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Materi Pengendalian Persediaan IMT SH

Materi Pengendalian Persediaan IMT SH

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PENGENDALIAN PERSEDIAAN

Ir. Sontang Hutapea, MM

MATERI KULIAH MANAJEMEN OPERASI INSTITUT MANAJEMEN TELKOM
1
© 2006 Prentice Hall, Inc. 12 – 1

Outline
Profil Perusahaan Global: Amazon.Com Fungsi Persediaan
Jenis Persediaan

Manajemen Persediaan
Analisis ABC Akurasi catatan Penghitungan Berkala Pengendalian Persediaan Jasa
© 2006 Prentice Hall, Inc. 12 – 2

Outline – Continued
Model Persediaan
Permintaan bebas VS Terikat Biaya Penyimpanan, pemesanan , dan setup

© 2006 Prentice Hall, Inc.

12 – 3

Outline – Continued
Model Persediaan Untuk Permintaan Bebas
Basic Economic Order Quantity (EOQ) Model Meminimalkan biaya Titik Pememsanan Ulang (Reorder Points) Modek Kuantitas Pesanan Produksi Model Diskon Kuantitas
© 2006 Prentice Hall, Inc. 12 – 4

Outline – Continued
Model Probabilitas Dengan Lead Time Konstan Sistem Periode (P) Tetap

© 2006 Prentice Hall, Inc.

12 – 5

Tujuan Belajar
Setelah menyelesaikan bab ini, anda diharapkan dapat: Mengidentifikasikan dan mendefinisikan: Analisi ABC Akurasi catatan Penghitungan berkala Permintaan bebas dan terikat Biaya menyimpan, memesan, dan setup
© 2006 Prentice Hall, Inc. 12 – 6

Tujuan Belajar
Setelah menyelesaikan bab ini, anda diharapkan dapat: Menguraikan atau menjelaskan:
Fungsi Persediaan dan model persediaan dasar

© 2006 Prentice Hall, Inc.

12 – 7

Amazon.com
Amazon.com dimulai sebagai pedagang eceran “virtual” yg tdk memiliki persediaan, gudang dan biaya overhead melainkan hanya sekumpulan komputer yg menerima pesanan dan memberikan otorisasi bagi pihak lain utk memenuhinya. Perkembangan saat ini telah menjadikan Amazon.com menjadi pemimpin dunia dalam warehousing and inventory management
© 2006 Prentice Hall, Inc. 12 – 8

Apakah Persediaan
Persediaan Stock Inventory Adalah barang (item) yang disimpan terlebih dahulu untuk pemakaian kemudian

Bahan baku (raw material) Komponen atau Sub-assembly atau Work In Produk jadi Process (finished good)
© 2006 Prentice Hall, Inc.

Suku cadang (spare part) Supplies (oli, minyak, kertas, dll)
12 – 9

Mengapa perlu dikelola ?

© 2006 Prentice Hall, Inc.

12 – 10

Fungsi Persediaan
Menjaga kelancaran operasi Memanfaatkan skala ekonomi pengadaan Meredam ketidakpastian (uncertainty) Eksplotasi Pasar

Menjamin kepuasan pelanggan

© 2006 Prentice Hall, Inc.

12 – 11

Siklus Aliran Material
Cycle time 95%
Input Wait for inspection Wait to be moved

5%
Output

Move Wait in queue Setup Run time for operator time time

Figure 12.1
© 2006 Prentice Hall, Inc. 12 – 12

Analisis ABC
Membagi persediaan yg dimiliki ke dalam tiga golongan berdasarkan pd volume dolar tahunan
Class A – barang-barang dgn volume dolar tahunan tinggi (fast moving item); menyerap 75 -80% investasi persediaan Class B – barang-barang persediaan yg memiliki volume dolar tahunan menengah ; menyerap 10-15 % investasi persediaan Class C – barang-barang persediaan yg memiliki volume dolar tahunan rendah (slow moving item) ; menyerap 5-10% investasi persediaan .

Item persediaan berjumlah banyak Tidak perlu semua dikendalikan sama ketatnya
© 2006 Prentice Hall, Inc. 12 – 13

Analisis ABC
Cth 1: Penguraian ke dlm kategori A,B,C. Bukanlah sebuah aturan Yg jelas dan siap pakai. Tujuannya hanya mencoba memisahkan “yg penting” dari “yg tidak penting”
Percent of Number of Items Stocked 20% Percent of Annual Dollar Volume 38.8% 33.2% 11.3% 6.4% 5.4% 23% 72%

Item Stock Number #10286 #11526 #12760 #10867 #10500

Annual Volume (units) 1,000 500 1,550

x

Unit Cost $ 90.00 154.00 17.00 42.86 12.50

=

Annual Dollar Volume $ 90,000 77,000 26,350 15,001 12,500

Class A A B B B

30%

350 1,000

© 2006 Prentice Hall, Inc.

12 – 14

Analisis ABC
Item Stock Number #12572 #14075 #01036 #01307 #10572 50% Percent of Number of Items Stocked Annual Volume (units) 600 2,000 100 1,200 250 x Unit Cost $ 14.17 .60 8.50 .42 .60 = Annual Dollar Volume $ 8,502 1,200 850 504 150 Percent of Annual Dollar Volume 3.7% .5% .4% .2% .1% 5% Class C C C C C

© 2006 Prentice Hall, Inc.

12 – 15

Analisis ABC
Percent of annual dollar usage

Penyajian Grafis Analisis ABC
80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 A Items – – – – – – – B Items – | | | | – 10 20 30 40

C Items
| | | | | |

50

60

70

80

90 100
Figure 12.2
12 – 16

Percent of inventory items
© 2006 Prentice Hall, Inc.

Analisis ABC
Kriteria lain selain dari volume dolar tahunan dapat juga menggunakan:
Perubahan rekayasa yg diantisipasi Permasalahan pengiriman Permasalahan kualitas Biaya unit paling tinggi

© 2006 Prentice Hall, Inc.

12 – 17

Analisis ABC
Kebijakan yg mungkin didapatkan pada analisis ABC :
Pembelian sumber daya yg dibelanjakan pd pengembangan pemasok hrs lebih tinggi utk barang A dibanding barang C Barang A memiliki kontrol persediaan fisik yg lebih ketat dibanding barang B dan C Prediksi barang A perlu lebih dijamin keabsahannya dibandingkan dgn prediksi barang B dan C.

© 2006 Prentice Hall, Inc.

12 – 18

Contoh 2 :
Percentage of Total Dollar Dollar Usage Usage $ 7,500 2.9% 12,000 4.7% 105,000 41.2% 12,000 4.7% 3,750 1.5% 81,600 32.0% 3,750 1.5% 5,625 2.2% 17,500 6.9% 6,000 2.4% $ 254,725 100.0%
12 – 19

Item 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Total
© 2006 Prentice Hall, Inc.

Annual Usage in Units Unit Cost 5,000 $ 1.50 1,500 8.00 10,000 10.50 6,000 2.00 7,500 0.50 6,000 13.60 5,000 0.75 4,500 1.25 7,000 2.50 3,000 2.00

ABC Chart
45,0% 40,0% 35,0% 120,0% 100,0% 30,0% 25,0% 60,0% 20,0% 15,0% 10,0% 20,0% 5,0% 0,0% 3 6 9 2 4 1 10 8 5 7 0,0% 40,0% 80,0%

Item No. Percentage of Total Dollar Usage Cumulative Percentage

© 2006 Prentice Hall, Inc.

Minggu 6: Pengendalian persediaan 1

Cumulative % Usage
12 – 20

Percent Usage

Akurasi Pencatatan
Akurasi pencatatan adalah sebuah komponen penting dlm sistem produksi dan persediaan Menjadikan organisasi dpt memusatkan perhatian pd barang yg diperlukan, bukan sekedar ingin mengetahui berapa barang ada dlm persediaan. Kepentingan utk membuat keputusan yg tepat tentang pemesanan, penjadwalan dan pengiriman. Pencatatan pemasukan dan pengeluaran hrs akurat
© 2006 Prentice Hall, Inc.

Ruangan persediaan harus terjaga keamananya

12 – 21

Penghitungan Berkala (Cycle Counting)
Barang persediaan yg dihitung dan dicatat secara berkala. Sering menggunakan analisis ABC utk menentukan siklus penghitungan (barang A akan lebih sering dihitung dibanding B dan C) Beberapa keuntungan penghitungan secara berkala .
Menghilangkan penutupan dan penghentian produksi yg diperlukan utk mengecek persediaan fidik tahunan. Menghilangkan penyesuaian persediaan tahunan Melatih personel audit dalam hal akurasi persediaan Dpt mengenali penyebab kesalahan dan mengambil tindakan perbaikan.
© 2006 Prentice Hall, Inc.

Menjaga catatan persediaan yg akurat

12 – 22

Contoh Penghitungan Berkala
Sebuah perusahaan memiliki 5.000 barang dlm persediaan, 500 barang A, 1.750 barang B, 2.750 barang C . Kebijakan perusahaan yaitu menghitung baang A pd setiap bulan (setiap 20 hari kerja), barang B setiap kuartal (setiap 60 hari kerja), dan barang C pada setiap 6 bulan (1setiap 120 hari kerja). Maka berapa banyak barang yg dihitung setiap hari? Item Class A B C Quantity Cycle Counting Policy 500 Setiap bulan (20 HK) 1,750 2,750 Setiap Kuartal (60 HK) Setiap 6 bln (120 HK) Number of Items Counted per Day 500/20 = 25/day 1,750/60 = 29/day 2,750/120 = 23/day 77/day
© 2006 Prentice Hall, Inc. 12 – 23

Pengendalian Persediaan Jasa
Merupakan komponen yg penting dan penentu bagi keuntungan Kehilangan dapat terjadi akibat penyusutan (shrinkage) atau pencurian( pilferage): utk eceran kehilangan 1% dari penjualan dianggap baik Teknik pengendalian persediaan jasa :
Pemilihan karyawan, pelatihan dan disiplin yg baik Pengendalian ketat pd pengiriman berikutnya Pengendalian semua barang secara Effective dgn meninggalkan fasilitas.

© 2006 Prentice Hall, Inc.

12 – 24

Typologi Persoalan Pengendalian Persediaan

© 2006 Prentice Hall, Inc.

12 – 25

Lingkup Persoalan

© 2006 Prentice Hall, Inc.

12 – 26

Karakteristik Sistem Persediaan

© 2006 Prentice Hall, Inc.

12 – 27

Biaya Penyimpanan, Pemesanan, dan Setup
Biaya penyimpanan (Holding costs) : Biaya yg berhubungan dgn penyimpanan atau “membawa” persediaan dari waktu ke waktu. Biaya pemesanan (Ordering costs): Biaya yg mencakup biaya persediaan, formulir, proses pemesanan, pekerjaan administrasi pendukung dan sebagainya. Biaya setup (Setup costs): biaya utk menyiapkan mesin atau proses utk memproduksi sebuah pesanan.
© 2006 Prentice Hall, Inc. 12 – 28

Biaya Penyimpanan (Holding Costs)
Biaya (dan Rentang) sebagai persentase nilai persediaan

Kategori Biaya Tempat (including rent or depreciation, operating costs, taxes, insurance) Biaya Penanganan Material (equipment lease or depreciation, power, operating cost) Biaya Tenaga Kerja Biaya investasi (borrowing costs, taxes, and insurance on inventory) Pencurian,sisa dan keusangan Keseluruhan biaya penyimpanan
© 2006 Prentice Hall, Inc.

6% (3 - 10%)

3% (1 - 3.5%)

3% (3 - 5%) 11% (6 - 24%) 3% (2 - 5%) 26%
Table 12.1
12 – 29

Biaya-biaya Persediaan
• Biaya Simpan (Holding Cost)
– Pengeluaran yang dipergunakan untuk menyimpan barang di tempat penyimpanan – Termasuk:
• Cost of capital • Biaya penyusutan barang • Asuransi • Administrasi gudang • Sewa ruangan gudang atau depresiasi • Biaya pengkondisian ruangan (pendingin, listrik, dll)

– Besarnya terkait dengan jumlah barang yang disimpan dan waktu disimpan
© 2006 Prentice Hall, Inc. 12 – 30

• Biaya pesan (order cost)
– Semua pengeluaran yang dipergunakan untuk menyiapkan pemesanan persediaan: penulisan order, penyiapan spesisifikasi, pencatatan order, pengiriman order, invoice, payment, dll – Semua pengeluaran yang dipergunakan untuk melakukan set-up untuk pengerjaan pesanan: pemasangan fixture, setting mesin, biaya kerja: orang dan mesin, dll – Ongkos ini dikeluarkan sesuai dengan frekuensi pemesanan yang dilakukan
© 2006 Prentice Hall, Inc. 12 – 31

• Biaya Akibat Kekurangan Persediaan (Penalty Cost)
– Jika terjadi kekurangan persediaan terdapat dua kemungkinan yang terjadi, yaitu:
• Lost Sale • Back Order

– Pada kasus Lost Sale ongkos yang timbul adalah kesempatan memperoleh profit yang hilang – Pada kasus Back Order ongkos yang timbul misalkan biaya administrasi dan biaya emergency production & shipment – Lebih jauh lagi, akibat kekurangan persediaan ini menimbulkan juga dampak yang tidak bisa secara langsung diukur secara finansial seperti reputasi, kehilangan konsumen, dan lain-lain.
© 2006 Prentice Hall, Inc. 12 – 32

Ukuran Performansi
• Biaya persediaan
– Semua biaya yang dikeluarkan untuk mengadakan persediaan – Tujuan: minimasi – Perhatian: internal perusahaan

• Tingkat Pelayanan Sistem
– Ukuran yang menyatakan kemampuan sistem melayani – Tujuan: maksimasi – Perhatian: penilaian eksternal perusahaan
© 2006 Prentice Hall, Inc. 12 – 33

Model Persediaan Untuk Permintaan bebas (Inventory Models for Independent Demand)
Keinginan utk mengetahui kapan hrs memesan dan berapa banyak hrs memesan

Model kuantitas pesanan ekonomis (EOQ) dasar Model kuantitas pesanan produksi Model diskon kuantitas
© 2006 Prentice Hall, Inc. 12 – 34

Model Kuantitas Pesanan Ekonomis (EOQ) Dasar
Beberapa asumsi penting
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Permintaan diketahui, tetap dan bebas Lead time iyaitu , waktu antara pemesanan dan penerimaan pesanan diketahui dan konstan. Penerimaan persediaan bersifat seketika dan lengkap. Diskon (Potongan harga) krn kuantitas tdk memungkinkan Biaya variabel yg ada hanyalah biaya pengaturan atau pemesanan . Kosongnya persediaan (kekurangan) dpt dihindari sepenuhnya jika pemesanan dilakukan pd waktu yg tepat.

© 2006 Prentice Hall, Inc.

12 – 35

Pemakaian Persediaan Sepanjang Periode Perencanaan/ Pengendalian
Inventory level Order quantity = Q (maximum inventory level) Minimum inventory Usage rate Average inventory on hand Q 2

Time
Figure 12.3
© 2006 Prentice Hall, Inc. 12 – 36

Meminimalkan Biaya
Objective is to minimize total costs
Curve for total cost of holding and setup Minimum total cost Annual cost Holding cost curve

Setup (or order) cost curve Optimal order quantity Order quantity
12 – 37

Table 11.5
© 2006 Prentice Hall, Inc.

D The EOQ Model setup cost = Q S Annual

Q Q* D S H

= Number of pieces per order = Optimal number of pieces per order (EOQ) = Annual demand in units for the Inventory item = Setup or ordering cost for each order = Holding or carrying cost per unit per year Annual setup cost = (Number of orders placed per year) x (Setup or order cost per order) Annual demand Setup or order = Number of units in each order cost per order = D (S) Q
12 – 38

© 2006 Prentice Hall, Inc.

D The EOQ Model setup cost = Q S Annual Annual holding cost =

Q Q* D S H

= Number of pieces per order = Optimal number of pieces per order (EOQ) = Annual demand in units for the Inventory item = Setup or ordering cost for each order = Holding or carrying cost per unit per year Annual holding cost = (Average inventory level) x (Holding cost per unit per year) Order quantity = (Holding cost per unit per year) 2 = Q (H) 2

Q H 2

© 2006 Prentice Hall, Inc.

12 – 39

D The EOQ Model setup cost = Q S Annual Annual holding cost =

Q Q* D S H

= Number of pieces per order = Optimal number of pieces per order (EOQ) = Annual demand in units for the Inventory item = Setup or ordering cost for each order = Holding or carrying cost per unit per year Optimal order quantity is found when annual setup cost equals annual holding cost D Q S = H Q 2 Solving for Q*

Q H 2

2DS = Q2H Q2 = 2DS/H Q* = 2DS/H
12 – 40

© 2006 Prentice Hall, Inc.

Contoh EOQ
Utk mengurangi persediaan, tentukan jumlah jarum Suntik yg optimum utk setiap pemesanan jika: Permintaan tahunan ( D = 1,000 units ) Biaya setup atau pemesanan ( S = $10 per order) Biaya penyimpanan per unit per tahun: (H = $.50 per unit per year )

Q* = Q* =
© 2006 Prentice Hall, Inc.

2DS H 2(1,000)(10) = 0.50 40,000 = 200 units
12 – 41

Contoh EOQ
Determine optimal number of needles to order D = 1,000 units Q* = 200 units S = $10 per order H = $.50 per unit per year Jlh pesanan yg =N= diperkirakan Demand = Order quantity D Q*

1,000 N= = 5 pesanan per tahun 200

© 2006 Prentice Hall, Inc.

12 – 42

Contoh EOQ
Determine optimal number of needles to order D = 1,000 units Q* = 200 units S = $10 per order N = 5 orders per year H = $.50 per unit per year Jlh hari kerja per tahun N

Waktu antar pesanan yg diperkirakan

=T= T=

250 = 50 hari antar pesanan 5

© 2006 Prentice Hall, Inc.

12 – 43

Contoh EOQ
Determine optimal number of needles to order D = 1,000 units Q* = 200 units S = $10 per order N = 5 orders per year H = $.50 per unit per year T = 50 days Total annual cost = Setup cost + Holding cost D Q S + H Q 2 1,000 200 TC = ($10) + ($.50) 200 2 TC = TC = (5)($10) + (100)($.50) = $50 + $50 = $100
© 2006 Prentice Hall, Inc. 12 – 44

Model Yg Tangguh (Robust Model)
Model EOQ adalah model yg tangguh (robust) Memberikan jawaban yg memuaskan meskipun terdapat beragam variasi dlm parameternya Kurva Biaya total relatif dangkal dlam area EOQ.
© 2006 Prentice Hall, Inc. 12 – 45

Cotoh EOQ
Management underestimated demand by 50% D = 1,000 units 1,500 units Q* = 200 units S = $10 per order N = 5 orders per year H = $.50 per unit per year T = 50 days D Q TC = S + H Q 2 1,500 200 TC = ($10) + ($.50) = $75 + $50 = $125 200 2 Total annual cost increases by only 25%
© 2006 Prentice Hall, Inc. 12 – 46

Contoh EOQ
Actual EOQ for new demand is 244.9 units D = 1,000 units 1,500 units Q* = 244.9 units S = $10 per order N = 5 orders per year H = $.50 per unit per year T = 50 days D Q TC = S + H Q 2 1,500 244.9 TC = ($10) + ($.50) 244.9 2 TC = $61.24 + $61.24 = $122.48

Only 2% less than the total cost of $125 when the order quantity was 200
12 – 47

© 2006 Prentice Hall, Inc.

Titik Pemesanan Ulang (Reorder Points)
EOQ menjawab pertanyaan berapa banyak pesanan harus diputuskan dan kapan pemesanan akan dilakukan Titik pemesanan ulang ( reorder point -ROP) tingkat persediaan dimana pemesanan harus dilakukan

Lead time for a Demand ROP = per day new order in days =dxL
D d = Number of working days in a year
© 2006 Prentice Hall, Inc. 12 – 48

Reorder Point Curve
Inventory level (units) Q*

Slope = units/day = d

ROP (units)

Figure 12.5
© 2006 Prentice Hall, Inc.

Time (days) Lead time = L
12 – 49

Contoh Reorder Point
Demand = 8,000 DVDs per year 250 working day year Lead time for orders is 3 working days d= D Number of working days in a year = 8,000/250 = 32 units

ROP = d x L = 32 units per day x 3 days = 96 units
Dgn demikian, ketika persediaan mencapai 96 unit, maka pemesanan Hrs dilakukan. Pesanan akan tiba 3 hari kemudian, saat persediaan perusahaan habis.
© 2006 Prentice Hall, Inc.

,

12 – 50

Model Kuantitas Pesanan Produksi
Digunakan ketika persediaan secara terus-menerus mengalir atau menumpuk setelah jangka waktu tertentu setelah sebuah pemesanan dilakukan Digunakan saat unit diproduksi dan dijual secara bersamaan

© 2006 Prentice Hall, Inc.

12 – 51

Model Kuantitas Pesanan Produksi
Inventory level Bagian dari siklus persediaan selama produksi dan pemakaian berlangsung Bagian dari siklus permintaan dgn tidak ada produksi (hanya terdapat pemakaian)

Maximum inventory

t

Time
Figure 12.6

© 2006 Prentice Hall, Inc.

12 – 52

Model Kuantitas Pesanan Produksi
Q = Number of pieces per order p = Daily production rate H = Holding cost per unit per year d = Daily demand/usage rate t = Length of the production run in days Annual inventory Holding cost = (Average inventory level) x holding cost per unit per year Annual inventory = (Maximum inventory level)/2 level Maximum Total produced during = – inventory level the production run = pt – dt
© 2006 Prentice Hall, Inc. 12 – 53

Total used during the production run

Model Kuantitas Pesanan Produksi
Q = Number of pieces per order p = Daily production rate H = Holding cost per unit per year d = Daily demand/usage rate t = Length of the production run in days Maximum Total produced during = – inventory level the production run = pt – dt Total used during the production run

However, Q = total produced = pt ; thus t = Q/p
Q Maximum =p inventory level p –d Q p =Q 1– d p

Holding cost =
© 2006 Prentice Hall, Inc.

Maximum inventory level Q d (H) = 1– 2 p 2

H
12 – 54

Model Kuantitas Pesanan Produksi
Q = Number of pieces per order H = Holding cost per unit per year D = Annual demand p = Daily production rate d = Daily demand/usage rate

Setup cost = (D/Q)S Holding cost = 1/2 HQ[1 - (d/p)] (D/Q)S = 1/2 HQ[1 - (d/p)] Q2 2DS = H[1 - (d/p)] 2DS H[1 - (d/p)]
12 – 55

Q* =
© 2006 Prentice Hall, Inc.

Contoh Model Kuantitas Pesanan Produksi
D = 1,000 units S = $10 H = $0.50 per unit per year Q* = 2DS H[1 - (d/p)] 2(1,000)(10) = 0.50[1 - (4/8)] 80,000 p = 8 units per day d = 4 units per day

Q* =

= 282.8 or 283 hubcaps
© 2006 Prentice Hall, Inc. 12 – 56

Model Kuantitas Pesanan Produksi
When annual data are used the equation becomes

Q* =

2DS annual demand rate H 1– annual production rate

© 2006 Prentice Hall, Inc.

12 – 57

Model Diskon Kuantitas
• Sangat umum menjadi praktek adanya potongan harga (price discount) untuk pembelian dalam jumlah yang lebih besar Faktor utama dlm mempertimbangkan diskon krn kuantitas adalah antara biaya produk yg berkurang dan biaya penyimpanan yg meningkat.

Total cost = Setup cost + Holding cost + Product cost TC = D QH S+ + PD Q 2

© 2006 Prentice Hall, Inc.

12 – 58

Model Diskon Kuantitas
Cth sebuah jadwal diskon kuantitas
Discount Number 1 2 3 Discount Quantity 0 to 999 1,000 to 1,999 2,000 and over Discount (%) no discount 4 5 Discount Price (P) $5.00 $4.80 $4.75
Table 12.2

© 2006 Prentice Hall, Inc.

12 – 59

Model Kuantitas Diskon
Langkah Analisis
1. Untuk setiap harga hitung lot pesanan ekonomis (Q*) 2. Jika nilai Q* yang dihasilkan tidak sesuai untuk harga yang ditetapkan; gunakan nilai jumlah pesanan terkecil pada harga tersebut 3. Hitung biaya persediaan untuk setiap Q* atau jumlah pesanan yang telah disesuaikan 4. Pilih Q* yang memberikan biaya terkecil
© 2006 Prentice Hall, Inc. 12 – 60

Model Kuantitas Diskon
Total cost curve for discount 1 Total cost curve for discount 2

Total cost $

Total cost curve for discount 3

b a
1st price break Q* for discount 2 is below the allowable range at point a and must be adjusted upward to 1,000 units at point b 2nd price break

0
© 2006 Prentice Hall, Inc.

1,000

2,000 Order quantity

Figure 12.7
12 – 61

Contoh Model Kuantitas Diskon
Calculate Q* for every discount Q* = 2DS IP

Q1* = Q2* = Q3* =
© 2006 Prentice Hall, Inc.

2(5,000)(49) = 700 cars order (.2)(5.00) 2(5,000)(49) = 714 cars order (.2)(4.80) 2(5,000)(49) = 718 cars order (.2)(4.75)
12 – 62

Contoh Model Kuantitas Diskon
Calculate Q* for every discount Q* = 2DS IP

Q1* = Q2* = Q3* =
© 2006 Prentice Hall, Inc.

2(5,000)(49) = 700 cars order (.2)(5.00) 2(5,000)(49) = 714 cars order (.2)(4.80) 1,000 — adjusted 2(5,000)(49) = 718 cars order (.2)(4.75) 2,000 — adjusted
12 – 63

Contoh Model Kuantitas Diskon
Discount Unit Order Number Price Quantity 1 2 3 $5.00 $4.80 $4.75 700 1,000 2,000 Annual Product Cost $25,000 $24,000 $23.750 Annual Annual Ordering Holding Cost Cost $350 $245 $122.50 $350 $480 $950 Total $25,700 $24,725 $24,822.50
Table 12.3

Choose the price and quantity that gives the lowest total cost Buy 1,000 units at $4.80 per unit
© 2006 Prentice Hall, Inc. 12 – 64

Model Probabilitas dan Persediaan pengaman ( Safety Stock)
Model persediaan ini digunakan ketika permintaan produksi tidak diketahui tetapi dpt ditetapkan melalui sebuah distribusi kemungkinan Menggunakan persediaan pengaman (safety stock) utk mengurangi kosongnya persediaan dgn menyimpan unit tambahan dlm persediaan.

ROP = d x L + ss
Biaya kosongnya persedediaan tahunan = Jumlah unit yg kurang x kemungkinanx biaya kosongnya persediaan/unit x jumlah pesanan per tahun

© 2006 Prentice Hall, Inc.

12 – 65

Contoh Safety Stock
ROP = 50 units Orders per year = 6 Stockout cost = $40 per frame Carrying cost = $5 per frame per year

Number of Units 30 40 50 60 70

Probability .2 .2 .3 .2 .1 1.0
12 – 66

ROP

© 2006 Prentice Hall, Inc.

Contoh Safety Stock
ROP = 50 units Orders per year = 6
Safety Stock 20 10 0 Additional Holding Cost (20)($5) = $100 (10)($5) = $50 (10)(.1)($40)(6)

Stockout cost = $40 per frame Carrying cost = $5 per frame per year
Total Cost $0 = $240 $100 $290 $960

Stockout Cost

$0 (10)(.2)($40)(6) + (20)(.1)($40)(6) = $960

A safety stock of 20 frames gives the lowest total cost ROP = 50 + 20 = 70 frames
© 2006 Prentice Hall, Inc. 12 – 67

Permintaan Probabilitas

Inventory level

Minimum demand during lead time Maximum demand during lead time Mean demand during lead time ROP = 350 + safety stock of 16.5 = 366.5 ROP Normal distribution probability of demand during lead time Expected demand during lead time (350 kits) kits) Safety stock 16.5 units

0
Figure 12.8
© 2006 Prentice Hall, Inc.

Lead time

Time

Place order

Receive order
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Permintaan Probabilitas

Probability of no stockout 95% of the time

Risk of a stockout (5% of area of normal curve)

Mean demand 350

ROP = ? kits Safety stock

Quantity

0

z

Number of standard deviations
12 – 69

© 2006 Prentice Hall, Inc.

Permintaan Probabilitas
Use prescribed service levels to set safety stock when the cost of stockouts cannot be determined ROP = demand during lead time + Zσdlt
where Z = number of standard deviations σdlt = standard deviation of demand during lead time

© 2006 Prentice Hall, Inc.

12 – 70

Contoh Probabilitas
Average demand = µ = 350 kits Standard deviation of demand during lead time = σdlt = 10 kits 5% stockout policy (service level = 95%)

Using Appendix I, for an area under the curve of 95%, the Z = 1.65 Safety stock = Zσdlt = 1.65(10) = 16.5 kits Reorder point = expected demand during lead time + safety stock = 350 kits + 16.5 kits of safety stock = 366.5 or 367 kits
© 2006 Prentice Hall, Inc. 12 – 71

Model Probabilitas Yg Lain
When data on demand during lead time is not available, there are other models available 1. When demand is variable and lead time is constant 2. When lead time is variable and demand is constant 3. When both demand and lead time are variable
© 2006 Prentice Hall, Inc. 12 – 72

Model Probabilitas Yg Lain
Demand is variable and lead time is constant
ROP = (average daily demand x lead time in days) + Zσdlt
where σd = standard deviation of demand per day σdlt = σd lead time

© 2006 Prentice Hall, Inc.

12 – 73

Contoh Probabilitas
Average daily demand (normally distributed) = 15 Standard deviation = 5 Lead time is constant at 2 days Z for 90% = 1.28 90% service level desired From Appendix I

ROP = (15 units x 2 days) + Zσdlt = 30 + 1.28(5)( 2) = 30 + 8.96 = 38.96 ≈ 39 Safety stock is about 9 units
© 2006 Prentice Hall, Inc. 12 – 74

Model Probabilitas Yg Lain
Lead time is variable and demand is constant
ROP = (daily demand x average lead time in days) = Z x (daily demand) x σlt
where σlt = standard deviation of lead time in days

© 2006 Prentice Hall, Inc.

12 – 75

Contoh Probablitas
Daily demand (constant) = 10 Average lead time = 6 days Standard deviation of lead time = σlt = 5 98% service level desired Z for 98% = 2.055 From Appendix I

ROP = (10 units x 6 days) + 2.055(10 units)(3) = 60 + 61.55 = 121.65 Reorder point is about 122 units
© 2006 Prentice Hall, Inc. 12 – 76

Model Probabilitas Yg Lain
Both demand and lead time are variable
ROP = (average daily demand x average lead time) + Zσdlt
where σd = standard deviation of demand per day σlt = standard deviation of lead time in days σdlt = (average lead time x σd2) + (average daily demand) 2σlt2

© 2006 Prentice Hall, Inc.

12 – 77

Contoh Probabilitas
Average daily demand (normally distributed) = 150 Standard deviation = σd = 16 Average lead time 5 days (normally distributed) Standard deviation = σlt = 2 days 95% service level desired Z for 95% = 1.65 From Appendix I ROP = (150 packs x 5 days) + 1.65σdlt = (150 x 5) + 1.65 (5 days x 162) + (1502 x 12) = 750 + 1.65(154) = 1,004 packs

© 2006 Prentice Hall, Inc.

12 – 78

Sistem Periode (P) Tetap (Fixed Period - P Systems)
Orders placed at the end of a fixed period Inventory counted only at end of period Order brings inventory up to target level
Only relevant costs are ordering and holding Lead times are known and constant Items are independent from one another

© 2006 Prentice Hall, Inc.

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Sistem Periode (P) Tetap (Fixed Period - P Systems)
Target maximum (T) Q4 Q2 Q1 P P

On-hand inventory

Q3

P Time
© 2006 Prentice Hall, Inc.

Figure 12.9
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Fixed-Period (P) Example
3 jackets are back ordered It is time to place an order No jackets are in stock Target value = 50

Order amount (Q) = Target (T) - Onhand inventory - Earlier orders not yet received + Back orders Q = 50 - 0 - 0 + 3 = 53 jackets

© 2006 Prentice Hall, Inc.

12 – 81

Fixed-Period Systems
Inventory is only counted at each review period May be scheduled at convenient times Appropriate in routine situations May result in stockouts between periods May require increased safety stock

© 2006 Prentice Hall, Inc.

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