ton XOR u ra ch bng 1 khi tt c cc u vo ging nhau

Cng XNOR 2 u vo:


K hiu: A 0 0 1 1 B out 0 1 1 0 0 0 1 1
63

Bng tht: Biu thc:


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out = A B = A.B + A.B

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8. Bi tp
Cho cc biu thi gian sau, hy cho bit tng biu thi gian biu din hot ng ca cng no? E0 (EA, EB) = ?

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64

Bi tp (tip)
E0 (EA, EB) = ?

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65

3.2. Thc hin phn t AND, OR


Diode:
K hiu: Chc nng: cho dng in i qua theo 1 chiu t A n K Hot ng:
Nu UA > UK th IAK > 0, Diode lm vic ch Thng Nu UA UK th IAK = 0, Diode lm vic ch Tt

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66

Phn t AND 2 u vo dng Diode


Xt mch hnh bn. Gi s ly TTL lm chun cho hot ng ca mch. Ln lt t in p 0V v 5V vo 2 u vo A v B, sau o in p ti u ra S, ta c:

S = A.B
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67

Phn t OR 2 u vo dng Diode


Xt mch hnh bn. Gi s ly TTL lm chun cho hot ng ca mch. Ln lt t in p 0V v 5V vo 2 u vo A v B, sau o in p ti u ra S, ta c:

S = A+B

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68

3.3. Thc hin phn t NOT


Transistor lng cc:
C 2 loi: NPN v PNP Transistor c 3 cc:
B: Base cc gc C: Collector cc gp E: Emitter cc pht

Chc nng: Dng khuch i (thng) dng IC bng vic iu khin dng IB Hot ng:
IB = 0, Transistor lm vic ch khng khuch i (tt), IC = 0 IB > 0, Transistor lm vic ch khuch i (thng), IC = .IB, trong l h s khuch i.
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69

Phn t NOT dng Transistor


Xt mch hnh sau.

Gi s ly TTL lm chun cho hot ng ca mch. Ln lt t in p 0V v 5V vo u vo A v chn Rb nh sao cho Transistor thng bo ha, sau o in p ti u ra S, ta c:

S=A
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70

3.4. Cc mch tch hp s


Cc phn t logic c cu thnh t cc linh kin in t Cc linh kin in t ny khi kt hp vi nhau thng dng cc mch tch hp hay cn gi l IC (Integrated Circuit). Mch tch hp hay cn gi l IC, chip, vi mch, bo c c im:
u im: mt linh kin, lm gim th tch, gim trng lng v kch thc mch. Nhc im: hng mt linh kin th hng c mch.

C 2 loi mch tch hp:


Mch tch hp tng t: lm vic vi cc tn hiu tng t Mch tch hp s: lm vic vi cc tn hiu s
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71

Phn loi mch tch hp s


Theo mt linh kin:
Tnh theo s lng cng (gate).
Mt cng c khong 210 transistor VD: cng NAND 2 u vo c cu to t 4 transistor

C cc loi sau:
SSI - Small Scale Integration: cc vi mch c mt tch hp c nh: < 10 cng/chip MSI - Medium Scale Integration: cc vi mch c mt tch hp c trung bnh: 10 100 cng/chip LSI - Large Scale Integration: cc vi mch c mt tch hp c ln: 100 1000 cng/chip VLSI - Very Large Scale Integration: cc vi mch c mt tch hp c rt ln: 103106 cng/chip ULSI - Ultra Large Scale Integration: cc vi mch c mt tch 6 hp hutonline.net Bch Khoa Online:c cc k ln: > 10 cng/chip
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72

Phn loi mch tch hp s (tip)


Theo bn cht linh kin c s dng:
IC s dng Transistor lng cc:
RTL Resistor Transistor Logic (u vo mc in tr, u ra l Transistor) DTL Diode Transistor Logic (u vo mc Diode, u ra l Transistor) TTL Transistor Transistor Logic (u vo mc Transistor, u ra l Transistor) ECL Emitter Coupled Logic (Transistor ghp nhiu cc emitter)

IC s dng Transistor trng - FET (Field Effect Transistor)


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MOS CMOS

Metal Oxide Semiconductor Complementary MOS


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73

c tnh in ca IC
Di in p quy nh mc logic VD: vi chun TTL ta c:
5V 5V

2V

Di in p khng xc nh

Di in p khng xc nh

3,5V

0.8V

0,5V

0V Vo
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0V Ra

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74

c tnh in ca IC (tip)
Thi gian truyn: tn hiu truyn t u vo ti u ra ca mch tch hp phi mt mt khong thi gian no . Thi gian c nh gi qua 2 thng s:
Thi gian tr: l thi gian tr thng tin ca u ra so vi u vo Thi gian chuyn bin: l thi gian cn thit chuyn bin t mc 0 ln mc 1 v ngc li.
Thi gian chuyn bin t 0 n 1 cn gi l thi gian thit lp sn dng Thi gian chuyn bin t 1 n 0 cn gi l thi gian thit lp sn m Trong l thuyt: thi gian chuyn bin bng 0 Trong thc t, thi gian chuyn bin c o bng thi gian chuyn bin t 10% n 90% gi tr bin cc i.

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75

c tnh in ca IC (tip)
Cng sut tiu th ch ng:
Ch ng l ch lm vic c tn hiu L cng sut tn hao trn cc phn t trong vi mch, nn cn cng nh cng tt. Cng sut tiu th ch ng ph thuc
Tn s lm vic. Cng ngh ch to: cng ngh CMOS c cng sut tiu th thp nht.

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76

c tnh c ca IC
L c tnh ca kt cu v bc bn ngoi. C 2 loi thng dng:
V trn bng kim loi, s chn < 10 V dt bng gm, cht do, c 3 loi
IC mt hng chn SIP (Single Inline Package) hay SIPP (Single In-line Pin Package) IC c 2 hng chn DIP (Dual Inline Package) IC chn dng li PGA (Pin Grid Array): v vung, chn xung quanh

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77

c tnh c ca IC (tip)
Mt s dng IC:

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78

c tnh nhit ca IC
Mi mt loi IC c ch to s dng mt iu kin mi trng khc nhau ty theo mc ch s dng n.
IC dng trong cng nghip: 0C70C IC dng trong qun s: -55C 125C

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79

VD: Phn t AND dng IC

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80

VD: Phn t AND dng IC (tip)

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81

VD: Phn t OR dng IC

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82

VD: Phn t NAND dng IC

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83

VD: Phn t NOR dng IC

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84

VD: Phn t XOR v XNOR dng IC

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85

Cc phn t logic c bn

AND: 74LS08 OR: 74LS32 NOT: 74LS04/05 NAND: 74LS00 NOR: 74LS02 XOR: 74LS136 NXOR: 74LS266
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86

Bi tp p dng
Biu din cc phn t logic hai u vo AND, OR v phn t logic mt u vo NOT ch dng phn t NAND.

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87

in t s

Chng 4 H T HP

B mn K thut My tnh, Khoa Cng ngh Thng tin Trng i hc Bch Khoa H Ni
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88

Ni dung chng 4

4.1. Khi nim 4.2. Mt s h t hp c bn

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89

4.1. Khi nim


H t hp l h m tn hiu ra ch ph thuc vo tn hiu vo ti thi im hin ti H t hp cn c gi l h khng c nh H t hp ch cn thc hin bng nhng phn t logic c bn

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90

Ni dung chng 4

4.1. Khi nim 4.2. Mt s h t hp c bn

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91

4.2. Mt s h t hp c bn

1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

B m ha B gii m B chn knh B phn knh Cc mch s hc

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92

1. B m ha
M ha l vic s dng k hiu biu din c trng cho mt i tng no . K hiu tng ng vi mt i tng c gi l t m. Th d:

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93

B m ha (tip)
Chc nng: thc hin vic m ha cc tn hiu tng ng vi cc i tng thnh cc t m nh phn.
i tng tn hiu B m ha tn hiu T m

Th d:
A B C D
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B m ha

S0 S1

94

V d - B m ha bn phm
M ha bn phm:
Mi phm c gn mt t m khc nhau. Khi mt phm c nhn, b m ha s cho ra u ra l t m tng ng gn cho phm .

Hy thit k b m ha cho mt bn phm gm c 9 phm vi gi thit trong mt thi im ch c duy nht 1 phm c nhn.

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95

B m ha bn phm (tip)
S khi:
Mt b 9 phm, phi s dng 4 bit m ha. Vy c 9 u vo, 4 u ra.

M ha u tin:
Nu 2 hoc nhiu phm ng thi c nhn, th b m ha ch coi nh 1 phm c nhn, v phm c m cao nht.
Vcc
P1

A BMH bn phm 9 phm B C D


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P2

P9
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96

B m ha bn phm (tip)
Bng m ha:

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97

B m ha bn phm (tip)
Lp biu thc u ra ph thuc u vo:
A = 1 khi P8 hoc P9 c nhn, tc l khi P8 = 1 hoc P9 = 1 Vy A = P8 + P9 B = 1 khi P4 hoc P5 hoc P6 hoc P7 c nhn, tc l khi P4 = 1 hoc P5 = 1 hoc P6 = 1 hoc P7 = 1 Vy B = P4 + P5 + P6 + P7 C = 1 khi P2 hoc P3 hoc P6 hoc P7 c nhn, tc l khi P2 = 1 hoc P3 = 1 hoc P6 = 1 hoc P7 = 1 Vy C = P2 + P3 + P6 + P7 D = 1 khi P1 hoc P3 hoc P5 hoc P7 hoc P9 c nhn, tc l khi P1 = 1 hoc P3 = 1 hoc P5 = 1 hoc P7 = 1 hoc P9 = 1 Vy D = P1 + P3 + P5 + P7 + P9

V mch:
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98

Bi tp v nh
Tm hiu hot ng ca bn phm my tnh n gin
TLTK: www.wikipedia.org

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99

2. B gii m
Chc nng:
B gii m thc hin chc nng ngc vi b m ha. Cung cp thng tin u ra khi u vo xut hin t hp cc bin nh phn ng vi 1 hay nhiu t m c chn. T t m xc nh c tn hiu tng ng vi i tng m ha.

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100

Hai trng hp gii m


Gii m cho 1 t m:
Nguyn l: ng vi mt t hp cn gii m u vo th u ra bng 1, cc t hp u vo cn li, u ra bng 0. VD: S = 1 nu (AB) = (10), S = 0 nu (AB) (10)
A B B G M S

Gii m cho ton b m:


Nguyn l: ng vi mt t hp no u vo th 1 trong cc u ra bng 1, cc u ra cn li bng 0.
S0 A
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B G M

S1 S2 S3
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101

V d - B gii m BCD
BCD: m ha s nguyn thp phn bng nh phn

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102

B gii m BCD (tip)


Xc nh u vo v u ra:
Vo: t m nh phn 4 bit ( c 16 t hp) Ra: cc tn hiu tng ng vi cc s nh phn m t m m ha

Ta ch s dng 10 t hp, cn 6 t hp khng s dng n c coi l khng xc nh.

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BCD Binary Coding Decimal

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103

B gii m BCD Bng tht

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104

Tm biu thc ca tng u ra

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105

Tm biu thc ca tng u ra (tip)

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106

Tm biu thc ca tng u ra (tip)

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107

Tm biu thc ca tng u ra (tip)

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108

Tm biu thc ca tng u ra (tip)

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109

V mch

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110

3. B chn knh
MultiPlexor MUX C nhiu u vo tn hiu v 1 u ra Chc nng: chn 1 tn hiu trong nhiu tn hiu u vo a ra u ra

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111

MUX 2-1
S khi:
E1 S E0 C0

Tn hiu chn:

Tn hiu ra:

S = C0 E0 + C0 E1
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112

MUX 4-1
S khi:
E3 E2 E1 E0 C1 C0 S

Tn hiu chn:

Tn hiu ra:
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S = C1 C0 E0 + C1C0 E1 + C1 C0 E2 + C1C0 E3

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113

V d - Thit k MUX 2-1


Bng tht:

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114

V d - Thit k MUX 2-1 (tip)


Biu thc u ra S:

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115

V d - Thit k MUX 2-1 (tip)


S mch:

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Minh ha

116

4. B phn knh
DeMultiPlexor DeMUX C 1 u vo tn hiu v nhiu u ra Chc nng: a tn hiu t u vo ti 1 trong nhng u ra

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117

DeMUX 1-2
S khi:
E S1 C0 S0

Tn hiu chn:

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118

DeMUX 1-4
S khi:
E S0 S1 S2 S3 C1 C0

Tn hiu chn:

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119

V d - Thit k DeMUX 1-2


Bng tht:

Biu thc u ra:


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S0 = C0 E S1 = C0 E
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120

5. Cc mch s hc
a. B cng b. B tr c. B so snh

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121

a. B cng
Chc nng: thc hin php cng gia 2 s nh phn. Bn tng (Half-Adder):
Thc hin php cng gia 2 bit thp nht ca php cng 2 s nh phn. S khi:

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122

Bn tng (tip)
Bng tht:

Biu thc u ra ph thuc u vo:

si = ai bi
S mch:
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ri +1 = ai .bi
Minh ha
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Mch test

123

B cng y (Full-Adder)
Chc nng: thc hin php cng gia 2 bit bt k ca php cng 2 s nh phn. S khi:
ri: bit nh u vo ri+1: bit nh u ra

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124

B cng y (tip)
Bng tht:

Biu thc u ra ph thuc u vo:

si = ai bi ri
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ri +1 = ai .bi + ri (ai + bi )

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125

B cng y (tip)
S mch:

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Minh ha
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Mch test

126

B cng nhiu bit


y l b cng 2 s nh phn n bit, kt qu nhn c l 1 s nguyn n+1 bit. S :

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Mch test

127

b. B tr
Chc nng: thc hin php tr gia 2 s nh phn. Bn hiu (Half-Subtractor):
Dng thc hin php tr gia 2 bit thp nht trong php tr gia 2 s nh phn S khi:
Di: hiu Bi+1: bit mn

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128

Bn hiu (tip)
Bng tht:

Biu thc u ra ph thuc u vo:

Di = ai bi
S mch:
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Bi +1 = ai .bi
Minh ha
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Mch test

129

B tr y (Full-Subtractor)
Chc nng: dng thc hin php tr gia 2 bit bt k trong php tr 2 s nh phn. S khi:

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130

B tr y (tip)
Bng tht:

Biu thc u ra ph thuc u vo:

Di = ai bi Bi
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Bi +1 = ai .bi + Bi .(ai bi )

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131

B tr y (tip)
S mch:

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Mch test

132

c. B so snh
Dng so snh 2 s nh phn C 2 kiu so snh:
So snh n gin:
Kt qu so snh: bng nhau, khc nhau

So snh y :
Kt qu so snh: ln hn, nh hn, bng nhau

C 2 loi b so snh:
B so snh n gin B so snh y

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133

B so snh n gin
Gi s cn xy dng b so snh n gin 2 s A v B:
A a3 a2 a1 a0 B b3 b2 b1 b0 u ra S
S = 1 <=> A = B S = 0 <=> A B

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134

B so snh n gin (tip)


Ta c:

a3 a 2 A=B a1 a 0
Suy ra:

a3 b3 = 1 a3 b3 = 0 a b = 0 = b2 2 a 2 b2 = 1 2 = b1 a1 b1 = 0 a1 b1 = 1 a0 b0 = 0 a b = 1 = b0 0 0 = b3

S = a3 b3 .a2 b2 .a1 b1 .a0 b0


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135

B so snh n gin (tip)


S mch:

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136

B so snh y
B so snh 2 bit y :
u vo: 2 bit cn so snh ai v bi u ra: 3 tn hiu bo kt qu ln hn, nh hn, bng nhau ca 2 bit
ai > bi <=> Gi = 1 cn Ei, Li = 0 ai < bi <=> Li = 1 cn Ei, Gi = 0 ai = bi <=> Ei = 1 cn Gi, Li = 0

S khi:

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137

B so snh 2 bit y (tip)


Bng tht:

Biu din u ra theo u vo:

Gi = ai .bi Li = ai .bi
S mch:
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Ei = ai bi
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Minh ha

138

B so snh y 2 s nh phn
Cu to: gm cc b so snh 2 bit C tn hiu CS (Chip Select)
CS = 0, tt c cc u ra = 0 (khng so snh) CS = 1, hot ng bnh thng

Biu din cc u ra ca b so snh 2 bit theo u vo:

Gi = CS .ai .bi Li = CS .ai .bi

Ei = CS .(ai bi )
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Mch test

139

VD: B so snh 2 s nh phn 3 bit


S mch b so snh 2 s nh phn 3 bit:
A = a2a1a0 B = b2b1b0

Minh ha

Mch test
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140

Bi tp chng 4
Bi 1: Tng hp b chn knh 4-1. Bi 2: Thit k b tr/nhn 2 s 2 bit. Bi 3: Tng hp b chn knh 2-1 ch dng NAND. Bi 4: Tng hp mch t hp thc hin php ton sau : M = N + 3, bit rng N l s 4 bit m BCD cn M l s 4 bit.

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141

in t s

Chng 5 H DY

B mn K thut My tnh, Khoa Cng ngh Thng tin Trng i hc Bch Khoa H Ni
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142

Ni dung chng 5

5.1. Khi nim 5.2. M hnh ca h dy 5.3. Cc Trigger 5.4. Mt s ng dng ca h dy

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143

5.1. Khi nim


H dy l h m tn hiu ra khng ch ph thuc vo tn hiu vo ti thi im hin ti m cn ph thuc vo qu kh ca tn hiu vo. H dy cn c gi l h c nh. thc hin c h dy, nht thit phi c phn t nh. Ngoi ra cn c th c cc phn t logic c bn.

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144

Phn loi h dy
H dy ng b: khi lm vic cn c 1 tn hiu ng b gi nhp cho ton b h hot ng. H dy khng ng b: khng cn tn hiu ny gi nhp chung cho ton b h hot ng. H dy ng b nhanh hn h dy khng ng b tuy nhin li c thit k phc tp hn.

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145

Ni dung chng 5

5.1. Khi nim 5.2. M hnh ca h dy 5.3. Cc Trigger 5.4. Mt s ng dng ca h dy

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146

M hnh ca h dy
M hnh ca h dy c dng m t h dy thng qua tn hiu vo, tn hiu ra v trng thi ca h m khng quan tm n cu trc bn trong ca h.

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147

M hnh ca h dy (tip)
C 2 loi m hnh:
Mealy Moore

Hai loi m hnh trn c th chuyn i qua li cho nhau.

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148

a. M hnh Mealy
M hnh Mealy m t h dy thng qua 5 tham s:
X = {x1, x2, ..., xn} Y = {y1, y2, ..., yl} S = {s1, s2, ..., sm} FS(S, X) FY(S, X)

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149

M hnh Mealy (tip)


Gii thch cc k hiu:
X l tp hp hu hn n tn hiu u vo Y l tp hp hu hn l tn hiu u ra S tp hp hu hn m trng thi trong ca h FS l hm bin i trng thi. i vi m hnh kiu Mealy th FS ph thuc vo S v X FS = FS(S, X) FY l hm tnh trng thi u ra: FY = FY(S, X)

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150

b. M hnh Moore
M hnh Moore ging nh m hnh Mealy, nhng khc ch l FY ch ph thuc vo S: FY = FY(S)

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151

Bng chuyn trng thi


M hnh Mealy:

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152

Bng chuyn trng thi (tip)


M hnh Moore:

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153

V d v m hnh h dy
S dng m hnh Mealy v Moore m t h dy thc hin php cng. V d:

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V d: M hnh Mealy
X = {00, 01, 10, 11} - do c 2 u vo Y = {0, 1} - do c 1 u ra S = {s0, s1} - s0: trng thi khng nh - s1: trng thi c nh Hm trng thi FS(S, X): FS(s0, 00) = s0 FS(s0, 01) = s0 FS(s0, 11) = s1 FS(s0, 10) = s0 FS(s1, 00) = s0 FS(s1, 10) = s1 FS(s1, 01) = s1 FS(s1, 11) = s1
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V d: M hnh Mealy (tip)


Hm ra FY(S, X): FY(s0, 00) = 0 FY(s0, 01) = 1 FY(s1, 00) = 1 FY(s1, 11) = 1

FY(s0, 11) = 0 FY(s0, 10) = 1 FY(s1, 10) = 0 FY(s1, 01) = 0

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Bng chuyn trng thi

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157

hnh chuyn trng thi

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V d: M hnh Moore
X = {00, 01, 10, 11} - do c 2 u vo Y = {0, 1} - do c 1 u ra S = {s00, s01, s10, s11} - sij: i = 0 l khng nh i = 1 l c nh j = tn hiu ra

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V d: M hnh Moore (tip)


Hm trng thi FS(S, X): FS(s00, 00) = s00 FS(s00, 01) = s01 FS(s01, 00) = s00 FS(s01, 01) = s01 FS(s10, 00) = s01 FS(s10, 01) = s10 FS(s11, 00) = s01 FS(s11, 11) = s11 Hm ra FY(S): FY(s00) = 0 FY(s10) = 0
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FS(s00, 10) = s01 FS(s00, 11) = s10 FS(s01, 10) = s01 FS(s01, 11) = s10 FS(s10, 10) = s10 FS(s10, 11) = s11 FS(s11, 01) = s10 FS(s11, 10) = s10 FY(s01) = 1 FY(s11) = 1
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160

Bng chuyn trng thi

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161

hnh chuyn trng thi

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162

Ni dung chng 5

5.1. Khi nim 5.2. M hnh ca h dy 5.3. Cc Trigger 5.4. Mt s ng dng ca h dy

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163

Trigger
Phn t c bn ca h dy chnh l cc phn t nh hay cn gi l cc trigger u ra ca trigger chnh l trng thi ca n Mt trigger c th lm vic theo 2 kiu:
Trigger khng ng b: u ra ca trigger thay i ch ph thuc vo tn hiu u vo Trigger ng b: u ra ca trigger thay i ph thuc vo tn hiu vo v tn hiu ng b

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164

Cc kiu ng b
ng b theo mc:
Mc cao:
Khi tn hiu ng b c gi tr logic bng 0 th h ngh (gi nguyn trng thi) Khi tn hiu ng b c gi tr logic bng 1 th h lm vic bnh thng.

Mc thp:
Khi tn hiu ng b c gi tr logic bng 1 th h ngh (gi nguyn trng thi) Khi tn hiu ng b c gi tr logic bng 0 th h lm vic bnh thng.

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165

Cc kiu ng b (tip)
ng b theo sn:
Sn dng:
Khi tn hiu ng b xut hin sn dng (sn i ln, t 0 1) th h lm vic bnh thng Trong cc trng hp cn li, h ngh (gi nguyn trng thi).

Sn m:
Khi tn hiu ng b xut hin sn m (sn i xung, t 1 0), h lm vic bnh thng Trong cc trng hp cn li, h ngh (gi nguyn trng thi).
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166

Cc kiu ng b (tip)
ng b kiu xung:
Khi c xung th h lm vic bnh thng Khi khng c xung th h ngh (gi nguyn trng thi).

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167

Cc loi Trigger
C 4 loi Trigger:
RS D JK T Reset - Set Delay Jordan v Kelly Toggle Xa - Thit lp Tr Tn 2 nh pht minh Bp bnh, bt tt

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168

a. Trigger RS
S khi:

Trigger RS hot ng c c 2 ch ng b v khng ng b

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Bng chuyn trng thi ca RS

Q = S + qR
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V d
Cho Trigger RS ng b mc cao v th cc tn hiu R, S nh hnh v. Hy v th tn hiu ra Q.

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V d (tip)

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b. Trigger D
Trigger D c 1 u vo l D v hot ng 2 ch ng b v khng ng b. Ta ch xt trigger D hot ng ch ng b.

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173

Trigger D ng b
Trigger D ng b theo mc gi l cht D (Latch)

Trigger D ng b theo sn c gi l xc pht sn (Edge trigged)

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174

Bng chuyn trng thi ca D

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V d 1
Cho cht D kch hot mc cao. Hy v tn hiu ra Q dng trn cng trc thi gian vi tn hiu vo D.

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V d 1 (tip)

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V d 2
Cho trigger D xc pht sn dng. Hy v tn hiu ra Q dng trn cng trc thi gian vi tn hiu vo D.

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178

V d 2 (tip)

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179

c. Trigger JK
Trigger JK ch hot ng ch ng b S khi:

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180

Bng chuyn trng thi ca JK

J~S K~R

Q = qJ + q K
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181

d. Trigger T
Trigger T ch hot ng ch ng b S khi:

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Bng chuyn trng thi ca T

Q = qT + qT = q T
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183

Ni dung chng 5

5.1. Khi nim 5.2. M hnh ca h dy 5.3. Cc Trigger 5.4. Mt s ng dng ca h dy

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184

1. B m v chia tn s
B m c dng m xung B m c gi l module n nu n c th m c n xung: t 0 n n-1 C 2 loi b m:
B m khng ng b: khng ng thi a tn hiu m vo cc u vo ca cc trigger B m ng b: c xung m ng thi l xung ng h clock a vo tt c cc trigger ca b m

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185

B m khng ng b module 16
m t 0 n 15 v c 16 trng thi M ha thnh 4 bit A,B,C,D tng ng vi q4,q3,q2,q1 Cn dng 4 trigger (gi s dng trigger JK)
1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1

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186

B m khng ng b module 16
Bng m xung:

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187

B m khng ng b module 16
Biu thi gian:

NX: B m ny ng thi cng l b chia tn s


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188

B m khng ng b module 10
C 10 trng thi cn dng 4 Trigger Gi s dng Trigger JK c u vo CLR (CLEAR: xa) tch cc mc thp
Nu CLR = 0 th q = 0

C mi khi m n xung th 10 th tt c cc q b xa v 0 S : (cc J=K=1)

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189

B m ng b module 8
C 8 trng thi cn dng 3 Trigger Gi s dng cc Trigger JK Bng m xung:

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190

B m ng b module 8 (tip)

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191

B m li khng ng b module 8
Gi s dng Trigger JK c u vo PR (PRESET: thit lp trc) tch cc mc thp
Nu PR = 0 th q = 1

u tin cho PR = 0 th q1q2q3 = 111 Sau cho PR = 1, h hot ng bnh thng


xung 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
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q3 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 1

q2 1 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 1

q1 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1

S m 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 7

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192

B m li khng ng b module 8

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193

2. Thanh ghi
Thanh ghi c cu to gm cc trigger ni vi nhau Chc nng:
lu tr tm thi thng tin Dch chuyn thng tin

Lu : c thanh ghi v b nh u dng lu tr thng tin, nhng thanh ghi c chc nng dch chuyn thng tin. Do , thanh ghi c th s dng lm b nh, nhng b nh khng th lm c thanh ghi.
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194

Phn loi
Vo ni tip ra ni tip
1 0 1 0 1 0 0 1

Vo ni tip ra song song


1 0 1 0 1 0 0 1

Vo song song ra ni tip


1 0 1 0 1 0 0 1

Vo song song ra song song


1
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195

V d
Thanh ghi 4 bit vo ni tip ra song song dng Trigger D

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196

V d (tip)
Bng s liu kho st:

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197

KS28: http://k28cntt.wordpress.com
User: k28cntt Pass: tap the

SPKT Tin K50


Lp ph: Trn Th Dung 0976324219.

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198