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RENCANA PELAKSANAAN PEMBELAJARAN ( RPP ) Sekolah Kelas / Semester Mata Pelajaran Standar Kompetensi Kompetensi Dasar : : : : SMPN 1 MEJAYAN

IX / 1 IPA BIOLOGI Science Biology 1. Memahami berbagai sistem dalam kehidupan manusia

: 1.3 Mendeskripsikan sistem koordinasi dan alat indera pada manusia serta hubungannya dengan kesehatan. Describing coordination : 3 x meeting

Understanding various system in human life.

Alokasi Waktu

system and senses organ in human and its relationship with health.

Indikator Pencapaian Kompetensi 1.3.1 Mendeskripsikan struktur dan fungsi jenis-jenis neuron pada manusia.

Pendidikan Karakter 1, 2, 5, 6, 9, 18 1, 5, 18, 19, 22, 23, 24, 25 1, 5, 22 1, 5, 22 1, 5, 22 1, 4, 5, 22, 1, 5, 13, 22 5, 22, 24, 28 1, 5, 10, 17

Describing structure and function types of neuron in human. Describing types of neuron by shape

1.3.2 Mendeskripsikan jenis-jenis neuron berdasarkan bentuknya. 1.3.3 Mendeskripsikan struktur dan fungsi otak beserta bagianbagiannya. Describing structure and function of brain and its parts. 1.3.3b Membedakan jalur impuls saraf normal dan jalur refleks.

Differentiate common motion and reflex motion impuls

1.3.4 Membedakan sistem saraf pusat dan sistem saraf tepi.

Differentiate central nervous system and peripheral nervous system

1.3.5 Mendeskripsikan bermacam-macam kelenjar endokrin beserta hormon yang dihasilkan.

Describing various endocrine glands and there hormones produced.


1.3.6 Mendeskripsikan struktur dan fungsi macam-macam indera manusia.

Describing structure and function of human senses organ. Describing work mechanism of sense organ in human

1.3.7 Mendeskripsikan mekanisme kerja alat indera pada manusia. 1.3.8 Mengidentifikasi gangguan dan kelainan pada sistem saraf dan indera untuk menjaga kesehatan manusia.

Identify interference and disorder in human nervous system and senses to keep human health.

A. Tujuan Pembelajaran

: Peserta didik dapat: 1. Menjelaskan pengertian sistem koordinasi. 2. Menyebutkan fungsi sistem koordinasi.

3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8.

Menjelaskan struktur dan fungsi sel saraf (neuron). Mendeskripsikan neuron sensorik, neuron motorik, dan neuron asosiasi. Mendeskripsikan neuron unipolar, neuron bipolar, dan neuron multipolar. Menjelaskan mekanisme penghantaran impuls. Menyebutkan bagian-bagian sistem saraf manusia. Membedakan sistem saraf pusat dan sistem saraf tepi.

Explaine the coordination system Mention the function of the coordination system. Explain the structure and function of nerve cells (neurons) Describe the sensory neurons, motoric neurons and association neurons. Describe the unipolar neurons, bipolar neurons, and multipolar neurons. Explain the mechanism of impulse delivery. Mention the parts of the human nervous system. Differentiate central nervous system and peripheral nervous system
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RPP Sistem Koordinasi SMPN 1 Mejayan IX Agus Joko Sungkono

9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18.

Menjelaskan struktur dan fungsi sistem saraf pusat. Mendeskripsikan struktur dan fungsi otak beserta bagian-bagiannya. Menjelaskan struktur dan fungsi sistem saraf tepi. Membedakan sistem saraf sadar dan sistem saraf tak sadar. Membedakan gerak biasa dan gerak refleks. Memberikan beberapa contoh gerak refleks yang dilakukan manusia. Menjelaskan bermacam-macam kelenjar endokrin pada tubuh manusia beserta hormon yang dihasilkannya. Mendeskripsikan anatomi alat indera pada manusia. Mendeskripsikan mekanisme kerja alat indera pada manusia. Mengidentifikasi gangguan dan kelainan pada sistem saraf, endokrin dan indera untuk menjaga kesehatan manusia.

Explain the structure and function of the central nervous system Describes the structure and function of the brain and its parts Explain the structure and function of peripheral nervous system Distinguishing conscious nervous system and involuntary nervous system. Distinguish normal and reflex motion. Give some reflex examples the human do. Explain the various endocrine glands in human body and hormones it produces. Describing anatomy of various sense organ in human Describing work mechanism of sense organ in human Identify problems and abnormalities in the nervous system, endocrine and senses to safeguard human health Learning Materials Coordinate system : (attached) 1. nervous system 2. hormone system 3. senses

B. Materi Pembelajaran Sistem koordinasi : (terlampir) 1. Sistem saraf 2. Sistem hormon 3. Indera C. Metode Pembelajaran 1. Model 2. Metode - Diskusi kelompok - Ceramah - Observasi :

Learning Method - Direct Instruction (DI) - Cooperative Learning 2. Method - Groups Discussion - Lectures - Observations
1. Model

- Direct Instruction (DI) - Cooperative Learning

D. Langkah-langkah Kegiatan : PERTEMUAN PERTAMA Meeting I a. Kegiatan Pendahuluan Introduction activities Guru memberi salam: Assalamualaikum Teacher greeting :Assalamualaikum

warohmatullahi wabarokaatuh Guru meminta ketua kelas untuk memimpin


doa dengan khidmat sebagai wujud pembangunan karakter bangsa religius. Guru melakukan presensi kehadiran siswa sebagai wujud pembangunan karakter bangsa disiplin. Motivasi dan Apersepsi: Kenapa tatkala kaki kita terantuk batu kita merasa sakit, mulut mengucap aduh, dan mata kita keluar air ? Apa yang akan terjadi jika sistem saraf manusia rusak ? Prasyarat pengetahuan: Sistem koordinasi tersusun atas sistem apa saja kah ?

warohmatullahi wabarokaatuh. Teacher ask captain of class to lead pray with reverence as a manifestation of religious national character building Teacher take attendance student presence as a manifestation of dicipline national character building. Motivation and apperception: Why when our feet hit the stone we feel pain, mouth say ouch, and eyes out of water? What would happen if the human nervous system is damaged? Prerequisite knowledge : Coordinate system is composed of what are the system?

b. Kegiatan Inti Guru mengawali mengawali kegiatan

Teacher initiated learning activities with


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RPP Sistem Koordinasi SMPN 1 Mejayan IX Agus Joko Sungkono

pembelajaran dengan ceramah tentang pengertian sistem koordinasi, penyusun sistem koordinasi, dan fungsi sistem koordinasi. Guru membimbing siswa membentuk 4 kelompok tanpa membedakan agama, status sosial, jenis kelamin sebagai sebuah wujud pembangunan karakter bangsa menghargai keberagaman. Guru membagikan LKS kemudian menginformasikan kegiatan yang akan dilakukan oleh masing-masing kelompok. Peserta didik melakukan pengamatan charta : Sel saraf, sistem saraf pusat dan sistem saraf tepi, dan otak manusia dalam kelompok dilanjutkan berdiskusi tentang : Neuron, struktur dan fungsi neuron, neuroglia neuron sensorik, neuron motorik, dan neuron asosiasi. neuron unipolar, neuron bipolar, dan neuron multipolar mekanisme penghantaran impuls. bagian-bagian sistem saraf manusia. sistem saraf pusat dan sistem saraf tepi. struktur dan fungsi sistem saraf pusat. struktur dan fungsi otak dan sumsum tulang belakang beserta bagianbagiannya, sebagai salah satu wujud membangun karakter bangsa menghargai keberagaman, kerja sama, demokratis, rasa ingin tahu, cinta ilmu, obyektif dan terbuka, cermat dan teliti. Peserta didik mempresentasikan hasil diskusi kelompok di kelas dan anggota kelompok lain menanggapi, sebagai salah satu wujud pembangunan karakter bangsa bertanggungjawab, percaya diri, demokratis, obyektif dan terbuka. Guru memberikan penguatan hasil diskusi kelompok peserta didik dengan menjelaskan sel saraf, struktur dan fungsi sel saraf, aliran impuls saraf, sistem saraf pusat dan sistem saraf tepi, otak dan sumsum tulang belakang manusia dengan menggunakan slide powerpoint. Guru membuka sesi tanya jawab
Guru menanggapi jawaban siswa dan

a lecture on the meaning of coordination systems, compilers coordination system, and functions coordination system.

memberikan informasi yang benar.

Teacher guide students in forming 4 groups regardless of religion, social status, sex as a manifestation of appreciating diversity national character building. Teacher share LKS (students task) then inform the activities to be undertaken by each group. Students observe charts of: neuron, CNS and PNS, and human brain in students group than continued discuss the : Neurons than, structure and function of neurons, neuroglia. sensory neurons, motoric neurons and association neurons. unipolar neurons, bipolar neurons and multipolar neurons impulse delivery mechanism. parts of the human nervous system. central nervous system and peripheral nervous system. structure and function of the central nervous system. structure and function of the brain and spinal cord and its parts, as a manifestation of national character building respect for diversity, cooperative, democracy, curiosity, love of science, objective and open minded, precision and thoroughly. Students presenting the results of group discussions in front of the class and other group members can respond, as a manifestation of responsibility, confidenly, democracy, objective and open minded national character building. Teacher gives strengthening the results of students group discussions by explaining the neurons, structure and function of neurons, the flow of nerve impulses, central nervous system and peripheral nervous system, human brain and spinal cord by using a powerpoint slides. Teacher opened the question and answer session Teacher respond to student answers and provide the correct information
Closing activities Teacher give formative tests about the various neurons, structure and function of neurons, CNS and PNS, human brain and spinal cord. Teacher guide students make a conclusion. Teacher gives homework to make a
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c. Kegiatan Penutup Guru memberi tes formatif tentang macam-macam neuron, bagian-bagian neuron, SSP dan SST, otak dan sumsum tulang belakang manusia. Guru membimbing peserta didik membuat simpulan. Guru memberikan tugas rumah membuat

RPP Sistem Koordinasi SMPN 1 Mejayan IX Agus Joko Sungkono

peta konsep tentang sistem koordinasi concept map of human coordination manusia. system. Guru meminta ketua kelas untuk Teacher ask captain of class to lead memimpin doa penutup dengan khidmat closing pray with reverence as a sebagai wujud pembangunan karakter manifestation of religious national bangsa religius. character building Guru mengucapkan salam penutup: Teacher greeted the closing activities by Wassalamualaikum warohmatullahi say: Wassalamualaikum warohmatullahi wabarokaatuh. wabarokaatuh.

PERTEMUAN KEDUA Meeting II a. Kegiatan Pendahuluan Guru memberi salam: Assalamualaikum Teacher greeting :Assalamualaikum

warohmatullahi wabarokaatuh. Guru meminta ketua kelas untuk memimpin Teacher ask captain of class to lead pray doa dengan khidmat sebagai wujud with reverence as a manifestation of pembangunan karakter bangsa religius. religious national character building Guru melakukan presensi kehadiran siswa Teacher take attendance student sebagai wujud pembangunan karakter presence as a manifestation of dicipline bangsa disiplin. national character building. Motivasi dan Apersepsi: Motivation and apperceptions : Kenapa kita bisa mengendalikan tangan Why we can control our hands to work, kita untuk bekerja, tetapi tidak bisa but not in control of our heart and our mengendalikan kerja jantung dan sistem digestive system?
pencernaan makanan kita ? Prasyarat pengetahuan: Apa perbedaan SISTEM SARAF PUSAT dan SISTEM SARAF TEPI ?

warohmatullahi wabarokaatuh

Prerequisite knowledge : What is the difference in central nervous system and peripheral nervous system?

b. Kegiatan Inti Guru membimbing siswa membentuk 4 kelompok tanpa membedakan agama, status sosial, jenis kelamin sebagai sebuah wujud pembangunan karakter bangsa menghargai keberagaman. Guru membagikan LKS kemudian menginformasikan kegiatan yang akan dilakukan oleh masing-masing kelompok. Peserta didik melakukan pengamatan charta : Sistem saraf tepi, sistem saraf simpatik dan sistem saraf parasimpatik, gerak biasa dan gerak refleks, dan sistem endokrin manusia dalam kelompok dilanjutkan berdiskusi tentang : struktur dan fungsi sistem saraf tepi. sistem saraf sadar dan sistem saraf tak sadar. gerak biasa dan gerak refleks. Sistem endokrin , macam-macam kelenjar endokrin dan hormon yang dihasilkan besera fungsinya pada manusia, sebagai salah satu wujud membangun karakter bangsa menghargai keberagaman, kerja sama, demokratis, rasa ingin tahu, cinta ilmu, obyektif dan terbuka, cermat dan teliti. Peserta didik mempresentasikan hasil diskusi kelompok di kelas dan anggota kelompok lain menanggapi, sebagai salah satu wujud

Teacher guide students in forming 4 groups regardless of religion, social status, sex as a manifestation of appreciating diversity national character building. Teacher share LKS (students task) then inform the activities to be undertaken by each group. Students observe charts of: PNS, sympathetic and the parasympathetic nervous system, normal and reflex movement, and endocrine system of humans in students group than continued discuss the : structure and function of the peripheral nervous system. nervous system of conscious and unconscious nervous system. regular motion and reflexes, endocrine system, various endocrine glands and its hormone function in human, as a manifestation of national character building respect for diversity, cooperative, democracy, curiosity, love of science, objective and open minded, precision and thoroughly. Students presenting the results of group discussions in front of the class and other group members can respond, as a
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RPP Sistem Koordinasi SMPN 1 Mejayan IX Agus Joko Sungkono

pembangunan karakter bangsa bertanggungjawab, percaya diri, demokratis, obyektif dan terbuka.
Guru memberikan penguatan hasil diskusi

manifestation of responsibility, confidenly, democracy, objective and open minded national character building.

kelompok peserta didik dengan menjelaskan of students group discussions by SST, sistem saraf simpatik dan sistem explaining the PNS, sympathetic and the saraf parasimpatik, gerak biasa dan gerak parasympathetic nervous system, normal refleks, dan sistem endokrin manusia and reflex movement, and endocrine dengan menggunakan slide powerpoint. system of humans by using a powerpoint Guru membuka sesi tanya jawab slides. Guru menanggapi jawaban siswa dan Teacher opened the question and answer memberikan informasi yang benar. session

Teacher gives strengthening the results

Teacher respond to student answers and provide the correct information

c. Kegiatan Penutup Guru memberi tes formatif tentang SST, sistem saraf simpatik dan sistem saraf parasimpatik, gerak biasa dan gerak refleks, dan sistem endokrin manusia. Guru membimbing peserta didik membuat simpulan. Guru memimpin doa penutup dengan khidmat sebagai wujud pembangunan karakter bangsa religius. Guru mengucapkan salam penutup: Wassalamualaikum warohmatullahi wabarokaatuh.

Teacher give formative tests about the various neurons, structure and function of neurons, CNS and PNS, human brain and spinal cord. Teacher guide students to make a conclusion. Teacher lead the closing prayer reverently as a manifestation of religious national character building Teacher greeted the closing activities by say: Wassalamualaikum warohmatullahi wabarokaatuh.

PERTEMUAN KETIGA Meeting III a. Kegiatan Pendahuluan Introduction activities Guru memberi salam: Assalamualaikum Teacher greeting :Assalamualaikum

warohmatullahi wabarokaatuh Guru meminta ketua kelas untuk memimpin

doa dengan khidmat sebagai wujud pembangunan karakter bangsa religius. Guru melakukan presensi kehadiran siswa sebagai wujud pembangunan karakter bangsa disiplin. Motivasi dan Apersepsi: Bagaimana kita dapat melihat suatu benda? Prasyarat pengetahuan: Apakah fungsi dari sistem saraf tepi ? b. Kegiatan Inti Guru membimbing siswa membentuk 4 kelompok induk tanpa membedakan agama, status sosial, jenis kelamin sebagai sebuah wujud pembangunan karakter bangsa menghargai keberagaman. Guru memberi kesempatan kepada peserta didik untuk memilih ketua kelompok dan menentukan aturan-aturan dalam kelompok, sebagai wujud pembangunan karakter bangsa demokratis dan patuh kepada aturan yang berlaku. Guru membimbing siswa membentuk 4 kelompok ahli : 1. Mata, bertugas untuk mendeskripsikan

warohmatullahi wabarokaatuh. Teacher ask captain of class to lead pray with reverence as a manifestation of religious national character building Teacher take attendance student presence as a manifestation of dicipline national character building. Motivation and apperceptions : How can we see an object? Prerequisite knowledge : What is the function of PNS ?

Teacher guide students in forming 4 main groups regardless of religion, social status, sex as a manifestation of appreciating diversity national character building. Teacher give opportunities for students to choose their leader and determine the rules of the group, as a manifestation of democratic and obey the rules nation character building. Teacher guide students to form four expert groups : 1. Eyes, tasked to describe the
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RPP Sistem Koordinasi SMPN 1 Mejayan IX Agus Joko Sungkono

struktur, mekanisme, dan fungsi indera penglihat. 2. Telinga dan kulit, bertugas untuk mendeskripsikan struktur, mekanisme, dan fungsi indera pendengar dan peraba. 3. Hidung dan lidah, bertugas untuk mendeskripsikan struktur, mekanisme, dan fungsi indera pembau dan pengecap. 4. Kelainan dan penyakit pada sistem koordinasi, bertugas untuk mencari tahu tentang berbagai macam kelainan dan penyakit pada sistem koordinasi manusia.

Guru membagikan LKS kemudian

menginformasikan kegiatan yang akan dilakukan oleh masing-masing kelompok. Ketua kelompok menugaskan anggotanya untuk pergi berdiskusi di kelompok ahli, dan ada yang tinggal di kelompok induk untuk memimpin diskusi kelompok ahli tertentu, sebagai salah satu wujud membangun karakter bangsa menghargai keberagaman, kerja sama, demokratis, rasa ingin tahu, cinta ilmu, obyektif dan terbuka, cermat dan teliti. Setelah diskusi di kelompok ahli selesai, para utusan kelompok kembali ke kelompok induknya masing-masing. Di kelompok induk para utusan mempresentasikan hasil diskusi dari kelompok ahli. Anggota kelompok yang lain mencatat di buku catatan, sebagai salah satu wujud pembangunan karakter bangsa disiplin, bertanggungjawab, jujur, demokratis, terbuka, bekerjasama, menghargai orang lain, dan percaya diri. Guru memberikan penguatan hasil diskusi kelompok peserta didik dengan menjelaskan struktur, mekanisme, dan fungsi alat indera dan kelainan dan penyakit pada sistem koordinasi manusia dengan menggunakan slide powerpoint. Guru membuka sesi tanya jawab Guru menanggapi jawaban siswa dan memberikan informasi yang benar.

structure, mechanism, and function of the sight senses. 2. Ear and skin, tasked to describe the structure, mechanism, and function of the hearing and touch senses. 3. Nose and tongue, tasked to describe the structure, mechanism, and function of the smell and taste senses. 4. Abnormalities and diseases of the coordination system, tasked to find out about the various abnormalities and diseases in human coordination system Teacher share LKS (students task) then inform the activities to be undertaken by each group. Leader of the groups are assigned members of the group to go to discuss at expert groups, and anyone living in the main group to lead the discussion of certain expert groups, as a manifestation of national character building respect for diversity, cooperation, democracy, curiosity, love of science, objective and open minded, accurate and thoroughly After discussions at the expert group is finished, the delegates returned to their main groups. In the main group the delegates present results of the expert group discussion. Other group members recorded in notebook, as a manifestation of the character building of the discipline, responsibility, honesty, democratic, open minded, cooperative, respect for others, and confidently. Teacher gives strengthening the results of students group discussions by explaining the structure, mechanism, and function of the senses and abnormalities and deseases of the human coordination system by using a powerpoint slides. Teacher opened the question and answer session Teacher respond to student answers and provide the correct information

c. Kegiatan Penutup Guru memberi tes formatif tentang panca indera, kelainan dan penyakit pada sistem koordinasi manusia. Guru membimbing peserta didik membuat simpulan. Guru memimpin doa penutup dengan khidmat sebagai wujud pembangunan karakter bangsa religius. Guru mengucapkan salam penutup: Wassalamualaikum warohmatullahi wabarokaatuh.

Teacher give formative tests about the five senses, abnormalities and deseases of the human coordination system. Teacher guide students to make a conclusion. Teacher lead the closing prayer reverently as a manifestation of religious national character building Teacher greeted the closing activities by say: Wassalamualaikum warohmatullahi wabarokaatuh.
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RPP Sistem Koordinasi SMPN 1 Mejayan IX Agus Joko Sungkono

E. Sumber Belajar a. Buku IPA Biologi b. Buku referensi yang relevan c. Lingkungan d. Alat dan bahan praktikum

F. Penilaian Hasil Belajar a. Teknik Penilaian: Tes tertulis Penugasan b. Bentuk Instrumen: Tes PG Tugas rumah membuat Peta konsep

Mengetahui Kepala SMPN 1 MEJAYAN

Mejayan, 3 Juli 2012 Guru Mata Pelajaran IPA-BIOLOGI

Drs. HENDRO SUWONDO, M.Pd. NIP. 19690715 199802 1 003

AGUS JOKO SUNGKONO, S.Pd. NIP. 19660228 198903 1 005

RPP Sistem Koordinasi SMPN 1 Mejayan IX Agus Joko Sungkono

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WRITTEN TEST

COORDINATION SYSTEM

Indikator 1.3.1 Mendeskripsikan struktur dan fungsi jenis-jenis neuron pada manusia.

No 1.

Soal The cells that make up the nervous system are called . A. glial B. neurons C. myelins D. terminals Which of the following is not a part of a neuron? A. dendrite B. axon C. myelin D. pons Axons. A. receive messages B. send messages C. process information D. insulate neurons What is the function of the oligodendrocytes? A. create myelin layer B. clean up cellular debris C. supply blood and nutrients D. alert the body to an infection Gaps between the myelin sheath along an axon are called . A. dendrites B. chromatophilic substance C. astrocytes D. nodes of ranvier Which cell connects neurons to blood vessels? A. astrocyte B. oligodendrocyte C. glial D. myelin The chemical that moves from the axon of one neuron across a gap to the dendrite of another is a(n) . A. gray matter B. theshold stimulant C. sodium D. neurotransmitter What ions are necessary for a nerve impulse to occur? A. carbon & sodium B. oxygen & carbon C. potassium & sodium D. hydrogen & potassium White matter appears white due to . A. no blood supply B. myelin C. lack of nuclei D. electrical charges A threshold stimulus results in the creation of a(n) . A. wave B. node of ranvier C. neurotransmitter D. action potential

Skor 1

Kunci B

Describing structure and function types of neuron in human.

2.

3.

4.

5.

6.

7.

8.

9.

10.

1.3.2 Mendeskripsikan jenis-jenis neuron berdasarkan bentuknya.

11.

Describing types of neuron by shape

RPP Sistem Koordinasi SMPN 1 Mejayan IX Agus Joko Sungkono

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Indikator 1.3.3 Mendeskripsikan struktur dan fungsi otak beserta bagianbagiannya.

No 12.

Soal For problem numbers 11 and 12 notice the picture below !

Skor 1

Kunci B

Describing structure and function of brain and its parts.

13.

14.

15.

16.

17.

18.

19.

20.

Which letter on the image indicates the corpus collosum? A. A B. B C. C D. D Which letter on the image indicates the cerebellum? A. A B. B C. C D. D Which part of the brain is responsible for hearing and memory? A. occipital lobe B. cerebellum C. temporal lobe D. frontal lobe Which part of the brain is responsible for processing visual information? A. temporal lobe B. occipital lobe C. parietal lobe D. medulla A person with an injury to her frontal lobe may have difficulty . A. remembering past events B. reasoning and making decisions C. seeing D. sleeping Which part of the nervous system controls voluntary movement? A. autonomic B. sympathetic C. parasympathetic D. somatic The central nervous system consists of the . A. brain and peripheral nerves B. autonomic and somatic nervous system C. brain and spinal cord D. pons and frontal lobe Which of the following is NOT part of the limbic system . A. amygdala B. hippocampus C. hypothalamus D. cerebellum The part of the brain that controls higher mental activities, such as reasoning is the . A. cerebellum B. medulla oblongata C. temporal lobe D. frontal lobe

RPP Sistem Koordinasi SMPN 1 Mejayan IX Agus Joko Sungkono

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Indikator

No 21.

Soal What connects the two hemispheres of the brain? A. pia mater B. corpus callosum C. diencephalon D. pons The pons, midbrain, and medulla oblongata all make up the . A. white matter B. corpus callosum C. brain stem D. cerebrum The part of the brain that controls emotional experiences . A. limbic system B. medulla oblongata C. hypothalamus D. pia mater The web-like membrane between the outer and inner meninges is called the . A. dura mater B. gray matter C. arachnoid mater D. ventricle Fluid filled cavities within the brain are called . A. maters B. ventricles C. meninges D. cavities The lobe at the back of the head that controls vision and visual processing is the lobe. A. parietal B. temporal C. frontal D. occipital The part of the brain that controls coordination and balance is the . A. cerebellum B. pons C. hypothalamus D. temporal lobe Damage to the hippocampus may result in . A. loss of balance B. inability to regulate body temperatur C. loss of memory D. inability to speak or use language The skeletal muscles are controlled by the . A. brain stem B. autonomic nervous system C. somatic nervous system D. cerebellum Reflexes (such as the knee-jerk reflex) occur when impulses travel from the muscle to the and then back to the muscle. A. brain B. spinal cord C. dendrite D. axon Parathyroid hormone regulates the .

Skor 1

Kunci B

22.

23.

24.

25.

1.3.4 Membedakan sistem saraf pusat dan sistem saraf tepi.

26.

Differentiate central nervous system and peripheral nervous system

27.

28.

29.

1.3.3b Membedakan jalur impuls saraf normal dan jalur refleks.

30.

Differentiate common motion and reflex motion impuls

31.

A. calcium level of the blood.

32.

B. rate of metabolism. C. size of fat reserves. D. production of sex hormones. Which system carries hormones throughout the body?

A. circulatory system
B. nervous system RPP Sistem Koordinasi SMPN 1 Mejayan IX Agus Joko Sungkono Page 10

Indikator

No

Soal C. endocrine system D. digestive system The nervous system and the endocrine system interact in the . A. pituitary gland and adrenal cortex. B. adrenal cortex and thyroid gland. C. thyroid gland and hypothalamus.

Skor

Kunci

33.

D. hypothalamus and pituitary gland.


34.

The hormone that stimulates the liver, skeletal muscles, and fat cells to break down glycogen is . A. insulin. B. oxytocin.

C. glucagon.
35.

D. thyroxine. Preparation for and reaction to stress are regulated by the.

A. adrenal glands.

36.

B. thyroid gland. C. pituitary gland. D. pancreas. The thyroid gland is most important in regulating the .. A. glucose level in the blood.

B. rate of metabolism.
37.

C. activities of other glands. D. production of sex hormones. The levels of hormones in the body are regulated by . A. homeostasis.

B. feedback mechanisms.
38.

C. the nervous system. D. the excretory system. Testosterone affects cells that are found . A. only in the testes.

B. all over the body.


39.

40.

41.

C. only in the penis. D. only in the scrotum. The lack of which hormone results in dwarfism? A. Growth hormone B. Adrenaline C. Noradrenaline D. Insulin Islets of Langerhans secrete . A. Insulin B. Adrenaline C. Growth hormone D. Thyroxine The lack of which hormone does not affect growth Thyroxine, Insulin, Growth hormone or Sex hormone? A. Insulin B. Thyroxine C. Growth hormone D. Sex hormone

1.3.5 Mendeskripsikan macam-macam indera dan fungsinya.

42.

Describing various sense and it function


1.3.6 Mendeskripsikan anatomi alat indera pada manusia. 43. 1

Describing anatomy of various sense organ in human


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Indikator 1.3.7 Mendeskripsikan mekanisme kerja alat indera pada manusia.

No 44.

Soal

Skor 1

Kunci

Describing work mechanism of sense organS in human


1.3.8 Mengidentifikasi gangguan dan kelainan pada sistem saraf dan indera untuk menjaga kesehatan manusia. 45. 1

Identify interference and disorder in human nervous system and senses to keep human health.

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Lampiran : ISTILAH PENTING IMPULS yaitu rangsangan atau pesan . Disampaikan melalui senyawa kimia dalam tubuh yaitu asetilkolin. RESEPTOR yaitu struktur yang dapat menerima impuls.Dapat berupa sel, jaringan atau organ, alat gerak, otot. EFEKTOR yaitu struktur yang dapat menanggapi impuls. Dapat berupaa sel, jaringan atau organ, alat gerak, otot. Neruon atau sel saraf yaitu merupakan sel yang terpanjang yang dimilki oleh tubuh manusia dan bertugas untuk menerima dan menghantarkan impuls ke tempat yang dituju. Organel penyusun sel saraf/Neuron 1. Dendrit merupakan penjuluran pendek yang keluar dari badan sel. Berfungsi untuk menghantarkan impuls dari luar sel neuron ke dalam badan sel. 2. Badan sel merupakan bagian neuron yang banyak mengandung cairan sel (sitoplasma) dan terdapatnya nucleus (inti sel). Berfungsi sebagai penerima impuls dari dendrti dan menghantarkannya menuju axon dengan perantaraan sitoplasma.

3. Sitoplasma

merupakan cairan pengisi badan sel. Berfungsi untuk mempercepat penyampaian/ penghantaran impuls dalam sel. 4. Nucleus merupakan bagian terpenting dari sel.benetuknya akan menyesuaikan bentuk sel. Berfungsi untuk mengatur seluruh kegiatan sel dan pembelahan sel. 5. Axon/neurit merupakan poenjukluran yang panjang yang keluar dari badan sel. Berfungsi untuk menerima impuls dari badan sel dan menghantarkannya ke percabangan axon. 6. Percabangan axon merupakan bagian dari axon yang bercabang-cabang. Berfungsi menerima impuls dari axon. 7. Selubung neurolema/neurilema merupakan selaput tipis yang berda paling luar dari axon. Berfungsi untuk melindungi axon serta memberikan nutrisi pada axon serta regenrasi pada selubung mielin. 8. Selubung myelin merupakan selaput tipis yang berhubungan langsung dengan axon dan terletak setelah selubung neurilema. Berfungsi untuk melindungi axon dan memberikan nutrisi pada axon. 9. Sel Schwann merupakan sel-sel yangterdapat di dalam selubung myelin. Berfungsi untuk memperbaiki sel axon yang rusak/regenerasi. 10. Nodus Ranvier merupakan celah diantara axonyang tidak tertutup oleh selubung neurilema. Berfungsi untuk mempercepat penyampaian impuls ke neuron. Pembagian sel neuron a. Berdasarkan fungsinya 1. Saraf sensorik/aferen yaitu neuron yang berfungsi untuk menghantarkan impuls dari reseptor ke sistem saraf pusat (SSP).
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2. 3.

Saraf motorik/eferen yaitu neuron yang berfungsi untuk menghantarkan impuls dari SSP ke efektor. Saraf asosiasi/interneuron yaitu neuron yang menghubungkan saraf sensorik dengan sarf motorik di dalam SSP.

b. Berdasarkan strukturnya 1. Neuron unipolar yaitu neuron yang memiliki satu buah axon yang bercabang. 2. Neuron bipolar yaitu neuron yang memiliki satu axon dan satu dendrite. 3. Neuron multipolar yaitu neuron yang memiliki satu axon dan sejumlah dendrite.

Sinapsis Merupakan hubungan penyampaian impuls dari satu neuron ke neuron yang lain. biasanya terjadi dari ujung percabangan axon dengan ujung dendrite neuron yang lain. Celah antara satu neuron dengan neuron yang lain disebut dengan celah sinapsis. Di dalam celah sinapsis inilah terjadi loncatan-loncatan listrik yang bermuatan ion,baik ion positif dan ion negatif. Di dalam celah sinapsis ini juga terjadi pergantian antara impuls yang satu dengan yang lain, sehingga diperlukan enzim kolinetarase untuk menetralkan asetilkolin pembawa impuls yang ada. Dalam celah sinapsis juga terdapat penyampaian impuls dengan bantuan zat kimia berupa asetilkolin yang berperan sebagai pengirim (transmitter).

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Muatan listrik dalam neuron Muatan listrik yang terjadi dalam satu axon akan memiliki muatan listrik yang berbeda antara lapisan luar dan lapisan dalam axon. Polarisasi yaitu keadaan istirahat pada sel neuron yang memperlihatkan muatan listrik positif dibagian luar dan muatan listrik negative di bagian dalam. Depolarisasi yaitu keadaan bekerjanya sel neuron yang memperlihatkan muatan listrik positif di bagian dalam dan muatan listrik negative di bagian luar. Gerakan berdasarkan tanggapan impuls 1. Gerak biasa merupakan gerakan yang disadari dan impuls akan diolah oleh SSP (otak dan medulla spinalis) terbeih dahulu sebelum terjadi gerakan. Skema/bagan gerakan biasa Impuls reseptor neuron sensorik medulla spinalis otak spinalis interneuron neuron motorik Efektor gerakan

Medulla

2. Gerak refleks merupakan gerakan yang tanpa disadari karena menanggapi impuls secara
langsung. Sehingga sifat gerakan ini tidak diolah terlebih dahulu oleh otak. Jarak terpendek efektor dalam menanggapi impuls disebut dengan lengkung refleks. Skema/bagan gerak refleks Impuls reseptor neuron sensorik Neuron motorik efektor gerakan.

medulla spinalis

interneuron

3. Macam gerakan refleks tergantung dari tanggapan efektor terhadap impuls yang ada. Bila

tanggapan terhadap impuls melibatkan satu efektor saja, maka disebut dengan refleks tunggal. Jika tanggapan terhadap impuls melibatkan lebih dari 1 efektor maka disebut dengan refleks kompleks.

SSP (Sistem Saraf Pusat)


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1. Otak

Diselimuti oleh selaput otak yang disebut selaput meninges. Selaput meninges terdiri dari 3 lapisan : a. Lapisan durameter yaitu lapisan yang terdapat di paling luar dari otak dan bersifat tidak kenyal. Lapisan ini melekat langsung dengan tulang tengkorak. Berfungsi untuk melindungi jaringan-jaringan yang halus dari otak dan medula spinalis. b. Lapisan araknoid yaitu lapisan yang berada dibagian tengah dan terdiri dari lapisan yang berbentuk jaring laba-laba. Ruangan dalam lapisan ini disebut dengan ruang subaraknoid dan memiliki cairan yang disebut cairan serebrospinal. Lapisan ini berfungsi untuk melindungi otak dan medulla spinalis dari guncangan. c. Lapisan piameter yaitu lapisan yang terdapat paling dalam dari otak dan melekat langsung pada otak. Lapisan ini banyak memiliki pembuluh darah. Berfungsi untuk melindungi otak secara langsung.

Otak dibagi menjadi beberapa bagian : a. Cerebrum Merupakan bagian otak yang memenuhi sebagian besar dari otak kita yaitu 7/8 dari otak. Mempunyai 2 bagian belahan otak yaitu otak besar belahan kiri yang berfungsi mengatur kegaiatan organ tubuh bagian kanan. Kemudian otak besar belahan kanan yang berfungsi mengatur kegiatan organ tubuh bagian kiri.

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Bagian kortex cerebrum berwarna kelabu yang banyak mengandung badan sel saraf. Sedangkan bagian medulla berwarna putih yang bayak mengandung dendrit dan neurit. Bagian kortex dibagi menjadi 3 area yaitu area sensorik yang menerjemahkan impuls menjadi sensasi. Kedua adalah area motorik yang berfungsi mengendalikan koordinasi kegiatan otot rangka. Ketiga adalah area asosiasi yang berkaitan dengan ingatan, memori, kecedasan, nalar/logika, kemauan.

Mempunyai 4 macam lobus yaitu : Lobus frontal berfungsi sebagai pusat penciuman, indera peraba. Lobus temporal berungsi sebagai pusat pendengaran Lobus oksipetal berfungsi sebagai pusat pengliihatan. Lobus parietal berfungsi sebagai pusat ingatan, kecerdasan, memori, kemauan, nalar, sikap.

b. Mesencephalon Merupakan bagian otak yang terletak di depan cerebellum dan jembatan varol. Berfungsi sebagai pusat pengaturanan refleks mata, refleks penyempitan pupil mata
dan pendengaran.

c. Diencephalaon Merupakan bagia otak yang terletak dibagian atas dari batang otak dan di depan

mesencephalon. Terdiri dari talamus yang berfungsi untuk stasiun pemancar bagi impuls yang sampai di otak dan medulla spinalis. Bagian yang kedua adalah hipotalamus yang berfungsi sebagai pusat pengaturan suhu tubuh, selera makan dan keseimbangan cairan tubuh, rasalapar, sexualitas, watak, emosi.

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d. Cerebellum Merupakan bagian otak yang terletak di bagian belakang otak besar. Berfungsi sebagai
pusat pengaturan koordinasi gerakan yang disadari dan keseimbangan tubuh serta posisi tubuh. Terdapat 2 bagian belahan yaitu belahan cerebellum bagian kiri dan belahan cerebellum bagian kanan yang dihubungkan dengan jembatan varoli yang berfungsi untuk menghantarkan impuls dari otot-otot belahan kiri dan kanan.

2. Medula a. Medulla oblongata Disebut juga dengan

sumsum lanjutan atau penghubung atau batang otak. Terletak langsung setelah otak dan menghubungkana dengan medulla spinalis, di depan cerebellum. Susunan kortexmya terdiri dari neeurit dan dendrite dengan warna putih dan bagian medulla terdiri dari bdan sel saraf dengan warna kelabu. Berfungsi sebagai pusat pengaturan ritme respirasi, denyut jantung, penyempitan dan pelebaran pembuluh darah, tekanan darah, gerak alat pencernaan, menelan, batuk, bersin,sendawa.

b. Medulla spinalis Disebut denga sumsum tulang belakang dan terletak

di dalam ruas-ruas tulang belakang yaitu ruas tulang leher sampaia dengan tulang pinggang yang kedua. Berfungsi sebagai pusat gerak refleks dan menghantarkan impuls dari organ ke otak dan dari otak ke organ tubuh.

SST (Susunan Saraf Tepi/Perifer) Merupakan system saraf yang menghubungkan semua bagian tubuh dengan system saraf pusat. 1. Sistem saraf sadar/somatik Merupakan system saraf yang kerjanya berlangsung secara sadar/diperintah oleh otak. Bedakan menjadi dua yaitu : a. Sistem saraf pada otak Merupakan sistem saraf yang berpusat pada otak dan dibedakan menjadi 12 pasang saraf yaitu :
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No I II III

Nama saraf Olfaktori Optik Okulomotor

Jenis saraf Sensorik Sensorik Motorik

Menuju

Fungsi

IV V

Troklear Trigeminus a. Oftalmik

Motorik Motorik

b. Maksilar c. Mandibular

Pusat pembau Berkaitan dengan penciuman Retina mata Berkaitan dengan penglihatan Otot bola mata dan otot Menggerakan bola mata (kiri kelopak mata dan kanan) Untuk akomodasi dan kontraksi iris Oto bola mata Untuk memutar bola mata Kelopak mata atsa, bola Membawa impuls yang bermata, kelenjar lakrimal kaitan dengan sensai rasa, nyeri, raba dan suhu. Mukosa hidung, langit-langit rongga mulut, taring, gigi atas, pipi dan kelopak mata bawah. Lidah bagian atas (bukan pengecap), gigi bawah dan rahang bawah.
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VI VII

Abdusen Facial

Motorik Motorik

VIII IX X

Vestibulo koklear Glosofaring Vagus

Sensorik Motorik Motorik

XI XII

Asesori spinal Hipoglosus

Motorik Motorik

Otot penggerak bola-mata Pergerakan rektus lateral Lidah bagian pengecap Mempengaruhi pergerakan anterior otot-otot rahang, wajah, kepala serta ekskresi kelenjar ludah dan air mata. Koklea telinga, vestibula dan Berkaitana dengan kanal semisirkularis pendengaran dan keseimbangan. Lidah pengecap, tonsil langit- Mempengaruhi pergerakan langit mulut, kulit telinga otot faring dan lidah. Faring, laring, trakea, Mempengaruhi pergerakan bronkus, pulmo, lengkung menelan, stimulasi kelenjar aorta lambung, usus, hati dan pankreas. Otot sternokleidomastoid dan Mengkoordinasi gerakan bahu otot trapezius dan leher. Otot lidah Berkaitan dengan kegiatan menelan dan berbicara.

b. Sistem saraf sumsum spinalis Merupakan sistem saraf yang berpusat pada medula spinali (sumsum tulang belakang) yang berjumlah 31 pasang saraf yang terbagi sepanjang medula spinalis. 31 pasang saraf medula spinalis yaitu : Jumlah 8 pasang 12 pasang 5 pasang 5 pasang 1 pasang Medula spinalis daerah Servix Punggung Lumbal/pinggang Sakral/kelangkang koksigeal Menuju Kulit kepala, leher dan otot tangan Organ-organ dalam Paha Otot betis, kaki dan jari kaki Sekitar tulang ekor

2. Sistem saraf Otonom Merupakan sistem saraf yang cara kerjanya secara tidak sadar/diluar kehendak/tanpa perintah oleh otak. Sistem saraf yang mensarafi seluruh otot polos, otot jantung, kelenjar endokrin dan kelenjar eksokrin. Dibedakan menjadi 2 bagian yaitu saraf simpatik dan saraf parasimpatik yang keduanya bekerja secara antagonis/berlawanan.

a. Sistem saraf simpatik Merupakan 25 pasang simpul saraf (ganglion) yang terdapat di medulal spinalis. Disebut juga dengan sistem saraf thorakolumbar karena saraf ini keluar dari

vertebrae thorak ke-1 sampai ke-12 dan vertebrae kolumbar ke-1 sampai dengan ke-3.

Beberapa fungsi sistem saraf simpatik yaitu : Mempercepat denyut jantung Memperlebar pembuluh darah Menghambat pengeluaran air mata Memperluas/memperlebar pupil Menghambat sekresi air ludah Memperbesar bronkus Mengurangi aktivitas kerja usus Menghambat pembentukan urine

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b. Sistem saraf parasimpatik Merupakan sistemsaraf yang keluar dari daerah otak. Terdiri dari 4 saraf otak yaitu saraf nomor III (okulomotorik), nomor VII (Facial),
nomor IX (glosofaring), nomor X (vagus). Disebut juga dengan sistem saraf craniosakral karena saraf ini keluar dari daerah cranial dan juga dearah sakral. Beberapa fungsi sistem saraf parasimpatik yaitu : Memperlambat denyut jantung Mempersempit pembuluh darah Memperlancar pengeluaran air mata Memperkecil pupil Memperlancar sekresi air ludah Menyempitkan bronkus Menambah aktivitas kerja usus Merangsang pembentukan urine

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Endocrine System
Introduction A. The endocrine system is made up of the cells, tissues, and organs that secrete hormones into body fluids. B. The body has two kinds of glands; Exocrine (secretes products into ducts) endocrine (secrete products into body fluids to affect target cells). General Characteristics of the Endocrine System A. The endocrine systems function is to communicate with cells using chemicals called hormones. B. Endocrine glands and their hormones regulate a number of metabolic processes within cells, and the whole body. C. Their actions are precise, they only affect specific target cells. D. Endocrine glands include the 1. pituitary gland, 2. thyroid gland, 3. parathyroid glands, 4. adrenal glands, 5. pancreas, and other hormone-secreting glands and tissues.

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Hormone Action A. Hormones are can be divided into three groups on the basis of chemical structure: amino acid derivatives (Epinephrine, Norepinephrine, thyroid hormones, melatonin), peptide hormones ( ADH, Oxytocin, GH, Prolactin), and lipid derivatives (steroids). Alter cellular operations by changing the identies, activities, or quantities of import enzymes and structural proteins in various target cells. they can influence target cells even if they are present only in minute concentrations. B. Nonsteroid Hormones 1. Receptors in target cell membranes 2. The hormone-receptor complex (as first messenger) triggers a cascade biological activity. 3. The hormone-receptor complex generally activates a G protein, which then activates the enzyme adenylate cyclase that is bound to the inner cell membrane. 4. This enzyme removes two phosphates from ATP to produce cyclic AMP (the second messenger), which in turn activates protein enzymes that activate proteins. 5. These activated proteins induce changes in the cell. 6. Not all nonsteroid hormones use cAMP; others use diacylglycerol (DAG) or inositol triphosphate. C. Prostaglandins 1. Prostaglandins are locally-produced lipids that affect the organ in which they are produced. 2. Prostaglandins produce a variety of effects: some relax smooth muscle, others contract smooth muscle, some stimulate secretion of other hormones, and others influence blood pressure and inflammation. Control of Hormonal Secretions A. Hormone levels are very precisely regulated. B. Control Mechanisms 1. Release of hormones from the hypothalamus controls secretions of the anterior pituitary. 2. The nervous system influences certain endocrine glands directly. 3. Other glands respond directly to changes in the internal fluid composition. C. Negative Feedback Systems 1. Commonly, negative feedback mechanisms control hormonal releases. 2. In a negative feedback system, a gland is sensitive to the concentration of the substance it regulates or which regulates it. 3. When the concentration of the regulated substance reaches a certain level (high or low), it inhibits the gland from secreting more hormone until the concentration returns to normal. Pituitary Gland Master Gland A. The pituitary gland is attached to the base of the brain has an anterior lobe (anterior pituitary) & a posterior lobe (posterior pituitary).

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B. The brain controls the activity of the pituitary gland. 1. Releasing hormones from the hypothalamus control the secretions of the Anterior Pituitary. a. The releasing hormones are carried in the bloodstream directly to the Anterior Pituitary by hypophyseal portal veins. 2. The Posterior Pituitary releases hormones into the bloodstream in response to nerve impulses from the hypothalamus. C. Anterior Pituitary Hormones 1. The anterior pituitary consists mostly of epithelial tissue arranged around blood vessels and enclosed in a capsule of collagenous connective tissue. I. Growth hormone (GH) II. Prolactin (PRL) III. Thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) IV. Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) V. Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and VI. Luteinizing hormone (LH) 2. Growth hormone (GH) stimulates body cells to grow and reproduce; it also speeds the rate at which cells use carbohydrates and fats. a. Growth hormone-releasing hormone from the hypothalamus increases the amount of GH released, GH release-inhibiting hormone inhibits its release. b. Nutritional status affects the release of GH Acromegaly- excess GH causes an enlargement of hands and feet, facial features 3. Prolactin (PRL) promotes milk production following the birth of an infant. a. The effect of PRL in males is less-well understood, although it may cause a deficiency of male sex hormones. Prolactinoma- menstral changes, infertility, in men impotence, loss of sexual drive 4. Thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) controls the secretion of hormones from the thyroid gland. a. Thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) from the hypothalamus regulates the release of TSH. b. As blood concentrations of thyroid hormones increases, secretions of TRH and TSH decrease. Hypothyroidism (Hashimotos disease, Goiter) and Hyperthyroidism (Graves disease) 5. Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) controls the secretion of hormones from the adrenal cortex. a. It is regulated by corticotropin-releasing hormone from the hypothalamus, and stress can also increase its release. Adrenal gland diseases- glucocorticoids (blood sugar levels and metabolism of proteins and fats), Mineralocorticoids (bodys electrolyte level), and Androgens (sex hormones)
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6. Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH) are gonadotropins affecting the male and female sex organs. Infertility D. Posterior Pituitary Hormones 1. The posterior lobe consists of nerve fibers and neuroglial cells that support nerve fibers arising in the hypothalamus. 2. Neurons in the hypothalamus produce antidiuretic hormone and oxytocin, which are stored in the posterior pituitary. 3. Antidiuretic hormone (ADH) produces its effect by causing the kidneys to conserve water. a. The hypothalamus regulates the secretion of ADH based on the amount of water in body fluids. Diabetes Insipidus- insufficient ADH loss of water balance 4. Oxytocin plays a role in childbirth by contracting muscles in the uterine wall, and in milkletdown by forcing milk into ducts from the milk glands. a. Stretching of the uterus in the latter stages of pregnancy stimulates release of oxytocin. b. Suckling of an infant at the breast stimulates release of oxytocin after childbirth. Inducing Labor- synthetic oxytocin

Thyroid Gland A. The thyroid gland is located below the larynx and consists of two broad lobes connected by an isthmus. B. Structure of the Gland 1. The thyroid consists of secretory parts called follicles filled with hormone-storing colloid. C. Thyroid Hormones 1. The follicular cells produce two iodinecontaining hormones, thyroxine (T4) (tetraiodothyronine) and triiodothyronine (T3), that together regulate energy metabolism. a. These two hormones increase the rate at which cells release energy from
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carbohydrates, enhance protein synthesis, and stimulate the breakdown and mobilization of lipids. b. These hormones are essential for normal growth and development. c. The hypothalamus and pituitary gland control release of thyroid hormones. 2. Extrafollicular cells of the thyroid secrete calcitonin, which lowers blood levels of calcium and phosphate ions when they are too high. a. Calcitonin increases the rate at which calcium is stored in bones and excreted in the urine. b. Calcitonin secretion is regulated by negative feedback involving blood concentrations of calcium. Parathyroid Glands A. The four, tiny parathyroids are located on the posterior of the thyroid. B. Structure of the Glands 1. Parathyroid glands consist of tightly packed secretory cells covered by a thin capsule of connective tissue. C. Parathyroid Hormone 1. Parathyroid hormone (PTH) increases blood calcium ion concentration and decreases phosphate ion concentration. 2. PTH stimulates bone resorption by osteoclasts, which releases calcium into the blood. 3. PTH also influences the kidneys to conserve calcium and causes increased absorption of calcium in the intestines 4. A negative feedback mechanism involving blood calcium levels regulates release of PTH. D. Calcitonin and PTH exert opposite effects in regulating calcium ion levels in the blood. Adrenals Pancreas Pineal Gland Thymus Reproductive Digestive glands Stress and Health Adrenal Glands A. The adrenal glands sit atop the kidneys enclosed in a layer of fat. B. Structure of the Glands 1. The pyramid-shaped glands consist of an inner adrenal medulla and an outer adrenal cortex. 2. The adrenal medulla is made up of modified postganglionic neurons that are connected to the sympathetic nervous system. 3. The adrenal cortex makes up most of the adrenal glands and consists of epithelial cells in three layers an outer, middle, and an inner zone. C. Hormones of the Adrenal Medulla 1. The adrenal medulla secretes epinephrine and norepinephrine into the blood stream. 2. The effects of these hormones resemble those of the sympathetic division neurotransmitters of the same name, except that they last up to 10 times longer when they are secreted as hormones. 3. The are used in times of stress and for fight or flight. 4. Release of medullary hormones is regulated by nervous impulses from the central nervous system. D. Hormones of the Adrenal Cortex
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1. The cells of the adrenal cortex produce over 30 different steroids, some of which are vital to survival, the most important of which are aldosterone (mineralocorticoid), cortisol (Glucocorticoid), and the sex hormones (Androgens). 2. Aldosterone a. Aldosterone, a mineralocorticoid, causes the kidneys to conserve sodium ions and thus water, and to excrete potassium ions. b. Aldosterone is secreted in response to decreasing blood volume and blood pressure as a result of changes in the kidney. 3. Cortisol a. Cortisol, a glucocorticoid, influences the metabolism of glucose, protein, and fat in response to conditions that stress the body and require a greater supply of energy in the bloodstream. Cushings Syndrome- excess cortisol, longer healing time, face becomes puffy, fatigue, high blood pressure, hyperglycemic b. A negative feedback mechanism involving CRH from the hypothalamus and ACTH from the anterior pituitary controls the release of cortisol. c. Stress, injury, or disease can also trigger increased release of cortisol. 4. Adrenal Sex Hormones a. Sex hormones, produced in the inner zone, are mostly of the male type, but can be converted to female hormones in the skin, liver, and adipose tissues. b. These hormones supplement those released by the gonads and may stimulate early development of reproductive organs. Pancreas A. The pancreas secretes hormones as an endocrine gland, and digestive juices to the digestive tract as an exocrine gland. B. Structure of the Gland 1. The pancreas is an elongated organ posterior to the stomach. 2. Its endocrine portions are the islets of Langerhans that include two cell types-alpha cells that secrete glucagon, and beta cells that secrete insulin. C. Hormones of the Islets of Langerhans 1. Glucagon increases the blood levels of glucose by stimulating the breakdown of glycogen and the conversion of noncarbohydrates into glucose. a. The release of glucagon is controlled by a negative feedback system involving low blood glucose levels. 2. Insulin decreases the blood levels of glucose by stimulating the liver to form glycogen, increasing protein synthesis, and stimulating adipose cells to store fat. a. The release of insulin is controlled by a negative feedback system involving high blood glucose levels. 3. Insulin and glucagon coordinate to maintain a relatively stable blood glucose concentration. Other Endocrine Glands A. Pineal Gland 1. The pineal gland, near the upper portion of the thalamus, secretes melatonin, which is involved in the regulation of circadian rhythms of the body. B. Thymus Gland 1. The thymus gland, lying between the lungs under the sternum, secretes thymosins that affect production and differentiation of T lymphocytes that are important in immunity. C. Reproductive Glands 1. The ovaries produce estrogen and progesterone. 2. The placenta produces estrogen, progesterone, and a gonadotropin. 3. The testes produce testosterone. D. Digestive Glands 1. The digestive glands secrete hormones associated with the processes of digestion. E. Other Hormone Producing Organs
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1. The heart secretes atrial natriuretic peptide affecting sodium and the kidneys secrete erythropoietin for blood cell production. Stress and Health A. Factors that serve as stressors to the body produce stress and threaten homeostasis. B. Types of Stress 1. Stress may be physical, psychological, or some combination of the two 2. Physical stress threatens the survival of tissues, such as extreme cold, prolonged exercise, or infections. 3. Psychological stress results from real or perceived dangers, and includes feelings of anger, depression, fear, and grief; sometimes even pleasant stimuli cause stress. C. Response to Stress 1. Responses to stress are designed to maintain homeostasis. 2. The hypothalamus controls the general stress syndrome, which involves increased sympathetic activity and increased secretion of cortisol, glucagon, growth hormone, and antidiuretic hormone. Special Senses Smell and Taste Chemical Senses: Taste and Smell Both senses use chemoreceptors Stimulated by chemicals in solution Taste has four types of receptors Smell can differentiate a large range of chemicals Both senses complement each other and respond to many of the same stimuli OlfactionThe Sense of Smell Olfactory receptors are in the roof of the nasal cavity Neurons with long cilia Chemicals must be dissolved in mucus for detection Impulses are transmitted via the olfactory nerve Interpretation of smells is made in the cortex

The Sense of Taste Taste buds house the receptor organs Location of taste buds Most are on the tongue Soft palate Cheeks The tongue is covered with projections called papillae Filiform papillaesharp with no taste buds Fungifiorm papillaerounded with taste buds Circumvallate papillaelarge papillae with taste buds Taste buds are found on the sides of papillae Gustatory cells are the receptors
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Have gustatory hairs (long microvilli) Hairs are stimulated by chemicals dissolved in saliva Taste Buds Taste Sensations Sweet receptors (sugars) Saccharine Some amino acids Sour receptors Acids Bitter receptors Alkaloids Salty receptors Metal ions Umami Elicited by the amino acid glutamate and related compounds

The Eye and Vision 70% of all sensory receptors are in the eyes Each eye has over a million nerve fibers Protection for the eye Most of the eye is enclosed in a bony orbit A cushion of fat surrounds most of the eye Accessory Structures of the Eye Eyelids and eyelashes Conjunctiva Lacrimal apparatus Extrinsic eye muscles Accessory Structures of the Eye Eyelids and eyelashes Tarsal glands lubricate the eye Ciliary glands are located between the eyelashes Conjunctiva Membrane that lines the eyelids Connects to the surface of the eye Secretes mucus to lubricate the eye Lacrimal apparatus Lacrimal glandproduces lacrimal fluid Lacrimal canalsdrain lacrimal fluid from eyes Lacrimal sacprovides passage of lacrimal fluid towards nasal cavity Nasolacrimal ductempties lacrimal fluid into the nasal cavity Accessory Structures of the Eye Function of the lacrimal apparatus Protects, moistens, and lubricates the eye Empties into the nasal cavity Properties of lacrimal fluid Dilute salt solution (tears) Contains antibodies and lysozyme
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Extrinsic eye muscles Six muscles attach to the outer surface of the eye Produce eye movements

Structure of the Eye Layers forming the wall of the eyeball Fibrous layer Outside layer Vascular layer Middle layer Sensory layer Inside layer

Structure of the Eye: The Fibrous Layer Sclera White connective tissue layer Seen anteriorly as the white of the eye Cornea Transparent, central anterior portion Allows for light to pass through Repairs itself easily The only human tissue that can be transplanted without fear of rejection

Structure of the Eye: Vascular Layer Choroid is a bloodrich nutritive layer in the posterior of the eye Pigment prevents light from scattering Modified anteriorly into two structures Ciliary bodysmooth muscle attached to lens Irisregulates amount of light entering eye Pigmented layer that gives eye color Pupilrounded opening in the iris

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Structure of the Eye: Sensory Layer Retina Fovea centralis highest concentration of photoreceptors Optic disc (blind spot) is where the optic nerve leaves the eyeball Cannot see images focused on the optic disc

Structure of the Eye: Sensory Layer Retina contains two layers Outer pigmented layer Inner neural layer Contains receptor cells (photoreceptors) Signals pass from photoreceptors via a twoneuron chain Signals leave the retina toward the brain through the optic nerve

Structure of the Eye: Sensory Layer Discs contain rhodopsin A purple pigment consisting of the protein opsin covalently bound to a yellow photosensitive pigment called retinal (derived from Vit. A)
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Exposure to light activates rhodopsin Rhodopsin is split by light into retinal and opsin, eventually resulting in an action potential Light adaptation is caused by a reduction of rhodopsin Dark adaptation is caused by rhodopsin production

Lens Biconvex crystallike structure Held in place by a suspensory ligament attached to the ciliary body Cataracts result when the lens becomes hard and opaque with age Vision becomes hazy and distorted Eventually causes blindness in affected eye Lens Aqueous and Vitreous Humor Aqueous humor Watery fluid found between lens and cornea Similar to blood plasma Helps maintain intraocular pressure Provides nutrients for the lens and cornea Reabsorbed into venous blood through the scleral venous sinus, or canal of Schlemm Vitreous humor Gellike substance posterior to the lens Prevents the eye from collapsing Helps maintain intraocular pressure Pathway of Light Through the Eye Light must be focused to a point on the retina for optimal vision The eye is set for distance vision (over 20 feet away)
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Accommodationthe lens must change shape to focus on closer objects (less than 20 feet away)

Sensory Layer Rods Most are found towards the edges of the retina Allow dim light vision and peripheral vision All perception is in gray tones Cones Allow for detailed color vision Densest in the center of the retina Fovea centralisarea of the retina with only cones Cone sensitivity Three types of cones Different cones are sensitive to different wavelengths Color blindness is the result of the lack of one cone type Pathway of Light Through the Eye Image formed on the retina is a real image Real images are Reversed from left to right Upside down Smaller than the object

A Closer Look Emmetropiaeye focuses images correctly on the retina Myopia (nearsighted) Distant objects appear blurry Light from those objects fails to reach the retina and are focused in front of it Results from an eyeball that is too long Hyperopia (farsighted) Near objects are blurry while distant objects are clear Distant objects are focused behind the retina Results from an eyeball that is too short or from a lazy lens Astigmatism Images are blurry Results from light focusing as lines, not points, on the retina due to unequal curvatures of the cornea or lens Visual Disorders Homeostatic Imbalances of the Eyes Night blindnessinhibited rod function that hinders the ability to see at night Color blindnessgenetic conditions that result in the inability to see certain colors
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Due to the lack of one type of cone (partial color blindness) Cataractswhen lens becomes hard and opaque, our vision becomes hazy and distorted Glaucomacan cause blindness due to increasing pressure within the eye

Hearing and Balance The Ear Houses two senses Hearing Equilibrium (balance) Receptors are mechanoreceptors Different organs house receptors for each sense Anatomy of the Ear The ear is divided into three areas External (outer) ear Middle ear (tympanic cavity) Inner ear (bony labyrinth) The External Ear Involved in hearing only Structures of the external ear Auricle External acoustic meatus (auditory canal) Narrow chamber in the temporal bone Lined with skin and ceruminous (wax) glands Ends at the tympanic membrane The Middle Ear (Tympanic Cavity) Airfilled cavity within the temporal bone Oval window and round window connect to the inner ear Three bones (ossicles) span the cavity Malleus (hammer) Incus (anvil) Stapes (stirrip) Two tubes are associated with the inner ear Mastoid air cells
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The auditory tube connecting the middle ear with the throat Allows for equalizing pressure during yawning or swallowing This tube is otherwise collapsed Inner Ear or Bony Labyrinth Includes sense organs for hearing and balance Filled with perilymph A maze of bony chambers within the temporal bone Cochlea Vestibule Semicircular canals Anatomy of the Ear Organs of Equilibrium Equilibrium receptors of the inner ear are called the vestibular apparatus Vestibular apparatus has two functional parts Static equilibrium Dynamic equilibrium Static Equilibrium Maculaereceptors in the vestibule Report on the position of the head Hair cells are embedded in the otolithic membrane Otoliths (tiny stones) float in a gel around the hair cells Movements cause otoliths to bend the hair cells

Dynamic Equilibrium Crista ampullarisreceptors in the semicircular canals Tuft of hair cells Cupula (gelatinous cap) covers the hair cells Action of angular head movements The cupula stimulates the hair cells An impulse is sent via the vestibular nerve to the cerebellum Action of angular head movements The cupula stimulates the hair cells An impulse is sent via the vestibular nerve to the cerebellum

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Organs of Hearing Organ of Corti Located within the cochlea Receptors = hair cells on the basilar membrane Gellike tectorial membrane is capable of bending hair cells Cochlear nerve attached to hair cells transmits nerve impulses to auditory cortex on temporal lobe Mechanism of Hearing Vibrations from sound waves move tectorial membrane Hair cells are bent by the membrane An action potential starts in the cochlear nerve Continued stimulation can lead to adaptation

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