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Halaman

DAFTAR ISI
JUDUL
KATA PENGANTAR
BAB 1. PENDAHULUAN........................................................................................1
1.1 Definisi definisi............................................................................................1
1.2 Sejarah Perkembangan Sedimentologi..........................................................3
1.3 Nilai Ekonomis Dari sedimen.......................................................................13
BAB 2. KHULUK DAN ASAL-USUL BATUAN SEDIMEN.........................................14
2.1 Tinjauan Umum............................................................................................14
2.2 Kemas...........................................................................................................17
2.3 Komposisi Sedimen......................................................................................19
2.4 Klasifikasi......................................................................................................21
2.5 Volume Dan Massa Total Sedimen ..............................................................24
2.6 Kelimpahan Relatif Sedimen Yang Biasa Ditemukan....................................27
BAB 3. TEKSTUR SEDIMEN.................................................................................28
3.1 Besar Butir Partikel Batuan Detritus............................................................30
3.1.1 Konsep Besar Butir..............................................................................31
3.1.2 Istilah istilah Besar Butir...................................................................33
3.1.3 Penggolongan Agregat Sedimen.........................................................37
3.1.4 Distribusi Besar Butir...........................................................................41
3.1.4.1 Skala Besar Butir....................................................................41
3.1.4.2 Tampilan Distribusi Frekuensi Besar Butir.............................44
3.1.4.3 Karakter Distribusi Frekuensi Besar Butir..............................45
3.1.4.4 Khuluk Matematis dari Distribusi Frekuensi Besar Butir.......48
3.1.5 Distribusi Besar Butir dan Penyebabnya.............................................50
3.1.5.1 Besar Butir dan Provenance...................................................50
3.1.5.2 Besar Butir dan Pengangkutan...............................................56
3.1.5.3 Besar Butir dan Proses-proses Pengendapan........................63
3.1.6 Distribusi Besar Butir dan Analisis Lingkungan..................................66
3.2 Bentuk dan Kebundaran..............................................................................70
3.2.1 Bentuk.................................................................................................71
3.2.2 Kebundaran.........................................................................................76
3.3 Tekstur Permukaan......................................................................................84
3.3.1 Polish Vs Frost.....................................................................................85
3.3.2 Mikro Relief.........................................................................................88

3.4 Kemas dan Geometri Rangka.......................................................................91


3.4.1 Kemas..................................................................................................91
3.4.2 Definisi dan Konsep.............................................................................92
3.4.3 Unsur dan Analisis Kemas...................................................................94
3.4.4 Konsep Simetri dan Tipe-tipe Kemas..................................................97
3.4.5 Kemas Sedimen..................................................................................99
3.4.5.1 Kemas Gravel.........................................................................99
3.4.5.2 Kemas Till.............................................................................100
3.4.5.3 Kemas Pasir..........................................................................101
3.4.5.4 Kemas Lempung dan Serpih.................................................102
3.4.5.5 Kemas Batugamping dan Dolomit........................................103
3.4.5.6 Orentasi Fosil.......................................................................104
3.4.6 Evaluasi Kemas Sedimen...................................................................105
3.4.7 Geometri Rangka Dari Sedimen Detritus..........................................106
3.4.7.1 Pembandelaan.....................................................................106
3.4.7.2 Porositas..............................................................................111
3.4.7.3 Permeabilitas.......................................................................115
3.5 Tekstur Kristalin dan Tekstur Endogenetik Lain........................................118
3.5.1 Tekstur Kristalin................................................................................118
3.5.1.1 Unsur-unsur Kristal..............................................................120
3.5.1.2 Kemas Sedimen....................................................................121
3.5.1.3 Kemas Rekristalisasi.............................................................122
3.5.1.4 Replacement Texture dan Paragenesis................................124
3.5.1.5 Kemas Urat...........................................................................126
3.5.2 Oolit, Sfelurit, dan Peloid..................................................................127
3.5.2.1 Oolit dan Pisolit....................................................................127
3.5.2.2 Sfelurit..................................................................................133
3.6 Kemas Biogenik..........................................................................................134
3.6.1 Komposisi dan Modus Preservasi.....................................................135
3.6.2 Petrologi Fosil...................................................................................137
BAB 4 SUSUNAN INTERNAL DAN STRUKTUR SEDIMEN...................................138
4.1 Tinjauan Umum dan Klasifikasi..................................................................138
4.2 Perlapisan..................................................................................................141
4.3 Susunan Internal dan Struktur Lapisan......................................................145
4.3.1 Perlapisan Masif...............................................................................145
4.3.2 Laminasi............................................................................................145
4.3.3 Susunan dan Struktur Internal..........................................................147
4.3.4 Lapisan Silang-Siur dan Gelembur....................................................147
4.3.4.1 Gelembur.............................................................................153

4.3.4.2 Ripple Bedding....................................................................156


4.3.4.3 Graded Bedding..................................................................159
4.3.4.4 Growth Bedding..................................................................166
4.4 Struktur Bidang Perlapisan........................................................................167
4.4.1 Struktur Bidang Perlapisan Bawah...................................................167
4.4.1.1 Struktur Kerukan dan Tool Marks.......................................168
4.4.1.2 Cast dari Lekang Kerut........................................................172
4.4.1.3 Struktur Beban....................................................................173
4.4.2 Struktur Bidang Perlapisan Atas.......................................................174
4.4.2.1 Parting Lineation.................................................................175
4.4.2.2 Rill Mark, Swash Mark, dan Struktur Lainnya.....................176
4.4.2.3 RailPit, Hail Pit, dan Spray Pit..............................................176
4.4.2.4 Lekang Kerut.......................................................................176
4.5 Perlapisan Deformasi dan Perlapisan Terganggu......................................179
4.5.1 Struktur Beban dan Struktur Bantal-Guling......................................180
4.5.2 Synsedimentary Fold dan Synsedimentary Breccia..........................181
4.5.3 Korok dan Retas Batupasir...............................................................185
4.5.4 Perlapisan Konvolut.........................................................................185
4.6 Strombolit dan Struktur Biogenik Lainnya................................................186
4.6.1 Stromatolit.......................................................................................186
4.6.2 Struktur Biogenik Lain......................................................................191
4.6.2.1 Tinjauan Umum...................................................................191
4.6.2.2 Penggolongan......................................................................192
4.6.2.3 Kebenaan Geologi...............................................................195
4.7 Struktur Diagenetik...................................................................................196
BAB 5 GEOMETRI ENDAPAN SEDIMEN...........................................................197
5.1 Tinjauan Umum........................................................................................197
5.2 Geometri Batupasir..................................................................................198
5.2.1 Pasir Tali Sepatu..............................................................................200
5.2.2 Tubuh Pasir Yang Kompleks............................................................201
5.2.3 Tubuh Pasir Membaji (Tubuh Pasir Berbentuk Kipas).....................202
5.2.4 Tubuh Pasir Berbentuk Lembaran...................................................202
5.2.5 Orentasi Tubuh Pasir.......................................................................203
5.3 Korok, Retas, dan Autointrusi Batupasir..................................................204
5.4 Geometri Batuan Karbonat......................................................................206
5.4.1 Terumbu..........................................................................................207
5.4.2 Mound dan Bank.............................................................................208
5.4.3 Tubuh karbonat Lain.......................................................................209
5.4.4 Kubah, Stock, dan Antiklin Garam..................................................210

5.4.5 Pengisi Lubang dan Sink..................................................................211


5.4.6 Tubuh Sedimen Lain........................................................................212
Rujukan..........................................................................................................263
BAB 6 GRAVEL, KONGLOMERAT, DAN BREKSI...............................................213
6.1 Tinjauan Umum.......................................................................................213
6.2 Gravel Masa Kini......................................................................................215
6.3 Kemas dan Komposisi Gravel...................................................................219
6.3.1 Tekstur Gravel dan Konglomerat....................................................220
6.3.2 Komposisi Gravel dan Konglomerat................................................224
6.4 Struktur Gravel dan Konglomerat............................................................226
6.5 Perbedaan Mendasar Antara Gravel dan Pasir........................................227
6.6 Penggolongan Gravel dan Konglomerat..................................................228
6.7 Ortokonglomerat.....................................................................................231
6.7.1 Konglomerat Ortokuarsit................................................................232
6.7.2 Konglomerat Petromik....................................................................234
6.8 Parakonglomerat (Batulumpur Konglomerat).........................................240
6.8.1 Batulumpur Kerikilan Berlaminasi..................................................241
6.8.2 Til dan Tilit .....................................................................................242
6.8.2.1 Tektur................................................................................243
6.8.2.2 Struktur.............................................................................247
6.8.2.3 Komposisi..........................................................................248
6.8.2.4 Aspek-aspek Stratigrafi.....................................................249
6.8.2.5 Penyebaran Dalam Ruang dan Waktu..............................250
6.8.2.6 Asal-Usul dan Kebenaan Geologi......................................253
6.8.3 Tiloid (Batulumpur Kerikilan yang tidak berasosiasi dgn Gletser).254
6.8.3.1 Definisi..............................................................................254
6.8.3.2 Tekstur, Struktur, dan Komposisi Tiloid............................254
6.8.3.3 Asosiasi Stratigrafi.............................................................256
6.8.3.4 Penyebaran Dalam Ruang dan Waktu...............................256
6.8.3.5 Asal-Usul Tiloid..................................................................257
6.9 Diagenesis Konglomerat..........................................................................259
6.10 Konglomerat Intraformasional..............................................................260
6.11 Breksi.....................................................................................................264
6.11.1 Breksi Kataklastik..........................................................................265
6.11.2 Breksi Longsoran dan Breksi Nendatan........................................267
6.11.3 Breksi Runtuhan dan breksi Larutan.............................................267
6.11.4 Breksi Piroklastika.........................................................................268
6.11.5 Breksi Tumbukan..........................................................................269

6.12 Konglomerat Semu dan Breksi Semu....................................................269


Rujukan.........................................................................................................325
BAB 7 PASIR DAN BATUPASIR.......................................................................271
7.1 Tinjauan Umum......................................................................................271
7.2 Pasir Masa Kini.......................................................................................273
7.3 Sifat-sifat Batupasir................................................................................278
7.3.1 Kemas............................................................................................278
7.3.2 Struktur Sedimen..........................................................................281
7.3.3 Mineralogi.....................................................................................281
7.3.3.1 Kuarsa, Opal, dan Kalsedon..............................................282
7.3.3.2 Felspar..............................................................................288
7.3.3.3 Fragmen Batuan...............................................................291
7.3.3.4 Mika..................................................................................293
7.3.3.5 Mineral Berat....................................................................294
7.3.3.6 Kalsit, Dolomit danSiderit................................................297
7.3.3.7 Mineral Lempung dan Mineral Silikat Lain.......................298
7.3.3.8 Kolofan ............................................................................299
7.3.4 Komposisi Kimia Batupasir............................................................299
7.4 Penggolongan Batupasir........................................................................302
7.5 Petrografi Batupasir...............................................................................307
7.5.1 Feldspathic sandstone dan Arkose................................................308
7.5.1.1 Definisi-Definisi................................................................308
7.5.1.2 Arkose..............................................................................308
7.5.1.3 Kemas dan Komposisi......................................................309
7.5.1.4 Varietas dan Cara Terdapatnya........................................311
7.5.1.5 Asal-usul Kebenaan Geologi.............................................313
7.5.2 Lithic sandstone dan Subgraywacke..............................................315
7.5.2.1 Definisi-Definisi.................................................................315
7.5.2.2 Pemerian Umum dan Varietas..........................................316
7.5.2.3 Keberadaan dan Kebenaan...............................................320
7.5.3 Graywacke dan Batuan Lain Yang Berkaitan..................................322
7.5.3.1 Kemas dan Komposisi.......................................................323
7.5.3.2 Masalah Matriks...............................................................326
7.5.3.3 Masalah Soda...................................................................328
7.5.3.4 Keberadaan dan Kebenaan Geologi.................................329
7.5.4 Batupasir Kwarsa...........................................................................331
7.5.4.1 Definisi-Definisi................................................................331
7.5.4.2 Kemas dan Komposisi......................................................332

7.5.4.3 Penyebaran Dalam Ruang dan Waktu.............................335


7.5.4.4 Asal-Usul Kebenaan Geologi............................................337
7.5.5 Batupasir Lain...............................................................................339
7.5.5.1 Pasir Hijau........................................................................339
7.5.5.2 Batupasir Fosfat...............................................................341
7.5.5.3 Batupasir Kalkarenitan.....................................................341
7.5.5.4 Pasir Plaser.......................................................................342
7.5.5.5 Itacolumit.........................................................................343
7.6 Diagenesis Batupasir..............................................................................343
7.6.1 Sementasi......................................................................................344
7.6.2 Desementasi..................................................................................354
7.6.3 Pelarutan Intrastrata.....................................................................355
7.6.4 Matriks..........................................................................................356
7.6.5 Partikel-partikel Yang Pecah dan Terdeformasi............................356
7.7 Petrogenesis Batupasir..........................................................................357

BAB 8 SERPIH, ARGILIT, DAN BATULANAU..................................................364


8.1 Tinjauan Umum.....................................................................................364
8.2 Definisi dan Terminologi........................................................................366
8.3 Tekstur dan Struktur..............................................................................368
8.3.1 Besar Butir dan Kemas..................................................................368
8.3.2 Penyubanan..................................................................................371
8.3.3 Laminasi........................................................................................372
8.3.4 Konresi dan Struktur Lain.............................................................373
8.4 KomposisiMineral Dari Serpih dan Argilit..............................................374
8.4.1 Mineral Lempung..........................................................................375
8.4.1.1 Komposisi dan Struktur....................................................375
8.4.1.2 Pertukaran Basa...............................................................378
8.4.1.3 Keberadaan dan Asal-Usul Mineral Lempung..................379
8.4.2 Mineral Lain Penyusun Serpih.......................................................380
8.4.3 Serpih dan Rata-Rata.....................................................................381
8.5 Komposisi Kimia......................................................................................384