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ABSTRAK

Latar belakang: Cetirizin dan loratadin merupakan antagonis reseptor histamin H1 mempunyai efek antihistamin. Cetirizin mampu menurunkan gejala rinitis alergi lebih baik dibandingkan generasi kedua lainnya. Penelitian efikasi cetirizin dan loratadin pada rinitis alergi belum pernah dilakukan penelitian di kota Medan. Tujuan: Untuk membandingkan efikasi loratadin dengan cetirizin pada penderita rinitis alergi. Metode: Uji klinis acak tersamar ganda yang membandingkan efikasi loratadin dengan cetirizin penderita rinitis alergi pada anak. Penelitian dilakukan di dua Sekolah Menengah Pertama di kota Medan pada bulan Oktober sampai November 2009. Sampel penelitian usia 13-16 tahun. Dari 475 siswa diperiksa didapat 100 sampel yang ikut kemudian dibagi 2 kelompok. Kelompok I cetirizin dan kelompok II loratadin diberikan selama 14 hari. Obat diminum sehari sekali. Gejala klinis rinitis alergi dan efek samping obat dievaluasi pada hari ke-3, ke-7 dan hari ke-14. Hasil. Pada penelitian di temukan skor rinitis alergi sebelum diterapi skor sedang 37% dan skor berat 63%, setelah diterapi dengan loratadin 10 mg atau cetirizin 10 mg pada hari ke-14 dijumpai tidak ada keluhan 80%, ringan 11%, sedang 7%, berat 2% (P = 0.057). Efek samping obat sakit kepala dijumpai perbedaan yang signifikan pada hari ke-3 dan hari ke-7 (P = 0.01) dan (P = 0,03) dan efek samping jantung berdebar dijumpai hari ke-7 (P = 0,04) pada pasien yang diberi loratadin. Kesimpulan.Tidak ada perbedaan yang bermakna skor rinitis alergi antara terapi cetirizin dan loratadin dalam mengurangi gejala RA yang dievaluasi pada hari ke-3, ke-7 dan ke-14 (P = 0.057). Kata kunci : Rinitis alergi, skor rinitis alergi, cetirizin, loratadin.

Universitas Sumatera Utara

ABSTRACT

Background Cetirizine and loratadine were selective H1-antagonist with AH effect. In traditional clinical trials, cetirizine has been shown to be safe and effective for the treatment of allergic rhinitis. Effication research of cetirizine and loratadine for the treatment of allergic rhinitis has never been done in Medan City. Objective : To compare the efficacy of loratadine with cetirizine for the treatment of allergic rhinitis. Method : A double-blinded clinical trial to compare the efficacy of loratadine with cetirizine in children present with allergic rhinitis. This research was done at two junior secondary school in Medan from October until November 2009. Sample in this study was children range from 13-16 years. This sample divided into two groups with total sample of 100. Fifty samples given cetirizine or loratadine for 14 days. The medicines was taken once a day. The symptoms of allergic rhinitis and side effects of the medication was evaluated on the 3rd, 7th, and 14thday. Result : Allergic rhinitis score before therapy shower moderate score 37% and severe score 63%. On the 14th day, score with no complaint 80%, mild score 11%, moderate score 7%, severe score 2% had (P = 0.057). Side effects such as headache was found on the 3rd and on the 7th day with (P = 0.01) and (P = 0.03). Side effects as palpitation was found on the 7th day in patients who taken loratadine with a value (P = 0.04). Conclusion : No significant difference in scoring for RA between cetirizine and loratadine in reducing symptoms for allergic rhinitis which was evaluated on the 3rd, 7th and 14th day with (P = 0.057). Keywords: Cetirizine, loratadine , score allergic rhinitis, allergic rhinitis

Universitas Sumatera Utara