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ANOVA(Analysis of Variance) Cheat Sheet

Null Hypothesis, Ho : 1 2 3 ... k AlternateHypothesis, Ha : At least one k is different

ANOVA looks at three sources of variability 1) Total variability among observations 2) Variability between group means (factor) 3) Random variation within each group (error) TOTAL = Between + Within Between ANOVA Table Source Between or Factor Within or Error Total SS SS(Factor) SS(Error) SS(Total) Df k-1 k(n-1) N-1


( y
j 1 i 1


y j )2

SS within

k (n 1)

Degrees of Freedom within

MS(Factor) MS(Error)

MS SS(Factor) (k-1) SS(Error) k(n-1)

F MS(Factor) MS(Error)

p Area under F curve from calculated F to


n( y
j 1

y )2

SS between

(k 1)

Degrees of Freedom between

ANOVA Assumptions 1) Equal variance at all treatments 2) Process distribution is normal 3) Runs are independent (replicates)
Note: Figure below assumes alpha level of .05 (5%) for illustration. Your selected alpha should fit your problem

n = number of observations at each level(sample size per treatment) k = number of levels N = Total number of observations In ANOVA, the degrees of freedom(Df) are as follows: Dftotal = N-1 = # of observations - 1 Dffactor = k-1 = # of levels - 1 Dferror = Dftotal - Dfeverything else
Minitab ANOVA Options (Stat/DOE/Factorial/Analyze Factorial Design very similar to Balanced ANOVA) One-Way ANOVA Two-Way ANOVA Balanced ANOVA
Studies the effect of one factor at various levels on a response variable Studies the effect of two factors and their interaction at various levels on a response variable Studies the impact of 2 or more factors and there interactions at various levels on a response variable. The levels of factors are structured such that there are an equal number of levels and observations within each level for each factor. Studies the impact of 2 or more factors and interactions at various levels one a response variable. Number of levels and observations may vary. Factors may be a mixture nested and crossed relationship. User must specify factors, interactions and nested/crossed relationships of interest. Studies the impact of 2 or more factors. Factors are structured in a hierarchical structure such that one factor is nested (or unique to) the factor above it. No interactions are obtained.

Fcalculated > Fcritical means there is less than a 5% chance that the larger between treatment variation occurred by chance alone, thus reject the null hypothesis, Ho. Else, if Fcalculated < Fcritical, you cannot reject the null hypothesis based on the data.

@ 5% Curve changes as a function of the numerator and denominator DOF


5% of the total area is from Fcritical to

The calculated p value represents the area under the curve from Fcalculated to

General Linear Model Fully Nested ANOVA

Represents the amount of risk youre willing to take of being wrong when you say that youve found this factor to have a statistically significant effect

Use for COV