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kuliah STRUKTUR DAN KONSTRUKSI 1 undip.pptx

kuliah STRUKTUR DAN KONSTRUKSI 1 undip.pptx

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STRUKTUR & KONSTRUKSI 1

Septana Bagus Pribadi, ST, MT

Struktur :

1.Cara sesuatu disusun / dibentuk / dibangun; susunan; bangunan
2.Yang disusun dengan pola tertentu
3.Pengaturan unsur atau bagian suatu benda (bangunan)
4.Ketentuan unsur-unsur dari stau benda (bangunan)

[ KBBI3]

Structure :

1.In Engineering and Architecture, a structure is a body or assemblage
of bodies in space to form a system capable of supporting loads.
[www.wikipedia.com]
2.Something (as a building) that’s constructed; Something arranged in
a definite pattern of organization [Merriam-Webster Dict.]
3.Something made up of a number of parts that are held or put
together in a particular way; Something constructed, such a building.
[the American Heritage Ditc.]

Physical structure :

Man Made

Natural Arrangements
(pada akhirnya banyak Man made structure yang terinspirasi oleh
Natural Arrangement. Exp : The nest, Taipei 101, Burj Al Khalifa)

Konstruksi :

1.Susunan (model, tata letak) suatu bangunan [ KBBI3]

Construction :

1.In Architecture and Civil Engineering, Construction is a
PROCESS that consist of the building or assembling of a
infrastructure [www.wikipedia.com]
2.The PROCESS, art, or manner of construction something
[Merriam-Webber Dict.]
3.The WAY in which something is built or put together; The
PROCESS or act of costructing or manner in which a thing
is constructed. [the American Heritage Dict.]

In general, there are three types of Construction :

Building Construction

Heavy / Civil Construction (jembatan, jalan tol, dam, etc)

Industrial Construction (pabrik pupuk, semen, chemical,
etc)

Struktur :

Person in charge :

Architect

Civil Engineer / Structural Engineer

Quantity Surveyor – Estimator

Assistant, drafter, supporting staff

And

Mechanical Engineer

Electrical Engineer

Fire Protection Engineer, etc

Konstruksi :

Person in charge :

Project Manager

Construction Manager

Construction Engineer

Project Architect

Workers, supervisor, etc

And

Pengawas Mechanical

Pengawas Electrikal

Pengawas Fire Protection, etc

SUB STRUCTURE

SUPER STRUCTURE

Super Structure :

Sistem bangunan utama, yang membuat bangunan tersebut rigid, kokoh, dan bisa berfungsi.

Sub Structure :

Sistem penopang Super Structure, supaya super structure bisa tetap stabil berdiri / pada posisi
yang dikehendaki

SUB STRUCTURE

SUPER STRUCTURE

SUB STRUCTURE

SUPER STRUCTURE

Super Structure :

STRUKTURAL

Sistem Struktur Atap

Sistem Struktur Dinding (bearing wall, sloof, balok,
dan kolom)

Sistem Struktur Lantai (untuk bangunan bertingkat)

NON STRUKTURAL

Sistem penutup atap

Sistem plafond

Sistem pengisi dinding

Sistem pintu dan jendela

Sistem penutup lantai

Sub Structure :

STRUCTURAL

Sistem pondasi
Umpak, cerucuk, anchor, raft, ponton, etc
pondasi batu kali, pondasi telapak beton, bor pile, tiang
pancang, sumuran, etc

(under surface / upper surface)

Sistem struktur atap

( kuda-kuda, gording, usuk, reng)

Sistem struktur dinding

( sloof, kolom, balok, ring balok)

Sistem struktur lantai

(balok, plat lantai)

Sistem pondasi

(Rollag, pondasi batu kali,
footplate beton)

STRUCTURAL SYSTEM

Sistem penutup atap

( genteng, sirap, asbes, metal roof, rumbia, alang-
alang, etc)

NON STRUCTURAL SYSTEM

Sistem plafond

(rangka : kayu, metal)
(penutup : gypsum, fiber cement, eternit, kayu, etc)

Sistem pengisi dinding

(bata, batako, AAC, kayu, gypsum, bambu. Etc)

Sistem pintu dan jendela (bukaan)

(rangka/kusen : kayu, aluminium, beton, pvc,
frameless, etc)
(pengisi : kayu, aluminium, pvc, kaca, etc)

Sistem penutup lantai

(plesteran, keramik, granit, kayu/parket, etc)

Sub Structure :

Seluruh sistem yang memungkinkan Super
Structure tetap berada pada posisinya.

Sistem tambat /anchor (mis. Pada
freestanding tower)

Sistem apung (raft foundation, ponton)

Sistem base /umpak / rollag (pondasi yang
berada di atas tanah)

Sistem pondasi dangkal (pondasi batu kali,
pondasi telapak beton)

Sistem pondasi dalam (sumuran, bor pile,
tiang pancang, etc)

Prinsipnya adalah menyalurkan /
menyeimbangkan seluruh gaya yang terjadi di
dalam bangunan ke dalam / dengan daya
dukung lingkungan (tanah keras/tanah
lembek/lumpur/rawa/air, dll)

SKEMA PEMBEBANAN STRUKTUR

Sumber : Schodek , 1999

BEBAN

Beban Statis

Beban Dinamis

Beban Hidup

(dapat
berpindah)

Beban Tetap

(Tidak dapat
berpindah)

Pengguna
an,
penghuni,
furniture

Menerus /
teratur

Impact /
discret (misal
Ledakan)

Gaya akibat
penurunan,
efek suhu,
tegangan sisa,
dll

Lingkungan
(salju ,
hujan)

Berat
Sendiri
pada
Struktur

Elemen
gedung
tertentu
(water tank,
cooling unit)

Gaya Inersia
(gempa)

Gaya Angin

Struktur

Dinding Pemikul
=
Shear Wall
= Bearing Wall

Sederhana

kompleks

Ciri-Ciri Shear Wall :

Umumnya, Penampang bagian
bawah lebih lebar
Minim bukaan (maksimal 20%)

Kekuatan dipengaruhi oleh :

material / bahan
(batu, bata, beton, kayu, baja)
adhesive antar material
luas penampang dinding

Concrete Shear Wall

Steel Shear Wall

Wood Shear Wall

The Great Pyramid of Giza, 2500 BC, was
146 m tall and its height was unsurpassed
until at least the 14th century AD

The Two Towers of
Bologna in the 12th
century reached
97.2 m in height

Colosseum, Rome, Built in
70-80 AD.

Penampang bawah lebar

The 16th-century city of Shibam (at Yaman)
consisted entirely of over 500 high-rise
tower houses (average 5-6 storeys)

The brickwork
of Shebeli
Tower in Iran build
at 12th century

Chile
house in Hamburg,
Germany

The world's highest brick
tower of St. Martin's
Church in Landshut, Germa
ny, completed in 1500

Struktur

Rigid
Frames

Umumnya berbentuk ‘GRID PERSEGI
TERATUR ‘

Kapasitas beban rangka tergantung dari :
Kekuatan kolom dan balok individual

Kemampuan menahan beban sebanding
dengan :
Tinggi antar lantai
Jarak antar kolom

Komponen

Bidang Vertikal

Kolom
Dinding

Bidang Horizontal

Balok
Plat Lantai

Sederhana

kompleks

Stone Henge,

England, 2500 BC

Struktur

Braced
Frames

Sederhana

kompleks

Kombinasi Antara Shear Wall dan
Struktur Rangka

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