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Effects of Advertisements on Buying Behavior

A Research Report on

EFFECTS OF ADVERTISEMENTS ON BUYING BEHAVIOR: A COMPARATIVE STUDY ON MALE AND FEMALE CONSUMERS

Submitted by:
Md. Tajirul Haque Id: 080343

Supervised by:
Rafia Zaman Lecturer

Submitted to:
Coordinator Internship Placement Committee

Management and Business Administration School Khulna University Date of Submission: September 18, 2012 1
A Comparative Study on Male and Female Consumers

Effects of Advertisements on Buying Behavior September 18, 2012 The Coordinator Internship Placement Committee Business Administration Discipline Khulna University

Subject: Submission of Research Report. Dear Sir, Here is the report on Effects of Advertisements on Buying Behavior: A Comparative Study on Male and Female Consumers. It was a matter of pleasure and a great opportunity to explore my knowledge with practical research experience on effects of advertisement on both males and females of Khulna city. Through the completion of this report and the study undergone, I have learnt how to undertake a research study and prepare a report in practice. This will surely help me in my future career and the further endeavor of such kinds. I have exercised all my honest efforts and tried my level best to make this report flawless. Now, I have the honor to thank you for the opportunity. Sincerely Yours, _________________ Md. Tajirul Haque ID No. 080343 Supervised By: _________________ Rafia Zaman Lecturer Business Administration Discipline Management and Business Administration School Khulna University

A Comparative Study on Male and Female Consumers

Effects of Advertisements on Buying Behavior ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

Preparing this research report on Effects of Advertisements on Buying Behavior: A Comparative Study on Male and Female Consumers has been a challenging journey, during which the final destination has at times seemed unattainable. Now, when it came to an end, I finally have a chance to express my deepest gratitude to Almighty Allah and all those people who have helped and guided me throughout the study. First and foremost, I would like to thank my supervisor, Rafia Zaman, Lecturer, without whom this report would have never been completed. She gave me enough of her valuable time to prepare this research report. She guided me with all the details in every step of the study with immense patience. As a novice, I was not aware of many aspects of undertaking a research and preparing a research report. She made me learn and understand everything I needed. Thanks also go to my juniors and friends who helped me in the hard work of data collections. Thanks to the respondents also, as without their help, I would have been without any primary data. Finally, I would like to thank the coordinators and the members of Internship Placement Committee for giving me a chance to undertake this research.

A Comparative Study on Male and Female Consumers

Effects of Advertisements on Buying Behavior

Chapter 1.0: Introduction


1.1 Background of the Study: Advertising is a form of communication that typically attempts to persuade potential customers to purchase or to consume more of a particular brand of product or service. Advertising is a form of communication that typically attempts to persuade potential customers to purchase or to consume more of a particular brand of product or service. Many advertisements are designed to generate increased consumption of those products and services through the creation and reinvention of the brand image. For these purpose, advertisements sometimes embed their persuasive message with factual information. Every major medium is used to deliver these messages, including television, billboard, newspaper, internet, carrier bags, radio etc. Advertising is often placed by an advertising agency on behalf of a company or other organization. Bauer and Greyser (1968) provide evidence that overall attitude towards advertising and reasons why certain ads are considered informative, enjoyable, annoying or offensive. Men and women have different tendencies of being affected by advertisements. This is why companies do not know exactly that which customer group, men or women are easier to influence through marketing campaigns. Therefore, the advertising budget is not spent accordingly to come up with a precise promotional campaign needed. If targeting men is easier, then the marketing should be done accordingly and if affecting women is easier, then the marketing campaign should be tailor made in order to reach that customer segment in a more effective manner. This shows that companies lack the awareness of whom to target through their promotional campaigns. Whether females would be easier to effect through the advertisements or males, this still hasnt been proven according to the Bangladeshi market. This is the motivation behind this study. The main purpose of this paper is to study the effects of advertisements on male vs. female consumer buying behavior in Khulna city. The study is based on the exploratory research titled Effect of Advertisement on male vs. female buying behavior conducted by some independent researchers

A Comparative Study on Male and Female Consumers

Effects of Advertisements on Buying Behavior namely Anila, Muhammed Bashir, Fatima Syed, Moeeza Saeed, Syed Usman Wazir and Zain Malik of National University of Science and Technology, Karachi, Pakistan using the sample of around 500 people within the chosen age bracket of 18-50years for neutral products/services in Rawalpindi/Islamabad. This study is done using responses of 180 samples [90 females and 90 males] for neutral products/services in Khulna city excluding chosen age bracket of 18-50years.

1.1.1 Definitions of Important Terms Used in The Study: Consumer Buying Behavior: As the main objective of this study is to identify effects of advertisement on consumer buying behavior, Consumer Buying Behavior is an important term we must clarify. Wilkie (1994) defined consumer buying behavior as the mental, emotional, and physical activities that people engage in when selecting, purchasing, using, and disposing of products and services so as to satisfy needs and desires. Consumer-buying behavior according to Kotler (2004, p.601) is defined as The buying behavior of consumers individuals and households who buy goods and services for personal consumption. Brand Recall: Brand Recall has been used as an important indication for identifying effects of advertisement on both male and females. Brand Recall is the extent to which a brand comes to a consumers mind when any specific product class is mentioned. In the market research, the term Unaided Brand Recall is often used to find out the image of any particular brand. Commonly, it is assumed that high level of Unaided Brand Recall is beneficial for that particular brand. In short, Brand Recall is a qualitative measure which is used to identify how well a brand name is related with a product class or type of products by asking questions to consumers of that product class. Brand Recall is frequently tested through interviews and surveys by asking respondents questions like Mention as many car models as possible or can you clarify what Intel is?

A Comparative Study on Male and Female Consumers

Effects of Advertisements on Buying Behavior 1.2 Objectives of the Study: This research paper is basically intended towards identifying the general trend in the effect that advertising has on the buying behavior of consumers. The consumers will have been specifically studied in accordance to their respective gender. The research objectives as follows: To identify the distinction between male and female customers perceptions towards advertisement. To identify whether brand recall lead male and female customers to purchase. To identify customers belonging to which genders have a better brand recall.

1.3 Scope of the Study: The study has been carried on the male and female consumers in Khulna city based on the exploratory research mentioned earlier. The said research focused on the chosen age bracket i.e.18-50 years of around 500 [both male and female] samples for neutral products/services in Rawalpindi/Islamabad. The present research is has a total of 180 samples [90 females and 90 males] for neutral products/services in Khulna city excluding chosen age bracket of 18-50years. The independent variable of the study is the effect of advertisement and dependent variables identified are gender and brand recall.

1.4 Rationale of the Study: This research is beneficial, firstly, for the advertising agencies, as it will become easier for them to formulate the exact integrated marketing strategies for their customers so as to target the respective audience of the organization. It will also help the organizations to optimally distribute their marketing expenditure over different mediums of advertising, catering to their target group. It will also provide a platform to the market researchers of the respective organization to devise the marketing budget in accordance with a perfect balance between the

A Comparative Study on Male and Female Consumers

Effects of Advertisements on Buying Behavior medium chosen and the audience targeted. This will support them in identifying their target segment that they can influence and which can work in their favor. Hence getting the maximum return on what they will invest for marketing their product/services. It will also guide the marketers to identify the factors that influence the audience more effectively in any advertisement and so those can be worked on. Also it will be analyzed that how men and women perceive advertisements differently and hence what are the factors that lead to their purchase decision.

1.5 Limitation of the Study: The research study has just been catered to the Khulna city. Others may include the variables identified above.

A Comparative Study on Male and Female Consumers

Effects of Advertisements on Buying Behavior

Chapter 2.0: Literature Review


Advertising refers to a paid form of non-personal promotion of any goods, services or ideas by an identified sponsor with the intention of disseminating information regarding that specific product, service or idea. The main objective of advertisement is to sell the product, service or idea advertised. Other objectives of advertisements include preparing ground for a new product/service, creation of demand of that product/service, facing competition, creating or enhancing goodwill, informing the changes to customers etc. So, a product or service is advertised to make some positive consumer behavior towards that product, service or idea. According to the Morden (1991) advertising gives the knowledge about the product and create the idea in mind about it. As Advertisement is a measure taken by companies to affect buying behavior of consumers of that particular brand, the advertisers will certainly want to know effectiveness of their advertisement efforts. Therefore, Consumer buying behavior is an important area of research for marketers and business developers and they have been studying on this for many years. The importance of studying consumer behavior is imperative from the fact that most product launch features, marketing strategies and positioning strategies are made under the influence of consumer buying trends. These trends are further integrated with regards to gender i.e. male consumer buying behavior vs. female consumer buying behavior. In this regard the persuasiveness of a particular product is different for each gender. This paper has been built on earlier papers to propose a model of gender based buying behavior with regards to the impact of advertisements leading to a higher brand recall. Cobb and Hoyer (1986) found that women are more likely to plan their purchases than men are. Supporting their statements, Block and Morwitz (1999, pp. 361-2) attribute this tendency to three reasons. First, traditionally, females have been in charge of grocery shopping. Second, because of such traditions, females tend to know more about stores and products. Third, also due to their traditional role, females have a better idea about inventory levels when they go shopping than males do. The study

A Comparative Study on Male and Female Consumers

Effects of Advertisements on Buying Behavior of Block and Morwitz also found that the probability that a purchased product was on a planned list was higher for females than for males. Women listed more objects of sentimental value, while men chose more items relating to leisure and finances. However, gender differences were pronounced in orientations towards sets of material goods: by comparison, women saw their possessions as important because of the emotional comfort they provide and the relationships with others they symbolize, while, men referred more too use-related, activity-related and self-expressive features of possessions. These differences can be interpreted as reflecting male and female gender identity, because they echo the distinction between male self -oriented, activity-centered identity construction and female other-oriented, relationshipcentered identity construction described in both the sociological and social psychological literature Dittmar (1989, 1991). In support, Belch and Willis (2002) reported that household purchasing decisions for items such as automobiles, televisions, and financial planning are moving from being primarily male dominated decisions to joint decisions. Household decision-making areas that were once dominated by one gender were also becoming more influenced by the opposite gender. Shoham A., Makovec Breni M. (2003) mentioned Because of their traditional roles as house-makers, females in the study were more likely to exhibit a tendency for advertisement based purchasing. As house chores are split more evenly in developed countries, the expertise of both husbands and wives may be more evenly divided than it was in the past. Thus, many advertisers and agencies believe that advertising creates magic in the market place (Russell & Lane, 1996). Obviously advertisements have some effects on consumer buying behavior. Men and women perceive advertisements in different ways and thus both genders necessitate distinct persuasive techniques. This is

assumed by many that females are more affective by different advertisement efforts of different brands. Wolin, and Korgaonkar (2003) suggest that males and females exhibit different beliefs about and attitudes toward traditional media advertising along with different advertising stimulated consumer behaviors. Furnham and Mac (1999) focused on the portrayal of gender roles in television commercials in different

A Comparative Study on Male and Female Consumers

Effects of Advertisements on Buying Behavior countries (i.e. U.K, U.S.A, Australia and Asia) to study trends and cross-national differences and similarities. This study demonstrated that sex role stereotyping was surprisingly consistent across these countries, especially in the mode of presentation, such as male were consistently more likely voice-overs of the advertisements than women, females were more often visually portrayed. A recent estimate indicates (Shimp, 2007) that almost 20 percent of all advertisements worldwide use celebrity spokespersons. (Cooper, 1984) argues that messages delivered by celebrities provide a higher degree of appeal, attention, and possibly message recall than those delivered by non-celebrities. Marketers also claim that celebrities affect the credibility of the claims made, increase the memorability of the message, and may provide a positive effect that could be generalized to the brand. The study titled Consumer Behavior: Buying, Having and, Being conducted by Solomon (2004) states that compulsive buying refers to consumers repetitive shopping, at times excessive, because of boredom, tension, or anxiety (Solomon, 2004), which both can then be attributed to brand recall and advertisement effect. Advertisement plays an important role in brand recall. In support, Freling, and Forbes (2005), subjects that a brand's personality will have a significantly greater number of brand associations; significantly greater proportion of brand associations;

significantly greater unique brand associations; significantly greater proportion of congruent brand associations; and significantly greater proportion of strong brand associations. Rajagopal (2006), argues that there are many psychographic variables like emotions associated with the brand image which constitute the personality of a brand. In case typical product category advertisements are associated with negative effect, the particular advertising functions act as a counter-attitudinal message, which is more persuasive in the case of a mismatch rather than a match with the category advertisements. However, a persuasive advertising may affect consumer preferences. Previous research has shown that in line with the theoretical arguments, gender was a significant predictor of buying behavior based on brand recall. Thus, this study has provided additional support to earlier research on impact of advertisement on males

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A Comparative Study on Male and Female Consumers

Effects of Advertisements on Buying Behavior vs. females with regards to brand recall (Block and Morwitz, 1999) and leading to buying decision (Cobb and Hoyer, 1986).

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A Comparative Study on Male and Female Consumers

Effects of Advertisements on Buying Behavior

Chapter 3.0: Research Methodology


3.1 Research Type The main form of the research is exploratory study because there is not much material regarding this specific topic already available. The data already available is mainly regarding the foreign markets. This research will be conduct in the domestic market, which is Bangladesh. 3.2 Population First hand research will be carried out by exploring the consumer characteristics in this region specifically. So, population of the research is all male and female buyers in Khulna city. The responses of the respondents are the sources of information. 3.3 Sample The study is based on the primary data to analyze how advertisement affects male and female consumers differently. Dependant and Independent variables were identified as per the data collected. For this purpose, a sample of 180 (90 males and 90 females) people in Khulna city has been chosen on convenient basis. The study has focused on convenient sampling. Although age is not an issue in the research, we surveyed only people over 18 regardless of their occupations.

3.4 Sampling Technique Some of the techniques that will be used to collect the data for the research are mainly qualitative as no previous data is available on such a topic especially for Bangladesh. They are as follows: 3.4.1 Self-Administered Surveys: A sample size of 180 has been surveyed constituting of both the female and male population with equal proportions through a structured questionnaire based on three hypothesis of the research. Questionnaire included personal information of the respondents, close ended and self- explanatory open ended questions. This survey helped analyze how males and females respond differently to different advertisements and how their attitudes towards products are

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A Comparative Study on Male and Female Consumers

Effects of Advertisements on Buying Behavior shaped. The surveys provided data directly filled out by the customer themselves and the survey acted as the starting point for some of the variables that are studied. The questionnaire is attached in the appendix. 3.4.2 Interviews: However, while conducting the surveys it was realized that most

of the respondents did not have the knowhow of how to go about it. So during those sessions they (respondents) were not only administered but also interacted so as to make things sensible and easier for them. In fact, a discussion with the customer can sometimes uncover several factors, which could have previously missed out on. Based on this data, the qualitative techniques have given an in-depth analysis that leads to the research findings. 3.5 Data Analysis Method Different descriptive statistical tools have been used frequency, Mean, median and mode using Microsoft Excel to apply various statistical tests for data analysis purpose. As the first four questions were designed to identify if males and females perceive advertisement differently or not, respondents were asked to rate different advertisement mediums and advertisement themes (5 being the highest, 1 the lowest). For analyzing these two questions, the total percentage of both male of female rated different advertisement mediums and themes and thereby, trying to find out how the perception of male and females differs. The calculated mean, median and mode value of each advertisement mediums and themes for both male and female has also been analyzed. Similarly, percentage, mean, median and mode value of different answer choices for question no 3,4,5,6 have also been calculated. Although question no 7, 8 and 9 were open-ended and self explanatory, number of correct responses have been identified and calculated percentage, mean, median and mode value of different responses of those questions.

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A Comparative Study on Male and Female Consumers

Effects of Advertisements on Buying Behavior 3.6 Data Presentation The data after analyzing has been presented in tabular format. To help the visual, with every table a bar chart has been attached. A short explanation follows the table and the bar chart.

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Effects of Advertisements on Buying Behavior

Chapter 4.0 Analysis


This section covers the analysis based on questionnaires set to identify the objectives of the study.

4.1 Question no. 1: Advertisement Mediums Question no one was designed to find out perception of both male and female on different advertisement mediums like TV, Billboards, Newspaper etc.

Table No: 4.1: Advertisement Mediums Ratings- Females and Males Numbers Ad Mediums
Tv Billboard Newspaper Internet Radio Others 75 7 5 8 2 4 7 18 17 11 6 4 3 34 33 11 9 4 2 23 28 25 21 9 3 8 7 35 52 15

Females 4 3

Numbers 2 1 Ad Mediums
Tv Billboard Newspaper Internet Radio Others

Males 5 4

47 2 10 9 2 2

29 22 32 5 3 1

7 37 24 27 12 0

6 17 17 29 25 13

1 12 7 20 48 31

80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0

75

Tv Billboard
34 33 18 17 11 3 35 28 23 25

Newspaper Internet

7 5 8

11 2 3

8 7

Radio

Figure 4.1- Advertisement Medium Responses- Females

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A Comparative Study on Male and Female Consumers

Effects of Advertisements on Buying Behavior Table No: 4.2 Mean, Median and Mode of Advertisement Medium- Ratings
Mean Females TV Billboard Newspaper Internet Radio Others
60 50 40 30 20 10 0 5 4 3 2 1
10 9 2 22 53 1 7 0 29 47 37 32 27 24 12 6 22 29 25 1717 13 3 87 15 35

Median Males 4.26 2.83 3.23 2.48 1.73 0.78 Females 5 3 3 2 1 0 Males 5 3 3 2 1 1
52

Mode Females 5 3 3 1 1 0 Males 5 3 4 2 1 0


Tv Billboard Newspaper Internet Radio Others

4.65 2.92 2.83 2.24 1.72 o.90

Figure 4.2 Advertisement Medium Responses- Males

5 5 4.5 4 3.5 3 2.5 2 1.5 1 0.5 0 Mean Median 2.922.83 2.24 1.72 0.9 3 3 2 1 0 4.56

5
TV Billboard

Newspaper Internet

1 0

Radio Others

Mode

Figure 4.3 Mean, Median and Mode of Advertisement Mediums- Females

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A Comparative Study on Male and Female Consumers

Effects of Advertisements on Buying Behavior

5 5 4 3 2 1 0 Mean Median 4.26 3.23 2.83 2.48 1.73 0.78 3 3 2 1 1

5 4 3 2 1 0 Mode
TV Billboard Newspaper Internet Radio Others

Figure- 4.4 Mean, Median and Mode of Advertisement Mediums-Males

Discussion on Question No: 1 The question was designed to find the most effective medium of advertising that influences male vs. female customers buying behavior. The exposure of different advertising mediums is different among both the genders. In terms of response count, for females 75 out 90 respondents rate TV 5 while for male it is 47 out of 90. The percentage of women making TV as the most important was much more than that of male (Female: 83.33%, Male: 52.22%). The percentage of female ranking billboard as the most effective medium was much more than that of men (Female:7.78%, Male: 2.22%) while male rank newspaper as the most effective medium 11.11% and for female it is 5.56%. In a similar way, female ranking for internet, radio and others as the most effective medium is 8.89%, 2.22%, 4.4% respectively and for male is 10%, 2.22% and 2.22% respectively.

Thus, the ranking of most effective medium is as for female: TV-InternetBillboard-Newspaper-Radio-others and for male: TV-Internet-Newspaper-

Billboard -Radio-others in terms of percentage based on response counting. On the other hand, on the basis of mean comparison ranking for female: TV Billboard-Newspaper-Internet-Radio-others and for male: TV -NewspaperBillboard-Internet-Radio-others. The differences between two rankings can be interpreted in this way: Since TV is the most popular medium, both male and female rank 1st which is reflected by both percentage and mean value.

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A Comparative Study on Male and Female Consumers

Effects of Advertisements on Buying Behavior In terms of percentage, Internet occupied 2nd rank both for male and female. Social networking has become one of the mostly common communication mediums. Surfing the web has just become a trend for todays generation. Both male and female are more passionate for being connected by the internet to exchange ideas. Female response towards billboard is higher than that of males. Though males are more outgoing in nature compared to female, they are not attracted by the billboard while now-a-days females are not limited to home boundary. They are tending to keep pace with the age of time. They are easily attracted by the gorgeous billboard advertisement since most of them are posed by celebrities. Male rank newspaper higher than that of female since males are tend to be update always and the easiest source is the newspaper. While picking up knowledge and information about variety of affairs worldwide and searching for jobs, their attention goes to various advertisement published in the paper. Since this is the Digital age, the use of radio is suppressed by internet. Though FM radio is very much popular now-a-days, it is just for entertainment which is primarily based on audio and so they are not effective medium of advertisement. On the basis of mean value, Internet making is lagging behind billboard and newspaper for both genders. This is solely responsible that the study has been conducted in Khulna City which is yet to be digitally advanced as like as mega city Dhaka. Here, internet connection is not available every door to door. Thus, internet medium has lower mean value than others. So, from question no 1, it can be deduced that males and females of Khulna city have considerable difference of perception regarding effectiveness of different

advertisement mediums.

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A Comparative Study on Male and Female Consumers

Effects of Advertisements on Buying Behavior 4.2 Question no. 2: Advertisement Themes Question no two was designed to identify perception of both male and females regarding different advertisement themes like humorous, informative, emotional etc. Table No: 4.3 Advertisement Themes Ratings- Males and Females
Numbers

Females 5 4

Numbers

1
Ad Themes

Male 5 4

Ad Themes Humorous Informative Adventurous Emotional Celebrity Endorsed Others (42


didnt Ans)

8 18 7 42 48 6

28 16 8 22 20 0

16 19 21 11 9 9

27 25 25 7 12 8

11 12 29 8 1

Humorous Informative Adventurous Emotional Celebrity Endorsed 25 Others

23 12 3 19 9 3

21 28 26 23 15 1

20 29 18 16 22 6

14 17 35 21 21 11

11 4 8 11 22 35

42 females and 35 males didnt answer Others

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A Comparative Study on Male and Female Consumers

Effects of Advertisements on Buying Behavior

Informative

50 40 30 20 10 0 18 7

48 42 29 22 16 6 8 0 5 4 3 2 1 25 25 20 19 21 11 9 9 12 7 8 12 8 1 25
Celebrity Endorsed Others Adventurous Emotional

Figure 4.5 Advertisement Themes Responses-Females


35 35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 5 4 3 2 1 3 12 23 19 9 3 1 28 26 23 21 15 29 20 22 18 16 6 17 14 2121 11 11 4 22 35
Humorous Informative Adventurous

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Emotional Celebrity Endorsed Others

Figure 4.6- Advertisement Themes responses-Males

Table No: 4.4 Mean, Median and mode of Ad Themes Ratings


Mean Females 2.94 3.02 2.31 3.91 4.13 1.08 Males 3.31 3.30 2.78 3.20 2.61 1.04 Median Females 3 3 2 4 5 1 Males 3 3 3 3 3 1 Mode Females 4 2 1 5 5 0 Males 5 3 2 4 3 1

Humorous Informative Adventurous Emotional Celebrity Endorsed Others

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A Comparative Study on Male and Female Consumers

Effects of Advertisements on Buying Behavior

5 5 4 3.02 2.94 3 2 1.08 1 1 1 2.31 4.13 3.91 3 3 2 2 4 4

5 5
Humorous Informative Adventurous Emotional Celebrity Endorsed

0 0 Mean Median Mode

Others

Figure 4.7 Mean, Median and Mode of Advertisement Medium Ratings-Females


5 5 4 3 2 1 0 Mean Median Mode 3.31 3.3 3.2 2.78 2.61 1.04 3 3 3 3 3 3 2 1 1 4 3
Humorous Informative Adventurous Emotional Celebrity Endorsed Others

Figure 4.2.4 Mean, Median and Mode of Advertisement Medium Responses- Males

Discussion based on question no 2: The question was set to what kind of advertisement themes were preferred by males and females. The analysis reveals that for female 53.33% rank celebrity endorsed advertising as the most effective theme followed by 46.67% emotional and 20% informative. For male 25.56% rank humorous theme as the most effective theme followed by 21.11% emotional and 13.33% informative and 10% celebrity endorsed. Actually, females are more affected by celebrity endorsed ad theme since they are conscious about beauty and they like to follow celebs and their habituates as well as cultural fusion often tends to influence females in our country towards them. Overall, a beautiful model marketing a product would obviously be more attractive than anything else. Females are more emotional since they are very sensitive in nature and so for them, emotional advertisements are more effective. They are often more affected by the emotional themes and also they are really aware about the information being delivered in the ad and that is why that theme has not been ranked very high. On the other hand, for male humorous theme are the most effective one. They arent

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A Comparative Study on Male and Female Consumers

Effects of Advertisements on Buying Behavior typically most serious in nature and they love to enjoy while emotion follows their enjoyment. In fact, the emotional sense is growing up with them since now-a-days, most of good advertisements of various companies are emotional appealing. Since they are more interested in the facts and figures about everything and so obviously informative advertisement is preferred and ranked 3rd in terms of percentages. Thus, the ranking of most effective ad theme is as for female: celebrity endorsedemotional-informative-humorous-adventurous-others and for male: Humorousemotional-informative-celebrity endorsed-adventurous-others in terms of percentage based on response counting. On the other hand, on the basis of mean comparison ranking for female remain same: Celebrity Endorsed (4.13)-Emotional (3.91)Informative (3.02)-Humorous (2.94)-Adventurous (2.31)-Others ((1.08) and for male ranking bit change: Humorous (3.31)-Informative (3.3)-Emotional (3.2)-Adventurous (2.78)-Celebrity Endorsed (2.61)-Others (1.04) . The slight variation with mean comparison for male reflects that though males have preference emotional appealing ads that are few in numbers, curiosity or information seeking tendency suppress the emotional them as a whole. So, from here on Question No. 2, it can be deduced that there is a considerable difference of perception on different advertisement themes effectiveness between females and males.

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A Comparative Study on Male and Female Consumers

Effects of Advertisements on Buying Behavior 4.3 Question no. 3: Perception Regarding Advertisement In question no three respondents were asked to mention their perception if advertisement gives a true picture of a product or service or not.

Table No: 4.5 Response Count on Question no 3


Numbers(Females) Answers Yes No Maybe 47 14 28 52 27 11 Numbers(Males)

Question No 3- Females

28, 31% 47, 53% 14, 16%

Yes No Maybe

Figure 4.8 Question 3-Females

Question No 3-Males

11, 12 % 27, 30% 52, 58%

Yes No Maybe

Figure 4.9 Question 3-Males

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A Comparative Study on Male and Female Consumers

Effects of Advertisements on Buying Behavior Table No 4.6: Mean Median and Mode of Question no 3
Question no 3 Mean Median Mode 1.78 1 1 Females Males 2.45 3 3

Coming to question three, the respondents were specially asked what they thought about advertisement giving a true picture of the products being marketed. A significant percentage of male (57.78%) and female (52.22%) agreed that advertisement were true. While about 15.56% female respondents and almost double of it i.e. 30% male respondent confidently believe that the advertisements do no portray the products very truly. This shows the differing perceptions very clearly. About, 31% female and 13% male chose the option may be because they were not really sure about advertisements authenticity. Yet once again a visible difference. The recurring value (mode) for female is 1 score given to the response yes and for male is 3 score given to the response may be which again reflects significant difference among the gender.

4.4 Question no. 4: Personal Perception In question no four respondents were asked to mention their perception how much advertisement attract their personal attention.
Table No 4.7 Response Count and Mean, Median and Mode of Question no 4Females Numbers Answers Extremely A lot Somewhat No Not at all Females 28 25 31 6 0 Numbers Males 5 20 53 11 1

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A Comparative Study on Male and Female Consumers

Effects of Advertisements on Buying Behavior

Question No -4 Females
6, 7% Extremely 31, 35% 28, 31% 25, 28% A Lot Somewhat No

Figure 4.10 Question No 4- Females

Question No 4-Males
11, 12% 5, 6% Extremely 20, 22% 53, 60% A Lot Somewhat No

Figure 4.11 Question No 4- Males

Table No: 4.8 Mean, Median and Mode of Question No 4


Question no 4 Mean Median Mode Females 2.177 2 3 Males 2.811 3 3

In the question number 4, respondents were asked to what extent advertisements attracted their attention. About 28% female respondents chose the a lot option whereas 22.22% male chose this option which is nearly the same figure. There was also an option of somewhat for people who were not very confident about whether advertisement did or did not attract their attention. A significant percentage constituting 59% males resided to this option whereas about 34% females ticked it too. These percentage differences between men and women clearly depict the

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A Comparative Study on Male and Female Consumers

Effects of Advertisements on Buying Behavior differing perceptions that they about advertisements. The mean value and median value also reflects the difference regarding perception of male and female. In the previous question, about 30% male believed that advertisements did not give a true picture of the products being marketed. Still around 59% said that advertisements somewhat attracted their attention. This shows that male may not believe that advertisements are true; still they attract their attention due to possible reasons like males ranking the humorous-informative-emotional advertisement very high.

So, from the question no 4, it is found that males and females of Khulna City have considerable difference in their perception.

4.5 Question no. 5: Inert Feeling For Purchasing In question no 5, respondents were asked Did an advertisement ever create an inert feeling to try out a product?

Table No: 4.9 Frequency Count of Question No 5 Answers Yes No Sometimes Numbers Females 51 4 35 Numbers Males 26 20 44

Question No 5: Females

Yes 35, 39% 51, 57% No Sometimes

4, 4%

Figure 4.12 Question 5- Females

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A Comparative Study on Male and Female Consumers

Effects of Advertisements on Buying Behavior


Question 5-Males

44, 49%

26, 29% 20, 22%

Yes No Sometimes

Figure 4.13 Question 5-Males

Table No: 4.10 Mean, Median and Mode of Question no 5


Question no 5 Females Males

Mean Median Mode

1.82 1 1

2.2 2 3

In the question respondent were asked whether an advertisement ever created an inert feeling in them to try out a product. About 29% said yes to this question while a visibly greater percentage of female (about 57%) chose this option. Therefore, it can be induced that it is easier to attract females attention through advertising than male. About 23% males chose option No while only about 4% female chose this option since males are not confident enough to be convinced by advertisement as their emotional quotient is lower than female. The most incurring value (mode) for female is 1 score given to yes whereas for male is 3 score given to sometimes. The mean value also differs for both gender- male (2.20) and female (1.82). After critical analysis of independent count figures for both genders, it can be stated that the count for the response no was greater by 16 counts for male. Additionally, the count of females for the response yes was also greater than that of males. 4.6 Question no 6:

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A Comparative Study on Male and Female Consumers

Effects of Advertisements on Buying Behavior In the question no 6, respondents were asked How often is the purchase decision based on an advertisement recall? Following are responses of all 180 respondents:

Table No: 4.11 Response Count of Responses of Question no 6


Numbers Answers Mostly Often Rarely Females 34 45 10 Numbers Males 6 35 42

Never

Question 6- Females
1, 1% 10, 11 %

Mostly 34, 38% Often Rarely

45, 50%

Never

Figure 4.14 Question 6- Females

Question 6- Males
7, 8% 6, 7% Mostly 42, 46 % 35, 39 % Often Rarely Never

Figure 4.15 Question 6- Males

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A Comparative Study on Male and Female Consumers

Effects of Advertisements on Buying Behavior Table No: 4.12 Mean, median and mode of responses of question no 6

Question no 6 Mean Median Mode

Females 1.75 2 2

Males 2.55 3 3

Discussion: To the question How often is the purchase decision based on an advertisement recall? In the question no 6, the respondents were asked how often their purchase decision was based on brand recall. Most of the male respondents accounts for about 47% in chose the Rarely option while for female it is only 11%. About 50% of the female respondents chose the often option and for male is 39%. This shows an interesting fact. The mode value for male is 3 score given to the rarely option meaning that the majority of the respondents out of total 90 male sample size rarely based their purchase decision on their brand recall. The mean value differs about 45% for both genders (male: 2.56, female:1.76) also complement the rare purchase on brand recall. The mode value for female is 2 score given to the often option reflecting that females have a greater brand recall capacity compared to male as also analyzed in the question number 7, 8, and 9.

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A Comparative Study on Male and Female Consumers

Effects of Advertisements on Buying Behavior 4.7 Question no. 7: Brand Recall from Colors In this question, Respondents were asked to list out brands that they recalled from some specific colors. The results were pretty straight forward here. Table 4.13: Response count of Question no 7
Number of time this response is received (Females) 4 1 7 8 18 31 15 5 1 Number of time this response is received (Males) 7 4 7 20 21 15 9 6 1

Response Number 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

40 31 30 20 10 1 1 0 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 5 6 15 9 15 18 21 8 20 7 7 1 7 Females Males 4 4

Figure 4.16 Question No 7- Response Count

Table No 4.14: Mean, Median and Mode of Question No 7


Question no 7 Mean Median Mode Females 4.45 5 5 Males 3.78 4 4

In the first question, which was regarding brands recalled from five specific colors, it was seen that the female respondents who scored the maximum mean value which was higher than that of men. On average, men scored far less than women in terms of

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A Comparative Study on Male and Female Consumers

Effects of Advertisements on Buying Behavior remembering brands from different colors. The recurring value and the mean value for female is 5 and 4.45 respectively which is greater than that of male. So, females have better brand recall than males. 4.8 Question no. 8: Brand Recall from Tag Lines In the question no 8, Respondents were given some tag lines of reputed brands and were asked to mention name of the brand of those tag lines. Table Number 4.15: Response count of question no 8
Number of time response received(Females) 0 1 3 3 9 9 16 16 17 10 6 this Number of time this is response is received (Males) 0 1 4 7 8 25 16 15 6 7 1

Response Number 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

30 25 25 20 15 10 10 5 0 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 6 1 7 6 9 9 8 3 7 3 4 1 1 17 1615 1616 Females Males

Figure 4.17 Response count of question no 8

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A Comparative Study on Male and Female Consumers

Effects of Advertisements on Buying Behavior Table Number 4.16: Mean, Median and Mode of question No 8
Mean Median Mode Question 8 (Females) 6.56 7 8 Question 8 (Males) 5.65 5.5 5

In the next question, in which respondents were supposed to recall brands from different tag lines, once again females were the maximum scorers. Around 72.22% women scored seven or above out of a total of ten while men who scored seven or above were only around 50%. This clearly shows the huge difference in terms of better brand recall. The mean values of female responses is 6.56 which is 16% greater than that of male. So, from the question no 8, it is found that based on tag lines of different reputed brands both male and females have almost similar brand recall yet females have a better brand recall as compared to males as there is about 1 difference in their mean values.

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A Comparative Study on Male and Female Consumers

Effects of Advertisements on Buying Behavior 4.9 Question no 9: Brand Recall from Celebrity Endorsement Respondents were given the names of different celebrities who endorsed different brands. Once again respondents were asked to write as many brands as they can remember which every particular celebrity endorsed. Table Number 4.17 Response Count of Question No 9
Number of time this response is Number of time this response is received(Females) received(Males) 1 0 0 0 0 1 4 3 3 10 5 10 8 9 10 11 15 0 0 0 2 2 5 11 9 8 9 11 6 8 2 5 5 7

Response Number 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16

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A Comparative Study on Male and Female Consumers

Effects of Advertisements on Buying Behavior

16 14 12 10 8 6 4

15

11 10 9 88 7 6 5 5 10

11 10 9 8 9

11

Females Males

5 4 3 2 3

2 1 0 0

2 1 00 0 0 2 1 0 0

2 0 16 15 14 13 12 11 10 9 8 7 6

Figure 4.9.1- Response Count of Question No 9

Table Number 4.18: Mean, Median and Mode of Question No 9


Female Mean Median Mode Question 9 (Females) 12.02 12.5 16 Question 9 (Males) 9.74 9.5 10

For the last question too, the total score was ten and respondents had to list the brands that they remembered from different celebrities. Once again, around 87% of the women were nine and above out of sixteen scorers which was higher than the males which stood at approximately 58%. The gap of 2.28 in the mean value (female: 12.02, male: 9.74) and the 32% difference in the median value along with mode value for female is significantly higher.

It is seen that when women were inquired about the most effective marketing medium and advertising theme in their opinion, they had chosen TV and celebrity endorsed and an emotional advertising theme. This shows that women usually spend more time

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A Comparative Study on Male and Female Consumers

Effects of Advertisements on Buying Behavior at home watching TV as the working woman concept has not evolved in our society at a greater extent till now and also they are more emotionally attracted to the ads as opposed to men. This is why women tend to remember what they see more as compared to men. It is also seen that when it was inquired whether advertisements give a true picture of the product being marketed or not, it was seen that mostly women chose the maybe option because of which it can be said that they may tend to believe more that ads can be honest and that is why they may watch the ads with a greater interest than men who had mostly chosen that ads are not true.

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A Comparative Study on Male and Female Consumers

Effects of Advertisements on Buying Behavior

Chapter 5.0 Findings of the Report


Following are the scope for further research: TV is the most effective advertisement medium for both the genders while Billboards and Newspaper as the second most effective mediums for females and males respectively. Males have a higher exposure rate to Newspaper as compared to fem Males and females have a greater exposure to TV as opposed to males. Perception of both male and female customers regarding advertising medium is different. Females are more affected by celebrity endorsed and emotional themes than males are. Males are more affected by humorous and informative themes than females are. Their perception also various also vary in terms of advertising theme. As compared to females, males perceive that advertisement do not portray the true picture of products. According to male, advertisements were not effective enough to create an inert feeling to purchase a product for male while females are prone to being affected by the advertisements to try out the product. An advertisement can create an inert feeling to try out a product, but when it comes to actually purchasing the products, consumer buying decision is rarely based on brand recall. Just getting a feeling is different than getting an intention to buy the product. Brand recall leads to a purchase would not be very authentic as the results show that people may remember a product due to its advertisements but its not necessary that they would buy it too when they remember it. However, due to advertisement recall there are more females as compared to males who make their purchase decision. Females have a better brand recall as compared to males.

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Chapter 6.0: Conclusion and Recommendation for the Further Research


Based on the findings and analysis of this research, the following can be concluded and recommended: Females are easier to target and affect through marketing due to their higher emotional quotient and TV exposure. It is also more beneficial to target females as their brand recall was also proved to be better so this obviously means that they are more prone to spread the products awareness through word of mouth. Due to these reasons, companies should spend a greater proportion of their marketing budget on targeting females through adverting campaigns based on emotional and celebrity endorsed themes. TV is the most effective mediums for marketing to consumers belonging to both the genders. Billboard and newspapers are second best effective advertisement medium for females and males respectively. It is necessary that brand recall leads to purchase but still promotion is important and effective in terms of creating awareness and recall potential in the consumers. Males and females perceive advertisements differently so different advertising themes are important to target both these genders more effectively. For targeting females there should be more focus on celebrity endorsed and emotional content and. For targeting males on the other hand the focus should be more on humorous and informative content about the product being marketed. The research study can be further carried out on both gender group at other cities or even countries with similar cultural and demographical aspects. Further research can also be studied considering the customers of different age brackets that in such regions would help in generalizing the findings of this research.

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A Comparative Study on Male and Female Consumers

Effects of Advertisements on Buying Behavior APPENDICES Questionnaire Effects of Advertisements on Male vs. Female Consumer Buying Behavior in Khulna City [BBA program, Business Administration Discipline, Khulna University] (This research is being conducted as a partial fulfillment of BBA program of Khulna University. Data provided by you will be used for academic purposes & will be kept concealed). General Information: Name of the respondent: ____________________________________________ Gender: Male Female [ ] Student [ ] Self-employed [ ] Housewife

Occupation: [ ] Service [ ] Others

Q1) Which advertising medium do you think is most effective? (Rate, 5 being the highest, 1 the lowest) TV ________ Billboard ________ News paper ________ Internet ________ Radio (FM) ________ Others ________ Q2) How would you rate the following advertisement theme? (5 being the highest, 1 the lowest) Humorous Informative Adventurous Emotional Celebrity endorsed Others ________ ________ ________ ________ ________ ________

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A Comparative Study on Male and Female Consumers

Effects of Advertisements on Buying Behavior Q3) Do you think that advertisements give a true picture of products/services being marketed? [ ] Yes [ ] No [ ]May be

Q4) To what extent do you think that advertising attracts the attention? [ ] Extremely [ ] A lot [ ] Somewhat [ ] No [ ] Not at all

Q5 ) Did an advertisement ever create an inert feeling to try out a product? [ ] Yes [ ] No [ ] Sometimes

Q6 ) How often is the purchase decision based on an advertisement recall? [ ] Mostly [ ] Often [ ] Rarely [ ] Never

Q7 ) Which brand comes to the mind from the following colors? (List as many as you remember) Yellow Blue Red Green Black Pink Indigo Others ____________________________________________ ____________________________________________ ____________________________________________ ____________________________________________ ____________________________________________ ____________________________________________ ____________________________________________ ____________________________________________

Q8) Fill in the following blanks: Brands _____________________ _____________________ ___________________ _____________________ _____________________ _____________________ ____________________ Tag Lines Making a Difference Connecting People Stay Close Good Food, Good Life Take Care Life cant Wait Its not Just a Cream, its a Fairness Treatment

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A Comparative Study on Male and Female Consumers

Effects of Advertisements on Buying Behavior _____________________ "Because Im worth it"

_____________________ _____________________ _____________________

The Best a Man Can Get. Worlds No 1 Fairness Cream For Men Join the Whitening Revolution

Qno:9) Which advertisement comes to ythe mind when you think of the following celebrities. (List as many as you remember) Priyanka Chopra Kajol Aishwarya Rai Kareena Kapoor Katrina Kaif Shahrkuh Khan Shahid Kapoor John Abraham Salman Khan Ranbir Kapoor Shakib Al Hasan Tamim Iqbal Mosharaf Karim Tisha Abul Hiyat Joya Ahsan ________________________________ ________________________________ ________________________________ ________________________________ ________________________________ ________________________________ ________________________________ ________________________________ ________________________________ ________________________________ ________________________________ ________________________________ ________________________________ ________________________________ ________________________________ ________________________________

Thank You for the Co-Operation

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Effects of Advertisements on Buying Behavior

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