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# Seminar 5 Discussion Questions (40 points total):

## Part I (30 points total):

This week we'll explore the "From Data to Decision" critical thinking exercise on page
451. Be sure your post addresses (in nice detail) each of the questions in the Analyzing
the Results section! I appreciate posts that are truly critical thinking—really chews on the
practice of having dogs detect diseases from different perspectives :-). (good luck!)

a. Given that each trial involved six healthy samples and one
sample from a patient with bladder cancer, what is the
probability that a dog would select the cancer sample if it made
a random guess?
This one was easy: out 7 there is only one with the cancer,
hence: 1-7

## b. Given that the trial was conducted 54 times, what is the

expected number of correct identifications, assuming that
Doing the math I would take the decimal of 1-7 times 54 the
result is 7.714285714 I would round it to 7.714

## c. Among the 54 trials, there were 22 correct identifications. Test

the hypothesis that the dogs did significantly better than what
would be expected with random guessing. Does it appear that
the dogs were guessing, or do they appear to have some ability
to identify the cancer sample?
I’m going to use our probability of 1-7 or .14 p=.14
Sub tract that from 1 q=.86
The no of trials: n=54
22 trial out of 54 were correct divide them and rounding gets .41
P^= .41
Z = p^ - p / √ (pq / n)
Z= .41-.14 / √ (.14*.86) / 54
Z= .27 / √ .00222963
Z= .27 / .047218958
Z= 5.718042317 or 5.718

The dogs did better than a random guessing would be. They do
have some talent.
d. Assuming the dogs did better than what would be expected
with random guessing, did they do well enough to be used for
actual medical diagnoses? Why or why not?
I think that they should be used in diagnoses, not as a 100%
belief but as a guild that could help early detection and with
cancer the earlier it is found the better chances of beating it.

## Part II (10 points total):

Part II will be your question to the group, just like we've done in previous weeks. The DQs have
been good—thank you! Please ask a question that reinforces a concept we are learning this
week, or reinforces a procedure we need to be comfortable with in the calculations. If you had to
tutor a classmate—what would you ask to really drill in what we are learning?

## Is it easier to find out if a problem is going to be either a

right or left tailed, Or if it’s going to be a 2 tailed?