Anda di halaman 1dari 146

General Catalogue

SD-CHEMIE CATALYSTS

Introduction

Content
Page Introduction Feed Purification ActiSorb Catalyst Series Zeolites Catalysts for the Petrochemical Industry Catalysts for the Production of Chemicals Catalysts for the Oil Refinery Industry Olefin Polymerization Air Purification Fuel Cell Technologies Custom Catalysts la Carte Catalysts Research and Development Service and Performance Guarantees Sd Chemie History Catalyst Index and Contact Details 4 14 28 32 46 80 102 106 114 118 122 126 130 134

Content

Introduction
Creating masterpieces for high performance
Our catalysts are created according to our performance technology philosophy. Crafting state-of-the-art catalyst solutions is like creating a piece of art. Whether it is produced for refining, chemical, petrochemical or environmental solutions, our catalysts vary in shape, colour and formulations to suit your needs but they are always avant-garde to offer you the highest performance.

Introduction
Sd-Chemie Profile
Sd-Chemie is a leading supplier of catalysts, adsorbents and additives with a 150-year history. Geared to intensive product development efforts and with its renowned catalyst manufacturing and technical service expertise, the company holds leading positions in many catalytic market segments. Our strong innovation culture is built on a long research tradition which started as a Bavaria based chemical and agricultural products factory established in 1857 by Justus von Liebig and others. Today, Sd-Chemie is an international and technology-oriented global leader in the field of specialty chemistry for adsorbents and catalysts. With sales and earnings recording double-digit annual growth rates for three years in succession and group sales exceeding one billion euros for the first time in 2006, the company will be recruiting a hundred new employees in Germany alone during its anniversary year of 2007. On a worldwide scale, Sd-Chemie employs almost 5,000 people at some seventy subsidiaries, generating over 80% of its sales outside Germany. Committed to improve the profitability of your value chains, we develop highly innovative catalytic solutions which address the needs of a wide array of processes. Specifically, Sd-Chemie is a strategic partner for the following industries: Petrochemicals, Chemicals, Refineries, Polymerisation, Air Purification and Fuel Cells. Innovative concepts, highest safety standards, know-how and commitment of a highly skilled and motivated team all this has brought Sd-Chemie into prime positions in the areas served staying true to its claim to create performance technology. Sd-Chemie your partner in defining the future.

Introduction

Introduction
Sd-Chemies Industry groups Industry group Petrochemicals
Sd-Chemie offers catalysts required in the production of a wide range of petrochemical products, including olefins such as ethylene and propylene, and aromatics such as styrene. Notable products include HOUDRY Catofin catalysts for use in isobutylene or propylene production and the Groups styrene production catalyst, STYROMAX as well the catalyst for selective hydrogenation of acetylene to ethylene. In addition, MT-Prop, a highly specific zeolite catalyst has been developed as the key element of producing propylene from methanol in Lurgis innovative process.

Industry group Chemicals


The Chemicals Group portfolio offers catalytic solutions for many chemical processes, including ammonia, methanol, syngas, sulphuric acid, formaldehyde, phthalic anhydride, maleic anhydride (through Scientific Design), PTA, alcohols, vinyl chloride monomer, and hydrogen peroxide. Catalysts for a wide variety of hydrogenation and amination reactions also form an important part of this business sector for Sd-Chemie, as does custom catalysts used in the production of various specialty chemicals and purification processes.

Industry group Refinery


Products supplied by Sd-Chemie for refineries include catalysts for the production of hydrogen, gasoline and clean fuels plus innovative catalysts for gas-to-liquid (GTL), coal-to-liquid (CTL) and BTL (biomassto-liquid) applications. These are complemented by a large selection of guards and traps, which protect valuable downstream catalysts and aid refinery operational reliability. For refinery customers, Sd-Chemie focuses on providing catalysts with reliable performance. The catalysts are known for their durability and the value they add to the refinery processes via prolonged catalyst life and reduced plant down time.

Industry group Olefin Polymerization


In the area of olefin polymerization, Sd-Chemie offers C-MAX - a series of Ziegler-Natta catalysts which is highly optimized for the manufacturing of Polypropylene, It is suitable for a variety of different polypro-pylene production process platforms. C-MAX catalysts enable PP producers to manufacture their entire product range with high activity, excellent operational control and competitive operational cost. C-MAX catalysts are commercially well proven in several units both for major bulk loop/gas-phase and CSTR processes.

Introduction

Introduction
Investing continuously in R&D has proven for Sd-Chemie to be very fruitful in terms of offering catalysts with improved performance and catalyst lifetime. Sd-Chemies R&D is well positioned to face the future challenges and to continue successfully supporting our clients in the chemicals, petrochemicals, refinery and olefin polymerization industry. Steady improvement of our catalyst portfolio in order to meet specific needs and search for individual solutions is our strength. Dedicated groups in Europe, Asia and the United States are working in close contact with our customers to find individual solutions and to develop new catalysts. The Group has six international R&D centers (in Germany, China, India, Italy, Japan and the US) and also technical centers throughout the world to meet customers` requirements. Strengthening our global R&D presence is mandatory; it is the only way to keep pace with increasing demand for more efficient catalysts, and offer the best solution. In 2003, the Sd-Chemie broke new ground when it was awarded the Presidential Green Chemistry Challenge Award in the US as the first manufacturer of catalysts to be so honored for a nearly waste water free catalyst manufacturing process. Sd-Chemie continues to search for environmentally friendly and responsible production procedures and applications for its catalysts. Newly developed catalysts are helping to turn waste into fuels, valuable raw materials and products for the chemical industry. Carbon dioxide utilization is an important task and Sd-Chemie is active in this area by developing catalysts which are making this possible. Sd-Chemie Defining the Future

Introduction

Introduction
Sd-Chemie Defining the Future
In the past years Sd-Chemies Defining the Future conferences established as a platform for defining the future of catalysis and processes with leading actors of the industry. Defining the Future conferences provide an ideal forum to discuss the latest innovations in catalysis and process engineering, the opportunities and challenges the industries are facing, and the strategies that can be developed to address them. The first conference in the Sd-Chemie Defining the Future series was held in Bahrain in 2004. After the major success of this conference, a second conference was hosted in Shanghai in early November 2005, which attracted more than 400 participants from all over the world. Due to Sd-Chemies 150th anniversary in 2007, the third Defining the Future conference is taking place in Munich, the companys headquarter site. Following Sd-Chemies statement of creating performance technology, the Sd-Chemie Group is well prepared to define the future together with their customers adding value to their daily business. Whatever your next strategic move will be, consider Sd-Chemie for your catalytic solution. An overview on our catalytic technologies is contained in the following pages.

Introduction

Introduction
Shapes make the Difference
Sd-Chemies catalysts are available in a wide variety of different shapes and sizes, so that the user can always select the optimum activity, selectivity, and pressure drop. There are basically two different types of catalysts:

Precipitated catalysts Carrier catalysts


Precipitated catalysts are of identical chemical composition throughout the entire particle, whereas in a carrier catalyst, the active component is added to a carrier so that the active metals are near the surface of the particle.

Typical shapes include:

Tablets Rings Ribbed rings Multi-holed rings extrusions Pellets Spheres Monolithic structures Saddles Foams (ceramic and metallic) Wire mesh Wall flow filters Fibre mats Screens Flakes granules Powder

10

Introduction

Introduction
Tablets
A variety of tablet sizes can be produced, depending on the catalyst formulation and the intended application. The most common sizes range from 3 x 3 mm to 9 x 9 mm. Most of our tablets are domed, ensuring better packing and less dust formation Smaller tablets generally have greater activity and higher pressure drop than large tablets.

extrusions
The key types of extrusions are:

Plain extrusion Ribbed extrusion TRIaX extrusion CDS extrusion


CDS stands for Computer Designed Shape, and represents an optimum combination of physical strength, activity, poison resistance and pressure drop. For this reason, Sd-Chemie offers a wide range of catalysts in this shape.

Introduction

11

Introduction
Rings
Rings are a poular shape for many of our products. Sd-Chemie has made many innovations in rings shapes. A complete listing of our shapes follows.

Raschig ring Ribbed ring (RR) 3-holed ring (THS) 6-holed ring (gutling gun, gg ) 10-holed ring (low differential pressure, LDP shape) Spoked-wheel (eW shape)

Spheres
Spherical catalysts can be based on either precipitated precursors or carriers. They can be as small as 1 mm and as large as 75mm.

Honeycombs and Foams


Where an application is sensitive to pressure drop, as is the case for ambient pressure operations, or where a high space velocity is needed, honeycombs and foams whether ceramic or metallic are the optimum shape. Honeycombs and similar shapes form the basis of almost all catalysts used for air purification and for the reformer upstream of fuel cells.

12

Introduction

Introduction
Other Shapes
Some catalysts are available in the form of flakes or irregular granules. For application in a fluidised bed or in liquid phase, powder is the ideal shape. Please note that the shapes and sizes listed in this catalogue represent the standard for the respective product. Please contact our sales division for information on non-standard dimensions.

Reduced and Stabilised Catalysts


Most catalysts consist of one or more metal oxides. Most of Sd-Chemies catalysts can be supplied in any of the following forms:

Oxidic Reduced and dry stabilised (RS version) Reduced and submerged in an organic liquid (R version)
The RS and R versions are safe to transport and ready to use with only a short start-up time.

Introduction

13

Feed Purification actiSorb Catalyst Series


Pure and clear
Just like old master pieces brilliance and clarity come from the finest and purest selection of materials. Just like your feeds only with Sd-Chemie catalysts will you be able to create the value-added position resulting from high performance products.

Feed Purification
actiSorb Catalyst Series
Sd-Chemie developed the ActiSorb series of catalysts and adsorbents for the purification of almost all hydrocarbon feedstocks. This purification is normally a combination of a reaction using a pretreatment catalyst, i.e. hydrogenation, followed by adsorption with the ActiSorb adsorbent. The following table gives a general overview of the different families of ActiSorb materials.

Organic Chlorides

Silica Compounds

Organic Sulphur

Thiophens

Organic Nitrogen

Organic Fluorine

Heavy Metals

COS

HCN

NH3

H 2S

actiSorb S actiSorb CI actiSorb F actiSorb Hg actiSorb 300 actiSorb 301 actiSorb 310 actiSorb Si actiSorb O actiSorb N Tonsil aPT-N g-92D

16

Feed Purification

H 2O

HCI

PH3

HF

O2

Feed Purification
Sulphur Removal
Sulphur in the form of organic compounds can be removed either as such or by hydrogenation to H2S followed by adsorption of the latter. The ActiSorb S 7 catalyst is recommended for the removal of H2S, mercaptans, disulphides and thiophens in hydrocarbon feedstreams, ranging from naphtha to middle distillates. The achieved purity is less than 0.1 ppm wt. sulphur.
actiSorb S 7
Nominal Content [wt.%] NiO Binder Shape Size [mm]

66 Balance CDS Extrusions 1.5

Hydrodesulphurisation
The standard catalysts for the hydrogenation of organic sulphur compounds in hydrocarbon feedstocks are the cobalt-molybdenum-type catalysts from the HDMax 200 series. These catalysts are used in both liquid and gas phase for all types of hydrocarbons, such as naphtha, LPG, natural gas and off-gases. For the hydrogenation of organic nitrogen compounds and/or olefin saturation, our nickel-molybdenum-based HDMax 310 catalyst is recommended.
HDMax 200
Nominal Content [wt.%] CoO NiO MoO3 Al2O3 Shape Size [mm]

HDMax 300 36 1 Balance CDS Extrusions TRIAX Extrusions 2.5

35 10 Balance CDS Extrusions TRIAX Extrusions 2.5

Feed Purification

1

Feed Purification
H2S Removal
The ActiSorb S series of ZnO based adsorbents is used for the removal of sulphur components such as hydrogen sulphide, mercaptans and COS from hydrocarbon feedstreams. ActiSorb S 2 is the perfect solution when operating at high space velocities and elevated temperatures, while ActiSorb S 3 is recommended in applications with lower space velocities and higher inlet sulphur concentrations. The maximum bulk density catalyst ActiSorb S 1 is ideal in applications where the feed contains high inlet sulphur concentrations, and where maximum sulphur pick-up per loaded unit volume is required.
actiSorb S 1
Nominal Content [wt.%] ZnO Al2O3 Shape Size [mm]

actiSorb S 2

actiSorb S 3

100 Extrusions 4.5

0 Balance Extrusions 4.5

0 Balance Extrusions 4.5

In some cases, it is necessary to remove the sulphur to a level below 10 ppb H2S. ActiSorb S 6, a copper-promoted zinc oxide, is placed in the bottom of the standard zinc oxide reactor and removes the remaining H2S to a value < 10 ppb H2S under a wide range of operating conditions.
actiSorb S 6
Nominal Content [wt.%] CuO ZnO Al2O3 Shape Size [mm]

Proprietary Proprietary Balance Tablets 6x3

18

Feed Purification

Feed Purification
Desulphurisation of natural gas and light hydrocarbon feedstocks is also possible under ambient conditions using activated carbon. G-32J is coconut-shell-based and promoted with copper oxide. It should be noted that propane and C4+ hydrocarbons are absorbed by the activated carbon, thereby minimising the sulphur pickup capability of G-32J.
g-32J
Nominal Content [wt.%] CuO Activated Carbon Shape Size [mm]

6 Balance Granules 1 5 and 0.5 1

Purification of natural gas containing low concentrations of total sulphur can also be performed by ActiSorb G 1, a promoted ZnO catalyst. Simultaneous hydrodesulphurisation and H2S pick-up is a feature unique to ActiSorb G 1. Even when saturated, the ActiSorb G 1 catalyst fully retains its hydrogenation capabilities.
actiSorb g 1
Nominal Content [wt.%] CuO MoO3 ZnO + Binder Shape Size [mm]

1.5 3.5 Balance Extrusions 4.5

Feed Purification

1

Feed Purification
COS Hydrolysis
The ActiSorb 410 catalyst selectively promotes the simultaneous hydrolysis of COS and hydrogenation of CS2. HCN is also hydrolysed. The high selectivity of ActiSorb 410 means that process gases with very high CO concentrations can be treated. The feed to the COS hydrolysis reactor usually contains nickel and iron carbonyls. These carbonyls decompose on the ActiSorb 410 catalyst into CO and the respective metals, leading to deactivation of the ActiSorb 410 catalyst. It is therefore necessary to install a guard reactor with ActiSorb 400 to selectively decompose any traces of metal carbonyls on the guard catalyst.
actiSorb 400
Nominal Content [wt.%] Cr2O3 K2O AI2O3 SiO2 Shape Size [mm]

actiSorb 410 11 6 Balance Tablets 4.5 x 4.5

16 Balance Spheres 5

COS and arsine Removal


Refinery feeds and C3 streams from steam crackers often contain both COS and AsH3, and sometimes PH3 traces. CuO catalysts such as ActiSorb 300 and ActiSorb 310 are currently used with great success, mainly to purify propylene. Absorption of poisons can be accomplished in either the gas or liquid phase. The product purity achieved is normally below the detectable limit. As a result, the selective hydrogenation catalyst installed downstream is perfectly protected and can pursue its basic activity and selectivity. The consumption of polymerisation catalysts is drastically reduced with a poison guard. Feed polishing prior to polymerisation is therefore extremely valuable for downstream operations.

20

Feed Purification

Feed Purification
actiSorb 300
Nominal Content [wt.%] CuO ZnO MnO2 AI2O3 Shape Size [mm]

actiSorb 301

actiSorb 310

41 41 Balance Tablets 4.8 x 3.2

53 2 Balance Extrusions 3

16 25 Balance CDS Extrusions 1.5

Chlorine Removal
Sd-Chemie offers a range of adsorbents for the removal of HCl, ammonium chlorides and organic chlorine compounds, depending on the hydrocarbon feedstock and operating conditions. ActiSorb Cl 2 and ActiSorb Cl 6 are used for liquid phase applications, while ActiSorb Cl 2 and ActiSorb Cl 3 adsorbents are recommended in the gas phase.
actiSorb CI 2
Nominal Content [wt.%] Na2O ZnO Promoter Binder AI2O3 Shape Size [mm]

actiSorb CI 3

actiSorb CI 6

 Balance Spheres 35

40 40 Balance Pellets 4.8

48 25 Balance CDS Extrusions 1.5

Fluorine Removal
ActiSorb F adsorbs organic fluorine compounds and HF in hydrocarbon feedstocks.
actiSorb F
Nominal Content [wt.%] Na2O AI2O3 Shape Size [mm]

0.3 Balance Spheres 35

Feed Purification

21

Feed Purification
Metal Removal Mercury Removal
The catalysts of the ActiSorb Hg series absorb traces of mercury from all types of feed to non-detectable levels. ActiSorb Hg catalysts are used for Hg removal from:

Natural gas LPg Mercury ore furnace gas Incinerator vent gas Vent streams from laboratories Off-gases in manufacture of electrical devices and operation of power plants

The ActiSorb Hg 1 catalysts are extremely effective in removing Hg in chlorine plants, and purifying hydrogen given off as a by-product in sodium amalgam decomposition and cell room ventilation air.
actiSorb Hg 1
Nominal Content [wt.%] S Activated Carbon Shape

actiSorb Hg 2 15 Balance Granules

10 Balance Granules actiSorb Hg 5

Nominal Content [wt.%] Ag AI2O3 Shape Size [mm]

6 Balance Spheres 24

22

Feed Purification

Feed Purification
Silica Removal
ActiSorb Si is a specially promoted alumina which is designed to remove silicon-based antifoaming agents from hydrocarbon feeds.
actiSorb Si
Nominal Content [wt.%] Na2O AI2O3 Shape Size [mm]

0.3 Balance Spheres 35

CO Removal
Various feed-streams contain CO in concentrations of several ppm up to one percent, which has to be removed to levels below 10 ppb. The type of catalyst is chosen according to the feed, e.g. Ni catalysts to methanate CO in hydrogen streams and CuO-catalysts to remove CO from ethylene and nitrogen by adsorption or by catalytic reaction with addition of air/oxygen.

Removal of CO from Hydrogen


In steam cracker plants, the hydrogen typically contains 0.2 - 1% vol. CO, but no CO2. Ideally, CO-methanation should be carried out at the lowest possible temperature. To accomplish this task, we provide an Ru-catalyst for operating temperatures of approximately 170 C and Ni-catalysts, which must be operated above 200 C to avoid Ni-carbonyl formation.
MeTH 134
Nominal Content [wt.%] NiO Ru Support Shape Size [mm]

MeTH 150 0.3 Balance Tablets 4.5 x 4.5

25 Balance Spheres 36

Feed Purification

23

Feed Purification
Removal of CO from ethylene
The CuO/ZnO catalyst PolyMaxTM 301 removes CO from polymer grade ethylene both completely and successfully. The tolerable remaining CO level in the ethylene is determined by the polymerisation catalyst applied in the various processes. This purification process is cyclic and re-oxidation of the catalyst is necessary.
PolyMaxTM 301
Nominal Content [wt.%] CuO Support Shape Size [mm]

30 Balance Extrusions 3

Removal of CO from Nitrogen


CO can be removed from nitrogen using CuO catalysts such as PolyMaxTM 301. Absorptive removal requires periodic re-oxidation of the catalyst, giving a typical scenario of cyclic operation with two catalyst beds. Successful operation requires a well-controlled addition of air for reaction across the reduced catalyst.

Oxygen Removal Removal of Oxygen from ethylene


Reduced copper catalysts are used successfully in order to remove trace oxygen from ethylene. The most suitable catalyst can be chosen in line with the required purity and temperature level. PolyMaxTM 301 is the standard product, serving most applications.
PolyMaxTM 301
Nominal Content [wt.%] CuO Support Shape Size [mm]

30 Balance Extrusions 3

24

Feed Purification

Feed Purification
Removal of Oxygen from Propylene
The following are recommended for trace oxygen removal from propylene streams in the presence of a slight over-stoichiometric quantity of hydrogen: ActiSorb O 2 for gas phase operation, and OleMaxTM 350 for liquid phase.
actiSorb O 2
Nominal Content [wt.%] Pd AI2O3 Shape Size [mm]

OleMaxTM 350 0.3 Balance CDS Extrusions 1.5

0.15 Balance Spheres 35

Removal of Oxygen from Isomerates


Tetraethylene glycol (TEG) is used in downstream processing of Penex isomerisation units. It is typically removed by means of a water wash. Sd-Chemie developed the highly porous ActiSorb O 1 for the removal of TEG in fixed-bed operation. ActiSorb O 1 sustains its adsorption capacity even after repeated regeneration.
actiSorb O 1
Nominal Content [wt.%] Promoter AI2O3 Shape Size [mm]

Proprietary Spheres 35

Feed Purification

25

Feed Purification
Nitrogen Removal
Sd-Chemie produces ActiSorb N 1 for the removal of NH3 and basic organic nitrogen compounds from hydrocarbon streams.
actiSorb N 1
Nominal Content [wt.%] H3PO4 Support Shape Size [mm]

Proprietary Balance Spheres 35

Modern liquid-phase alkylation catalysts of the zeolite type are very sensitive to basic compounds such as nitrogen compounds. As benzene is mainly produced by solvent extraction using N-methylpyrolidone (NMP) and N-formylmorphylane (NFM), it may contain nitrogen in a range of between 0.1 1.0 ppm. Even such low concentrations of nitrogen can effectively be removed using our special Tonsil granular products.
Tonsil aPT-N
Nominal Content [wt.%] Alumosilicate Shape Size [mm]

Tonsil CO-N 100 Granules 0.25 1.0

100 Extrudates 24

Water Removal
G-92D is a specially promoted alumina product which is designed to remove polar components, like alcohols and water, from hydrocarbon feedstocks.
g-92D
Nominal Content [wt.%] Promoter AI2O3 Shape Size [mm]

Proprietary Balance Spheres 35

26

Feed Purification

Feed Purification
ammonia Dissociation
NH3 is an undesirable component often present in off-gases. To reduce environmental emissions, it is typically dissociated at high temperatures to yield N2 and H2. Due to the extreme temperatures, the application requires a very rugged catalyst. The ReforMax 117 nickel on MgO carrier catalyst is supplied in an enhanced surface area ribbed ring for maximum activity.
ReforMax 117
Nominal Content [wt.%] NiO AI2O3 Shape Size [mm]

6 Balance Ribbed Rings 30 x 28 x 11

Purification of Natural gas


To produce pipeline grade and LNG grade natural gas a combination of different adsorbents is required. Depending on the impurities and the required specifications H2S, COS, ASH3 and Hg have to be removed.
actiSorb Hg 1
Nominal Content [wt.%] CuO ZnO MnO2 AI2O3 S Activated Carbon Shape Size [mm]

actiSorb 301

actiSorb 310

10 Balance Granules -

53 2 Balance Extrusions 3

16 25 Balance CDS Extrusions 1.5

Feed Purification

2

Zeolites
Light and elegant
What do zeolite catalysts have to do with fashion? They transform valuable raw materials like methanol and DME into propylene. Young designers develop textile fibres out of these, that are lighter, more robust and breathable than all previous materials. Welcome to the future!

Zeolites
Product Description
Sd-Chemies zeolite manufacturing program can basically be broken down into the following types:

Zeolite Pentasil (MFI) Zeolite Mordenite (MOR) Zeolite Beta (Bea) Custom zeolites

Pentasil MFI
SiO2 /AI2O3 ratio Surface Area [m /g]
2

Mordenite MOR 10 - 200 > 300 Na, NH4, H Powder Granules Extrusions

Beta Bea 25 - 400 > 500 Na, NH4, H Powder Granules Extrusions

20 - 500 > 300 Na, NH4, H Powder Granules Extrusions

Chemical Form

Shape

Zeolite Pentasil is made up of a orthorhombic crystal structure with straight 10-membered ring channels (0.53 x 0.55 nm). These are connected by sinusoidal channels (0.51 x 0.55 nm). Zeolite Mordenite has an orthorhombic crystal structure with straight 12-membered ring channels (0.65 x 0.70 nm) and crossed 8-membered ring channels (0.28 x 0.57 nm). Zeolite Beta has a tetragonal crystal structure with straight 12-membered ring channels (0.76 x 0.64 nm) and crossed 12-membered ring channels (0.55 x 0.55 nm). Zeolite Custom Catalysts: Sd-Chemie has an extensive portfolio allowing us to develop and manufacture virtually any zeolite or zeolite catalyst in respond to specific customer specifications, including various aluminosilikate types but also modern alumophosphates. As an independent zeolite manufacturer our approach is much more flexible.

30

Zeolites

Zeolites
applications of Zeolite Catalysts
Zeolite-based catalysts are used in a huge number of applications. These include the following, among many others:

Isomerisation of C5/C6 paraffins Isomerisation of waxes and lube oils Xylene isomerisation Toluene disproportionation Shape-selective hydrocracking reactions such as catalytic dewaxing of middle distillates Conversion of olefins to petrol and diesel Conversion of methanol to petrol Conversion of methanol to propylene NOx removal N2O removal VOC removal Isomerisation of dichlorbenzenes alkylation of benzene Transalkylation of C9+ aromatics Selective methylamine synthesis Organic rearrangement reactions
The zeolite catalysts for these reactions are described in the respective chapters.

Zeolites

31

Catalysts for the Petrochemical Industry


Safeguarding your value position
Art needs to be protected so does your value position. Just like the polystyrene corner guards protect the picture, Sd-Chemies catalyst solutions protect your companys competitive position. Sd-Chemie produces efficient and cost effective catalysts that transform petrochemical raw materials such as styrene and benzene, with minimal impact to the environment for your benefit.

Petrochemical Industry
BTX Chemistry ethylbenzene Production
The EBUF catalyst is the fruit of a joint development between Sd-Chemie and a major oil company. It is the optimum catalyst for vapour phase alkylation units because it reduces the formation of by-products, such as xylenes and PEBs. This significantly improves the overall cost efficiency of styrene production. EBUF is also available in CDS extrusions for maximum throughput at low pressure drop.
eBUF-1
Nominal Content [wt.%] Zeolite Shape Size [mm]

eBUF-2 MFI CDS Extrusions 2.5

MFI Extrusions 1.5

Toluene Disproportionation and C9a+ Transalkylation


TDP-1 emerged as the result of cooperation with a major oil and petrochemicals company, where TDP-1 has demonstrated its clear superiority over traditional catalysts, e.g. in terms of a short break-in period after start-up to obtain full performance. TDP-1 is also successfully used in commercial operation for transalkylation of C9+ aromatics, based on its high xylene yields and transalkylation activity at very high C9A+ feed.
TDP-1
Nominal Content [wt.%] Zeolite Shape Size [mm]

MOR Extrusions 1.5

Xylene Isomerisation
Todays xylene isomerisation processes reflect two different strategies in terms of ethylbenzene co-processing: dealkylation to benzene and light gases versus isomerisation to xylenes, with the dealkylation process being generally accepted because of its greater cost efficiency.

34

Petrochemical Industry

Petrochemical Industry
Our product range includes ISOXYL catalysts for all possible dealkylation processes. This family of isomerisation catalysts boasts maximum activity and minimum xylene losses, regardless of the users process type preferences.
ISOXYL
Nominal Content [wt.%] Promoter Zeolite Shape Size [mm]

Proprietary MFI Extrusions 1.5

Production of ethylene Oxide (eO)


SynDox, manufactured by Scientific Design Company (a SABICSd-Chemie partnership company) is supplied for the selective oxidation of ethylene to ethylene oxide, which is in turn used primarily to produce mono-ethylene glycol, and to a lesser extent, EO derivatives. The selective oxidation of ethylene by oxygen is a recycle process and per pass conversion is low due to reactor outlet oxygen concentration limitations (reactor is operated within the flammable region for ethylene and oxygen). By-products include carbon dioxide, and small amounts of acetaldehyde, made by isomerization of EO, and formaldehyde, made principally by ethylene oxidation. SD High Activity catalyst is currently in operation in many commercial plants worldwide and has been proven to operate successfully at high production work rates (kg EO/hr/volume of catalyst) and at high inlet CO2 concentrations. Optimum performance of SynDox catalyst is achieved by the carefully controlled addition of a selectivity enhancer in ppm levels to the feed stream. SDs current EO catalyst is designated SynDox 2110S the 2110 series was first introduced to the market in 2001; 2110S catalyst introduced in 2005 is a more stable version of the original 2110 formulation. After many years of development and testing, in late 2007, SD will introduce a High Selectivity EO Catalyst which will have start of run selectivities 5-8% higher than High Activity Catalyst. The new EO/EG plant designs currently being offered by SD already incorporate the provisions to operate the plant with the High Selectivity Catalyst.

Petrochemical Industry

35

Petrochemical Industry
Syndox 2110S Series eO catalyst
Nominal Content [wt.%] Silver Promoters Carrier Shape Size [mm]

11 Proprietary Alumina Rings x/8x8/x

High Purity aromatics


Benzene, toluene and xylene (BTX) are typically produced by distillation and/or solvent extraction processes from reformate streams. The various raw aromatic compounds contain small amounts of olefins, which are effectively removed thanks to Sd-Chemies clay treatment technology, the Tonsil CO family. We can provide tailored qualities to treat extracted benzene, toluene, xylene and mixed aromatics. The extruded products of the Tonsil APT family significantly improve handling properties and cost performance. The following table outlines product recommendations for the treatment of BTX streams:
Tonsil CO 6x6 g
Application Nominal Content [wt.%] Alumosilicates Shape Size [mm]

Tonsil CO 6x6 gS Mixed Xylenes C8/C+ Aromatics

Tonsil CO 6x0 g
Xylene Isomerisation Recycle

Benzene/Toluene

100 Granules 0.25 1.0


Tonsil aPT - BT

100 Granules 0.25 1.0


Tonsil aPT - mX

100 Granules 0.25 1.0


Tonsil aPT - pX

Application Nominal Content [wt.%] Alumosilicates Shape Size [mm]

Benzene/Toluene

Mixed Xylenes C8/C+ Aromatics

Xylene Isomerisation Recycle

100 Extrusions 35

100 Extrusions 35

100 Extrusions 35

36

Petrochemical Industry

Petrochemical Industry
Styrene Production
The majority of styrene produced in the world today is made by dehydrogenation of ethylbenzene (EB) using one of a family of Sd-Chemie STYROMAX catalysts. These include the following:

STYROMAX 3 & STYROMAX 5 Still widely used by many


producers across the globe, these catalysts are physically rugged and have demonstrated run-lengths of longer than 42 months. They offer an excellent balance of activity and selectivity, and can be used at steam/oil ratios as low as 1.15 wt./wt.

STYROMAX Plus 5 More active and more selective than


STYROMAX 5, this is the most widely used catalyst in Asia. STYROMAX Plus 5 is commercially proven over a wide range of steam/oil ratios, including values as low as 1.15 wt./wt. It offers the best combination of selectivity and activity available in the world today.

STYROMAX 6 Offering the same exceptional performance and range


of operation as STYROMAX Plus 5, it has exceptional physical strength and features a very low attrition rate. STYROMAX 6 is the catalyst of choice for customers in Europe, the Middle East and the Americas.

STYROMAX  Providing state-of-the-art operating flexibility,


STYROMAX 7 is the choice for application in ultra-low steam/oil operations. The catalyst has been extensively tested in adiabatic pilot plants at steam/oil ratios as low as 0.9 wt./wt.

STYROMAX 8 Newest development in the STYROMAX line of


catalysts, STYROMAX 8 provides selectivity similar to STYROMAX 6 while providing higher activity. Customers can capture value via either increased production or greater catalyst life, while operating at steam/oil ratios as low as 1.15 wt./wt.

DMax 1 Offering cutting edge performance, DMax 1 provides the industrys highest selectivity for operation at steam/oil ratios of 1.0 wt./wt. The catalyst has many years of operating experience across the globe. All STYROMAX catalysts are available in various different sizes and shapes. Standard sizes are 3.0 mm smooth extrusion, 3.5 and 4.5 mm patented ribbed extrusions. Custom sizes and shapes are available upon request.

Petrochemical Industry

3

Petrochemical Industry
Phenylacetylene Hydrogenation
Small quantities of phenylacetylene are formed over iron oxide based ethylbenzene dehydrogenation catalysts. These can have a negative effect on certain styrene polymerisation processes. Phenylacetylene is hydrogenated over the HDMax PA catalyst to styrene at a very high selectivity in the liquid phase.
HDMax Pa
Nominal Content [wt.%] Pd Al2O3 Shape Size [mm]

0.3 Balance Spheres 24

Cumene Synthesis
The phosphoric acid on kieselguhr catalyst PolyMax 131 has been successfully used for decades to alkylate benzene with propylene to form cumene. This catalyst is capable of working under a wide range of different operating conditions, depending on feedstock type and plant design. PolyMax 131 is manufactured in a strong extruded shape which gives it much greater resistance to attrition losses.
PolyMax 131
Nominal Content [wt.%] Short Acid as P2O5 Total Acid as P2O5 Shape Size [mm]

1 65 Pellets 6

38

Petrochemical Industry

Petrochemical Industry
alkane Dehydrogenation and aromatics Dealkylation
These catalysts are offered for use in Houdry Catofin process plants licensed by ABB Lummus Global Inc. The composition of these catalysts is proprietary.

DEHYDROGENATION CATALYSTS
Propane to propylene i-butane to i-butylene HOUDRY CaTOFIN and CaTOFIN PS HOUDRY CaTOFIN eS HOUDRY CaTOFIN HY n-butane to butadiene HOUDRY CaTaDIeNe i-pentane to isoprene HOUDRY CaTaDIeNe

DEALKYLATION CATALYSTS
Pyrolysis petrol to benzene Coke oven light oil to benzene Toluene to benzene HOUDRY PYROTOL HOUDRY LITOL HOUDRY DeTOL

Steam Cracker Plants


Catalytic selective hydrogenation of acetylenes and dienes in the presence of olefins is the standard method for purifying olefin streams in steam cracker plants. High selectivity is required to produce olefins from the hydrogenated acetylenes and dienes, while also achieving high purity products. Olefin streams to be catalytically purified may be broken down into:

Front-end systems

with C2 gases up to raw gas also containing hydrogen, methane, CO and sometimes sulphur with concentrated ethylene/ethane mixtures and propylene/propane mixtures

Tail-end systems

C4 and C5 cuts may be selectively hydrogenated or, alternatively, completely saturated. Hydroprocessing of aromatic concentrates such as pyrolysis gasoline or dripolene is also possible.

Petrochemical Industry

3

Petrochemical Industry
Front-end Hydrogenation Sulphur-free Gases
The OleMaxTM 250 family of front-end hydrogenation catalysts is characterised by high selectivity in the hydrogenation of acetylenes and dienes in raw olefin, de-propanizer ( C3-) and de-ethanizer ( C2-) streams. These catalysts are suitable for use in isothermal tubular reactors as well as adiabatic beds. They are regenerated either by steam/air treatment in situ or with air ex situ. OleMaxTM 251 is the ideal choice for streams with low and/or fluctuating CO levels. OleMaxTM 254 is the newest addition to the OleMaxTM 250 series of catalysts. It offers the greatest operating stability to CO fluctuations and the highest selectivity to ethylene.
OleMaxTM 250 (G-83 A)
Nominal Content [wt.%] Active Metal Promoter Al2O3 Shape Size [mm]

OleMaxTM 251 (G-83 C)

OleMaxTM 254

Pd Balance Tablets 4x4

Pd Ag Balance Tablets 4x4

Pd Ag Balance Tablets 4x4

Sulphur-bearing Gases
Catalysts in the OleMaxTM 100 family selectively hydrogenate acetylenes and dienes in sulphur-bearing cracked gas streams. Selection from among the following types depends on the expected sulphur content of the gas stream and on plant design conditions. OleMaxTM 100 types are resistant to deactivation resulting from traces of heavy metals often found in these streams.
OleMaxTM 101
Nominal Content [wt.%] Active Metal Multi-Promoter SiO2-Al2O3 Shape Size [mm]

OleMaxTM 102

OleMaxTM 103

NiO 12 Balance Spheres 8

NiO 12 Balance Spheres 8

NiO 12 Balance Spheres 8

40

Petrochemical Industry

Petrochemical Industry
C 2 Tail-end Hydrogenation
Building on the tremendous success and experience of OleMaxTM 201, OleMaxTM 207 is the latest catalyst development for C2 Tail-End Hydrogenation. OleMaxTM 207 offers significantly higher selectivity, run lengths similar to OleMaxTM 201, and lower green oil production and molecular weight. The catalyst is currently in commercial operation and available world-wide.
OleMaxTM 201 (G-58 C) Nominal Content [wt.%] Active Metal Promoter Support Shape Size [mm] OleMaxTM 203 (G-58 D) OleMaxTM 204 (G-58 E) OleMaxTM 207 (T-26)

Pd Ag Al2O3 Spheres 24

Pd Ag Al2O3 Tablets 4x4

Pd Ag Al2O3 Spheres 35

Pd Ag Al2O3 Spheres 24

C 3 Tail-end gas Phase Hydrogenation


The conventional method for the removal of methylacetylene and propadiene (MAPD) from propylene/propane streams is selective hydrogenation over a Pd based catalyst from the OleMaxTM 300 family. The aim is to increase the propylene concentration and to decrease MAPD to below 10 ppm. Typically, purification is performed with a molar ratio of hydrogen to MAPD of between 1:1 and maximum 1.5:1. The Pd-catalysts are regenerable with steam/air in situ.
OleMaxTM 301 (C31-1-01)
Nominal Content [wt.%] Active Metal Promoter Al2O3 Shape Size [mm]

OleMaxTM 302 (G-55 B) Pd Proprietary Balance Spheres 35

Pd Balance Spheres 35

Petrochemical Industry

41

Petrochemical Industry
C 3 Tail-end Liquid Phase Hydrogenation
It is common practice in steam cracker plants to hydrogenate the higher olefin streams selectively in liquid phase by means of Pd catalysts with a Pd content of 0.1 1.0 wt.%, whereas gas phase hydrogenation catalysts typically consist of Pd on alumina in a concentration of only 0.01 0.1 wt.% palladium. The temperature range applied varies from 10 200 C depending on the carbon number and the pressure of the olefin stream. For C3 cut hydrogenation, the aim is to selectively hydrogenate up to 7% methylacetylene and propadiene in a propylene stream with an increase in propylene production and suppression of by-product formation.
OleMaxTM 350
Nominal Content [wt.%] Active Metal Promoter Al2O3 Shape Size [mm]

OleMaxTM 353 Pd Balance CDS Extrusions 1.5

Pd Balance CDS Extrusions 1.5

OleMaxTM 350 is the proven catalyst for liquid phase MAPD processes. Using proprietary new techniques to control Pd dispersion irrespective of carrier type, OleMaxTM 350 is significantly more active and more selective than the industry benchmark catalyst without requiring promoters.

C 4 Cut Hydrogenation
The steam cracker C4 cut consists of approximately 50 wt.% 1.3-butadiene and 1 wt.% acetylenes in a mixture of butenes and butanes. Purification of this stream necessitates several hydrogenation steps depending on the downstream application.

42

Petrochemical Industry

Petrochemical Industry
Vinylacetylene Hydrogenation
The crude C4 stream typically contains 0.5 2 wt.% vinylacetylene and ethylacetylene. These components can drastically impact the efficiency of the butadiene extraction solvent system.
OleMaxTM 400 (G-68 G) Pd Balance Spheres 24

OleMaxTM 353
Nominal Content [wt.%] Active Metal Al2O3 Shape Size [mm]

Pd Balance CDS Extrusions 1.5

Selective Butadiene Hydrogenation


OleMaxTM 452 and OleMaxTM 454 are used for butadiene hydrogenation in combination with high butene-1 to butene-2 isomerisation activity.
OleMaxTM 452 (T-2464 B)
Nominal Content [wt.%] Active Metal Al2O3 Shape Size [mm]

OleMaxTM 454

Pd Balance CDS Extrusions 1.5

Pd Balance Spheres 2-4

Petrochemical Industry

43

Petrochemical Industry
C 4 /C 5 Cut Total Hydrogenation
Total saturation of C4 and/or C5 streams is carried out over the Pd-based catalysts, OleMaxTM 450 and OleMaxTM 452.
OleMaxTM 450 (G-68 C)
Nominal Content [wt.%] Active Metal Al2O3 Shape Size [mm]

OleMaxTM 452 (T-2464 B) Pd Balance CDS Extrusions 1.5

Pd Balance Spheres 24

Hydrogenation of Pyrolysis gasoline First Stage Diene Hydrogenation


OleMaxTM 600 and OleMaxTM 601 are used in the first-stage hydrogenation of the pyrolysis gasoline treatment unit to selectively hydrogenate the dienes. For high-severity cases, OleMaxTM 601 catalyst is the ideal type. For OleMaxTM 600, a newly enhanced spherical carrier significantly improves both catalyst activity and physical durability. These Pd catalysts can be regenerated by in-situ steam/air treatment or hot hydrogen stripping.
OleMaxTM 600 (G-68 C)
Nominal Content [wt.%] Active Metal Al2O3 Shape Size [mm]

OleMaxTM 601 (G-68 C-1) Pd Balance Spheres 1.2 2.8

Pd Balance Spheres 24

44

Petrochemical Industry

Petrochemical Industry
Second-stage Olefin Hydrogenation and Sulphur Conversion
Second-stage hydrogenation in commercial pyrolysis gasoline units often utilises a mixed catalyst loading. Typically, the reactor loading consists of:

Top 30% Bottom 70%

NiMo catalyst OleMaxTM 807 CoMo catalyst OleMaxTM 806

OleMaxTM 807 achieves olefin saturation and conversion of organic nitrogen compounds, whereas OleMaxTM 806 reduces organic sulphur compounds such as thiophenes, disulphides and mercaptanes to below 1 ppm.
OleMaxTM 807 (C20--06)
Nominal Content [wt.%] NiO CoO MoO3 Al2O3 Shape Size [mm]

OleMaxTM 806 (C20-6-04) 5.0 20.0 Balance CDS Extrusions 1.5

5.0 20.0 Balance CDS Extrusions 1.5

Conversion of Methanol to Propylene (MTP)


The possibility of producing methanol in large quantities by means of processes such as Lurgi MegaMethanol means that this chemical can be used as a raw material for olefin production. The MTPROP catalyst converts methanol to propylene in the presence of steam. The highly selective catalyst favours the formation of propylene. By-products are petrol with a high RON number, LPG and fuel gas.
MTPROP
Nominal Content [wt.%] Zeolite Shape Size [mm]

MFI Extrusions 1.5

Petrochemical Industry

45

Catalysts for the Production of Chemicals


A masterpiece only really shines in candlelight
To ensure it stays that way, Sd-Chemie develops and produces catalysts for wax production among other applications. We offer a wide variety of products in the syngas and speciality chemical sector at the highest quality.

Production of Chemicals
In the synthesis gas area, Sd-Chemie is a leading supplier of catalysts for the production of ammonia, methanol, hydrogen, HyCo (hydrogen/CO mixtures), and direct-reduced iron. We also offer a variety of catalysts for oxidation processes, such as sulfuric acid, phthalic anhydride, ethylene dichloride (EDC), formaldehyde and, through Scientific Design, maleic anhydride. In addition, Sd-Chemies portfolio contains a broad assortment of hydrogenation catalysts for the production of oxo, fatty, furfuryl, and natural detergent alcohols, as well as diols, cyclohexyldimethanol (CHDM), cyclohexane, solvents, and purified terephthalic acid (PTA). Sd-Chemie also offers catalysts for many amination and chemical specialty reactions. Sd-Chemie has a leading-class team of chemical, engineering, and manufacturing personnel who are available to help with any custom catalyst project. Sd-Chemie has experience in custom projects that can range from simple toll manufacturing to jointly-developed catalysts to 100% catalyst development for new processes.

Production of ammonia and Methanol


The production of ammonia and methanol involves the use of several key unit operations for which Sd-Chemie supplies catalysts. These are:

Feedstock purification Prereforming Steam reforming Secondary or autothermal reforming High and low temperature conversion of CO to CO2 Methanation ammonia synthesis Methanol synthesis

48

Production of Chemicals

Production of Chemicals
Prereforming
A prereformer is an adiabatic fixed-bed reactor upstream of the primary reformer. It allows increased flexibility in the choice of feedstock, increased lifetime of the steam reforming catalyst and tubes, and the option of increasing the overall plant capacity. Furthermore it allows operation at lower steam/carbon ratios. ReforMax 100 is a prereforming catalyst designed to handle the entire range of hydrocarbon feedstocks from natural gas up to and including LPGs and naphthas.
ReforMax 100
Nominal Content [wt.%] NiO Support and Promoter Shape Size [mm]

56 Balance Tablets 4.5 x 4.5

Steam Reforming
Selection of the optimum catalyst depends on several factors, including furnace design, severity of service, and the type of hydrocarbon processed. Our standard catalysts are shown in the table below.
ReforMax 330 LDP
Typical feed Nominal Content [wt.%] NiO K2O Carrier Shape Size [mm]

ReforMax 210 LDP NG/LPG

ReforMax 250 Naphtha

NG

14 CaAl12O1 10 Holed Ring 1 x 16

18 1.6 CaK2Al22O34 10 Holed Ring 1 x 12

25 8.5
Calciumaluminate

Multiholed Ring 16 x 16

Production of Chemicals

4

Production of Chemicals
Secondary Reforming
The optimum catalyst for an air-fed secondary reformer depends on the design of the burner and the distance between burner tip and top catalyst layer. If hexagonal target bricks are not used, we recommend installation of a top layer of ReforMax 400 GG to serve as an active heat shield. This material is also ideal for a bottom active support layer where extreme short loadings are required and/or where high purity inert supports can be replaced with an active catalyst. ReforMax 410 LDP catalyst is used for the bulk of the reactor loading.
ReforMax 400 gg
Nominal Content [wt.%] NiO Carrier Shape Size [mm]

ReforMax 410 LDP 12 CaAl12O1 10 Holed Ring 1 x 16

12 -Al2O3 6 Holed Ring 33 x 18

autothermal Reforming
Oxygen-fed autothermal reformers require a mixed loading of catalysts, comprising an active heat shield and a reforming catalyst of excellent physical stability and thermoshock resistance. The standard catalyst loading is approx. 5 10% of ReforMax 420 on top of ReforMax 330 LDP catalyst.
ReforMax 420
Nominal Content [wt.%] NiO Carrier Shape Size [mm]

ReforMax 330 LDP 14 CaAl12O1 10 Holed Ring 1 x 16

8 -Al2O3 Extrusions 30

50

Production of Chemicals

Production of Chemicals
CO Conversion
Most ammonia plants convert CO to CO2 by high-temperature water-gas shift followed by low-temperature water-gas shift. For special process design, it can be advantageous to combine these two steps to form one isothermal or adiabatic step called medium temperature CO conversion (MTS).

High-temperature CO Conversion
The HTS catalyst ShiftMax 120 combines high activity with extremely good physical robustness. In addition, this catalyst is very effective in preventing Fischer-Tropsch by-product formation when operating at low steam to gas conditions.
ShiftMax 120
Nominal Content [wt.%] Fe2O3 Cr2O3 CuO Shape Size [mm]

80 8.5 2 Tablets 6x6

Low-temperature CO Conversion
The LTS catalysts ShiftMax 230 and 240 are state-of-the-art products featuring excellent copper dispersion leading to unparalleled activity for water-gas shift. These catalysts feature higher CO conversion for longer life, enhanced resistance to poisons, and superior physical strength. The promoter in ShiftMax 240 suppresses the formation of methanol by more than 95% compared to standard LTS catalysts without decreasing activity.
ShiftMax 230
Nominal Content [wt.%] CuO ZnO Al2O3 Promoter Shape Size [mm]

ShiftMax 240 5 31 11 1 Tablets 5x3

58 31 11 Tablets 5x3

Production of Chemicals

51

Production of Chemicals
Methanation
Depending on the severity and product purity requirements of the application, Sd-Chemie supplies two different types of methanation catalysts. METH 134 consists of alumina supported NiO. For extremely low temperature applications (T < 170 C) Sd-Chemie provides METH 150, is comprised of ruthenium on an alumina support.
MeTH 134
Nominal Content [wt.%] NiO Ru Support Shape Size [mm]

MeTH 150 0.3 Balance Tablets 4.5 x 4.5

25 Balance Spheres 36

52

Production of Chemicals

Production of Chemicals
ammonia Synthesis
AmoMax 10 is a wustite-based ammonia synthesis catalyst that features significantly higher activity than magnetite-based catalysts. This high activity level is also evident at low operating temperatures, allowing improved conversion at thermodynamically more favorable conditions. Wustite contains less oxygen than magnetite which means that reduction times can be significantly reduced. AmoMax 10 also features excellent long-term stability and is stronger than magnetite-based catalysts. AmoMax 10 is available in oxidic and pre-reduced, stabilized forms.
amoMax 10
Nominal Content [wt.%] Fe FeO Promoter Shape Size [mm]

8 Balance Granules -

Methanol Synthesis
For the synthesis of methanol from carbon oxides and hydrogen, Sd-Chemie produces the MegaMax 700 catalyst, which is used in isothermal reactors (Lurgi-type) and all other plant designs, such as adiabatic quench type reactors. MegaMax 700 has extremely good low-temperature activity, which allows it to be operated at more thermodynamically favorable conditions. This catalyst also has excellent selectivity, even with high CO-content feed gas.
MegaMax 700
Nominal Content [wt.%] CuO ZnO Al2O3 Shape Size [mm]

Proprietary Proprietary Proprietary Tablets 6x4

Production of Chemicals

53

Production of Chemicals
Methanol Reforming
Hydrogen and carbon monoxide can be produced by means of steam reforming of methanol, which is performed with ReforMax M.
ReforMax M
Nominal Content [wt.%] CuO ZnO Al2O3 Shape Size [mm]

66 23 Balance Tablets 6x4

Production of Sulphuric acid


The conversion of sulphur dioxide to sulphur trioxide is the catalytic step in the production of sulphuric acid. Sd-Chemies C116 series of catalysts feature different formulations and innovative shapes, covering all operating conditions in the sulphuric acid process.
C116
Nominal Content [wt.%] V2O5 K2O Shape Size [mm]

C116 HV

C116 CS

6.5 .5 .5 11.0

.5 8.5 10.0 11.5 Ribbed Rings/Extrusions 

6.5 .5 Proprietary

54

Production of Chemicals

Production of Chemicals
Production of alcohols Oxo alcohols
Oxo alcohol process chains typically start with the fine-cleaning of short chain olefins like propene or the desulphurisation of C7 to C11 olefins for higher alcohols. They include the hydrogenation step from crude aldehyde to alcohol and generally finish with fine-cleaning, which reduces the carbonyl value of the finished alcohol to a certain specified level. The following catalysts are available for hydrogenation:

G-22 Series
g-22
Nominal Content [wt.%] CuO Cr2O3 BaO SiO2 Shape Size [mm]

g-22/2 4 34 6 Balance Tablets/Powder 4.5 x 4.5

41 43 12 Tablets 4.5 x 4.5

G- Series
g-99B-0
Nominal Content [wt.%] CuO Cr2O3 MnO2 BaO Shape Size [mm]

g-99C-0 4 46 4 2 Tablets 5x3

4 46 4 2 Tablets 3x3

Production of Chemicals

55

Production of Chemicals
T-2130
A copper zinc oxide catalyst, entirely Cr-free, which is used in the hydrogenation of butyraldehyde and 2-ethyl-hexenal.
T-2130
Nominal Content [wt.%] CuO ZnO Shape Size [mm]

33 66 Tablets 6x3

T-448
A Cr-free, copper- and alumina-based hydrogenation catalyst for gas phase hydrogenations of oxo aldehydes. High acid stability comparable to standard copper chromites.
T-4489
Nominal Content [wt.%] CuO MnO2 Al2O3 Shape Size [mm]

56 10 Balance Tablets 3x3

T-4361
This promoted nickel on silica catalyst offers high selectivity. It is usually applied in specific trickle phase oxo aldehyde hydrogenation processes.
T-4361
Nominal Content [wt.%] NiO CuO Support Shape Size [mm]

68 3 Balance Tablets 5x3

56

Production of Chemicals

Production of Chemicals
G-134
The G-134 catalyst series are extruded nickel catalysts with a high surface area and mixed silica and alumina support. Their rugged physical properties means that these catalysts can be supplied in small particle sizes or in CDS shape. G-134 type catalysts demonstrate excellent activity in the fine-cleaning of oxo compounds.
g-134 a
Nominal Content [wt.%] NiO SiO2 Al2O3 Shape Size [mm]

66 28 Balance CDS Extrusions/Extrusions 1.5

G-4B
A nickel-on-kieselguhr catalyst which is mainly used for oxo fine-cleaning applications.
g-49B
Nominal Content [wt.%] NiO SiO2 Shape Size [mm]

66 Balance Tablets 5x3

G-6
This zirconium promoted nickel-on-kieselguhr catalyst is similar to G-49 in both composition and application. Zirconium improves low-temperature activity.
g-69
Nominal Content [wt.%] NiO ZrO2 Support Shape Size [mm]

4 2 Balance Tablets 5x3

Production of Chemicals

5

Production of Chemicals
G-103
The outstanding feature of this cobalt catalyst is the considerable strength of the tablet. It is mainly used for reduction of oxo aldehydes: for example, in the first stage of the Courier-Kuhlmann process.
g-103
Nominal Content [wt.%] CoO SiO2 Shape Size [mm]

3 Balance Tablets 6x6

T-4405
This is a catalyst containing a high percentage of cobalt, produced in the form of mechanically strong extrusions. It is ideal for use in the last hydrogenation stage of Courier-Kuhlmann oxo alcohol set-ups, for example.
T-4405
Nominal Content [wt.%] CoO SiO2 Al2O3 Shape Size [mm]

63 24 Balance Extrusions 3.0

G-6
This catalyst contains cobalt supported on a zirconium-promoted kieselguhr.
g-67 a
Nominal Content [wt.%] CoO ZrO2 SiO2 Shape Size [mm]

68 Promoter Balance Extrusions 3

58

Production of Chemicals

Production of Chemicals
K-Catalysts
The K-catalyst product family is based on selected naturally occurring montmorillonite minerals, which are acid-activated to produce the various different K-catalysts. The resulting products are characterised by different acidities, cation exchange capacities and porosities.

Product Description
Our proprietary production procedures result in products with high Brnsted acidity:

KSF KSF/O KP 10
or high Lewis acidity:

K5 K 10 K 20 K 30 K 40
acidic Catalysts
Our broad portfolio of K-catalysts allows the opportunity to optimise process efficiencies through distinct pore structures, surface areas and acidities. K-catalysts are all available as powder, and some as granules.

applications of K-Catalysts
The following table provides help in selecting the right K-catalyst for various different applications.

application
Alkylation/Acylation Esterification/Etherification Rearrangements/Isomerisations Polymerisations/Dimerisations

Catalyst
K 5, K40, K 10, K 20 KSF, KP 10, KSF/O, K 10 K 20, K 30, KP10, KSF/O KP 10, K 5, K 10

Production of Chemicals

5

Production of Chemicals
The K-catalyst exhibits distinct pore structures, surface areas and acidities and hence shows different reactivity and selectivity to various organic reactions. Therefore our broad portfolio of K-catalysts offers the opportunity to optimise process efficiencies.

Fatty alcohols and Natural Detergent alcohols (NDa)


Natural detergent alcohols or fatty alcohols are sourced from natural oils, mainly lauric. They can be produced either by direct hydrogenation of the corresponding fatty acid, hydrogenation of the corresponding methyl esters (FAME), or hydrogenation of wax esters the most recent process variant. The catalysts are applied in slurry processes as oxidic powders or in fixed-bed processes. They are generally prereduced and stabilised.

G- Series
The G-99-series are copper chromite catalysts, manganese-promoted, with increasing barium contents. The catalysts are highly poison resistant, especially against chlorine and sulphur, and feature excellent separation properties. They are supplied in the form of oxidic powders for slurry applications. The type of catalyst to be used must be selected with care, depending on the sulphur and chlorine level of the different feeds and on the separation system. For a detailed recommendation, please contact our technical service. For fixed-bed applications, G-99B-0 is used in tablet form.
g-99B-0
Nominal Content [wt.%] CuO Cr2O3 MnO2 BaO Shape Size [mm]

g-99B-13 48 44 6 1 Powder -

4 46 4 2 Tablets 3x3

60

Production of Chemicals

Production of Chemicals
T-448
This is a chromium-free alumina-based manganese-promoted hydrogenation catalyst for slurry applications which can be used instead of copper chromite catalysts.
T-4489
Nominal Content [wt.%] CuO MnO2 Al2O3 Shape Size [mm]

56 10 Balance Powder -

T-2130
A copper/zinc-oxide-based catalyst which is recommended for methyl ester hydrogenations.
T-2130
Nominal Content [wt.%] CuO ZnO Shape Size [mm]

33 66 Tablets 6x3

T-441/T-4421
Copper chromite catalysts with an exceptionally high copper-to-chromium ratio. They are recommended for specific FAME hydrogenation processes.
T-4419
Nominal Content [wt.%] CuO Cr2O3 Shape Size [mm]

T-4421 66 30 Tablets 4.5 x 4.5

8 20 Tablets 4.5 x 4.5

Production of Chemicals

61

Production of Chemicals
T-448
The tabletted form of the T-4489 is recommended for wax ester hydrogenation processes.
T-4489
Nominal Content [wt.%] CuO MnO2 Al2O3 Shape Size [mm]

56 10 Balance Tablets 3x3

Furfuryl alcohol
Furfuryl alcohol can be sourced by the hydrogenation of furfural based on natural products, or as a by-product from the hydrogenation of maleic acid or maleic acid esters. For the hydrogenation of furfural to furfuryl alcohol we supply copper chromite catalysts which are highly heat resistant and in the form of tablets regenerable.

G-22F
This barium-promoted copper catalyst is developed especially for the fixed bed-hydrogenation of furfural. The catalyst features high selectivity and extremely low sylvan make.
g-22F
Nominal Content [wt.%] CuO Cr2O3 BaO SiO2 Shape Size [mm]

38 3 11 Balance Tablets 3x3

62

Production of Chemicals

Production of Chemicals
G-D-0
This is the optimum catalyst for slurry phase furfural hydrogenations. The catalyst is a copper chromite. Manganese-promoted with a high surface area of 70 80 m2/g, it features high activity and excellent separation properties.
g-99D-0
Nominal Content [wt.%] CuO Cr2O3 MnO2 Shape Size [mm]

46 44 4 Powder -

Production of Diols
The production of diols (bi-functional alcohols) is based either on direct hydrogenation of the corresponding anhydrides in the gas phase, or on hydrogenation of the methyl esters of the respective acids in the gas phase, or in the liquid or trickle phase. The hydrogenation is carried out in fixed-bed reactors.

T-448
This is an alumina-based copper catalyst with high acid resistance and tailor-made pore size distribution to achieve optimum selectivity. By variation of the standard T-4489, selectivity can be shifted either in the direction of the diols, the intermediate g-butyrolactone, or THF. The catalyst is only available for specific processes. For a detailed recommendation, please contact Sd-Chemie.
T-4489
Nominal Content [wt.%] CuO MnO2 Al2O3 Shape Size [mm]

56 10 Balance Tablets 3x3

Production of Chemicals

63

Production of Chemicals
T-2130
This copper/zinc-based catalyst is perfect for the hydrogenation of maleic acid dimethyl esters.
T-2130
Nominal Content [wt.%] CuO ZnO Shape Size [mm]

33 66 Tablets 6x3

T-4322
This copper/zinc catalyst is used for the gas-phase hydrogenation of maleic acid anhydride.
T-4322
Nominal Content [wt.%] CuO ZnO Al2O3 Shape Size [mm]

64 24 Balance Tablets 6x4

T-4466
This is a high-acid stable copper chromite catalyst. It can be used in the hydrogenation of maleic acid diesters with high residual acid contents.
T-4466
Nominal Content [wt.%] CuO Cr2O3 Shape Size [mm]

53 45 Tablets 3x3

64

Production of Chemicals

Production of Chemicals
Production of Cyclohexyldimethanol (CHDM)
For the hydrogenation of dimethyl-ester to the corresponding dimethanol as part of the Eastman-Kodak process, copper chromium, copper zinc, or copper alumina may be used as catalysts.
T-4489
Nominal Content [wt.%] CuO ZnO MnO2 Cr2O3 Al2O3 Shape Size [mm]

T-2130

T-4466

56 10 Balance Tablets 3x3

33 66 Tablets 3x3

53 45 Tablets 3x3

Production of alkyl amines


Alkyl amines are typically made by amination of alcohols or aldehydes followed by hydrogenation.

Production of Maleic anhydride


SynDane catalyst, supplied by Scientific Design Company (a Sd-Chemie SABIC partnership) is used for the selective oxidation of n-butane with air, to produce Maleic Anhydride (MAN), a significant component of unsaturated polyester & alkyd resins, and more recently, as a pre-cursor to 1,4-Butanediol. Conversion of n-butane to MAN is typically accomplished in a once-through process with weight yields of over 90 percent; however SD SynDane catalyst has also been commercially proven in a recycle process and additionally has application in series-reactor set-ups where average weight yields of around 100 percent are claimed. Production of MAN over the SynDane 3100 series catalyst is in excess of 2000 kg per liter of catalyst, and an in-service life of greater than 3 years is routinely achieved. SynDane catalyst is manufactured by the Sd-Chemie Group using a chloride free synthesis (CFS).

Production of Chemicals

65

Production of Chemicals
SynDane 3100 Series Maleic anhydride catalyst
Nominal Content [wt.%] Catalyst Promoters Type Shape Size [mm]

Vanadium - Phosphorus Oxide Proprietary CFS Rings 4.8 and 5.6

amination of alcohols
For methyl amines, alumosilicates and zeolites are used as catalysts. Amination of alcohols is generally used to produce short-chain alkyl amines. For ethylamines and propylamines, on the other hand, nickel or cobalt catalysts are preferred. For long chain amines, copper catalysts or copper chromites are used.

Nickel Catalysts
NiSAT 320 tablets demonstrate high mechanical stability in fixed-bed processes.
NiSaT 320
Nominal Content [wt.%] NiO SiO2 Al2O3 Support Shape Size [mm]

NiSaT 300 66 28 Balance Extrusions 1.5

66 Balance Powder -

Cobalt Catalysts
Cobalt catalysts are used when high selectivity, especially towards di- and tri-alkyl amines, is required.
g-62
Nominal Content [wt.%] CoO Promoter Support Shape Size [mm]

g-67 68 Proprietary Balance Extrusions 3.0

45 Balance Tablets 4.5 x 4.5

66

Production of Chemicals

Production of Chemicals
Nitrile Hydrogenation
Nitrile hydrogenation is basically conducted with long-chain nitriles, especially fatty nitriles. Nickel catalysts are used for slurry application. Where the application of powder is to be avoided, NiSAT 320 and G-95C pastilles are used, with the reduced powder being embedded into di-stearyl-amine.
NiSaT 320
Nominal Content [wt.%] NiO SiO2 Shape Size [mm]

g-95C 35 Balance Pastilles -

0 Balance Powder -

Hydrogenation of Nitro-Compounds to anilines


The hydrogenation of nitrobenzene to aniline is carried out either in a discontinuous slurry process based on nickel catalysts, or in iso-thermal gas phase processes based on copper catalysts. Attacks on the aromatic ring and side reactions to diphenylamine must be avoided. The silica-based reduced nickel powder NiSAT 320 exhibits excellent separation properties and fair activity for slurry application.
NiSaT 320
Nominal Content [wt.%] NiO SiO2 Support Shape Size [mm]

NiSaT 330 83 Balance Powder -

66 Balance Powder -

The silica-based nickel catalyst powder NiSAT 330, with its coarse primary particle size, is ideal for easy separation. The catalyst has a very low iron content and thus excellent selectivity.

Production of Chemicals

6

Production of Chemicals
The copper chromite catalyst G-99B-0 is used for isothermal gas-phase hydrogenation of nitrobenzene. It demonstrates perfect selectivity even under SOR conditions and is also particularly attractive due to its low carbon deposits and long life.
g-99B-0
Nominal Content [wt.%] CuO Cr2O3 MnO2 BaO Shape Size [mm]

4 46 4 2 Tablets 5x5

Production of N-alkylates
This area covers not just the reductive N-alkylation of aniline derivates, with iso-propanol, for example, but also the reductive alkylation of an unsaturated secondary amine with formaldehyde or the reductive alkylation of fatty amines to saturated tertiary amines. These reactions can be carried out with copper-based catalysts, mainly copper chromites, or in some cases with nickel catalysts containing low content of nickel. Selection must be based on the process conditions and equipment used; for this reason, please contact Sd-Chemie for details.

68

Production of Chemicals

Production of Chemicals
Caprolactam from Benzene
This process involves the following steps: Benzene is firstly hydrogenated to cyclohexane. Cyclohexane is then oxidised to a mixture of cyclohexanol and cyclohexanone. The cyclohexanol is dehydrogenated to cyclohexanone. After the oxime is formed, caprolactam is obtained by performing a Beckman rearrangement. For the hydrogenation of benzene to cyclohexane, nickel catalysts are applied in either continuous slurry processes or isothermal fixed-bed processes, the latter being more common. NiSAT 320 RS powder is used for the slurry process, while for the fixedbed process we recommend using our NiSAT 200 catalyst in RS form.
NiSaT 320
Nominal Content [wt.%] NiO SiO2 Shape Size [mm]

NiSaT 200 4 Balance Tablets 6x6

0 Balance Powder -

The oxidation of cyclohexane to form a cyclohexanone/cyclohexanol mixture is performed with cobalt catalysts such as cobalt octanoate. Dehydrogenation of the cyclohexanol portion can be performed either in a high-temperature process of up to 400 C with a calcium zinc catalyst, namely T-4004, or at medium temperatures of around 230 300 C with a copper/zinc catalyst such as G-132A RS.
T-4004
Nominal Content [wt.%] CaO CuO ZnO Shape Size [mm]

g-132a 33 Balance Tablets 6x3

1 Balance Tablets 6x6

Production of Chemicals

6

Production of Chemicals
For the transformation of oxime to caprolactam via Beckman rearrangement, we provide a special catalyst which is available on request. A second route to cyclohexanone is based on phenol. The catalyst performing this reaction is a Pd catalyst which is also available on request from Sd-Chemie.

C12-Lactam (Lauryllactam)
After the trimerisation of butadiene to cyclododecatriene (CDT), epoxidation followed by two-step hydrogenation produces cyclo-dodecanol. Nickel-based catalysts are used for the trimerisation stage. Nickel and palladium catalysts are recommended for the subsequent hydrogenation steps. For the dehydrogenation of cyclododecanol to the corresponding cyclic ketone, meanwhile, a copper/zinc-based catalyst like PolyMaxTM 301 is used.
PolyMaxTM 301
Nominal Content [wt.%] CuO ZnO Shape Size [mm]

31 Balance Extrusions 3

Nylon-6,6
The starting material is typically butadiene. Addition of HCN is performed via copper chloride, the resulting dinitrile being hydrogenated to hexamethylene diamine. Raney-nickel catalysts are generally used in a slurry phase reaction, while the highly selective promoted T-4424 catalysts are recommended for fixed-bed operations.
T-4424
Nominal Content [wt.%] CoO MnO2 SiO2/MgO Shape Size [mm]

43 5 Balance Tablets 6x3

0

Production of Chemicals

Production of Chemicals
Resins and Rosins
These substances are hydrogenated in order to remove unsaturates over Ni-, Pd- or Cu-based catalysts.

Nickel Catalysts
NiSaT 300
Nominal Content [wt.%] NiO SiO2 Al2O3 Support Shape Size [mm]

NiSaT 320

NiSaT 330

66 28 Balance Extrusions 1.5

0 Balance Powder -

84 Balance Powder -

Palladium Catalysts
H2Max 50
Nominal Content [wt.%] Pd Activated Carbon Shape Size [mm]

MPT 3

MPT 5

MPT 10

0.5 Balance Granules -

3 Balance Granules -

5 Balance Granules -

10 Balance Granules -

Production of Chemicals

1

Production of Chemicals
Copper Catalysts
Mainly supplied for fixed-bed processes. The relevant types are copper chromites and copper/zinc catalysts.
g-132a
Nominal Content [wt.%] CuO Cr2O3 MnO2 BaO ZnO Shape Size [mm]

g-99B-0 4 46 4 2 Tablets 5x5

33 Balance Tablets 6x3

Selection of the catalyst depends very much on the type of resin and the molecular weight of the polymer. For abietinic resins, for example, palladium catalysts are ideal, where as for specific C5 petroleum resins, nickel powders may be more effective. In some cases it is advisable to use catalysts with a caustic promoter or promoted with zirconium. Those types are available on request.

Treatment of Fischer-Tropsch Waxes


A special case in the hydro-treatment of high molecular compounds is the treatment of Fischer-Tropsch waxes. FT waxes typically contain carbonylic unsaturates which are sometimes conjugated giving the wax a faint yellow colour. This colour has to be removed for a variety of applications. Furthermore, FT waxes can contain traces of iron which are typically removed prior to a hydrogenation treatment with ActiSorb 400.
actiSorb 400
Nominal Content [wt.%] NiO MgO Al2O3 SiO2 Shape Size [mm]

NiSaT 300

NiSaT 340

16 Balance Spheres 5

66 Balance 28 CDS Extrusions 1.5

0 8 Balance 20 Extrusions 3

2

Production of Chemicals

Production of Chemicals
Hydrogenation of Sugars
Conventionally, Raney-nickel catalysts are used for the batch-type hydrogenation of glucose to sorbitol. Using supported nickel or ruthenium catalysts offers handling advantages and the benefit of high selectivity. The use of specially promoted Ni-catalysts leads to stereo-selective hydrogenation of sugar molecules suitable for new applications.

Nickel-type Catalysts
NiSaT 300
Nominal Content [wt.%] NiO MgO WO3 Al2O3 SiO2 Shape Size [mm]

NiSaT 330

NiSaT 350

66 Balance 28 CDS Extrusions 1.5

0 8 Balance 20 Extrusions 3

64 4 10 2 Extrusions 3

Ruthenium-type Catalysts
MRT
Nominal Content [wt.%] Ru Activated Carbon Shape Size [mm]

0.1 5 Balance Granules 25

Cracking of Sugars
Sugar cracking can produce valuable chemical products in the C2 C4 range, like butanediols, THF, propanediols, ethylene glycols etc. Tests showed promising results with nickel and ruthenium catalysts. Details are available upon request.

Production of Chemicals

3

Production of Chemicals
Dehydration, Cyclisation and Polycondensation Processes
Dehydration of alcohols produces olefins, but may also lead to the formation of cyclic products. Depending on the reaction to be performed, we can supply either modified montmorillonites, specific zeolites, or zirconia-, titania-, or niobia-based catalysts. As this is an extremely large area including, for example, the polymerisation of THF we would ask you to contact Sd-Chemie to discuss your specific requirements.

Dehydrogenation and Oxidation


Dehydrogenation of alcohols to their corresponding ketones or aldehydes covers sophisticated areas such as the dehydrogenation of lauric alcohol for the fragrance industry, but also the broad area of the dehydrogenation of cyclohexanol to cyclohexanone to produce, ultimately, caprolactam for nylon-6. We also provide catalysts for the dehydrogenation of cyclododecanol to create lauryllactam and nylon-12 as final products. Catalysts used in this area are:
CuO
PolyMaxTM 12 T-4004 T-2130 G-13 G-22 T-441 T-4421

Cr2O3

ZnO

CaO

Promoter

4

Production of Chemicals

Production of Chemicals
Sophisticated Uses
Very often, a catalytic step is required in the manufacturing of chemicals from starch, the production of vitamins, the composition of fragrances and aromas, food additives, and the production of bio-fuels and so-called bio-solvents. For all of these diverse applications, we have a range of experience, allowing us to help you to choose the right catalysts. In most cases, the catalysts are based on nickel, copper or noble metals. We are always ready to discuss your particular requirements, and are confident that we can provide an optimum solution.

Production of ethylenedichloride (eDC)


Catalysts for production of EDC from ethylene in a fluid-bed reactor operate with either air or oxygen-based technology. Key features of these catalysts include high selectivity to EDC, high activity and stability during operation, meaning no loss of active compounds and no significant variation in surface area. There is practically no tendency towards sticking among the individual catalyst particles during commercial use of the OXYMAX catalyst series. Our OXYMAX A and OXYMAX B series is capable for all standard fluid bed applications. Our OXYMAX M series is designed to give superior performance in the fluid bed process using MITSUI technology. Our latest development is the OXYMAX F series for fixed bed application. Due to a special design of the geometry based on Sd-Chemies long lasting experience in tabletting OXYMAX F provides high EDC selectivity at an outstanding productivity level.

OXYMAX Catalyst Series


OXYMaX a
Nominal Content [wt.%] Cu + others Support Shape Size [mm]

OXYMaX B 4 Balance Powder -

4 Balance Powder -

Production of Chemicals

5

Production of Chemicals
Production of Formaldehyde (Fa)
Iron/molybdenum-based catalysts are used for the oxidation of methanol to formaldehyde in fixed-bed tubular reactors. These catalysts are available as tablets with different shapes like hollow cylinders or the trihole shape. There is also a variety of options for catalyst dilution with inert material. The catalyst shape as well as the layer management are individually customized to the plant conditions like methanol concentration, flow rate and pressure drop. The use of the SC proprietary trihole shape provides superior yield, higher productivity and minimized pressure drop during operation. A proper dilution of the formaldehyde catalyst ensures optimised catalyst activity to maximise the lifetime of the charge of the formaldehyde catalyst loaded to the tubular reactor.
FaMaX J5
Nominal Content [wt.%] Mo Fe Shape Size [mm]

FaMaX MS

FaMaX HS

FaMaX TH

54.5 12.5 Rings 4x4x2

54.5 12.5 Rings 4.5 x 4.5 x 2

54.5 12.5 Rings 5 x 5 x 2.5

54.5 12.5
Triholed Ring

5.5 x 5 x 1.

Production of Hydrogen Peroxide (H2O2 )


Catalysts in powder form containing 2% of palladium, well dispersed on a proprietary carrier are used for the production of hydrogen peroxide via the anthraquinone process in slurry phase. The catalysts are produced in several different formats with different particle size distribution. In particular, the catalysts contain an extremely low amount of fines, ensuring minimal catalyst consumption during production of H2O2.
H2Max 5
Nominal Content [wt.%] Pd (on dry basis) Support Shape Size [m] < 250 < 63

H2Max 5/S

H2Max HaR

2.0 Balance Powder > 8 <2

2.0 Balance Powder > 8 <2

2.0 Balance Powder > 5 <2

6

Production of Chemicals

Production of Chemicals
Production of Vinylacetatmonomer (VaM)
Zinc acetate on activated carbon is used for the synthesis of vinyl acetate from acetylene in fixed-bed tubular reactors. Both the improved manufacturing process and the selected carbon carrier ensure high catalyst activity and excellent attrition resistance.
MaVC
Nominal Content [wt.%] Zink Acetate Activated Carbon Shape Size [mm]

MaVC/C 30 Balance Cylindrical Pellets >6

Balance Cylindrical Pellets >6

Production of Phthalic anhydride (Pa)


Sd-Chemies multi-layer PA catalyst series PHTHALIMAX is supplied for standard, medium or high o-Xylene loading. Sd-Chemies latest product is PHTHALIMAX - H4 (four layer concept), facilitating early hotspot evolution, ensuring that most of PA is produced in the first two layers out of the total four. For customers which choose to operate a post-reactor unit, Sd-Chemie has also developed PHTHALIMAX-F4 series for adiabatic post-reactors. A post-reactor configuration allows an additional finishing step, thus increasing PA yield and extending the lifetime of the catalyst in the main reactor. Yield increases in the oxidation reaction from o-Xylene to Phthalic Anhydride are directly related to which oxidation range PHTHALIMAX is operated in. Designed to operate in the optimum operation range, PHTHALIMAX customers are currently benefiting from superior yields, (low COx formation), extended lifetime and excellent PA quality. Sd-Chemies proprietary, innovative loading & pressure drop measuring technique provide additional benefits including shorter loading times and smaller variance in tube pressure drops, compared to conventional catalyst loading systems.

Production of Chemicals



Production of Chemicals
PHTHaLIMaX multi-layer catalyst
Nominal Content [wt.%] V2O5 TiO2 Promoters Carrier Shape Size [mm] PHTHaLIMaX-M series PHTHaLIMaX-S series PHTHaLIMaX -H series

Proprietary Proprietary Proprietary Steatite Rings 8x6x5 for medium OX load for standard OX load for high OX load

Purification of Terephthalic acid (PTa)


Purification of terephthalic acid in a fixed bed reactor is achieved by hydrogenation of the coloured by products to uncoloured and water-soluble by products. The main impurity to be hydrogenated is 4-carboxybenzaldehyde. The catalysts applied are precious-metal-based catalysts on granular carbon with highly dispersed Pd, assuring long-term stable catalyst activity. Our latest catalyst generation is produced with an unique production technology. We could demonstrate a significantly lower loss of precious metal from the catalyst during operation compared to state of the art catalysts. This gives a substantial economic benefit to our customers.
H2Max 50
Nominal Content [wt.%] Pd (on dry basis) Activated Carbon (on dry basis) Shape Size [mm]

H2Max HD 0.5 Balance Granules 48

0.5 Balance Granules 48

8

Production of Chemicals

Production of Chemicals
Mesoporous Silicas and alumosilicates
Sd-Chemie offers a wide range of mesoporous Silica and Alumosilicates. These so-called KA-Catalysts and Carriers serve a wide range of application and are typically used as Catalyst supports or Catalyts themselves.

Product Description
KA-Catalysts are available as both, powders, granulated and shaped materials. Usually spherical KA-Catalysts are desired. The KA-Carriers exhibit unique physical and chemical properties:

High mesoporous pore volume High macroporous pore volume Tailored specific surface areas Mechanical resistance elevated resistance to acids but also basic environments elevated resistance to hydrothermal or aqueous environments
If you want to learn more about options and capabilities of the various KA-Catalyst types please contact us.

Reforming for Direct Reduction of Iron Ore


Sd-Chemie supplies the complete portfolio of catalysts specifically formulated for direct reduction of iron (DRI) reforming furnaces. Our cooperation with MIDREX has produced catalysts comprising NiO as the active component on rugged carriers such as MgO, -Al2O3 or calciumaluminate.

Production of Chemicals



Catalysts for the Oil Refinery Industry


Making things happen together
Even the best idea is only as good as its implementation. The fitting technology is just as important here as the right partner. That is why Sd-Chemie works closely on location with responsible persons in the oil refinery industry. And the successes are impressive. We offer you a broad product pallet of solutions that set benchmarks in many areas.

Oil Refinery Industry


Fuel Technology
For the production of transportation fuels, Sd-Chemie supplies special catalysts with superior catalytic properties. These are largely sophisticated, high-value zeolite products. Over just a short period of time, we have diversified our activities in this area and developed new catalyst formulations with outstanding catalytic performance compared to products available on the market. This exceptional standard of quality and performance is the fruit of our intensive cooperation with engineering partners and refineries. As a consequence, Sd-Chemie, together with its partners, is in a position not only to supply the catalyst, but to offer a full package consisting of both the catalyst plus process technology for petrol and diesel production.

Conversion of Methanol to gasoline (CMg)


The conversion of methanol to DME is the first step in what is known as the CMG process. CMG-1 is used for the conversion of DME to hydrocarbons in the petrol range. CMG-1 is a zeolite-based catalyst which can be fully regenerated in situ. CMG-1 has proven to be a cost-effective alternative for the production of high quality petrol blending compounds from methanol.
CMg-1
Nominal Content [wt.%] Zeolite Shape Size [mm]

MFI Extrusions 1.5

82

Oil Refinery Industry

Oil Refinery Industry


Conversion of Olefins to Diesel and Petrol (COD)
The COD 900 catalyst is a fully regenerable zeolite-based catalyst, developed for the conversion of olefins to diesel and petrol fuels. The COD process with Sd-Chemies catalyst has proven to be a cost-effective alternative in producing high quality synthetic diesel from olefins. The high cetane number and low aromatics content meet the environmental needs of tomorrow.
COD 900
Nominal Content [wt.%] Zeolite Shape Size [mm]

MFI Extrusions 1.5

Conversion of Paraffins to aromatics (CPa)


For the conversion of light paraffins to aromatics in the petrol boiling range, Sd-Chemie has developed the CPA catalyst as an advanced catalytic solution. This zeolite-based catalyst stands out due to its high activity, perfect for the conversion of paraffins, especially LPG or gas condensate feedstocks, to produce a high octane petrol range product with a high aromatics content. Thanks to its outstanding thermo-mechanical stability, CPA 100 can be regenerated repeatedly in-situ.
CPa 100
Nominal Content [wt.%] Zeolite Shape Size [mm]

MFI Extrusions 1.5

Oil Refinery Industry

83

Oil Refinery Industry


Petrol Production C 5 /C6 Isomerisation
HYSOPAR 5000 is a platinum-promoted zeolite-based catalyst for isomerisation of C5/C6 feedstocks. It is the product of a joint development between CEPSA Research (Spain) and Sd-Chemie. HYSOPAR 5000 has demonstrated its excellent performance in numerous isomerisation applications.
HYSOPaR 5000
Nominal Content [wt.%] Pt Zeolite ZrO2 Shape Size [mm]

0.3 0.4 MOR Extrusions 1.5

Sd-Chemie provides the entire isomerisation technology process package, encompassing both basic engineering and catalysts.

84

Oil Refinery Industry

Oil Refinery Industry


C 4 Selective Hydroisomerisation
SHUMax 105 is a highly selective and active hydroisomerisation catalyst which simultaneously hydrogenates butadiene and hydroisomerises 1-butene to 2-butene from a C4 cut in order to upgrade the alkylate quality. The CDS shape guarantees superior performance, ensuring almost complete butene retention, even at a conversion level approaching the thermodynamic equilibrium. SHUMax 105 is a noble metal impregnated catalyst, available in different variations, and tailored to the specific needs of the refiner.
SHUMax 105
Nominal Content [wt.%] Pd Al2O3 Shape Size [mm]

0.5 Balance CDS Extrusions 1.3

Oil Refinery Industry

85

Oil Refinery Industry


Naphtha Dearomatisation NiSaT
NiSAT catalysts are used in the dearomatisation of low-sulphur refining feedstocks, such as naphtha boiling range feedstocks. It is especially important to remove benzene from aromatic petrol pool blending compounds to meet the required environmental regulations for gasoline. NiSAT catalysts are manufactured in different shapes, such as tablets or CDS extrusions, and are available in reduced and stabilised versions.
NiSaT 200
Nominal Content [wt.%] NiO Support Shape Size [mm]

NiSaT 310 66 Balance CDS Extrusions 1.5

43 Balance Tablets 6x6

Middle Distillate Upgrade


For middle distillate refining, our catalysts cover all major applications.

Saturation Stabilisation aromatics and PNa saturation Cetane improvement Clay treating Dewaxing of gas oil fractions Dewaxing/conversion of heavy stocks

86

Oil Refinery Industry

Oil Refinery Industry


Dearomatisation (Sulphur-free Feedstock) NiSaT
NiSAT hydrogenation catalysts have a proven track record in the dearomatisation of low-sulphur refining feedstocks, such as kerosene, diesel or white oils. As the smoke point of jet fuels often needs to be improved, it is necessary to operate aromatics saturation units. For maximum dearomatisation activity, NiSAT is available in the form of CDS extrusions.
NiSaT 200
Nominal Content [wt.%] NiO Support Shape Size [mm]

NiSaT 310 66 Balance CDS Extrusions 1.5

43 Balance Tablets 6x6

Oil Refinery Industry

8

Oil Refinery Industry


Dearomatisation (Sulphur-bearing Feedstock) aSaT
Efficient low-temperature dearomatisation of middle distillates is usually accomplished with noble metal catalysts rather than nickel catalysts. The latter suffer from an affinity to sulphur, leading to their subsequent deactivation. New catalyst systems with dual noble metal function have recently emerged on the market. These are more tolerant to much higher levels of sulphur than standard platinum catalysts. The most recent development in this family of HDAr catalysts is the ASAT catalyst series. ASAT is a noble-metal-promoted zeolite catalyst, which offers HDS, HDN and HDAr service as a trifunctional catalyst. Its most outstanding feature is its extreme tolerance of sulphur (up to 500 ppm wt.). These catalysts feature outstanding capabilities for upgrading middle distillate cuts, converting sulphur down to ppm level, PNA and total nitrogen to non-detectable level, and reducing total aromatics from 40% to less than 5%. ASAT catalysts can thus easily convert light cycle oil (LCO) to sulphur-free diesel fuel in a one-stage unit.
aSaT LS
Nominal Content [wt.%] Noble Metal Support Shape Size [mm]

aSaT Proprietary Zeolite Extrusions 1.5

Proprietary Al2O3 CDS Extrusions 1.5

88

Oil Refinery Industry

Oil Refinery Industry


Mild Hydrocracking
The catalyst MHC-100 is used in vacuum gas oil treatment to produce a product distribution favouring increasing yields of middle distillates, such as diesel fractions. Petrol production is minimised when using the MHC-100 catalyst. MHC-100 is a nickel oxide/molybdenum oxide on alumina-based catalyst.
MHC-100
Nominal Content [wt.%] NiO MoO3 Al2O3 Shape Size [mm]

Proprietary Proprietary Balance TRIAX Extrusions 1.5

Oil Refinery Industry

8

Oil Refinery Industry


Dewaxing Dewaxing of Gas Oils and Kerosene
HYDEX-G is used for selective hydrocracking of long-chain normal paraffins. It is suitable for all kinds of high-sulphur middle distillates, such as kerosene and gas oil, particularly in combined operation with an HDS catalyst. HYDEX-G is a fully regenerable, metal-impregnated, zeolite-based catalyst.
HYDeX-g
Nominal Content [wt.%] Promoter Zeolite Shape Size [mm]

Proprietary MFI Extrusions 1.5

Dewaxing of Waxy Stocks


HYDEX-C is a fully regenerable zeolite-based dewaxing catalyst designed for use in conversion units. It is a metal-impregnated, highly shape-selective catalyst for the hydrocracking of long chain paraffins. Product quality has been considerably improved in terms of pour, cloud and cold filter plugging point. It also features a lower boiling range. Typical feedstocks for HYDEX-C are waxy atmospheric and vacuum gas oil cuts.
HYDeX-C
Nominal Content [wt.%] Promoter Zeolite Shape Size [mm]

Proprietary MFI Extrusions 1.5

0

Oil Refinery Industry

Oil Refinery Industry


Kerosene Sweetening Clay Treater
Sd-Chemies tailored Tonsil CO products are perfectly suited to solving colour-related problems and/or extending the cycle length.
Tonsil CO-Jet
Nominal Content [wt.%] Alumino Silicate Shape Size [mm]

100 Granules 0.25 1.25

Wax and Lube Oil


The first step in the manufacture of lubricants involves separating the individual fractions according to viscosity and boiling range specifications. The raw lube oil fractions from most crude oils contain components which have undesirable characteristics for the finished lubricant. These must be removed or converted by means of processes such as extraction, hydrodewaxing or hydrotreating. Undesirable characteristics include high pour points, high cloud points, large viscosity changes with temperature (low VI), poor oxygen stability, poor colour, high organic acidity and high carbon and sludge-forming tendencies. Sd-Chemies lube oil processing catalysts help the refiner to meet specifications with regard to these crucial lube oil properties.

Dewaxing of Lube Oil


HYDEX-L, a zeolite-based catalyst, selectively hydrocracks waxy molecules to short-chain products, leaving valuable lube oil components unchanged. HYDEX-L is a fully regenerable catalyst.
HYDeX-L
Nominal Content [wt.%] Promoter Zeolite Shape Size [mm]

Proprietary MFI Extrusions 1.5

Oil Refinery Industry

1

Oil Refinery Industry


Hydrotreating and Hydrofinishing
HDMax 510, a hydrotreating catalyst, was developed primarily for severe hydrotreating operation of waxes and lube oil stocks. Its macroporous structure is best suited to improving colour and oxygen stability, as well as lowering the organic acidity of the product. HDMax 510 is a robust nickel oxide/molybdenum oxide catalyst. It is available in CDS shape. HDMax 520 is best suited to hydrofinishing reactions aimed at removing chemically active compounds which affect colour and colour stability. Due to its specific macroporous structure and acidic properties, the HDMax 520 hydrofinishing catalyst produces water-clear white oils. The HDMax 310 catalyst is the standard catalyst for efficient and high quality VGO products.
HDMax 510
Nominal Content [wt.%] NiO MoO3 WO3 Support Shape Size [mm]

HDMax 520

HDMax 310

5 22 Balance CDS Extrusions 1.5

5 22 Balance CDS Extrusions 1.5

5.2 23 Balance TRIAX Extrusions 2.5

2

Oil Refinery Industry

Oil Refinery Industry


Hydrogenation of Olefins
NiSAT hydrogenation catalysts are used in oil refining as well as in lube oil applications. As NiSAT catalysts are robust, versatile aromatic hydrogenation catalysts, they are well established in the manufacture of medical-grade white oils, as well as for low-sulphur kerosene aromatics saturation and chemical intermediate production. NiSAT catalysts are manufactured in a variety of different shapes, such as tablets or CDS extrusions, and are available in reduced and stabilised versions.
NiSaT 200
Nominal Content [wt.%] NiO Support Shape Size [mm]

NiSaT 310 66 Balance CDS Extrusions 1.5

43 Balance Tablets 6x6

Lube Oil and Wax Bleaching


The various Tonsil bleaching earths are widely approved, highly active absorbents for liquid-phase purification of heavy hydrocarbon fractions and waxes. They promise economical decolourisation and complete removal of colour bodies, surfactants, residual gums and other trace impurities.
Tonsil Optimum
Nominal Content [wt.%] Alumino Silicate Shape Size

Tonsil Standard 100 Powder 5% < 63 m

100 Powder 5% < 63 m

Oil Refinery Industry

3

Oil Refinery Industry


Oligomerisation Production of Polypetrol and Higher Olefins
Solid phosphoric acid catalysts are primarily used for the oligomerisation of propylene and/or butylene to high octane petrol or higher molecular weight polymers. PolyMaxTM 843 catalysts can be operated in tubular and chamber-type reactors.
PolyMaxTM 843
Nominal Content [wt.%] Short Acid as P2O5 Total Acid as P2O5 Shape Size [mm]

PolyMaxTM 845 18 60 Pellets 5.5 .0

18 54 Pellets 6.0 .5

Butylene Dimerisation
A further application of PolyMaxTM 843 catalysts is the dimerisation of butylene to i-octene, which can be further hydrogenated to i-octane. Idled MTBE or catpoly units can be retrofitted for such processes with minimal capital expenditure.

Olefinics and aromatics


If olefinic or aromatic feed stocks, containing higher sulphur levels, need to become hydrogenated prior to directing them into the gasoline pool, HDMax 800 provides superior activity combined with excellent mechanical strength.
HDMax 800
Nominal Content [wt.%] Pt Al2O3 Shape Size [mm]

0.3 Balance Tablets 4.5 x 4.5

4

Oil Refinery Industry

Oil Refinery Industry


Purification of FCC Off-gases
The OleMaxTM 100 series of catalysts is used for the purification of FCC off-gases. OleMaxTM 100 series removes acetylene, MAPD, oxygen, NOx, arsine and other impurities to enable the refiner to recover highpurity ethylene, propylene and hydrogen from the FCC off-gas. Selection from among the following types depends on the sulphur content of the gas stream and plant design conditions. OleMaxTM 100 types are resistant to deactivation by trace heavy metals often found in these streams.
OleMaxTM 101
Nominal Content [wt.%] NiO Multi-Promoter SiO2-Al2O3 Shape Size [mm]

OleMaxTM 102

OleMaxTM 103

2.6 12 Balance Spheres 8

1.3 12 Balance Spheres 8

0.6 12 Balance Spheres 8

Oil Refinery Industry

5

Oil Refinery Industry


Hydrogen Production
The production of hydrogen involves the use of several key unit operations for which Sd-Chemie supplies catalysts. These are:

Feedstock purification Prereforming Fired reformer CO conversion Methanation Sour gas shift
Typically, two or more of these processing units are involved in virtually all plant configurations.

Prereforming
A prereformer is an adiabatic fixed-bed reactor upstream of the primary reformer. It allows increased flexibility in the choice of feedstock, increased life time of the steam-reforming catalyst and tubes and the option of increasing the overall plant capacity. Furthermore, it operates at lower steam/carbon ratios. ReforMax 100 is a prereforming catalyst designed to handle the entire range of hydrocarbon feedstocks from natural gas up to and including LPGs and naphthas.
ReforMax 100
Nominal Content [wt.%] NiO Support and Promoter Shape Size [mm]

56 Balance Tablets 4.5 x 4.5

6

Oil Refinery Industry

Oil Refinery Industry


Fired Reformer
Selection of the optimum catalyst depends on several factors, including furnace design, severity of service, and the type of hydrocarbon processed. To cover all possible combinations, Sd-Chemie offers a wide variety of steam-reforming catalysts, comprising a range of different carriers, shapes and chemical compositions.
ReforMax 330 LDP
Typical Feed Nominal Content [wt.%] NiO K2O Carrier Shape Size [mm]

ReforMax 210 LDP NG/LPG

ReforMax 250 Naphtha

NG

14 CaAl12O1 10 Holed Ring 1 x 16

18 1.6 CaK2Al22O34 10 Holed Ring 1 x 12

25 8.5
Calciumaluminate

Multi Holed Ring 16 x 16

High-temperature CO Conversion
The HTS catalyst ShiftMax 120 combines high activity with extremely good physical robustness. In addition, this catalyst is very effective in preventing Fischer-Tropsch by-product formation when operating at low steam conditions.
ShiftMax 120
Nominal Content [wt.%] Fe2O3 Cr2O3 CuO Shape Size [mm]

80 8.5 2 Tablets 6x6

Oil Refinery Industry



Oil Refinery Industry


Low-temperature CO Conversion
The LTS catalysts ShiftMax 230 and 240 are state-of-the-art products featuring excellent copper dispersion leading to unparalleled activity for water-gas shift. These catalysts feature higher CO conversion for longer life, enhanced resistance to poisons, and superior physical strength. The promoter in ShiftMax 240 suppresses the formation of methanol by more than 95% compared to standard LTS catalysts without decreasing activity. The Chlorine Guard ShiftMax CI is recommended for the protection of the LTS catalysts.
ShiftMax CI
Nominal Content [wt.%] CuO ZnO Al2O3 Promoter Shape Size [mm]

ShiftMax 230

ShiftMax 240

20 60 Balance 10 Tablets 5x3

42 4  Tablets 4.8 x 3.2

42 4  2 Tablets 4.8 x 3.2

Medium-temperature CO Conversion
Medium-temperature CO conversion (MTS) is carried out in an isothermal system or adiabatic reactor, with exit temperatures of around 300 C. The ShiftMax 300 catalyst is a stabilised copper/zinc catalyst featuring excellent stability of the Cu crystallites.
ShiftMax 300
Nominal Content [wt.%] CuO ZnO Promoter Al2O3 Shape Size [mm]

20 58 11 Balance Tablets 6x3

8

Oil Refinery Industry

Oil Refinery Industry


Sour gas Shift
CO conversion downstream of gasification units can be carried out without prior removal of the sulphur compounds. For this sour gas shift, we supply the stabilised CoMo catalyst ShiftMax 820.
ShiftMax 820
Nominal Content [wt.%] CoO MoO3 Support and Promoter Shape Size [mm]

3.5 14 Balance Extrusions 3.0

Methanation
METH 130 and METH 134 consists of NiO on alumina and are available in the shape of extrusions or spheres.
MeTH 130
Nominal Content [wt.%] NiO Support Shape Size [mm]

MeTH 134 25 Balance Spheres 36

25 Balance Extrusions 5

Oil Refinery Industry



Oil Refinery Industry


Sulphur Plants Claus Sulphur
The SynMax 200 Claus catalysts are delivered as smooth spheres. Their optimised pore size distribution offers advantages such as superior crush strength, low attrition loss and high activity. SynMax 200 catalysts have been developed for standard sulphur recovery plants as well as units operating near or below the sulphur dewpoint, for instance in second- or third-stage operation.
SynMax 200
Nominal Content [wt.%] Al2O3 Shape Size [mm]

100 Spheres 35

100

Oil Refinery Industry

Oil Refinery Industry


Tail gas Treating
HDMax 213 and 214 catalysts are robust, stabilised alumina extrusions impregnated with cobalt oxide and molybdenum oxide. They simultaneously promote the hydrolysis of COS and hydrogenation of SOx to H2S.
HDMax 213
Nominal Content [wt.%] CoO MoO3 Promoter Al2O3 Shape Size [mm]

HDMax 214 3.5 14.0 Proprietary Balance Extrusions 3.0

2.0 .3 Proprietary Balance CDS Extrusions 3.0

Oil Refinery Industry

101

Olefin Polymerization
Headline
Content needed - Accumsa ndigna consequipit verat, quat at nit il iure vel enit nibh er irit am ea faci tis dolendre et vel illa faccum vulla consect etuerostrud mod min vullum nos nim doluptat. Olobortio dip ex et laor adipsum acip ero enim erostrud dolessi el utat, velis acipit ent duipisi.

Olefin Polymerization
Olefin Polymerization plastics for the world
As a leading technology enterprise in specialty chemicals, Sd-Chemie is playing an increasingly important role in the advanced plastics industry, supplying mainly catalysts for propylene polymerization, so-called Ziegler-Natta catalysts. Polypropylene is one of the fastest growing and most dynamic plastics in the world especially used in durable and semidurable molding, extrusion and fiber applications.

Polypropylene a driving market force


The wide spectrum of excellent properties and applications, as well as its favorable price/volume ratio will continue to be drivers propelling the worldwide annual consumption growth rates to approximately 6 - 7% per year. Polypropylene offers a cost-competitive thermoplastic material with outstanding physical, chemical, mechanical, thermal and electrical properties that exceed those of other standard plastic materials. Polypropylene has already replaced numerous traditional materials including paper, wood, glass and metal, as well as higher priced thermoplastic materials such as polyethylene, polyamide, polyester and ABS. Compared with polyethylene for example; polypropylene and its copolymer compounds offer excellent impact strength, better working temperatures and enhanced tensile strength. The most important downstream applications for polypropylene are in the fiber, film, packaging, equipment and automobile industries. This functional plastic is, for instance, ideal for manufacturing light-weight, yet at the same time robust injection-molded parts, special fibers and thermoformed components. Polypropylenes unique chemical properties and its resistance to environmental influences make it extremely attractive for both the textile and cable industries. China holds a pre-eminent position in the polyolefin business. Its strong economic growth has resulted in ever-increasing demand for polypropylene in production and end-user sectors; the Chinese market demand for polypropylene has increased at an average annual rate of more than 10 % over the past decade. Participating in this growth, Sd-Chemie has acquired operations of Shanghai Sd-Chemie Catalyst Co. since October 2005, establishing an excellent supply position for Ziegler-Natta catalysts to polypropylene producers both in the fast-growing Chinese market and the expanding global markets.

104

Olefin Polymerization

Olefin Polymerization
global network, local presence
The Catalytic Technologies Business Unit ensures global presence and local affinity via its sixteen production sites, twenty-five sales offices and nine research and development centers. Teams specialized in both research and development and technical support ensure the highest quality of products and services across the world.

Introducing C-MaX Polypropylene Catalyst Series


The C-MAX catalyst from Sd-Chemie is a series of Ziegler-Natta (ZN) catalysts highly optimized for the manufacture of Polypropylene (PP) grades in a variety of different process platforms. C-MAX catalysts enable PP producers to manufacture their entire product range without cumbersome catalyst changes. In addition, PP producers benefit from an excellent morphology control during polymerization. A process-optimized catalyst activity level, in combination with excellent isotacticity control ensures globally competitive operational costs while maintaining full process control to tailor-make PP products for diverse application properties. C-MAX catalysts are commercially well proven in several PP production lines comprising the major bulk and bulk loop processes. Customers appreciate the catalysts outstanding performance and benefit from the technical service provided by Sd-Chemies technical team who has many decades of previous experience in all major PP process technologies.

Technical data:
Catalyst type Product range Highly optimized 4th-generation ZN catalyst system Covers homopolymers, heterophasic copolymers and random copolymers Bulk loop processes (C-MAX 120) Bulk CSTR processes (C-MAX 220) Stirred bed gas phase processes (C-MAX 320) Fluidized bed gas phase processes (C-MAX 330) Excellent control of spherical particle size and size distribution. Fluff bulk density optimized for increased reactor throughput High activity level reduces operational costs Full control to meet requirements for all products Provided as dry powder

Process platforms

Morphology control

Catalyst activity PP Isotacticity Shipping information 1

1) Please note: Other packaging requirements can be accommodated.

Olefin Polymerization

105

air Purification
No smoking
Smoke is harmful to both masterpieces and the environment. That is why Sd-Chemie offers the highest quality catalysts for air purification. And everyone benefits: our customers, their neighbours, and the atmosphere.

air Purification
Sd-Chemies EnviCat product line of standard and customised catalysts for air purification is available in both pelletised and honeycomb forms. Using precious metals or base metals as active components, a wide variety of applications is covered: treatment of VOC emissions from chemical, petrochemical and semiconductor industry, emission control for internal combustion engines and purification of indoor-air. Customised catalysts are designed based on the following criteria: Catalyst suitability/dimension, conversion rates, warranty period, pressure drop, catalyst arrangement. The most commonly used shapes and forms are:

Monolithic structures (metallic and ceramic honeycombs) Foams (ceramic and metallic) Wall flow filters Pellets (tablets, extrusions, spheres) Saddles Wire mesh Fiber mats Screens Other custom shapes and forms

108

Air Purification

air Purification
Industrial Off-gas Treatment
Industrial exhaust gas can contain various organic compounds, e.g. chemical by-products, solvents or odours. These volatile organic compounds (VOCs) or hydrocarbons (HC) are emitted during various industrial processes and need to be eliminated. Some applications also require a decomposition of nitrogen compounds such as NOX, N2O and NH3.

Oxidation of Volatile Organic Compounds (VOC)


For any given oxidation reaction, catalytic incineration allows the oxidation process to take place at a lower temperature than with thermal oxidation, saving operating costs. The economical advantage of low operating costs and less stress on equipment materials of construction, compared to alternative technologies, makes catalytic incineration the smart choice for many plants.
Precious Metals Base Metals

Catalyst

Carrier
Ceramic & Metallic Monoliths Spheres Ceramic & Metallic Monoliths Extrusions, Tablets, Powder or Special High Resistent Spheres Ceramic Monoliths Ceramic Saddle

application
Industrial VOC Industrial VOC Sulfur Tolerant SO2 Selective

EnviCat VOC EnviCat VOC EnviCat DOC EnviCat VOC

EtO, NH3, Volatile Nitrogen Compounds, Higher Poison Tolerance VOC & CO for RTO/RCO VOC & CO for RTO/RCO

EnviCat ECOLITH EnviCat RCO

DeNOx and N2O Reduction


Catalyst Carrier
Zeolite

Precious Metals

Base Metals

application
Medium Temperature Gas Decomposition Low Temperature Gas Catalytic Reduction

EnviCat N2O-1 EnviCat N2O-2 EnviCat NOx EnviCat NO-1 EnviCat HNO3

Zeolite

Tablets Zeolite Ceramic & Metallic Honeycombs

Low Temperature SCR Selective Catalytic Reduction of NOx

Non-Selective Catalytic Reduction of NOx

Air Purification

10

air Purification
Carbon Monoxide (CO) Oxidation
Catalyst Carrier
Spheres Ceramic & Metal Monoliths, Pellets

Precious Metals

Base Metals

application
Gas Masks, Ambient Temperature CO Oxidation at High Space Velocity

EnviCat CO EnviCat CO

Desulfurisation and Deodorisation


Catalyst Carrier
Extrusions, Homogenous Honeycombs Powder

Precious Metals

Base Metals

application
H2S, COS Ammonia, Amines Toilet Deodorisation

EnviCat CF ActiSorb S 3 EnviCat CF

Ozone Destruction
Catalyst Carrier
Homogenous Honeycombs Extrusions, Spheres, Powder Ceramic & Metallic Honeycombs

Precious Metals

Base Metals

application
Ambient Temperature, High Concentration O3 Ambient Temperature, Improved Moisture Tolerance Airplane Ozone, High Space Velocity

EnviCat O3 EnviCat O3 EnviCat AOD

Oxidation of Halogenated Hydrocarbons


Catalyst Carrier
Ceramic Honeycombs Spheres

Precious Metals

Base Metals

application
Industrial HVOC, SVE, Dioxin, etc. Industrial HVOC, SVE, Dioxin, etc.

EnviCat HHC EnviCat HHC

Traffic Tunnel Air Purification


Catalyst Carrier
Extrusions

Precious Metals

Base Metals

application
Tunnel Air Purification

EnviCat TT

110

Air Purification

air Purification
Purification of Industrial Gases
Sd-Chemie provides a variety of catalysts containing noble metals for the removal of trace impurities in a wide range of gases such as oxygen, hydrogen, nitrogen and argon.
Precious Metals Base Metals

Catalyst

Carrier
Spheres, Tablets

application
Removal of Trace Impurities

ActiSorb O 3

Semiconductor Industry
Sd-Chemie offers cutting-edge technology for the adsorption of toxic and corrosive gases such as SiH4, AsH3, PH3, HCI, NH3, NF3 and many others encountered in the semiconductor industry. For fixed bed adsorber systems, these products are the leading choice for the cost-effective protection of our environment.
Precious Metals Base Metals

Catalyst

Carrier
Tablets or Extrusions Extrusions Extrusions

application
Hydrides Halogens Ammonia & Amines

EnviCat SEMI EnviCat SEMI EnviCat SEMI

Air Purification

111

air Purification
Stationary engines and gas Turbines
Catalytic emission control systems are used extensively for engines running on various fuels: Natural gas/CNG, Diesel, Biodiesel, LPG, Landfil Gas, Synthetics, Dimethyl Ether, Alcohols, Methane, etc. EnviCat Catalysts are available as well for Single-Fuel, Dual-Fuel and Bi-Fuel engines for: Power Gensets: Stationary engines as well as gas turbines Boats Locomotives
Precious Metals Base Metals

Catalyst

Carrier
Ceramic & Metallic Monoliths Ceramic & Metallic Monoliths Ceramic & Metallic Monoliths

application
NSCR for Stoichiometric Engines, e.g. NG Oxidation Catalyst for NG Engines Diesel Oxidation Catalyst Catalysed Diesel Filter for Low Temperature Soot Ignition

EnviCat TWC EnviCat OC EnviCat DOC EnviCat cDPF

Ceramic Monoliths

Mobile engines
Efforts to reduce pollution caused by mobile engines are increasing worldwide. EnviCat catalysts offer technical solutions for engines running on Diesel, compressed Natural Gas or Petrol.

Diesel Engines
Catalyst Carrier
Ceramic & Metallic Monoliths Ceramic & Metallic Monoliths Ceramic Wall-Flow-Filter

Precious Metals

Base Metals

application
Diesel Oxidation Catalyst

EnviCat DOC EnviCat SCR EnviCat cDPF

Catalysts for Urea-SCR Catalysed Diesel Particulate Filter for Low Temperature Soot Ignition

112

Air Purification

air Purification
Compressed Natural Gas and Gasoline Engines
Catalyst Carrier Precious Metals Base Metals application
Elimination of CO and HC from Lean Burning, CNG Trucks, Buses and Vehicles NSCR for Stoichiometric Engines

EnviCat CNG

Ceramic & Metallic Monoliths

EnviCat TWC

Ceramic & Metallic Monoliths

2&4-Stroke Small Engines


Catalyst Carrier Precious Metals Base Metals application
Motorcycles, Scooters, Mopeds, Three Wheelers and other 2&4-Stroke Small Engines

EnviCat TWC

Metallic Monoliths, Perforated Heat Tube

Indoor air
More than 80% of our life takes place indoors. Sd-Chemie develops catalysts and adsorbents to purify indoor air. This comprises purification of restaurant and wood stove emissions, as well as products for in-house use, such as odour and smoke abatement for kitchen stoves.
Precious Metals Base Metals

Catalyst

Carrier
Metallic Monoliths Homogeneous Honeycombs Ceramic Monoliths

application
CO, PM & VOC Reduction in Restaurant Exhaust

PRO*BROIL EnviCat CF EnviCat SCOSE EnviCat Long Life EnviCat Long Life Plus

Odour Abatement at Room Temperature CO, PM & VOC Smoke Elimination in Kitchen Stoves Wood Stove Off-Gas: CO, PM & VOC Reduction

Ceramic & Metallic Monoliths

Air Purification

113

Fuel Cell Technologies


energy in tight spaces
There are works of art that burst with energy. Whoever wants to see them like this in colour, form and imagery, needs high tech without compromises.

Fuel Cell Technologies


Sd-Chemie also applies its core competence in the field of hydrogen technology to the business area of Fuel Cell Technologies. Hydrogen is the feed for all fuel cell types, including PEMFC, MCFC and SOFC. In tandem with our partners, we work at a global level to develop all possible applications for fuel cells, whether mobile or stationary.

Fuel Cell Technologies


When the fuel cell industry began over 20 years ago, Sd-Chemie naturally became one of its primary suppliers. Now, Sd-Chemie Fuel Cell Technologies has working relationships with virtually every major fuel cell developer and hydrogen producer around the globe. Those decades of experience have earned Sd-Chemie a unique reputation: for in-depth knowledge of catalyst science and also for developing the worlds most advanced and innovative catalysts for hydrogen production. HyProGen - The full spectrum of hydrogen-generation catalysts, such as:
TM

Feedstock Purification Catalysts


Hydrocarbon feedstocks such as natural gas and LPG contain odorant sulfur compounds that must be removed before they can be used in fuel cells. Sd-Chemie offers many high-capacity solutions and also provide special formulations to extract the different odorants used in different regions of the world.

Feedstock Reforming Catalysts


Our reforming catalysts permit broad fuel flexibility. For steam reforming, we can match catalyst performance to reactor design and also optimize shape to address heat mass transfer issues. For autothermal reforming (ATR), Sd-Chemies high-geometry metal and foam monoliths achieve high volumetric activity and require less catalyst. For catalytic partial oxidation reforming (CPO), our catalysts provide optimized stability and longer life at higher operating temperatures.

116

Fuel Cell Technologies

Fuel Cell Technologies


Water gas Shift Catalysts
Our advanced platinum products offer exceptional volumetric activity along with long-term stability and selectivity. In parallel a virtually non-pyrophoric base metal catalyst has been developed and optimised to withstand many retox cycles.

CO Purification Catalysts
Selective methanation produces higher reformate quality with <10ppm CO! It also allows smaller, simpler system designs since it does not require air streams, flow controllers or other hardware.

Off-gas Combustion Catalysts


These anode gas oxidizers efficiently combust any residual hydrogen or hydrocarbons in a very efficient, environmentally friendly way an issue that is very important to Sd-Chemie. Our gas oxidiser catalysts also provide low temperature light-off as well as the stability to maintain activity at high temperature.

Fields of application:

Large stationary fuel cells (250 kW) Residential application for houses (1-5 kW) Camping / Leisure (100 W) H2 infrastructure (50-400 Nm3/h) Uninterrupted power supply (1-5 kW)

Fuel Cell Technologies

11

Custom Catalysts la Carte Catalysts


And what can we get for you?
Whether large or small, ring shaped, as powder or granules: Sd-Chemie delivers specialised catalysts for innumerable appli-cations and with the most widely varying performance features. But that is not all. On request, we can develop and produce customised solutions individually tailored to your needs. Well then: which catalyst would you like?

Custom Catalysts
la Carte Catalysts
As a customised catalyst group, Sd-Chemie has a long history of manufacturing quality catalysts la carte. Indeed, customised catalyst manufacture accounts for a significant proportion of our business. Since the 1960s, customers have come to us both to manufacture new catalysts for commercialisation and to improve the catalysts they already use. Whether a petrochemical, refining, chemical, or engineering company approaches us for manufacturing or developing a catalyst from concept to completion, we have the resources, systems, and people to provide the level of service and confidentiality that any custom project may entail.

120

Custom Catalysts

Custom Catalysts
Three types of customer relationships are generally identified:

Toll Manufacture
Catalysts are produced exclusively for the customer in line with the customers expertise.

Licensed Manufacture
Catalysts are produced relying on the customers expertise, but marketed and sold by Sd-Chemie (either freely or with specific restrictions). The customer receives royalty payments on sales.

Custom Manufacture
Catalysts are developed on the basis of Sd-Chemies expertise, but produced exclusively for the customer in question.

Although Sd-Chemie does not sell process design services per se, customers can benefit from the expertise and services of Sd-Chemies entire technical staff whether in the context of investigating and establishing operating conditions, or for recommendations on a specific catalyst in answer to any requirement or problem.

Custom Catalysts

121

Research and Development


Continually discover something new
Whether nature, a painting, or simple every-day things: when you look closely and let yourself be inspired, you will discover surprising details and unending possibilities. And that is exactly what sets the experts in Sd-Chemies Research and Development apart. Researchers, engineers, and developers who are as tenacious as they are determined to work on new technologies.

Research and Development


Sd-Chemie has eight catalyst R&D laboratories located in Germany, the USA, Japan, India and Italy. Our catalyst R&D is particularly oriented towards applied research in the development of new products and the study of reaction mechanisms. In order to perform these activities, our R&D laboratories are fully equipped for laboratory-scale and pilot-plantscale catalyst preparation and catalyst testing facilities.

124

Research and Development

Research and Development


Since thorough knowledge of their physical and chemical properties is the key to understanding the behaviour of catalysts, advanced physical measurement capability is vital to our R&D laboratories. Sd-Chemies testing facilities allow for the catalytic testing and evaluation of all catalysts under both standard and individual operating conditions (i.e. process conditions specified by our customers) in conventional, continuous flow or batch reactors under isothermal or adiabatic conditions. Should you have any specific or unusual requirements that are not highlighted above, please dont hesitate to contact us. We would be only too glad to assist you.

Research and Development

125

Service and Performance guarantees


The art of straightening things out
True perfection lasts longer than a glance. That is the insight that defines a quality enterprise like Sd-Chemie. What does that mean for you as a customer? Simply this: we offer you first class service, even on location, and guarantee the functionality of our products without any ifs ands or buts. That is partnership that pays for itself.

Service
Technical Service
Sd-Chemie firmly believes that even an outstanding catalyst may not provide the best performance without the appropriate level of assistance during the phases of selection, installation, start-up and operation. Our technical services has specific expertise in the areas of catalyst characterisation, catalyst installation, start-up assistance, plant operation and performance evaluations. This depth of knowledge allows us to provide the following services:

Review of reactor system design Selection of proper catalyst Technical reviews of start-up and shutdown procedures Technical assistance for loading Technical assistance during catalyst start-up Routine performance evaluations Immediate troubleshooting Catalyst life projections Technical assistance during catalyst shut-down On-site training seminars for engineering and operations personnel Chemical and physical analyses of spent catalyst
Sd-Chemie also has an extensive list of portable analytical and computer systems to further add to our list of resources.

128

Service

Performance guarantees
Handling of Spent Catalysts
Sd-Chemie is not active in the field of catalyst recycling, but works closely with several specialised companies who are committed to taking back spent Sd-Chemie catalysts on favourable terms. Cooperation of this type guarantees that users of Sd-Chemies catalysts will always have the option of having their catalyst recycled in an eco-friendly way and at a competitive price. Please dont hesitate to contact us for an up-to-date list of catalyst disposal companies.

Quality Management
Sd-Chemie is committed to quality and responsible care of the environment. Both Sd-Chemie AG and most of the Sd-Chemie Group companies have a quality and/or environmental management system in line with ISO 9001/ISO 1400.

Performance guarantees
Sd-Chemie grants users of our catalysts performance guarantees covering the key process parameters, such as yield, selectivity and pickup capacities. Before such guarantees are granted, the design conditions and/or the anticipated operating conditions must be evaluated. Please contact our technical service for details of any application.

Performance Guarantees

12

Sd-Chemie History
What will be your next strategic step?
Your plans for the future without us? Impossible, as Sd-Chemie supplies catalysts for your application. We are the right partner for your business to create added value. What makes us so sure? We understand the challenges facing the refining, chemical and petrochemical industries better than almost anyone else and can offer you tomorrows catalysis technology today.

Sd-Chemie History
The Beginning
agricultural Bavaria still lacks a factory for the manufacture of large amounts of artificial fertilizers, which would necessarily be linked to the production of chemical products This statement to the Bavarian King Maximilian II in the 19th century began the formation an enterprise in 1857 which eventually became Sd-Chemie AG in its present form. After 150 years Sd-Chemie can look back on a rich and varied history starting with the formation of the Bavarian Public Limited Company for Chemical and Agrochemical Products with Justus von Liebig as one of its founding shareholders. The production of mineral fertilisers began in 1859 in Heufeld and manufacturing of bleaching earth in Moosburg was started in 1906 with the natural clay (betonite) found in the area. In 1958/1959: Together with Chemetron Corp., Chicago, USA, GirdlerSdchemie Katalysator GmbH was formed in Munich as a joint venture for manufacturing catalysts used in fertilisers and in processing crude oil, edible oils, edible fats and fatty acids.

going global
After 15 years of partnership, in 1974, the entire catalyst business belonging to Chemetron (Girdler Chemical Inc.) in Louisville, Kentucky, USA was taken over, including its shares in Girdler-Sd-Chemie Katalysator and Nissan Girdler Catalyst Co. Ltd., Tokyo, Japan. In 1977, Sd-Chemie acquired the Louisville-based Catalyst and Chemicals Inc. (CCI), including partnerships with CCIL, India and CCIFE, Japan. US Girdler and CCI catalyst operations were then merged to form United Catalyst Inc. (UCI). In the Asia-Pacific region, production of CCI catalysts for Indonesia has been handled by PT-Kujang United Catalysts since the mid-eighties. In 1981, African Catalyst started anufacturing oligomerisation catalysts in Sasolburg, South Africa. Sd-Chemie has been producing zeolite catalysts via Syncat/SC Zeolites in South Africa since 1991. In 1990, Sd-Chemie purchased Houdry process and catalyst manufacturing technology operations from Air Product and Chemical Inc., USA. There are three HOUDRY applications: 1.) dehydrogenation of isobutane or propane for the production of iso-butylene or propylene (CATOFIN), 2.) dehydrogenation of n-butane for the production of 1,3- butadiene (CATADIENE), and 3.) dealkylation of alkylbenzenes for the production of hight purity benzene (PYROTOL, LITOL, and DETOL). While these technologies are owned by Sd-Chemie, they are licensed by ABB Lummus Global Inc.

132

Sd-Chemie History

Sd-Chemie History
Sd-Chemie acquired Prototec Inc., USA in 1992, with a view to expanding its operations in the emission control catalyst sector. In 1997, Sd-Chemie acquired the Italian Montecatini Technology whose product portfolio mainly includes catalysts used for oxychlorination in fluid or fixed-bed operation and in the production of terephthalic acid, as well as for oxidation of formaldehyde to Methanol. In November 2002, Sd-Chemie became the majority shareholder of the joint venture company Panjin Sud-Chemie Liaohe Catalysts. The JV serves the syngas and maleic anhydride catalysts market in China as well as rest of the world. In 2003, together with SABIC, Sd-Chemie acquired Scientific Design, Little Ferry, USA to form a 50:50 joint venture. The company specializes in processes and catalysts for the production of ethylene oxide and maleic anhydride. In 2004, Sd-Chemie established Sd-Chemie Qatar WLL with local partners to address the needs of the growing gas to liquid industry in the Middle East region. The production facility in Mesaieed Industrial City will be operational soon. In October 2005, Sd-Chemie acquired majority ownership and established Sd-Chemie Jinhai Catalyst in Shanghai/Peoples Republic of China. The venture supplies Ziegler-Natta catalysts used for polymerization of Propylene to Propypropylene. In September 2006, Sd-Chemie acquired Tricat Zeolites GmbH, a Bitterfeld Germany based producer of zeolite materials which are specialty catalysts used in the refining and petrochemical industry, as well as in environmental applications. With the acquisition of Tricat Zeolites and the planned expansion of its existing production capacity, Sd-Chemie is reacting to a rapid increase in the global demand for these specialty catalysts. This year, Sd-Chemie AG, Munich is celebrating its 150th anniversary. The companys foundation in 1857 co-marked the birth of the chemical industry in Germany. Today, Sd-Chemie is an international and technology-oriented global leader in the field of specialty chemistry for adsorbents and catalysts. With sales and earnings recording double-digit annual growth rates for three years in succession and group sales exceeding one billion euros for the first time in 2006, the company will be recruiting a hundred new employees in Germany alone during its anniversary year of 2007. On a worldwide scale, Sd-Chemie employs almost 5000 people at some seventy subsidiaries, generating over 80% of its sales outside Germany. The global identity of all of these companies is reflected in the common name and slogan: Sd-Chemie Creating Performance Technology

Sd-Chemie History

133

Catalyst Index and Contact Details


At a glance
Where can you find the catalyst you are looking for in this catalogue? The following pages will answer that question, showing you how to quickly target the fastest way to the right section. Enjoy!

Catalyst Index
Catalyst ActiSorb 300

Main Metal Component Copper, Zinc Copper, Zinc Copper, Manganese Alumina Chrome, Alumina Sodium Oxide Calcium, Zinc Oxide Calcium, Zinc Oxide Sodium Oxide Copper, Molybdenum Sulphur Sulphur Silver Phosphoric Acid Proprietary Palladium Palladium Palladium Platinum, Nickel Zinc Oxide Zinc Oxide Zinc Oxide Copper Oxide Nickel Sodium Oxide Iron Oxide Zeolite Zeolite Zeolite Titanium, Magnesium Vanadium Pentoxide Vanadium Pentoxide Vanadium Pentoxide Zeolite MFI Zeolite MFI Zeolite MFI Iron Oxide

Normal application Sulphur Removal Sulphur Removal Sulphur Removal COS Hydrolysis COS Hydrolysis Chlorine Removal Chlorine Removal Chlorine Removal Fluorine Removal Sulphur Removal Metal Removal Metal Removal Metal Removal Nitrogen Removal Oxygen Removal Oxygen Removal Off-Gas Purification Off-Gas Purification Off-Gas Purification Sulphur Removal Sulphur Removal Sulphur Removal Sulphur Removal Sulphur Removal Metal Removal Synthesis of Ammonia Hydrogenation Hydrogenation Aromatics Alkylation, Transalkylation SCR NOx Reduction Manufacture of Polypropylene Production of Sulphuric Acid Production of Sulphuric Acid Production of Sulphuric Acid Fuel Technology Fuel Technology Fuel Technology Styrene Production

Page 21 21, 2 21, 2 20, 2 20 21 21 21 21 1 22, 2 22 22 26 25 25 16, 111 16 16 18 18 18, 110 18 1 23 53 88 88 30 105 54 54 54 82 83 83 3

ActiSorb 301 ActiSorb 310 ActiSorb 400 ActiSorb 410 ActiSorb Cl 2 ActiSorb Cl 3 ActiSorb Cl 6 ActiSorb F ActiSorb G 1 AcitSorb Hg 1 ActiSorb Hg 2 ActiSorb Hg 5 ActiSorb N 1 ActiSorb O 1 ActiSorb O 2 ActiSorb O 3 ActiSorb O 4 ActiSorb O 6 ActiSorb S 1

ActiSorb S 2 ActiSorb S 3 ActiSorb S 6 ActiSorb S  ActiSorb Si AmoMax 10 ASAT


ASAT LS Beta BEA C-MAX C116 C116 CS C116 HV CMG-1 COD-00 CPA 100 DMax 1

136

Catalyst Index

Catalyst Index
Catalyst EBUF

Main Metal Component Zeolite MFI Precious Metal Precious Metal Base Metal Precious Metal Precious Metal Precious Metal Precious Metal Precious Metal Base Metal Precious Metal Precious Metal Zeolite Zeolite Zeolite Base Metal Precious Metal Precious Metal Precious Metal Base Metal Base Metal Base Metal Precious Metal Precious Metal Molybdenum, Iron Molybdenum, Iron Molybdenum, Iron Molybdenum, Iron Cobalt-Silicon Oxide Copper, Zinc Nickel Copper, Chrome, Barium Carbon Nickel Cobalt Cobalt Cobalt

Normal application BTX Chemistry Ozone Destruction Off-Gas Purification Desulphurisation and Deodorisation Off-Gas Purification Off-Gas Purification Off-Gas Purification Off-Gas Purification Off-Gas Purification Tunnel Air Purification Wood Stove Off-Gas Purification Wood Stove Off-Gas Purification DeNOx and N2O Reduction DeNOx and N2O Reduction DeNOx and N2O Reduction Ozone Destruction Off-Gas Purification Off-Gas Purification Off-Gas Purification Off-Gas Purification Hydrides Tunnel Air Purification Off-Gas Purification Off-Gas Purification Production of Formaldehyde Production of Formaldehyde Production of Formaldehyde Production of Formaldehyde Hydrogenation Hydrogenation Hydrogenation Hydrogenation Sulphur Removal Hydrogenation Hydrogenation Hydrogenation Hydrogenation

Page 34 110 112 110, 113 110 10, 112 10 110 10 110 113 113 10 10 10 110 112 10 113 112 111 110 112, 113 10 6 6 6 6 58 6, 2 5 55, 62 1 5 66 66 58

EnviCat AOD EnviCat cDPF EnviCat CF EnviCat CO EnviCat DOC EnviCat ECOLITH EnviCat HHC EnviCat HNO3 EnviCat Hydrides EnviCat Long Life EnviCat Long Life Plus EnviCat NO-1 EnviCat N2O-1 EnviCat N2O-2 EnviCat O3 EnviCat OC EnviCat RCO EnviCat SCOSE EnviCat SCR

EnviCat SEMI EnviCat TT EnviCat TWC EnviCat VOC FAMAX HS


FAMAX J5 FAMAX MS FAMAX TH G-103 G-132A G-134 A G-22 G-32J G-4 B G-62 G-6 G-6 A

Catalyst Index

13

Catalyst Index
Catalyst G-6 G-2D G-5 C G-B G-C G-D H2Max 5 H2Max 5/S H2Max 50 H2Max HAR H2Max HD HDMax PA HDMax 200 HDMax 213 HDMax 214 HDMax 300 HDMax 310 HDMax 510 HDMax 520 HDMax 800 HOUDRY CATADIENE

Main Metal Component Nickel, Zirconium Proprietary Nickel Copper, Chrome, Manganese, Barium Copper, Chrome, Manganese, Barium Copper, Chrome, Manganese Palladium Palladium Palladium Palladium Palladium Palladium Cobalt, Molybdenum Cobalt, Molybdenum Cobalt, Molybdenum Cobalt, Molybdenum Nickel, Molybdenum Nickel, Molybdenum Nickel, Tungsten Platinum Proprietary Proprietary Proprietary Proprietary Proprietary Proprietary Proprietary

Normal application Hydrogenation Water Removal Hydrogenation Hydrogenation Hydrogenation Hydrogenation Production of Hydrogenperoxide Production of Hydrogenperoxide Hydrogenation Production of Hydrogenperoxide Purification of Terephthalic Acid (PTA) Phenylacetylene Hydrogenation Sulphur Removal Tail Gas Treating Tail Gas Treating Hydrodesulphurisation Hydrotreating Hydrotreating Hydrotreating Hydrotreating Alkine Dehydrogenation and Dealkylation Alkine Dehydrogenation and Dealkylation Alkine Dehydrogenation and Dealkylation Alkine Dehydrogenation and Dealkylation Alkine Dehydrogenation and Dealkylation Alkine Dehydrogenation and Dealkylation Alkine Dehydrogenation and Dealkylation Alkine Dehydrogenation and Dealkylation Dewaxing Dewaxing Dewaxing Naphtha Isomerisation BTX Chemistry Rearrangements / Isomerisations Alkylation / Acylation Mesporous Catalyst / Carrier Polymerisations / Dimerisations

Page 5 26 6 55, 60, 68, 2 55 63 6 6 1, 8 6 8 38 1 101 101 1 2 2 2 4 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 0 0 1 84 35 5 5  5

HOUDRY CATOFIN

HOUDRY CATOFIN PS HOUDRY CATOFIN ES


HOUDRY CATOFIN HY HOUDRY DETOL HOUDRY LITOL

HOUDRY PYROTOL HYDEX -C


Proprietary Zeolite MFI Zeolite MFI Zeolite MFI Zeolite MOR Zeolite MFI Alumosilicates Alumosilicates Silicate Alumosilicates

HYDEX -G HYDEX -L HYSOPAR 5000

ISOXYL K 20, K 30, KP10, KSF/O K 5, K 40, K 10, K 20 KA-Catalysts KP 10, K 5, K 10

138

Catalyst Index

Catalyst Index
Catalyst KSF, KP 10, KSF/O, K 10 MAVC MAVC/C MegaMax 00

Main Metal Component Alumosilicates Zinc Oxide Zinc Oxide Copper, Zinc Nickel Nickel Ruthenium Nickel, Molybdenum Zeolite Palladium Palladium Palladium Ruthenium Zeolite MFI Nickel Nickel Nickel Nickel Nickel Nickel Nickel, Wolfram Nickel Nickel Nickel Palladium Palladium Palladium Palladium Palladium Palladium Palladium Palladium Palladium Palladium Palladium Palladium Palladium

Normal application Esterfication / Etherification Production of Vinylacetatmonomer Production of Vinylacetatmonomer Synthesis of Methanol Methanation Methanation Methanation Mild Hydrocracking
Paraffin Isomerisation, Hydrocracking, Exhaust Gas Purification

Page 5   53  23, 52,  23, 52 8 30 1 1 1 3 45 6, 86, 8, 3 66, 1, 2, 3 86, 8, 3 66, 6, 6, 1 6, 1, 3 2 3 40, 5 40, 5 40, 5 41 41 41 41 40 40 40 41 41 25, 42 42, 43 43 44

METH 130 METH 134 METH 150 MHC-100 Mordenite MOR MPT 3 MPT 5 MPT 10 MRT MTPROP NiSAT 200 NiSAT 300 NiSAT 310 NiSAT 320 NiSAT 330 NiSAT 340

Hydrogenation Hydrogenation Hydrogenation Hydrogenation Conversion of Methanol to Propylene Hydrogenation Hydrogenation Hydrogenation Hydrogenation Hydrogenation Hydrogenation Hydrogenation Selective Hydrogenation Selective Hydrogenation Selective Hydrogenation Selective Hydrogenation Selective Hydrogenation Selective Hydrogenation Selective Hydrogenation Selective Hydrogenation Selective Hydrogenation Selective Hydrogenation Selective Hydrogenation Selective Hydrogenation Selective Hydrogenation Selective Hydrogenation Selective Hydrogenation Selective Hydrogenation

NiSAT 350 OleMax OleMax OleMax OleMax OleMax OleMax OleMax OleMax OleMax
TM TM TM TM TM TM TM TM TM

101 (C36-1-02) 102 (C36-2-02) 103 (C36-3-02) 201 (G-58 C) 203 (G-58 D) 204 (G-58 E) 20 (T-26) 250 (G-83 A) 251 (G-83 C)

OleMax 254 OleMax 301 (C31-1-01) OleMax 302 (G-55 B) OleMax OleMax
TM TM

350 353 (G-68 HX)

OleMaxTM 400 (G-68 G) OleMaxTM 450 (G-68 C)

Catalyst Index

13

Catalyst Index
Catalyst OleMax OleMax OleMax OleMax OleMax OleMax
TM TM TM TM TM TM

Main Metal Component 452 (T-2464 B) 454 600 (G-68 C) 601 (G-68 C-1) 806 (C20-6-04) 80 (C20--06) Palladium Palladium Palladium Palladium Cobalt-Molybdenum Nickel-Molybdenum Copper Copper Zeolite Vanadium Pentoxide Phosphoric Acid Copper, Zinc Phosphoric Acid Phosphoric Acid Precious Metal Nickel Nickel Nickel, Potassium Nickel, Potassium Nickel Nickel Nickel Nickel Copper, Zinc Iron, Chrome, Copper Copper, Zinc Copper, Zinc Copper, Zinc Cobalt, Molybdenum Copper, Zinc Palladium Iron Oxide Iron Oxide Iron Oxide Iron Oxide Iron Oxide Vanadium-Phosphorus Oxide

Normal application Selective Butadiene Hydrogenation Selective Hydrogenation Selective Hydrogenation Selective Hydrogenation Selective Hydrogenation Selective Hydrogenation Oxychlorination Oxychlorination Dewaxing, VOC Removal Cold Start Emissions Production of Phthalic Anhydride Cumene Synthesis CO + Oxygen Removal Oligomerisation Oligomerisation Off-Gas Purification Steamreforming Ammonia Dissociation Steamreforming Steamreforming Steamreforming Steamreforming Steamreforming Steamreforming Methanol Reforming CO Conversion Low-temperature CO Conversion CO Conversion CO Conversion CO Conversion CO Conversion Selective Hydrogenation Styrene Production Styrene Production Styrene Production Styrene Production Styrene Production Production of Maleic Anhydride

Page 43, 44 43 44 44 45 45 5 5 30 8 38 24, 0 4 4 113 4, 6 2 4,  4,  4,  4 4 4 54 51,  51, 8 51, 8 8  8 85 3 3 3 3 3 66

OXYMAX A

OXYMAX B Pentasil MFI PHTHALIMAX PolyMaxTM 131 PolyMaxTM 301 PolyMaxTM 843 PolyMaxTM 845 PRO*BROIL ReforMax 100 ReforMax 11 ReforMax 210 LDP ReforMax 250 ReforMax 330 LDP

ReforMax 400 GG ReforMax 410 LDP ReforMax 420 ReforMax M ShiftMax 120

ShiftMax 230 ShiftMax 240 ShiftMax 300 ShiftMax 820 ShiftMax CI SHUMax 105 STYROMAX 3

STYROMAX 5 STYROMAX 6 STYROMAX  STYROMAX PLUS 5 SynDane 3100 Series

140

Catalyst Index

Catalyst Index
Catalyst Syndox 2110S Series SynMax 200

Main Metal Component Alumina Oxide Alumina Oxide Copper, Zinc Calcium, Zinc Copper, Zinc Nickel, Copper Cobalt Copper, Chrome Copper, Chrome Cobalt, Manganese Copper, Chrome Copper, Manganese Zeolite MOR Alumosilicates Alumosilicates Alumosilicates Alumosilicates Alumosilicates Alumosilicates Alumosilicates Alumosilicates Alumosilicates Alumina Silicate Alumina Silicate

Normal application Production of Ethylene Oxide Sulphur Recovery Hydrogenation Hydrogenation Hydrogenation Hydrogenation Hydrogenation Hydrogenation Hydrogenation Hydrogenation Hydrogenation Hydrogenation BTX Chemistry BTX Chemistry BTX Chemistry Nitrogen Removal BTX Chemistry BTX Chemistry BTX Chemistry BTX Chemistry Clay Treater Nitrogen Removal Clay Treater Clay Treater

Page 36 100 56, 61, 64, 65 6 64 56 58 61 61 0 64, 65 56, 61, 62, 63, 65 34 36 36 26 36 36 36 36 1 26 3 3

T-2130 T-4004 T-4322 T-4361 T-4405 T-441 T-4421 T-4424 T-4466 T-448 TDP-1 Tonsil APT-BT Tonsil APT-mX Tonsil APT-N Tonsil APT-pX Tonsil CO 6 x 0 G Tonsil CO 6 x 6 G Tonsil CO 6 x 6 GS

Tonsil CO-Jet Tonsil CO-N Tonsil Optimum Tonsil Standard

Catalyst Index

141

Contact Details
1 germany SD-CHEMIE AG Lenbachplatz 6 80333 Munich Phone: +4 8 5110-322 Fax: +4 8 5110-444 2 Italy SD-CHEMIE Catalysts Italia S.r.l. Via G. Fauser 36/b 28100 Novara Phone: +3 0321 66-300 Fax: +3 0321 66-40 3 Spain SD-CHEMIE Espana S.L. C/Francisco Gervs, 12 28020 Madrid Phone: +34 1 425 2-10 Fax: +34 1 425 2-11 4 United Kingdom SD-CHEMIE UK Office 3 Drake Mews Northwich, Cheshire CW XF Phone: +44 1606 8130-60 Fax: +44 1606 8130-61 5 USa SD-CHEMIE Inc. P.O. Box 3230 Louisville, KY 40232 Phone: +1 502 634-200 Fax: +1 502 63-865 6 USa Scientific Design Company Inc. 4 Industrial Avenue Little Ferry, New Jersey, 0643-101 Phone: +1 201 26-4621 Fax: +1 201 80-014 7 Brazil SD-CHEMIE do Brasil Ltda. Rua Industrial, 802-Bairro di Rio Abaixo 12321-500 Jacarei, Sao Paulo Phone: +55 12 353-2288 Fax: +55 12 351-1181 8 South africa SD-CHEMIE Zeolites (Pty.) Ltd. Private Bag X 1042 300 Richards Bay Phone: +2 35 -4560 Fax: +2 35 -3832 9 Russia SD-CHEMIE AG Moscow Office Mosenka Park Towers Taganskaja 1-23 10004 Moscow Phone: + 05 258 5-12 Fax: + 05 258 5-10 10 Kingdom of Bahrain SD-CHEMIE AG Bahrain Branch Euro Tower, Office 62 6th Floor Sanabis District 410 PO Box: 12 Manama Phone: +3 1 556-30 Fax: +3 1 556-30 11 Qatar SD-CHEMIE Qatar WLL P.O. Box 135 Doha Phone: +4 435-254 Fax: +4 435-254 12 Iran SD-CHEMIE Iran Branch No. 406, 4th Floor, Negin Saie Tower No. 1050/6 Opposite of Saie Park, Vali-Asr Street Tehran Phone: +8 21 88 105-8 Fax: +8 21 88 1110 13 India SD-CHEMIE India Pvt. Ltd. 402/403 Mansarovar 0 Nehru Place New Delhi 110 01 Phone: +1 11 646-464 Fax: +1 11 64-3326 14 australia SD-CHEMIE Australia Pty. Ltd. 12 Peachtree Road 250 Penrith, New South Wales Phone: +61 2 4 321-421 Fax: +61 2 4 321-68 15 Singapore SD-CHEMIE South East Asia Pte. Ltd. 10 Science Park Road, Singapore Science Park II, The Alpha #03-03 Singapore 11684 Phone: +65 6 118 Fax: +65 6 2881 16 Taiwan SD-CHEMIE Catalysts Japan Inc. Taiwan Office, Taipei World Trade Center, Room  F 04, No. 5 Sec. 5, Hsin-Yi Road, Taipei 110 Phone: +886 2 225 16 Fax: +886 2 223 252 17 Korea SD-CHEMIE Korea Office 12th Fl., MBC Bldg. 1, Bumeo-dong, Susung-gu Daegu, 06-28 Phone: +82 53 45-3446 Fax: +82 53 45-3448

142

Contact Details

4 9 1 3 2 22 12 19 10 11 13 21 16 20 17 18

15

14

18 Japan SD-CHEMIE Catalysts Japan Inc. 5F, Shinjuku Maynds Tower 1-1, Yoyogi 2-chome, Shibuya-Ku, Tokyo, 151-0053 Phone: +81 3 5308-331 Fax: +81 3 5308-320 19 China SD-CHEMIE Shanghai Office Room 2304, Westgate Tower 1038 West Nanjing Road Shanghai 200041 Phone: +86 21 6218-4480 Fax: +86 21 6218-441

20 China Panjin SD-CHEMIE Liaohe Catalyst Co. Ltd. Hongqi Street, Shuangtaizi District Panjin City, Liaoning Province 124021 Phone: +86 42 585-311 Fax: +86 42 585-5118 21 China Shanghai SD-CHEMIE Jinhai Catalyst Co. Ltd. No.  Weiliu Road, 2nd Industrial Zone Jinshan District, Shanghai 201512 Phone: +86 21 626-3382 Fax: +86 21 626-3383 22 China Sd-Chemie AG Beijing Representative Office No.3 North Dongsuanhuan Road Chaoyang District Beijing 10002 Phone: +86 10 8448-40 Fax: +86 10 8451-1215

Contact Details

143

Liabilities

Liabilities

Although these instructions have been prepared by experienced experts and have been based on the best available information derived from laboratory, pilot plant and commercial experience with these catalysts, Sd-Chemie does not have intimate knowledge of the customers plant and operation. Therefore, Sd-Chemie, in issuing these instructions, cannot assume any liability for upsets and damage to either the customers plant or personnel resulting from customers plant and operating conditions. The customer is urged to review these instructions carefully and to satisfy himself that their application will not be hazardous to his specific operation. Further, Sd-Chemies technical service representatives are present at plant start-ups in an advisory capacity only and cannot be charged with knowledge and responsibility for hazardous conditions at customers plant that might result from the application of the instructions at the specific customers site. The information presented herein is believed to be accurate but shall not be guaranteed within the meaning of 444 BGB (German Civil Code). The above product data and properties may vary based on fluctuations in the production process. Any terms and conditions of delivery shall be agreed upon separately.

2007 Sd-Chemie AG, all rights reserved

144

Liabilities

SD-CHEMIE AG Lenbachplatz 6 80333 Munich/Germany Phone: +4 8 5110-322 Fax: +4 8 5110-444 www.sud-chemie.com

SC-080-xxx-xx