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DAFTAR ISI

Hal
HALAMAN JUDUL.......................................................................................

HALAMAN PENGESAHAN.........................................................................

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HALAMAN PERNYATAAN ........................................................................

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KATA PENGANTAR ....................................................................................

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DAFTAR ISI ...................................................................................................

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DAFTAR GAMBAR ......................................................................................

DAFTAR TABEL ...........................................................................................

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DAFTAR LAMPIRAN ...................................................................................

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INTISARI........................................................................................................

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BAB I. PENDAHULUAN .............................................................................

A. Latar Belakang Masalah...................................................................


B. Perumusan Masalah .........................................................................
C. Pentingnya Penelitian Dilakukan .....................................................
D. Tujuan Penelitian .............................................................................
E. Tinjauan Pustaka ..............................................................................
1. Sistem Penghantaran Mukoadehsif ............................................

2. Anatomi Oral Mukosa ................................................................

3. Rute Permiasi Obat Bukal Mukoadhesif ....................................

4. Mekanisme Mukoadhesif ...........................................................

5. Teori Mukoadhesif .....................................................................

6. Matriks pada Penghantaran Bukal Mukoadhesif .......................

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7. Patch Bukal ................................................................................

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8. Pelepasan Obat ...........................................................................

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9. Kinetika Pelepasan Obat Berdasarkan Persamaan Matematika .

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10. Pemerian Bahan yang Digunakan ..............................................

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A. Polimer .................................................................................

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1) Karboksilmetilselulosa Natrium ....................................

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2) Chitosan .........................................................................

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3) Methocel.........................................................................

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B. Pemerian Bahan Lain ...........................................................

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1) Polivinil Pirolidon ..........................................................

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2) Carvedilol .......................................................................

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3) Propilenglikol .................................................................

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4) Etil Selulosa ...................................................................

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5) Aseton ............................................................................

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6) Asam Asetat ...................................................................

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F. Landasan Teori .................................................................................


G. Hipotesis...........................................................................................
BAB II. CARA PENELITIAN .....................................................................
A. Alat dan Bahan Penelitian ................................................................
B. Prosedur Penelitian ..........................................................................
1. Pembuatan Phosphate Buffer Saline pH 6.8 ..............................
2. Pembuatan Bukal Patch Carvedilol ...........................................
3. Pembuatan Larutan Sodium Lauril Sulfat 0,5% ........................
4. Pembuatan Kurva Baku .............................................................
5. Evaluasi Patch............................................................................
C. Cara Analisis ....................................................................................
BAB III. HASIL DAN PEMBAHASAN .....................................................
A. Keseragaman Bobot Patch ...............................................................
B. Surface pH` ......................................................................................
C. Folding Endurance ..........................................................................
D. Swelling Index ..................................................................................
E. Keseragaman Kadar .........................................................................
F. Panjang Gelombang Serapan Maksimum (Scanning max)............
G. Kurva Baku Carvedilol ....................................................................
H. Uji Disolusi ......................................................................................
BAB IV. KESIMPULAN DAN SARAN .....................................................
A. Kesimpulan ......................................................................................
B. Saran.................................................................................................
DAFTAR PUSTAKA ....................................................................................

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LAMPIRAN ...................................................................................................

DAFTAR GAMBAR
Hal
Gambar 1.

Desain Sediaan Bukal Mukoadhesif .........................................

Gambar 2.

Anatomi Rongga Mulut ............................................................

Gambar 3.

Anatomi Oral Mukosa ..............................................................

Gambar 4.

Jalur Transeluler dan Paraseluler ..............................................

Gambar 5.

Tahapan Proses Mukoadhesi ....................................................

Gambar 6.

Desain Patch Bukal Unidirectional .........................................

13

Gambar 7.

Hubungan antara Konsentrasi Obat dengan Waktu ..................

15

Gambar 8.

Disolusi Obat dari Suatu Padatan Matriks................................

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Gambar 9.

Struktur Natrium Karboksimetilselulosa ..................................

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Gambar 10. Struktur Chitosan ......................................................................

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Gambar 11. Struktur Methocel .....................................................................

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Gambar 12. Struktur Polivinilpirolidon........................................................

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Gambar 13

Struktur Carvedilol ...................................................................

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Gambar 14. Struktur Propilenglikol .............................................................

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Gambar 15. Struktur Etil Selulosa ................................................................

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Gambar 16. Struktur Asam Asetat ...............................................................

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Gambar 17. Skema Penelitian ......................................................................


Gamabr 18. Hasil Pengamatan Surface pH ..................................................
Gambar 19. Kurva Hubungan Bobot Patch Terhadap Waktu ......................
Gambar 20. Kurva Hubungan Carvedilol Terdisolusi Terhadap Waktu ......
Gamabr 21. Kurva Linear Hubungan Carvedilol Terdisolusi
Terhadap Waktu .......................................................................
Gambar 22. Kurva Linear Hubungan Log Carvedilol Terhadap Waktu ......
Gambar 23. Kurva Hubungan Carvedilol Terdisolusi Terhadap
Akar Waktu ..............................................................................
Gambar 24. Kurva Linear Hubungan Log Carvedilol Terhadap
Log Waktu ................................................................................
Gambar 25. Kurva Linear Hubungan Akar Pangkat Tiga Carvedilol
Terdisolusi Terhadap Waktu ....................................................

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DAFTAR TABEL
Hal
Tabel

I.

Teori Mukoadhesi .....................................................................

10

Tabel II.

Variasi Matriks .........................................................................

12

Tabel III.

Interpretasi Mekanisme Pelepasan Difusi ................................

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Tabel IV.

Komposisi Formula Bukal Patch Mukoadhesif ........................

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Tabel

V.

Tabel VI.
Tabel VII.
Tabel VIII.
Tabel

IX.

Tabel

X.

Tabel

XI.

Tabel

XII.

Tabel XIII.
Tabel XIV.
Tabel

XV.

Tabel XVI.
Tabel XVII.
Tabel XVIII.
Tabel

XIX.

Tabel

XX.

Tabel

XXI.

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