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# ANOVA(Analysis of Variance) Cheat Sheet

## Null Hypothesis, Ho : 1 2 3 ... k AlternateHypothesis, Ha : At least one k is different

ANOVA looks at three sources of variability 1) Total variability among observations 2) Variability between group means (factor) 3) Random variation within each group (error) TOTAL = Between + Within Between ANOVA Table Source Between or Factor Within or Error Total SS SS(Factor) SS(Error) SS(Total) Df k-1 k(n-1) N-1
Within

MSwithin

( y
j 1 i 1

ij

y j )2

SS within

k (n 1)

## Degrees of Freedom within

MS(Factor) MS(Error)

## MS SS(Factor) (k-1) SS(Error) k(n-1)

F MS(Factor) MS(Error)

MSbetween

n( y
j 1

y )2

SS between

(k 1)

## Degrees of Freedom between

ANOVA Assumptions 1) Equal variance at all treatments 2) Process distribution is normal 3) Runs are independent (replicates)
Note: Figure below assumes alpha level of .05 (5%) for illustration. Your selected alpha should fit your problem

n = number of observations at each level(sample size per treatment) k = number of levels N = Total number of observations In ANOVA, the degrees of freedom(Df) are as follows: Dftotal = N-1 = # of observations - 1 Dffactor = k-1 = # of levels - 1 Dferror = Dftotal - Dfeverything else
Minitab ANOVA Options (Stat/DOE/Factorial/Analyze Factorial Design very similar to Balanced ANOVA) One-Way ANOVA Two-Way ANOVA Balanced ANOVA
Studies the effect of one factor at various levels on a response variable Studies the effect of two factors and their interaction at various levels on a response variable Studies the impact of 2 or more factors and there interactions at various levels on a response variable. The levels of factors are structured such that there are an equal number of levels and observations within each level for each factor. Studies the impact of 2 or more factors and interactions at various levels one a response variable. Number of levels and observations may vary. Factors may be a mixture nested and crossed relationship. User must specify factors, interactions and nested/crossed relationships of interest. Studies the impact of 2 or more factors. Factors are structured in a hierarchical structure such that one factor is nested (or unique to) the factor above it. No interactions are obtained.

Fcalculated > Fcritical means there is less than a 5% chance that the larger between treatment variation occurred by chance alone, thus reject the null hypothesis, Ho. Else, if Fcalculated < Fcritical, you cannot reject the null hypothesis based on the data.

Fcritical
@ 5% Curve changes as a function of the numerator and denominator DOF

Fcalculated

## 5% of the total area is from Fcritical to

The calculated p value represents the area under the curve from Fcalculated to

## General Linear Model Fully Nested ANOVA

Represents the amount of risk youre willing to take of being wrong when you say that youve found this factor to have a statistically significant effect

11-5-02