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Cebu Institute of Technology

University
Chemical Engineering Department

COMPUTER APPLICATION IN CHEMICAL ENGINEERING


(ChE 521)

PROJECT 3

Submitted By:
Hisoler, Archie V.
BSChE - 5

Submitted To:
Engr. Raul Raymond A. Kapuno, Jr.
Instructor

I. Problem Statement
A colloidal solution with a negligible boiling point rise is to be concentrated from 19% to 61%
solids in a triple-effect forward feed evaporator. The initial pressure of steam is 32 psia and the third
effect is 1.1 psia. The feed enters at a temperature of 80F. The specific heat of the solution at all
concentrations is the same as that of water. The overall coefficients are U1= 650, U2=420, U3=129
BTU/ft2-hr-F. The Product exits at a rate of 52000 lb/hr. The area of each effect has to be the same.
Calculate the area of the heating surface (A), the steam consumption (mvo), and the steam economy.
II. Diagram

mv2

mv1

mp, xf

mv3

mv0

mp1

mp2

mp3

III. Given
Number of evaporator:
Feed Concentration:
Product Concentration:
Feed Temperature
Amount of Product:

n=3
Xf = 0.19
Xp = 0.61
T = 80
mp3 = 52000

Steam Pressure:
Pressure in evaporator no. 3:
OHT Coefficient 1
OHT Coefficient 2
OHT Coefficient 3

Ps = 32
P3 = 1.1
U1 = 650
U2 = 420
U3 = 129

IV. Solution
mf = mp ( Xp ) = 52000 (0.61) = 166947.37
Xf
0.19
mvo = mf mp = 166947.37 52000 = 114947.37
saturation temperature
at P = 32 psia
o
Tvo = 254.17 F

at P = 1.1 psia
o
Tv31 = 104.89 F

Ttotal = 149.29 F
149.29/650

T1 =

= 19.68

T1 = 254.17 19.68 = 234.49 oF

= 30.46

T2 = 234.49 30.46 = 204.03 oF

= 99.16

T3 = 204.03 99.16 = 104.87 oF

1/650 + 1/420 + 1/129


149.29/420

T2 =

1/650 + 1/420 + 1/129


149.29/129

T3 =

1/650 + 1/420 + 1/129

Enthalpies in (Btu/lb):
at 80 oF
at 254.17 oF
at 234.49 oF
at 204.03 oF
at 104.87 oF

Hvo hvo
0
0

hf = 48.06
hvo = 222.86

Hvo = 1165.55

hv1 = 202.91

Hv1 = 1158.66

hv2 = 172.18

Hv2 = 1147.34

hv3 = 72.90

Hv3 = 1106.83

hv1 Hv1
0
Hv1 + hv2 - 2hv1 hv2 Hv2
Hv3 hv2
Hv3 + Hv2 2hv2

942.69

-955.75

925.02

-975.16

934.65

1909.81

mvo
mv1
=
mv2

mvo
mv1
mv2

mass flow rate of steam and vapor

mvo = 61470.88
mv1 = 33582.19
mv2 = 37116.47
mv3 = 114947.37 33582.19 37116.47 = 44248.71

mf ( hv1 hf )
mf ( hv2 hv1)
mf [ Hv3 hv2 + (Xf/Xp)( hv3 Hv3 ) ]
25851800.24

-5130292.68
102272998.9

rate of heat transfer and surface area


q1 = mvo ( Hvo hvo ) = 61470.88 ( 1165.55 222.86 ) = 57947983.87
A1 = q1 / [ U1 ( T1 ) ] = 57947983.87 / [ 650 ( 19.68 ) ] = 4530.02
q2 = mv1 ( Hv1 hv1 ) = 33582.19 ( 1158.66 202.91 ) = 32096178.09
A2 = q2 / [ U2 ( T2 ) ] = 32096178.09 / [ 420 ( 30.46 ) ] = 2508.85
q3 = mv2 ( Hv2 hv2 ) = 37116.47 ( 1147.34 172.18 ) = 36194496.89
A3 = q3 / [ U3 ( T3 ) ] = 36194496.89 / [ 129 ( 99.16 ) ] = 2829.54
A1A2A3
Aaverage = (4530.02 + 2508.85 + 2829.54)/3 = 3289.47
T1 = 19.68 ( 4530.02/3289.47) = 27.10
T2 = 30.46 ( 2508.85/3289.47) = 23.23
T3 = 99.16 ( 2829.54/3289.47) = 85.30
T = 27.10 + 23.23 + 85.30 = 135.63
T TTotal
T1 = 27.10 ( 149.29/135.63 ) = 29.83
T2 = 23.23 ( 149.29/135.63 ) = 25.57
T3 = 85.30 ( 149.29/135.63 ) = 93.89
T1 = 254.17 29.83 = 224.34
T2 = 224.34 25.57 = 198.77
T3 = 198.77 93.89 = 104.88

V. Program Listing
#include <stdio.h>
#include <conio.h>
#include <stdlib.h>
#include "steam.h"
int main()
{
int k, w, j, i;
double xmatrx[20][20],constant[20], d , vapor[20], e1, area[20];
double hv[20], hl[20],hd[20],f,aream,tarea,heat,stmecon, temp_t;
double tv[20], tl[20],p,vt,totv,ut,dta,dtn,dtr,dt[20],u[20],conc[20],ps,pk,ts;

char flag;
hl[0]=0;
dt[0]=0;
hd[0]=0;
printf("Solving Problems on Multiple Effect Evaporators - Assuming no BPE\n");
printf("\nEnter number of evaporators: ");
scanf("%d", &k);
printf("Enter feed concentration in fraction: ");
scanf("%lf",&conc[0]);
printf("Enter feed temperature in deg F: ");
scanf("%lf", &tl[0]);
printf("Enter product concentration in fraction: ");
scanf("%lf", &conc[k]);
printf("Enter amount of product in lb/hr: ");
scanf("%lf",&p);
printf("Enter steam pressure in psia: ");
scanf("%lf", &ps);
printf("Enter pressure (psia) at evaporator no. %d : ",k);
scanf("%lf", &pk);
for(j=1;j<=k;j++)
{
printf("Enter OHT Coefficient for evaporator no. %d : ",j);
scanf("%lf", &u[j]);
}
tv[0]=sat_p2t(ps*6894.757);
tv[0]=((tv[0]-273.15)*1.8)+32;
tv[k]=sat_p2t(pk*6894.757);
tv[k]=((tv[k]-273.15)*1.8)+32;
ts=tv[0];
f=p*conc[k]/conc[0];
vt=(f-p)/k;
for(j=1;j<k;j++)(conc[j]=f*conc[0]/(f-(vt*j)));
ut=0;
for(j=1;j<=k;j++)(ut=ut+(1/u[j]));
dta=tv[0]-tv[k];
dtn=0;
for(j=1;j<k;j++)
{
dt[j]=dta*((1/u[j])/ut);
dtn=dtn+dt[j];
}
dt[k]=dta-dtn;

tl[k]=tv[k];
dtr=tl[k]-tv[k];
for(j=1;j<k;j++)
{
tv[j]=tv[j-1]+dt[j];
tl[j]=tv[j];
dtr=dtr+(tl[j]-tv[j]);
}
dta=tv[0]-tv[k]-dtr;
dtn=0;
for(j=1;j<k;j++)
{
dt[j]=dta*((1/u[j])/ut);
dtn=dtn+dt[j];
}
dt[k]=dta-dtn;
flag='n';
do
{
for(j=k;j>0;j--)
{
tl[j]=tv[j];
tv[j-1]=tl[j]+dt[j];
}
tv[0]=ts;
system("cls");
for(j=0;j<=k;j++)
{
printf("temperature of vapor[%d] in deg F = %lf \r\n",j,tv[j]);
printf("temperature of liquid[%d] in deg F = %lf \r\n",j,tl[j]);
}
printf("feed in lb/hr = %lf \r\n",f);
for(j=0;j<=k;j++)
{
temp_t=((tv[j]-32)/1.8)+273.15;
hv[j]=enthalpy_v(temp_t);
hv[j]=hv[j]/(1055.056*2.2046226);
temp_t=((tl[j]-32)/1.8)+273.15;
hl[j]=enthalpy_l(temp_t);
hl[j]=hl[j]/(1055.056*2.2046226);
}
for(j=0;j<k;j++)

{
temp_t=((tv[j]-32)/1.8)+273.15;
hd[j+1]=enthalpy_l(temp_t);
hd[j+1]=hd[j+1]/(1055.056*2.2046226);
}
for(j=0;j<k;j++)(vapor[j]=0);
for(j=0;j<=k;j++)
{
for(w=0;w<=k;w++)(xmatrx[j][w]=0);
}
constant[0]=f*(hl[0]-hl[1]);
for(j=1;j<k;j++)(constant[j]=f*(hl[j]-hl[j+1]));
constant[k-1]=f*(hl[k-1]-hv[k]+(conc[0]*(hv[k]-hl[k])/conc[k]));
xmatrx[k-1][0]=0;
for(j=1;j<(k-1);j++)
{
xmatrx[k-1][j]=hl[k-1]-hv[k];
}
xmatrx[k-1][k-1]=hd[k]+hl[k-1]-hv[k-1]-hv[k];
xmatrx[0][0]=hd[1]-hv[0];
for(j=0;j<(k-1);j++)(xmatrx[j][j+1]=hv[j+1]-hl[j+1]);
for(j=1;j<(k-1);j++)(xmatrx[j][j]=hd[j+1]+hl[j]-hv[j]-hl[j+1]);
for(j=2;j<(k-1);j++)
{
for(w=1;w<(k-2);w++)(xmatrx[j][w]=hl[j]+hl[j+1]);
}
for(w=0;w<k;w++)
{
d=-1/xmatrx[w][w];
for(j=0;j<k;j++)
{
if (j==w)(j++);;
xmatrx[w][j]=xmatrx[w][j]*d;
}
d=-d;
for(i=0;i<k;i++)
{
if(i==w)(i++);
e1=xmatrx[i][w];
for(j=0;j<k;j++)
{
if(j==w)(xmatrx[i][w]=xmatrx[i][w]*d);

else(xmatrx[i][j]=xmatrx[i][j]+xmatrx[w][j]*e1);
}
}
xmatrx[w][w]=d;
}
for(i=0;i<k;i++)
{
for(j=0;j<k;j++)
vapor[i]=vapor[i]+constant[j]*xmatrx[i][j];
}
totv=0;
for(j=1;j<k;j++)(totv=totv+vapor[j]);
vapor[k]=f-p-totv;
for(i=0;i<=k;i++)(printf("vapor[%d]= %lf\r\n",i,vapor[i]));
for(i=0;i<k;i++)
{
heat=vapor[i]*(hv[i]-hd[i+1]);
printf("Rate of heat transfer at Evaporator %d is %lf BTU/hr\r\n",i+1,heat);
}
stmecon=(totv+vapor[k])/vapor[0];
printf("Steam economy = %lf\r\n",stmecon);
for(j=1;j<=k;j++)
{
area[j]=(vapor[j-1]*(hv[j-1]-hd[j]))/(u[j]*(tv[j-1]-tl[j]));
printf("Area for evaporator no. %d = %lf\r\n",j,area[j]);
}
if(k==1)
{
(flag='y');
getch();
}
else
{
printf("Are the aress OK ? (y/n)\n");
flag=getch();
if(flag=='n')
{
tarea=0;
for(j=1;j<=k;j++)(tarea=tarea+(dt[j]*area[j]));
aream=tarea/dta;
for(j=1;j<=k;j++)(dt[j]=dt[j]*area[j]/aream);
}

}
}while(flag=='n');
return 0;
}
VI. Snapshot