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IRISAN KERUCUT Sebuah kerucut tegak jika dipotong dengan berbagai bidang yang mempunyai sudut berbeda beda

terhadap sumbu simetri akan membentuk kurva antara lain lingkaran, ellips, parabola, dan hiperbola









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Conic sections

Shown together.

Another way to see conics, and you can also try this at home with a Styrofoam cup.


National Science Foundation


The ferris wheel is an example of a circle. This picture shows the first ferris wheel created in 1893 by George W. Ferris. The wheel had a diameter of 250 feet and circumference of 825 feet.

Lingkaran adalah himpunan titik-titik pada bidang datar yang jaraknya sama panjang dari suatu titik tertentu. Titik tertentu tersebut dinamakan titik pusat dan jarak yang sama tersebut disebut jari-jari lingkaran.
Lingkaran dengan titik pusat O(0,0) dan mempunyai jari-jari r. titik T(x,y) terletak pada lingkaran maka jarak titik T dan titik O adalah :



X 2 Y2

OT = jari-jari lingkaran = r Maka diperoleh persamaan lingkaran

X2 Y2 r

X 2 Y 2 r2


Lingkaran dengan titik pusat P(h,k) dan jari-jari r. Jika titik T (x,y) adalah sebarang titik pada lingkaran maka P

TP ( x h) 2 ( y k ) 2
TP adalah jari-jari lingkaran, maka diperoleh hubungan

( x h) 2 ( y k ) 2 r
Sehingga persamaan lingkaran yang berpusat di titik P(h,k) dengan jari-jari r adalah

(x h)2 + (y k)2 = r2

Persamaan lingkaran

(x h)2 + (y k)2 = r2.

Bila ruas kiri diuraikan maka diperoleh x2-2hx+h2+y2-2ky+k2-r2=0 x2+y2-2hx-2ky+h2+k2-r2=0 Atau ditulis dalam bentuk x2+y2+Ax+By+C=0 Persamaan di atas merupakan bentuk umum persamaan lingkaran. Dari bentuk umum persamaan lingkaran tersebut dapat kita tentukan koordinat titik pusat dan jari-jarinya dengan mengubah persamaan tersebut menjadi x2+y2+Ax+By = - C
1 2 1 1 1 A y 2 By B 2 A 2 B 2 C 4 4 4 4 1 1 1 1 ( x A) 2 ( y B ) 2 A 2 B 2 C 2 2 4 4 x 2 Ax

Sehingga dari persamaan diatas dapat diperoleh titik pusat dan jari2 lingkaran

1 1 A, B) 2 2


1 2 1 2 A B C 4 4


y=mx+k Sebuah garis lurus dengan persaman y=mx+n sedangkan persamaan lingkaran x2+y2=r2 Garis singgung yang dicari harus sejajar dengan garis y=mx+n Kita misalkan persamaan garis singgung yang dicari y=mx+k. karena garis L menyinggung lingkaran maka ada sebuah titik yang koordinatnya memenuhi persamaan garis maupun persamaan lingkaran sehingga diperoleh


x 2 ( mx k ) 2 r 2 x 2 m 2 x 2 2mkx k 2 r 2 0 (1 m 2 ) x 2 2mkx k 2 r 2 0

Karena garis singgung pada lingkaran hanya mempunyai satu titik persekutuan maka persamaan kuadrat hanya mempunyai satu harga x, syaratnya diskriminan dari persamaan tersebut harus sama dengan nol

D B 2 4 AC 0
4m 2 k 2 4(1 m 2 )(k 2 r 2 ) 0 4m 2 k 2 4( k 2 r 2 m 2 k 2 m 2 k 2 ) 0 4m 2 k 2 4k 2 4r 2 4m 2 k 2 4m 2 k 2 0
4(k 2 r 2 m 2 r 2 ) 0 k 2 r 2 (1 m 2 ) 0 k r 1 m 2
Sehingga persamaan garis singgungnya adalah

y1 mx r 1 m 2 y 2 mx r 1 m 2


Jika lingkaran tersebut mempunyai titik pusat P(h,k) maka persamaan garis singgung yang sejajar dengan garis y=mx+n adalah

y k m( x h) r 1 m 2 y k m( x h) r 1 m 2


Pada sebuah lingkaran mempunyai persamaan (x-h)2+(y-k)2=r2 akan dicari persamaan garis singgung di titik Q(x1,y1) P

PQ ( x1 h) 2 ( y1 k ) 2


y1 k x1 h

Karena garis singgung saling tegak lurus dengan PQ maka gradien garis singgung tersebut adalah

x1 h y1 k

Sehingga persamaan garis singgung yang dicari adalah Ax +By = C, C = konstan

( x1 h) x ( y1 k ) y c

Karena titik Q(x1,y1) terletak pada garis singgung lingkaran, maka

( x1 h)(x1 h) ( y1 k )( y1 k ) c

( x1 h) 2 ( y1 k ) 2 c

Jadi persamaan garis singgung lingkaran dengan pusat P(h,k) adalah

( x1 h)( x h) ( y1 k )( y k ) r 2
Jika lingkaran berpusat di O(0,0) maka persamaan garis singgung lingkaran di titik Q(x1,y1)

x1 x y1 y r

1. Sketch the circle (x 2)2 + (y 3)2 = 16 answer

The equation is in the form (x h)2 + (y k)2 = r2, so we have a circle with centre at (2, 3) and the radius is r = 16 = 4.

2. Find the points of intersection of the circle x2 + y2 x 3y = 0 with the line

y = x 1. Answer We solve the 2 equations simultaneously by substituting the expression y = x -1 into the expression we have

So we see that the solutions for x are x = 1 or x = 2. This gives the corresponding y-vales of y = 0 and y = 1. So the points of intersection are at: (1, 0) and (2, 1).


Pada sebuah bidang terdapat garis L (garis arah) dan sebuah titik focus diluar garis L. Himpunan titik-titik P yang perbandingan antara PF dengan PL memenuhi hubungan
PF = e PL e= keeksentrikan/ eksentrisitas numerik

Apabila 0<e<1 maka kurva berbentuk ellips e=1 e>1 kurva berbentuk parabola kurva berbentuk hiperbola

Untuk setiap kasus, kurva-kurva tersebut simetri terhadap garis yang melalui fokus dan tegak lurus garis arah yang disebut directrix. Titik potong antara sumbu dengan kurva disebut puncak

Conic Sections - Parabola

The intersection of a plane with one nappe of the cone is a parabola.

Arch Bridges Almost Parabolic

The Gladesville Bridge in Sydney, Australia was the longest single span concrete arched bridge in the world when it was constructed in 1964. The shape of the arch is almost parabolic, as you can see in this image with a superimposed graph of y = x2/4p (The negative means the legs of the parabola face downwards.)

I found the St. Louis Arch to be an example of a parabola. Standing 630 feet above the Mississippi River, the Arch is Americas tallest monument.

Conics used in real life.

The parabola is in the McDonalds sign.


Art Mayoff

Long Island Fountain Company

Paraboloid Revolution
They are commonly used today in satellite technology as well as lighting in motor vehicle headlights and flashlights.

Conic Sections - Parabola

The parabola has the characteristic shape shown above. A parabola is defined to be the set of points the same distance from a point and a line.

Conic Sections - Parabola



The line is called the directrix and the point is called the focus.

Conic Sections - Parabola

Focus Axis of Symmetry



The line perpendicular to the directrix passing through the focus is the axis of symmetry. The vertex is the point of intersection of the axis of symmetry with the parabola.

Conic Sections - Parabola


d1 d2 Directrix

The definition of the parabola is the set of points the same distance from the focus and directrix. Therefore, d1 = d2 for any point (x, y) on the parabola.

Each of the colour-coded line segments is the same length in this spider-like graph:


Adding to our diagram from above, we see that the distance d = y + p. Now, using the distance formula on the general points (0, p) and (x, y), and equating it to our value d = y + p, we have

Squaring both sides gives: (x 0)2 + (y p)2 = (y + p)2

Simplifying gives us the formula for a parabola:

x2 = 4py
In more familiar form, with "y = " on the left, we can write this as:


Dengan cara yang sama pada parabola dengan sumbu vertikal diperoleh persaman parabola dengan sumbu horisontal

y2 = 4px

Shifting the Vertex of a Parabola from the Origin

This is a similar concept to the case when we shifted the centre of a circle from the origin. To shift the vertex of a parabola from (0, 0) to (h, k), each x in the equation becomes (x h) and each y becomes (y k). So if the axis of a parabola is vertical, and the vertex is at (h, k), we have

(x h)2 = 4p(y k)

If the axis of a parabola is horizontal, and the vertex is at (h, k), the equation becomes

(y k)2 = 4p(x h)

1. Sketch the parabola

Find the focal length and indicate the focus and the directrix on your graph. ANSWER The focal length is found by equating the general expression for y

and our particular example:

So we have:

This gives p = 0.5. So the focus will be at (0, 0.5) and the directrix is the line y = -0.5.

2. Sketch the curve and find the equation of the parabola with focus (-2,0) and directrix x = 2.
Answer In this case, we have the following graph After sketching, we can see that the equation required is in the following form, since we have a horizontal axis:

y2 = 4px
Since p = -2 (from the question), we can directly write the equation of the parabola:

y2 = -8x

1. Find the distance between the points (3, -4) and (5, 7).
2. Find the slope of the line joining the points (-4, -1) and (2, -5). 3. What is the distance between (-1, 3) and (-8, -4)? A line passes through (-3, 9) and (4, 4). Another line passes through (9, -1) and (4, -8). Are the lines parallel or perpendicular? 4. Find k if the distance between (k,0) and (0, 2k) is 10 units. 9. Find the equation of the line that passes through (-2, 1) with slope of -3. 10. What is the equation of the line perpendicular to the line joining (4, 2) and (3, -5) and passing through (4, 2)? 11. Draw the line 2x + 3y + 12 = 0. 12. If 4x ky = 6 and 6x + 3y + 2 = 0 are perpendicular, what is the value of k? 13. Find the perpendicular distance from the point (5, 6) to the line -2x + 3y + 4 = 0, using the formula we just found.

1. Find the equation of the circle with centre (3/2, -2) and radius 5/2. 2. Determine the centre and radius and then sketch the circle: 3x2 + 3y2 12x + 4 = 0 3. Find the points of intersection of the circle x2 + y2 x 3y = 0 with the line y = x 1. 4. Sketch x2 = 14y 5. We found above that the equation of the parabola with vertex (h, k) and axis parallel to the y-axis is (x h)2 = 4p(y k). Sketch the parabola for which (h, k) is (-1,2) and p = -3. 6. A parabolic antenna has a cross-section of width 12 m and depth of 2 m. Where should the receiver be placed for best reception?