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Tekla Structures

Detailing Guide

Product version 18.1 August 2012

2012 Tekla Corporation

2012 Tekla Corporation and its licensors. All rights reserved. This Software Manual has been developed for use with the referenced Software. Use of the Software, and use of this Software Manual are governed by a License Agreement. Among other provisions, the License Agreement sets certain warranties for the Software and this Manual, disclaims other warranties, limits recoverable damages, defines permitted uses of the Software, and determines whether you are an authorized user of the Software. All information set forth in this manual is provided with the warranty set forth in the License Agreement. Please refer to the License Agreement for important obligations and applicable limitations and restrictions on your rights. Tekla does not guarantee that the text is free of technical inaccuracies or typographical errors. Tekla reserves the right to make changes and additions to this manual due to changes in the software or otherwise. In addition, this Software Manual is protected by copyright law and by international treaties. Unauthorized reproduction, display, modification, or distribution of this Manual, or any portion of it, may result in severe civil and criminal penalties, and will be prosecuted to the full extent permitted by law. Tekla, Tekla Structures, Tekla NIS, Tekla DMS, Tekla Municipality GIS, and Tekla Civil are either registered trademarks or trademarks of Tekla Corporation in the European Union, the United States, and/or other countries. Other product and company names mentioned in this Manual are or may be trademarks of their respective owners. By referring to a thirdparty product or brand, Tekla does not intend to suggest an affiliation with or endorsement by such third party and disclaims any such affiliation or endorsement, except where otherwise expressly stated. Portions of this software: D-Cubed 2D DCM 2008 Siemens Industry Software Limited. All rights reserved. EPM toolkit 1995-2004 EPM Technology a.s., Oslo, Norway. All rights reserved. XML parser 1999 The Apache Software Foundation. All rights reserved. Project Data Control Library 2006 - 2007 DlhSoft. All rights reserved. DWGdirect, DGNdirect and OpenDWG Toolkit/Viewkit libraries 1998-2005 Open Design Alliance. All rights reserved. FlexNet Copyright 2010 Flexera Software, Inc. and/or InstallShield Co. Inc. All Rights Reserved. This product contains proprietary and confidential technology, information and creative works owned by Flexera Software, Inc. and/or InstallShield Co. Inc. and their respective licensors, if any. Any use, copying, publication, distribution, display, modification, or transmission of such technology in whole or in part in any form or by any means without the prior express written permission of Flexera Software, Inc. and/or InstallShield Co. Inc. is strictly prohibited. Except where expressly provided by Flexera Software, Inc. and/or InstallShield Co. Inc. in writing, possession of this technology shall not be construed to confer any license or rights under any Flexera Software, Inc. and/or InstallShield Co. Inc. intellectual property rights, whether by estoppel, implication, or otherwise. The software is protected by U.S. Patent Nos. 7,302,368, 7,617,076, 7,765,240, 7,809,533, 8,022,953, 8,041,744 and 8,046, 210. Also elements of the software described in this Manual may be the subject of pending patent applications in the European Union and/or other countries including U.S. patent applications 2005285881, 20110102463 and 20120022848.

Conventions used in this guide


Typographical conventions The following typographical conventions are used in this guide:

Font Bold

Usage Any text that you see in the user interface appears in bold. This font is used, for example, for window and dialog box titles, box and button names, and list items. New terms are in italic bold when they appear in the current context for the first time. Extracts of program code, HTML, or other material that you would normally edit in a text editor, appear in monospaced font. This font is also used for file names and folder paths, and for any text that you should type yourself.

Italic bold

Monospace

Noteboxes

The following types of noteboxes are used in this guide:

A tip might introduce a shortcut, or suggest alternative ways of doing things.

A note draws attention to details that you might easily overlook. It can also point you to other information in this guide that you might find useful.

You should always read very important notes and warnings, like this one. They will help you avoid making serious mistakes, or wasting your time.

This symbol indicates advanced or highly technical information that is usually of interest only to advanced or technically-oriented readers.

Contents
Conventions used in this guide ..............................................................................................................3

1
1.1

Getting Started .............................................................................................. 7


Basics of components ........................................................................................................... 7 Component concepts.................................................................................................................................... 8 Component dialog box ................................................................................................................................. 9 Selection order ............................................................................................................................................. 11 Up direction................................................................................................................................................... 11 Automatic and default properties........................................................................................................... 12 General tab .................................................................................................................................................... 12 Design and Design type tabs .................................................................................................................... 13 Component catalog............................................................................................................. 14 Using the component catalog.................................................................................................................. 14 Symbols ................................................................................................................................................... 16 Pop-up menus ....................................................................................................................................... 17 Thumbnail images........................................................................................................................................ 18 Descriptions and keywords ....................................................................................................................... 18 Grouping components ................................................................................................................................ 18 Copying components to another folder ................................................................................................ 19 Customizing and saving components .................................................................................................... 19 Using components............................................................................................................... 20 Creating components ................................................................................................................................. 20 Example: Adding an end plate ................................................................................................................. 21 Example: Adding a base plate and anchor rods.................................................................................. 22 Example: Adding a beam to column connection................................................................................ 23 Viewing components .................................................................................................................................. 23 Modifying components .............................................................................................................................. 24 Conceptual components ............................................................................................................................ 24 Converting a conceptual component to a detailed component ............................................. 25 Automating the detailing process........................................................................................................... 25 Tips on working with components.......................................................................................................... 26 Defining parts and plates................................................................................................... 27 Using the dialog box................................................................................................................................... 27 Dimensioning parts ..................................................................................................................................... 27 Plates ....................................................................................................................................................... 28 Beams ...................................................................................................................................................... 28 Part position number .......................................................................................................................... 28 Using the Components tab ................................................................................................................ 29 Defining materials ....................................................................................................................................... 29 Using the Components tab ................................................................................................................ 30 Defining bolts and welds.................................................................................................... 30 Using the Bolts tab...................................................................................................................................... 30

1.2

1.3

1.4

1.5

1.6 1.7

1.8

1.9

Defining bolts ............................................................................................................................................... 32 Increasing bolt length ......................................................................................................................... 32 Creating holes............................................................................................................................................... 32 Number of bolts and spacing ................................................................................................................... 33 Bolt group orientation................................................................................................................................ 33 Bolt group pattern....................................................................................................................................... 33 Edge distance................................................................................................................................................ 34 Bolt position.................................................................................................................................................. 34 Vertical bolt position ........................................................................................................................... 35 Horizontal bolt position ..................................................................................................................... 35 Defining slotted holes ................................................................................................................................ 36 Deleting bolts................................................................................................................................................ 37 Defining bolt assemblies............................................................................................................................ 38 Welds............................................................................................................................................................... 38 Modeling tools .................................................................................................................... 39 AutoConnection .................................................................................................................. 39 AutoConnection setup................................................................................................................................ 40 AutoConnection rule groups ............................................................................................................. 41 AutoConnection rule sets .................................................................................................................. 42 Rules.zxt ................................................................................................................................................ 43 Changing a connection ...................................................................................................................... 43 Using AutoConnection ............................................................................................................................... 43 AutoDefaults ....................................................................................................................... 44 AutoDefaults setup...................................................................................................................................... 45 Connection properties files ............................................................................................................... 46 Saving connection properties ........................................................................................................... 46 Access to properties files ................................................................................................................... 46 Defaults.zxt ............................................................................................................................................ 47 Priority of rule sets .............................................................................................................................. 47 Editing connection properties .......................................................................................................... 47 Using AutoDefaults ..................................................................................................................................... 48 How to use AutoDefaults effectively ..................................................................................................... 48 Checking AutoDefaults properties .......................................................................................................... 48 Checking AutoDefaults rules .................................................................................................................... 48 AutoConnection and AutoDefaults rules .............................................................................................. 48 Combining and iterating properties ................................................................................................ 50 Limitations ............................................................................................................................................. 51 Combining properties .......................................................................................................................... 52 Iteration with connection check ...................................................................................................... 52 Reaction forces and UDL .................................................................................................................... 54 Using the joints.def file...................................................................................................... 54 About joints.def............................................................................................................................................ 55 How joints.def works ........................................................................................................................... 55 How to read joints.def ........................................................................................................................ 55 Entering values ..................................................................................................................................... 56 Connections that use joints.def............................................................................................................... 56 Defining general defaults .......................................................................................................................... 56 Defining bolt diameter and number of rows ....................................................................................... 58 Clip angle, shear plate, and end plate connections ................................................................... 58 Gusset connections .............................................................................................................................. 58 Diagonal connections ......................................................................................................................... 59 Defining other bolt and part properties ................................................................................................ 59 Gusset connection properties ........................................................................................................... 60 Diagonal connection properties ....................................................................................................... 63

1.10

Profile type-dependent bolt dimensions ....................................................................................... 65 How Tekla Structures uses joints.def ..................................................................................................... 65 Using Excel in connection design...................................................................................... 66 Setting up Excel files .................................................................................................................................. 67 Sample implementation............................................................................................................................. 67 Indicating component status ................................................................................................................... 70

2
2.1 2.2

Reinforcement .............................................................................................. 73
Getting started with reinforcement.................................................................................. 73 Basic reinforcement properties ......................................................................................... 74 Hooks............................................................................................................................................................... 75 Concrete cover.............................................................................................................................................. 76 Spacing reinforcing bars............................................................................................................................ 78 Omitting reinforcing bars.......................................................................................................................... 78 User-defined attributes of reinforcement ............................................................................................ 79 Meshes............................................................................................................................................................ 79 Single bars, bar groups, and meshes ................................................................................. 80 Creating reinforcement using the Reinforcing Bar Shape Catalog............................................... 81 Reinforcing bar............................................................................................................................................. 83 Reinforcing bar group................................................................................................................................. 84 Curved reinforcing bar group ................................................................................................................... 87 Circular reinforcing bar group ................................................................................................................. 88 Reinforcement mesh................................................................................................................................... 89 Reinforcement strand pattern.................................................................................................................. 92 Reinforcement splice .................................................................................................................................. 94 Working with reinforcement ............................................................................................. 95 Attaching reinforcement to parts ........................................................................................................... 95 Using reinforcement handles ................................................................................................................... 96 Using adaptivity ........................................................................................................................................... 97 Reinforcement geometry validity............................................................................................................ 99 Modifying reinforcement ................................................................................................... 99 Ungrouping a reinforcement ................................................................................................................. 100 Grouping reinforcements........................................................................................................................ 101 Adding points to a reinforcement........................................................................................................ 102 Removing points from a reinforcement ............................................................................................. 103 Splitting reinforcing bar groups ........................................................................................................... 104 Splitting reinforcing bars in a group................................................................................................... 104 Combining two reinforcing bars or reinforcing bar groups into one......................................... 105 Customizing reinforcement meshes .................................................................................................... 105 Exploding reinforcement ........................................................................................................................ 107 Defining custom reinforcement components ................................................................................... 107 Reinforcing bar bending shapes in the Rebar Shape Manager .................................... 108 Reinforcing bar bending shapes in the RebarShapeRules.xml file ............................................. 108 Defining reinforcing bar bending shapes in the Rebar Shape Manager................................... 108 Adding new bending shape rules manually ...................................................................................... 110 Bending shape rule settings ........................................................................................................... 110 Bending schedule fields in the Rebar Shape Manager .................................................................. 114 Reinforcing bar bending types......................................................................................... 116 Reinforcement in templates .................................................................................................................. 137

2.3

2.4

2.5

2.6

2.7

1
Introduction

Getting Started

Once you have created a frame of parts in your Tekla Structures model, you will need to connect those parts to complete the model. Tekla Structures contains a wide range of components that you can use to automate the process of creating a model. This chapter explains the basics about components - what they are and how to create them using Tekla Structures. We will begin with the basic concepts, followed by a general description of components properties. Finally, we will show you how to use components in practice.

Contents

This chapter is divided into the following topics:

Basics of components (7) Component catalog (14) Using components (20) Defining parts and plates (27) Defining bolts and welds (30) AutoConnection (39) AutoDefaults (44) Using the joints.def file (54) Using Excel in connection design (66)

1.1 Basics of components


Introduction Components are tools that you can use to automatically create the parts, welds, and bolts required to connect parts. They are linked to main parts, so, when you modify a main part, the associated component also changes. The main benefits of working with components are: 1. You can save the properties of a component using an easily-identifiable name and keep it for future use. For example, you could save the properties of a W12x65 column base plate connection as W12x65.j*, and use it for several projects. 2. When you modify the size of a profile, Tekla Structures automatically modifies the relevant components. 3. When you copy or move objects, Tekla Structures automatically includes all the associated components. Topics Component concepts (8) Component catalog (14)

Benefits

Getting Started

Basics of components

Component dialog box (9) Selection order (11) Up direction (11) Automatic and default properties (12) General tab (12) Design and Design type tabs (13)

Component concepts
Components are tools that automate tasks and group objects so that Tekla Structures treats them as a single unit. Components adapt to changes in the model, which means that Tekla Structures automatically modifies a component if you modify the parts it connects.

This is an example of how to apply a connection:

Select the main part. Select the secondary part. To see information about the connection, click the connection symbol. The connection automatically creates the required parts, fittings, bolts, etc. Component types Components have the following subtypes:

Component type Connection

Description Connects two or more parts, and creates all the required objects such as cuts, fittings, parts, bolts, and welds.

Examples Two-sided clip angle, bolted gusset Corbel connection (14)

Symbol

Getting Started

Basics of components

Component type Detail

Description Adds a detail or a reinforcement to a main part. A detail is only connected to one part. When you create a detail, Tekla Structures prompts you to select a part, followed by a point to place the detail. Automatically creates and assembles the parts to build a structure, but does not connect the structure to existing parts. Modeling tools can include connections and details.

Examples Stiffeners, base plates, lifting hooks Beam reinforcement, pad footing reinforcement Stairs, frames, towers

Symbol

Modeling tool

System and custom components

Tekla Structures contains hundreds of system components by default. You can also create your own components, custom components. They have following subtypes:

connection detail part seam

All components are stored in the Component catalog (14). To open the component catalog, use the keyboard shortcut Ctrl+F. See also What is a custom component Creating custom components

Component dialog box


The component dialog box is in two sections. Upper part Use the upper section of the dialog box to save and load predefined settings. For more information, see Save, Load, Save as buttons. For some components the upper section also contains buttons for accessing the bolt, weld and DSTV dialog boxes. For information on handling the saved properties, see Connection properties files (46). Lower part The lower section of the dialog box is divided into tabs. This is where you define the properties of the parts and bolts that the component creates. The most common tabs that appear here are:

Picture illustrates the component. It shows just one example, but you can usually use one component in many situations. Parts is where you define the properties of the parts the component creates. Parameters is where you set parameters to control the component (for example, for stiffeners, end plates, chamfers, etc.). Bolts is where you define the number of bolts and their edge distances. General is where you define the direction of the connection or detail and AutoDefaults rules.

Getting Started

Basics of components

Tabs Tekla Structures uses the automatic property value. The parts the component creates appear in yellow. The green symbol indicates the correct direction for the connection or detail. The parts you select appear in blue. Tekla Structures uses the default property value. See also Defining parts and plates (27) Defining bolts and welds (30)

Getting Started

10

Basics of components

Selection order
To create a connection you need to select or pick existing parts or points. The default selection order for a connection is: 1. Main part 2. Secondary part(s) 3. If there is more than one secondary part, click the middle mouse button to finish selecting parts and create the connection. Some connection dialog boxes illustrate the selection order for parts using numbers, as shown below. Select the parts in the order shown in the picture:

Details

The default selection order for a detail is: 1. Main part. 2. A point in the main part to show the location of the detail.

Modeling tools

The default picking order for a modeling tool is: 1. Pick one to three point(s) to show the location of the objects the modeling tool creates.

Up direction
The up direction of a connection or a detail indicates how the connection is rotated around the secondary part, relative to the current work plane. If there are no secondary parts, Tekla Structures rotates the connection around the main part. The options are: +x, -x, +y, -y, +z, -z. The Picture tab in the dialog box shows the up direction Tekla Structures will use. Tekla Structures also indicates the up direction in the connection symbol:

Getting Started

11

Basics of components

Manually defining up direction

To manually define the up direction: 1. Double-click the connection symbol to open the connection dialog box. 2. On the General tab, change the x, y, or z direction. Try positive directions first. 3. Click Modify to use the new values.

Automatic and default properties


Some connection dialog boxes contain list boxes that show property options as graphics. You can select system defaults, AutoDefaults, or have Tekla Structures automatically set the properties. System default properties If you leave fields in connection dialog boxes blank, Tekla Structures uses the system default properties. Manual entries, default, automatic and properties in the joints.def file, all override these system defaults. You cannot change system default properties.

Default and automatic properties Icon Description To have Tekla Structures use a default property in a connection, select the option marked with this symbol. If you use AutoDefaults for the connection, Tekla Structures uses the property defined in the AutoDefaults rules. If you are not using AutoDefaults, Tekla Structures creates the connection using the system default property. If AutoDefaults have been used, the actual picture in the default option does not necessarily match the outcome. To have Tekla Structures automatically determine which option to use for a property, select the option marked with this symbol. For example, when you use this option for the stiffener in End plate (144), the connection automatically adds the stiffener to a beam-to-column connection, but does not add it to a beam-tobeam connection. See also Using the joints.def file (54)

More information Using AutoDefaults (48)

General tab
Connections and details have the same General tab. It contains the following properties:

Getting Started

12

Basics of components

Field Up direction

Description Rotates the connection around the secondary part or detail around the main part. The fields next to the image define rotation angle around the x- and y-axis of the secondary. The upper one is for y- and the lower one for x.

More information Up direction (11)

Position in relation to primary part

Available only for details. Select a checkbox next to the images to indicate the position of the definition point of the detail, relative to the main part. Use the Horizontal offset and Vertical offset fields to define the horizontal and vertical alignment of the detail, relative to the main part.

Locked Class

Prevents modifications. A number given to all parts the connection creates. You can use class to define the color of parts in the model. Identifies the connection. Tekla Structures can display this connection code in connection marks in drawings. Automatically sets connection properties according to the selected rule group. To switch AutoDefaults off, select the rule group None. Automatically switches the connection to another according to the selected rule group.

Locking objects Color settings for parts

Connection code

AutoDefaults Rule Group AutoConnection Rule Group

Using AutoDefaults (48)

Design and Design type tabs


Some component dialog boxes include a Design tab, others include a Design type tab. Use the options on these pages to check if the component will bear the UDL (uniform distributed load). This design check is intended for use with imperial units. The Design tab also contains options to:

Use AutoDefaults rule groups to automatically modify component properties to take the calculated load. To define which AutoDefaults rule group to use, go to the General tab and select the rule in the AutoDefaults rule group list box. For more information, see Reaction forces and UDL (54). Use information in an Excel spreadsheet to check connection design and automatically update component properties to bear the UDL. This is useful when you want to check connection design according to other design codes. See Using Excel in connection design (66).

Design tab

To check the design of a component that has a Design tab page: 1. Go to the Design tab and select Yes in the Use UDL listbox. 2. To use information in an Excel spreadsheet in the UDL calculation, select Excel in the External design listbox. 3. Enter the information you want to use in the calculation in the remaining fields.

Getting Started

13

Basics of components

4. Select a connection in the model and click Modify. To view the results of the check, right-click the component symbol and select Inquire from the pop-up menu.The inquire object window opens, which contains a summary of the design checks and related information. See also Using Excel in connection design (66). Design type tab To check the design of a component that has a Design type tab page: 1. Open the component properties dialog box. 2. Go to the Design type tab and select Yes in the Check connection list box. Tekla Structures will check the connection each time it is used or changed in a model. 3. Enter the information you want to use in the calculation in the remaining fields. 4. Select a connection in the model and click Modify. 5. Tekla Structures checks the component. A green component symbol indicates that the connection will bear the UDL, red indicates it will not. 6. To view the results of the check, right-click the component symbol and select Inquire from the pop-up menu. The inquire object window opens, which contains a summary of the design check. The summary of the design check shows the part checked, the name of the check, the applied and allowed force and how much capacity has been used, the results and possible solutions.

1.2 Component catalog


Tekla Structures contains a component catalog, where all components and sketched cross sections are stored. See also Sketched cross sections. To open the component catalog, use the keyboard shortcut Ctrl + F, or click the Search component icon on the component toolbar (see Component catalog (14)). Topics Using the component catalog (14) Thumbnail images (18) Descriptions and keywords (18) Grouping components (18) Customizing and saving components (19)

Using the component catalog


To open the component catalog, use the keyboard shortcut Ctrl+F, or click the Search component icon on the component toolbar.

You can do the following with components and sketched cross sections:


Component catalog

search using name, number, or keywords start creating view properties collect your own favorites define keywords edit or add descriptions import/export

You can browse for the components, or search by using search terms and keywords.

Getting Started

14

Component catalog

Search View folders View details View thumbnails Show/hide descriptions Create a component using the component tool you used last with its current properties. Double-click the name to set the properties and create the component. Component description System components have blue symbols. Custom components have yellow symbols.

Getting Started

15

Component catalog

To sort a column, click the header cell.

You can create a list of favorite components. To add a component to your list, right-click the component name in the component catalog, and then select Add to Favorites in the pop-up menu.

Creating new folders

By default, components are grouped in folders based on their type and framing condition. You can add and remove components, and create folders and subfolders. To create new folders in the Folders tree view, right-click a level in the tree and select an option from the pop-up menu:

Create New Folder to create folder at the same level Create New Sub-folder to create a folder one level below

Information on the folders you create is stored in the ComponentCatalogTreeView.txt file that is located in the ..\TeklaStructuresModels\<model>\attributes\ folder. For more information, see Copying components to another folder (19). Modifying Search and Folders views

The default view settings for the Search view are stored in the ComponentCatalog.txt file that is located in the ..\Tekla Structures\<version>\environments\<environment>\system folder. If you modify the file, the Search view and the Search results branch in the Folders view change. The default tree settings for the Folders view are stored in the ComponentCatalogTreeView.txt file that is located in the ..\Tekla Structures\<version>\environments\<environment>\system folder. If you modify the file, the Folders view changes.

Symbols The first column in the catalog indicates the component types with following symbols:

Symbol Component type System connections System detail System modeling tool Custom connections and seams Custom details Custom parts Sketched cross sections

Getting Started

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Component catalog

Pop-up menus System components Right-click a system component in the Search view list to open a pop-up menu containing the following commands:


Custom components

Properties... Edit Keywords... Add to Favorites Add to Search Result... Remove from Search Result Change picture... AutoDefaults... Import...

Right-click a custom component in the Search view list to open a pop-up menu containing the following commands:


Sketched cross sections

Properties... Edit keywords... Add to Favorites Add to Search Result... Remove from Search result Change Picture... Export... Import... Edit Custom Component Delete Custom Component

Right-click a sketch in the Search view list to open a pop-up menu containing the following commands:


See also

Properties... Edit Keywords... Add to Favorites Add to Search Result... Remove from Search Result Export... Import... Change Picture... Delete

Thumbnail images (18) Descriptions and keywords (18) Grouping components (18) Managing custom components Sketched cross sections

Getting Started

17

Component catalog

Thumbnail images
Most system components have a default thumbnail image in the component catalog, which shows you a typical situation where the component can be used. For example, this is what the thumbnail image for Bolted gusset (11) connection looks like:

To edit a thumbnail image for a component: 1. Create an image and save it in bmp format in ..\Tekla Structures\<version>\nt\bitmaps folder.

To create the image, you can use Create View > Default Views of Component and Screenshot commands, for example.

2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

Press Ctrl + F to open the component catalog. Right-click the component and select Change picture... Locate the thumbnail and select it. Click OK. Tekla Structures links the thumbnail to the component.

Descriptions and keywords


Descriptions To view a component description, select the component in the Component catalog. Use the button to show or hide descriptions.

You can create new descriptions and edit existing ones:

Keywords

The default component descriptions are stored in the xslib.db1 file, located in the model folder. To add or edit a description, type text in the description field. When you select another component in the component catalog, Tekla Structures prompts you to save the description you added or edited. After you have saved the description, save the model also. Edited component descriptions are model-specific.

To add or edit keywords, right-click a component in the component catalog, and select Edit keywords... Keywords you add or edit are saved in ComponentCatalog.txt file in the current model folder. You can combine ComponentCatalog.txt files and move them to the system folder:..\Tekla Structures\<version>\environments\<environment>\system.

Grouping components
To create a new folder based on the results of a search: 1. In the Component catalog, enter your search criteria and click Search.

Getting Started

18

Component catalog

2. To group the search results in a new folder, click Store. 3. In the Store search result dialog box, enter a name for the folder and click OK. 4. The new folder appears in the tree. Removing components from groups To remove components from a group, right-click the component and select:

or

Remove, if it is a default group. Remove from search result if the folder was created from a search.

Copying components to another folder


To copy components from one folder to another: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. In the component catalog, click the Folders icon to open the Folders view. Go to the folder where the component to be copied is located. Select the component, right-click and select Copy. Go to the folder where you want to copy the component. Right-click and select Paste. If the copying does not succeed for some reason, store the component temporarily to a new folder. 1. Click the Search icon and search for the component to be copied. 2. Select the component and click Store to create a new folder for the component. 3. In the Folders view, go to the new folder and copy the component from there to the desired folder.

Customizing and saving components


Many components are suitable for use in different situations. You can define the properties of a component to use in a specific situation, then save a copy in the component catalog to use in similar situations. For example, well use the Bolted gusset (11) component to connect a single brace at the base plate of column.

1. To save a copy of the component, well right-click the component symbol in the model, and select Publish in catalog.... The Publish in catalog dialog box appears.

Getting Started

19

Component catalog

2. We can add the component to a specific group. By default, the component is added to the All group. 3. By default the component uses the same thumbnail image as the original component. To change the thumbnail, see Thumbnail images (18).

1.3 Using components


Introduction Topics This section explains how to use components. It also includes examples. Creating components (20) Example: Adding an end plate (21) Example: Adding a base plate and anchor rods (22) Example: Adding a beam to column connection (23) Viewing components (23) Modifying components (24) Tips on working with components (26)

Creating components
You create different types of component in different ways. For example, you select existing parts to indicate which members a connection or a detail is attached to. You need to pick points to indicate the location or length of a detail or a modeling tool. See also Selection order (11). When you create connections, Tekla Structures prompts you to select the main part (the part secondary parts connect to), then the secondary part(s). For an example of using a connection, see Example: Adding an end plate (21). Status Tekla Structures uses different-colored component symbols to show the status of connections and details:

Getting Started

20

Using components

Color

Status Component created successfully.

Tip

Green Component created, but has problems. Yellow Component failed. A common reason is that the up direction is not appropriate. See Up direction (11). Often occurs when bolts or holes have an edge distance less than the default value for that component.

Red

When applying a component that you are unfamiliar with, accept the default properties and apply the component. Then look to see what needs to be modified. This is quicker than trying to set the values for the component before seeing what the component actually creates.

Example: Adding an end plate


This example shows how to create an end plate connection. The End plate (144) connection connects two beams, or a beam to a column, using a bolted end plate. To create the end plate connection: 1. In the component catalog, enter 144 and click Search. 2. Double-click the End plate (144) component. Tekla Structures displays the component dialog box and starts the End plate (144) command. 3. Click Apply to create the component using the default properties. 4. Tekla Structures prompts you to select the main part (column) and then the secondary part (beam). Tekla Structures creates the connection.

5. Select the next main part or interrupt the command. If you need to change the number of bolts or plate dimensions, for example, you need to modify the component. For more information, see Modifying components (24).

Getting Started

21

Using components

If you use incorrect properties, Tekla Structures may fail to create the component. For more information, see Creating components (20).

Example: Adding a base plate and anchor rods


Component catalog contains several base plate details. This example shows how to create a base plate and anchor rods. Before you start:

create a column create an elevation view

To add a base plate to a column: 1. Open an elevation view. 2. Open the component catalog. 3. Enter base plate in the Search field and click Search.

4. To view pictures of the components in the search results, click the Thumbnails icon

5. Click Base plate (1004). This component creates a base plate with anchor bolts. 6. The prompt Pick part appears on the status bar. Select the column. 7. The prompt Pick position appears on the status bar. Pick the point at the base of the column to indicate where to create the base plate. 8. Tekla Structures creates the base plate. 9. Examine the component to see if you need to make any changes. 10. Check that the connection symbol is green, which indicates that the connection was created successfully. 11. Change the dimensions of the anchor rods. To make it easier to select components, click the Select component icon .

Getting Started

22

Using components

12. Double-click the component to open the Tekla Structures Base plate (1004) dialog box. 13. Go to the Anchor rods tab. Change the dimensions of the anchor rods. 14. To change only this base plate, select Ignore other types in the list in the top section of the dialog box:

15. 16. 17. 18.

Click Modify. Tekla Structures changes the dimensions of the anchor rods. Click OK to close the dialog box. Right-click and select Interrupt from the pop-up menu to end the command. Check that the connection symbol is green, which indicates that the connection was created successfully.

Example: Adding a beam to column connection


Component catalog contains several beam to column connections. This example shows how to create a beam to column connection. Before you start:

create a beam and a column create an elevation view

To create a beam to column connection: 1. Open the component catalog. 2. Select Beam to column connections in the list. The list of beam to column connections appears in the main pane. 3. Select Column with stiffeners (186). 4. The prompt Pick main part appears on the status bar. Select the column. 5. The prompt Pick secondary part appears on the status bar. Select the beam. 6. Tekla Structures creates the connection. 7. Click OK to close the dialog box. 8. Right-click and select Interrupt from the pop-up menu to end the command. 9. Check that the connection symbol is green, which indicates that the connection was created successfully. 10. Examine the component to see if you need to make any changes.

Viewing components
You can create several views of a component to view it from different viewpoints. To create views of a component: 1. Click the component symbol to select the component. 2. To create views, right-click and select Create View > Default Views of Component from the popup menu. Tekla Structures creates four views: front, end, top, and perspective.

To check dimensions, such as bolt locations and edge distances, work in the Component front view and use the Measure tool.

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Using components

Modifying components
To modify a component, double-click the component symbol in the model. The component dialog box appears. This is where you modify the component properties.

If you have Select component switched on , you do not have to pick component symbol, but you can just pick any object belonging to a component. This is the only method for selecting custom parts, because they do not have any symbol. You can also indicate which connections and details are affected by the modifications:

Modify connection type: If you have selected several connections and details, clicking the Modify button modifies all the selected connections and details irrespective of their type. If the connection type is not the same as in the dialog box, Tekla Structures changes the connection type. Ignore other types: Tekla Structures only modifies connections and details of the type shown in dialog box.

Conceptual components
Depending on the Tekla Structures configuration you are using, you can create either detailed or conceptual components. Conceptual components are meant to be used as reference information for further fabrication detailing. Conceptual components look similar to detailed components but do not include the option to change part numbering or assembly numbering settings. Conceptual components can be created only with Engineering and Cast in Place configurations. However, you can edit conceptual components in Full, Steel Detailing, or Precast Concrete Detailing configurations. Conceptual components can be converted to detailed components that include all the information needed for fabrication, such as assemblies, cast units, and reinforcing bars. The conversion to detailed components can be done in Full, Steel Detailing, or Precast Concrete Detailing configurations. Modifying part properties, such as the size of the component main part, does not automatically convert a detailed component to a conceptual one, or vice versa. For example, if you use the Engineering configuration and modify the model, detailed components do not convert to conceptual components.

Component Conceptual

Symbol

Configuration Engineering Cast in Place

Description Conceptual component does not create assemblies or cast units. The dialog box is the same as in detailed component, but does not contain fields for part and assembly positions.

Rectangular

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Using components

Component Detailed

Symbol

Configuration Full Steel Detailing Precast Concrete Detailing

Description Detailed component contains part and assembly numbering fields, and creates needed assemblies and cast units.

Round

Detailed components can be converted to conceptual components in Engineering and Cast in Place configurations.

See also

Converting a conceptual component to a detailed component (25) Converting a conceptual component to a detailed component An individual conceptual component that has been created with Engineering or Reinforced Concrete Detailing configuration can be converted to a detailed component in Full, Steel Detailing, and Precast Concrete Detailing configurations. To convert a conceptual component to a detailed component: 1. Select the component symbol. 2. Click Detailing > Component > Convert to Detailing Component.

If you want to convert a detailed component to a conceptual component in Engineering or Reinforced Concrete Detailing configuration, right-click and select Convert to Conceptual Component. See also Conceptual components (24)

Automating the detailing process


If you have a standard way of configuring connections, save time by saving the connection properties once. Store them in firm or project folders for future use. See Firm and project folders. Tekla Structures includes AutoConnection and AutoDefaults tools to automate the modeling process. So you can customize Tekla Structures to suit a particular project and the way you work. See AutoConnection (39)and AutoDefaults (44). There are three levels of automation that you can help you work faster and more accurately.

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Using components

Tips on working with components


No component created If you have difficulty applying a component, check the status bar for prompts. For example, you may need to click the middle mouse button to stop selecting parts, before Tekla Structures creates the component. If you are applying a connection that only allows for one secondary part, you may see the message Many parts found on the status bar. This means that Tekla Structures cannot determine which parts to connect. You may have several parts in the same location, or the view may be set too deep. If the component does not create the parts you need by default (for example, stiffener plates), look for a switch to turn them on. If there is no switch, try entering a value in the thickness field for that part (for example, on the Stiffeners tab). If the component creates parts you do not need, look for the switch to turn them off. If there is no switch, enter a zero (0) in the thickness field for that part.

Many parts found

Switch parts on/ off

Default: Tekla Structures creates stiffeners or uses value retrieved from AutoDefaults.

Automatic: Tekla Structures creates or omits stiffeners depending on the situation in the model.

Tekla Structures does not create stiffeners

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Using components

Tekla Structures creates stiffeners.

Entering valid profiles

You need to specify profiles for some components. If a component fails, try entering a valid profile.

1.4 Defining parts and plates


Use the Parts tab to define the parts that Tekla Structures creates when you use a component. Topics Using the dialog box (27) Dimensioning parts (27) Defining materials (29)

Using the dialog box


Some components list all parts on one tab, others list parts on separate tabs as shown in the following examples. One Parts tab Where there is one tab, the label is usually Parts or Plates.

Several Parts tabs

Parts can also appear on separate tabs. For example, in connection 56, Corner tube gusset, the parts appear on both the Gusset and Brace conn tabs.

Dimensioning parts
Use the Parts tabs to dimension specific part types in components.

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Defining parts and plates

To delete a part, enter zero (0) in the t (thickness) field.

Plates Enter the following dimensions for plates:

Dimension t b h

Description Plate thickness Plate width Plate height

You do not have to enter these dimensions for every component type, as Tekla Structures determines the plate shape differently for different components. For example, in end plate connections, Tekla Structures calculates width and height using the number of bolts and bolt edge distances. Click Help in a component dialog box to check which dimensions you need to enter. Beams To specify a library or parametric profile to use for beams:

Enter the profile name. Or click , and select a profile from the profile catalog.

The profile must exist in the profile catalog.

Part position number Use the Pos_no field to enter the part position number for each part the component creates. This overrides the settings on the Tools > Options > Options... > Components tab. Specify a prefix and a start number, as shown below.

Prefix Start number Some component dialog boxes have a second row of Pos_no fields for you to enter the assembly position number.

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Defining parts and plates

Using the Components tab To set the default prefix and start number for all the parts that components create, click Tools > Options > Options... > Components. You define different prefixes and start numbers according to the parts relationship to other parts in the component. Separate the prefix and part number using the \ character (for example, p\1).

Prefix Part number

Defining materials
To define the materials for the parts that components create, click next to the Material field. Tekla Structures opens the Select Material dialog box. Click a material type, then click the material to use for the part.

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Defining parts and plates

Using the Components tab To set the default part material for the parts that components create, click Tools > Options > Options... > Components tab, and use the Part material field. Tekla Structures uses this default if you leave the Material field blank in the component dialog box when you apply the component.

1.5 Defining bolts and welds


Use the Bolts or Welds tabs to define which bolts, assemblies, and welds to use in specific components. Topics Using the Bolts tab (30) Defining bolts (32) Creating holes (32) Number of bolts and spacing (33) Bolt group orientation (33) Bolt group pattern (33) Edge distance (34) Bolt position (34) Defining slotted holes (36) Deleting bolts (37) Defining bolt assemblies (38) Welds (38)

Using the Bolts tab


This illustration shows the properties you can set on the Bolts tab of component dialog boxes:

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Defining bolts and welds

Slotted hole dimensions Slotted to create slotted hole in part Check bolt components to include (bolt, washer, screw). Shank length protruding from the nut Bolt spacing - vertical Number of bolts Enter bolt order number of bolt to delete.

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Defining bolts and welds

Edge distance Bolt spacing (horizontal) Number of bolts Bolt group pattern Horizontal Vertical

Defining bolts
Use the following fields on the Bolts tab to specify the type of bolts to use in individual components:

Dialog box text Bolt size Bolt standard Tolerance Thread in mat Site/Workshop

Description Must be defined in the bolt assembly catalog. See also The bolt and bolt assembly catalogs. The bolt standard to use inside the component. Must be defined in the bolt assembly catalog. Gap between bolt and hole. Indicate if the thread can be inside bolted parts when using bolts with a shaft. Has no effect if using full-threaded bolts. Location where bolts should be attached.

Increasing bolt length To allow for additional material thickness, increase the length of the bolt on the Bolts tab. For example, you could use this for painted parts. Enter extra bolt length

Tekla Structures uses this value in bolt length calculation. See Bolt length calculation.

Creating holes
To only create a hole, deselect all the components in the illustration on the Bolts tab.

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Defining bolts and welds

Number of bolts and spacing


Use the Bolts tab to specify the number of bolts and bolt spacing, both horizontally and vertically. Enter the number of bolts in the shorter field, and the spacing between bolts in the longer field, as shown below. Use a space to separate bolt spacing values. Enter a value for each space between bolts. Example For example, if there are 3 bolts, enter 2 values.

Number of bolts Bolt spacing The settings above result in this bolt group layout:

Bolt group orientation


Some connections include the following options on the Bolts tab to orientate bolt groups:

Option

Description Square.

Staggered in the direction of the secondary part.

Sloped in the direction of the secondary part.

Bolt group pattern


For some components you can select different bolt group patterns. You have the following options:

Option

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Defining bolts and welds

Option

Edge distance
Edge distance is the distance from the center of a bolt to the edge of the part. Enter top, bottom, left, and right edge distances on the Bolts tab. A dimension line on the illustration shows each dimension. See also Using the joints.def file (54).

Edge distance dimension line Enter edge distances here

Bolt position
In the list box on the Bolts tab, select an option to indicate how to measure dimensions for vertical and horizontal bolt position. Then enter the dimension in the fields indicated below. If you leave this field blank, Tekla Structures uses a system default value.

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Defining bolts and welds

Enter dimensions Measure dimension from.... Vertical bolt position Use these options to indicate how Tekla Structures measures vertical dimensions:

Option Top

Dimension from Upper edge of secondary part to uppermost bolt.

Illustration

Middle

Centerline of bolts to centerline of secondary part.

Bottom

Lower edge of secondary part to lowest bolt.

Horizontal bolt position Use these options to indicate how Tekla Structures measures horizontal dimensions:

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Defining bolts and welds

Option Left

Dimension from Left edge of secondary part to far left bolt.

Illustration

Middle

Centerline of bolts.

Right

Right edge of secondary part to far right bolt.

Defining slotted holes


To define slotted holes in components: 1. Open the component properties dialog box and click on the Bolts tab. Different bolt groups may appear on different tabs in different dialog boxes. 2. Set Hole type to Slotted. 3. Select which parts have slotted holes from the Slots in list box. Select No to create round holes. 4. To shape slotted holes, enter the x or y dimensions of the hole. To produce a round hole, enter zero (0) for both dimensions.

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Defining bolts and welds

Slotted hole length = x or y dimension + Bolt size + Tolerance

For some components you can specify which parts have slotted holes using the Bolts tab. For example, Clip angle (141), Shear plate simple (146).

You can also use the Bolt command to modify bolt groups after creating components. For more information, see Holes.

Deleting bolts
To delete bolts from a bolt group: Double click the component symbol to open the component dialog box. Go to the Bolts tab. Check Delete. Enter the bolt number(s) of the bolt(s) to delete, separated by a space. Bolt numbers run left to right and top down. 5. Click Modify to change the selected component. 6. Click OK to exit the component dialog box. Example You start with this bolt group: 1. 2. 3. 4.

You enter the following bolt numbers:

The bolt group now looks like this:

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Defining bolts and welds

Defining bolt assemblies


On the illustration on the Bolts tab, check the pieces to use in the bolt assembly (bolt, washers, and nuts).

To change the bolt assemblies in the current component: 1. 2. 3. 4. Click the component symbol to select it. Check the pieces to use. Check Effect in modify. Click the Modify button.

Welds
To define the properties of the welds Tekla Structures uses in a component, click the Welds button in the component properties dialog box. Tekla Structures displays the appropriate weld dialog box. The illustration identifies each weld using a number. For each weld, use row 1 to define the arrow side of the weld, and row 2 for the other side.

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Defining bolts and welds

See also

Welds

1.6 Modeling tools


Customize the properties of modeling tools you use to create objects, rather than changing the properties manually each time. Example You know you will use the same type of stairs in several projects. Set up and save the stair modeling tool properties once. When you next need to use that particular stair modeling tool you can just load the pre-defined properties, as shown below. When you apply the modeling tool, Tekla Structures creates exactly the same stairs.

Predefined properties See also Getting Started (7).

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Modeling tools

1.7 AutoConnection
Introduction Use AutoConnection to automatically select and apply connections with predefined properties to selected parts in a model. With AutoConnection, Tekla Structures automatically creates similar connections for similar framing conditions. You can use AutoConnection to quickly add connections individually, in phases, or project-wide. This is a useful technique when you are working on a large project using many connections, modifying a model, or importing modified profiles.
AutoDefaults allows you to modify standard connection properties and save them for use in specific

circumstances. You can define rule groups and rule sets for both AutoConnection and AutoDefaults to use for different conditions within the model. You can use AutoDefaults together with AutoConnection to define connection properties. You can also use AutoDefaults to define connection properties and apply them to a single connection. Test model Before using AutoConnections and AutoDefaults in a working model, we recommend that you create a test model, and create all the connection conditions in it that you need for a particular project. You can then use this test model to check the rules and properties of various connection types. It also acts as a quick reference for connection information. AutoConnection setup (40) AutoConnection rule groups (41) AutoConnection rule sets (42) Rules.zxt (43) Changing a connection (43) Using AutoConnection (43) AutoDefaults (44) AutoConnection and AutoDefaults rules (48)

See also

AutoConnection setup
With AutoConnection you can define groups of rules which Tekla Structures automatically applies when you use AutoConnection to create connections in a model. For example, you can create separate rules for different standards, projects, manufacturers, and even individual models. By using a rule group to select connections and connection properties, you can create connections automatically, without having to select each connection and define its properties individually. Tree structure To access the AutoConnection Setup dialog box, click Detailing > AutoConnection > AutoConnection Settings.... The connection types used in various cases are shown in a tree structure:

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AutoConnection

Icon

Type Rule group

Description The 1st level in the tree shows the rule groups. These are user-definable. They help you to group the rules according to different standards, projects, manufacturers, and models. The 2nd level shows the different predefined framing conditions (connection types). Tekla Structures creates them automatically and you cannot change them. The framing conditions include the following: beam to beam web, beam to beam flange, beam to column web, beam to column flange, beam splice, and column splice.

Framing condition

Rule set

Under each framing condition you can create rule sets to specify which connection to use for specific conditions within the model. The connection to apply if the rule set criteria are met.

Connection

To apply a particular connection, the conditions within the model have to match all the rules in the branch containing the connection. If you do not want to apply a connection for certain rules sets, right-click the connection name and then select No connection from the pop-up menu.

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AutoConnection

The order of the rules in the tree is important. Tekla Structures uses the first rule that matches the conditions within the model, so you should place the most limiting rule highest in the tree, and the most generic, lowest. Restrictions AutoConnection has the following restrictions:

See also

You can have a maximum of two secondary parts in the connection (for example, you cannot use complex gussets with several secondaries). AutoConnection uses profile height and ID number as the criteria for determining 1. secondary and 2. secondary parts. AutoDefaults only affects connection parts (clip angles, shear tabs, end plates, ), bolts, and welds. AutoDefaults cannot change beam profiles or the connection number.

For more information on rules, see AutoConnection rule groups (41)and AutoConnection rule sets (42). For more information on how to use AutoConnection, see Using AutoConnection (43). AutoConnection rule groups Before using AutoConnection, you need to define rule groups, so that you can group the rules according to different standards, projects, manufacturers, etc. To create a new rule group: 1. Open your test model. Click Detailing > AutoConnection > AutoConnection Settings.... 2. Right-click an existing rule group, and select New rule group from the pop-up menu. 3. Double-click the group New and rename it. Give it a distinctive name.

Give the rule group a name that reflects the group of connections that you want to create. For example, use the fabricator's name, the project name, or any name that will clearly identify the connection rules that you want to use for a specific model. When you create a new rule group, Tekla Structures automatically adds the framing conditions branches under it (beam to beam web, beam to beam flange etc.). AutoConnection rule sets Each framing condition can contain rule sets, which you can use to specify which connection to use for specific conditions within the model. You only need to create AutoConnection rule sets if you plan to use different connections to connect similar framing conditions. For example, you have beam to beam connections, some require clip angles, others need shear tabs. In this case, you need to set up rule sets to determine where each connection type should be used. Creating a rule set To add a new rule set under a framing condition: 1. Right-click the framing condition. A pop-up menu appears. 2. Select New rule set. A New entry appears in the tree. 3. Give the new rule set a descriptive name. 1. Right-click an existing rule set. A pop-up menu appears. 2. Select Create additional rule sets. A New entry appears in the tree. 3. Give the new subrule set a descriptive name. Creating a new rule set or subrule set only adds a rule set to the setup tree. You need to define its contents separately. See AutoConnection (39).

Creating a subrule set

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AutoConnection

Editing a rule set

You can edit the contents of a rule set (for example, change the name or add rules to it): 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Right-click the rule set. A pop-up menu appears. Select Edit rule set... to open the AutoConnection Rules dialog box. Select a rule from the Available rules list. Click the right arrow button to move the selected rule into the list of rules in the rule set. In the right pane under Rules in rule set, fill in the acceptable values for the rule. You can either define an exact value, or minimum and maximum values. 6. The name you enter in the Rule set name field is shown in the setup tree.

The order of the rules in the tree is important. Tekla Structures uses the first rule that matches the conditions within the model, so you should place the most limiting rule highest in the tree, and the most generic, lowest. You can change the priority of a rule set by right-clicking the rule set and selecting Move Up or Move Down. For more information on rules, see AutoConnection and AutoDefaults rules (48). Rules.zxt When you use AutoConnection, Tekla Structures creates an Attributes subfolder in the current model folder and saves the AutoConnection information in a zipped text file called rules.zxt. You can copy this file to the project or firm folders to make it available for other models (see also Project and firm folders). Each time you modify AutoConnection setup you need to recopy this file to the firm and/or project folders. When you copy this file for use in other projects, remember to restart Tekla Structures to use the new setup. Changing a connection To change the connection in a rule set, use the Component catalog dialog box which lists all the Tekla Structures connections available in the connection toolbars.

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AutoConnection

To open the Component catalog: 1. Right-click a connection in the AutoConnection Setup tree. A pop-up menu appears. 2. Select Select connection type... to open the Component catalog dialog box. 3. Select a connection and click OK to update the tree. Deleting an item Use the Delete rule set command in the pop-up menu to delete a rule set from the Setup tree. This also deletes its subrule sets.

Using AutoConnection
Use AutoConnection to have Tekla Structures automatically create connections using a predefined set of rules, or rule group. Creating connections To create connections using AutoConnection: 1. Pick the parts to connect. 2. Click Detailing > AutoConnection... > Create connections to display the AutoConnection dialog box. 3. Select a rule group in the first list box on the Rule groups tab as shown below.

Rule group for AutoConnection Rule group for AutoDefaults 4. Click the Create connections button. When you use AutoConnection, Tekla Structures ignores the properties in the connection dialog boxes and creates connections using the properties defined in the rule group. Tekla Structures does not modify existing connections. You can change the properties of connections you create using AutoConnection. Additional options Use the options on the Advanced tab to indicate which rule groups you want to use for each Framing condition (beam to beam web, beam to beam flange, etc.). You also have the option not to apply a rule group, or to apply a specific connection. You can use a rule group for all framing types other than beam to column flange, and indicate a particular connection to use for that framing type. Use Connection selection to indicate your preferences for each framing condition. You have the following options:

Example

Options

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AutoConnection

Option None AutoConnection A named connection

Result Tekla Structures does not create a connection. Tekla Structures applies the connection defined in the rule group you have indicated in the first list box on the Rule groups tab. Click Select to pick from a list of available connections. Click a connection, then OK. Tekla Structures creates the connection you specify using the default properties. See Automatic and default properties (12).

Use Parameters selection to indicate which connection properties you want to use. The options are:

Option AutoDefaults No AutoDefaults

Result Tekla Structures applies the properties of the rule group you have indicated in the first list box on Rule groups tab. Tekla Structures applies the default connection properties. See Automatic and default properties (12).

1.8 AutoDefaults
Introduction Use AutoDefaults to automatically apply the correct properties to existing connections. When you use AutoDefaults, Tekla Structures automatically creates connections with predefined properties. For example, you can use AutoDefaults to automatically adjust the thickness of each base plate you create, according to the main part profile. If the main part profile changes, Tekla Structures will also automatically adjust the thickness of the base plate. See also AutoConnection (39) AutoDefaults setup (45) Connection properties files (46) Saving connection properties (46) Access to properties files (46) Defaults.zxt (47) Priority of rule sets (47) Editing connection properties (47) Using AutoDefaults (48) How to use AutoDefaults effectively (48) Checking AutoDefaults properties (48) Checking AutoDefaults rules (48) AutoConnection and AutoDefaults rules (48)

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AutoDefaults

AutoDefaults setup
With AutoDefaults you can create rules defining when to use different predefined connection properties. When you modify connections (for example changing the beam size), Tekla Structures automatically redefines the connection properties using AutoDefaults setup. Use AutoDefaults to modify standard connection properties and save the modified properties for use in specific situations. Tree structure To open the AutoDefaults setup dialog box, click Detailing > AutoConnection > AutoDefaults Settings.... The connection types used in various cases are shown in a tree structure:

Icon

Type Rule group

Description The 1st level in the tree contains rule groups. The rule groups are user-definable. They help you to group rules according to different standards, projects, manufacturers, and models. The next two levels show all the connections available on the toolbars. They are predefined and you cannot change them. Under each connection you can create rule sets to specify which connection properties to use when specific conditions within the model are met. Every branch in the tree ends with connection properties file(s) (for example, standard.j144). You can save connection properties that you want to use again. See Saving connection properties (46).

Connection page Connection

Rule set

Connection properties file

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AutoDefaults

Rule sets

You define AutoDefaults rule sets in the same way as AutoConnection rule sets. See AutoConnection rule sets (42). Tekla Structures saves the AutoDefaults rules in the defaults.zxt file in the current model folder. You may want to copy defaults.zxt and all the connection properties files associated with it (for example, sec_0-190.j141) to the firm or project folders to use in other models. See Defaults.zxt (47). Connection properties files By default, each connection has a standard properties file which defines the standard properties for the connection (for example, standard.j144). You can save connection properties that you want to use again in separate properties files and give them a distinctive name. Saving connection properties To save connection properties for later use in similar conditions within the model, you can save them in a properties file: 1. Set the properties you want to save (for example, bolt, profile, material properties). 2. In the Save as field, enter a distinctive name for the connection properties. Enter the same name in the Connection code field and click Save as.

When you save connection properties to use with AutoDefaults, it is a good idea to enter the same name in the Save as and Connection code fields on the General tab. This means you can easily check later which properties Tekla Structures used in specific situations. Tekla Structures does not automatically show the AutoDefault values in the connection properties fields. Tekla Structures creates the properties file in an Attributes subfolder in the current model folder. The filename consists of the name you entered in Save as and the extension .jXXX, where XXX is the connection number (for example, sec_0-190.j141). Access to properties files To view the list of properties files for a certain connection: 1. In the AutoDefaults Setup tree, select a properties file (for example, standard.j144). 2. Right-click the selected properties file. A pop-up menu appears. 3. Click Select connection parameters.... Tekla Structures displays the Attribute File List dialog box, containing the existing properties files for the connection. Defaults.zxt When you use AutoDefaults, Tekla Structures creates an Attributes sub-folder in the current model folder and saves the AutoDefaults setup in a zipped text file, defaults.zxt. You can copy this file to the project or firm folders to make it available in other models. See also Project and firm folders. Each time you modify the AutoDefaults setup, you need to recopy this file to the firm, or project folders. When you copy this file for use in other projects, remember to restart Tekla Structures to use the new setup.

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AutoDefaults

We do not recommend that you edit the defaults.zxt file using a text editor, but if you do so, check that you use the right syntax. The easiest way to unpack the .zxt file is to change the file extension zxt to txt.gz and unpack the file using WinZip. Change the extension back to zxt when you have finished. You do not need to repack the file after editing it, Tekla Structures can also read the unpacked file. Priority of rule sets Tekla Structures processes AutoDefaults rule sets in the order in which they appear in the tree, so you can control the selection of properties. Usually, one framing condition, profile type, and orientation can have several property combinations, for example, a different profile height. Example For example, if you have properties files and rules for maximum profile heights of 150, 160, 170 and 190 mm, and AutoDefaults is selecting properties for a height of 158 mm, three properties files are valid. AutoDefaults selects the first one to match (in this case, 160 mm). Where there is no match, you will need a default rule and properties file.You should set the default rule so that it does not define the profile height and is the last item in the branch. In this way the default rule will always be the last one to match and any properties file that matches the profile height will override it. Editing connection properties To edit connection properties in the AutoDefaults Setup tree: 1. Right-click a connection standard.j file (for example, standard.j144). A pop-up menu appears. 2. Select Edit connection parameters to open the connection dialog box. 3. Set the properties as you would when manually creating connections. 4. Type a descriptive name for these properties in the Save as text box and click Save as. Use a name that distinguishes these as AutoDefaults setup. 5. Click Cancel to close the dialog box and return to the AutoDefaults setup dialog box.

If you click OK to close the dialog box, you need to load the default properties next time you use this connection. This ensures that AutoDefaults can modify the properties.

6. Right-click the standard.j again. Click Select connection parameters.... 7. The Attribute File List opens. It contains the properties that have been set and saved in the connection dialog box. 8. You can now apply any of the properties that have been saved in a rule set.

Using AutoDefaults
To use AutoDefaults for a single connection: 1. Open the connection dialog box. 2. On the General tab, select a rule group from the AutoDefaults rule group list. The rule group cannot be None. 3. On all the tabs, set the fields that you want AutoDefaults to override to Default by selecting the options marked with the arrow symbol . 4. Click Apply to create the connection using AutoDefaults.

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AutoDefaults

To quickly set all the fields in a dialog box to Default, load <Defaults> in the connection dialog box.

How to use AutoDefaults effectively


Use default values when you create a connection, then use AutoDefaults to modify the properties. If you manually modify connection properties after using AutoDefaults, Tekla Structures will not automatically update the connection properties, even if AutoDefaults is active. AutoDefaults does not change connection properties that have been modified. It only modifies connection properties in fields containing the default properties. For example, you have manually set a base plate thickness of 20 mm in the Base plate dialog box of a connection. AutoDefaults is active and sets plate thickness according to the main part profile. If you modify the main part profile, Tekla Structures does not update the base plate thickness. It remains at 20 mm.

Checking AutoDefaults properties


To check the properties AutoDefaults has applied to a connection: 1. Double-click the connection symbol to open the connection dialog box. 2. In the list box in the upper left corner of the dialog box, select <AutoDefaults>. 3. Click Load. Tekla Structures shows the applied properties in the fields. You can also see all the combined properties used for that connection.

Checking AutoDefaults rules


You can check which rules AutoDefaults has used for a particular connection. 1. Select the connection symbol and right-click. 2. Select Inquire. Tekla Structures shows the rule group and rule sets that the connection passed. You can also see all the properties files used for that connection.

AutoConnection and AutoDefaults rules


Introduction You can use the rules listed in the sections below to accurately select connections and connection properties when using AutoConnection and AutoDefaults. Using these rules you can create your own standards to apply project or company defaults. The general rules are:

General

Profile name: the name in the Name field in the Profile catalog dialog box. Profile type: use the following table to find the correct number: Number 1

Profile type I

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49

AutoDefaults

Profile type L Z U Plate Round bar Pipe Square pipe C T ZZ CC CW Polygon plate

Number 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 15 16 17 51


Orientation

Number of secondaries. Number of primaries. Material name.

Depending on the relative angle a beam, the connections can be classified as:

Sloped angle (relative to main part cross section) The longitudinal axis of the secondary part follows the slope of the longitudinal axis of the main part.

Skewed angle (relative to main part longitudinal axis) The longitudinal axis of the secondary part is skewed according to the main part cross section. The angle is the smaller of the angles between the longitudinal axis of the secondary part and the main part Z or Y axis.

Cant angle For rotated secondary parts.

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AutoDefaults

Sloped, skewed, and cant angle value can be between - 90 and 90 degrees.

Dimensions

Profile depth Web depth For profiles with an upper and lower flange, web depth is: h - t1 - t2 - 2*r1 Or, if t2 is zero: h - 2*t - 2*r1 For profiles with one flange, web depth is h - t - r1 - r2.


Forces and strengths

Web thickness Flange thickness Shear force Axial force Bending moment

Combining and iterating properties AutoDefaults includes these features:

Feature Combining

Description You can save connection properties files covering different groups of properties, then use these files to define many rules. For example you can have one file for bolt properties and another for profile properties. Tekla Structures combines the files when it runs AutoDefaults. Tekla Structures tests properties until the connection symbol is yellow or green. Iteration changes connection properties automatically if connection fails, even if the rules would match. If Connection Check is set on, the iteration results in connection properties that have passed the check.

Iterating

Using these features

To use either of these features for a rule set: 1. Click Detailing > AutoConnection > AutoDefault Settings...

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AutoDefaults

2. Browse the tree and right-click a rules set. 3. Select Edit rule set... 4. Set Parameters files selection to one of the following options:

Option Use combination of first parameters Iterate until the connection symbol is green Iterate until the connection symbol is yellow Use combination of all parameters

Description Tekla Structures uses the properties files it finds in the first matching sub-rule set and does not check other rule sets. Tekla Structures checks sub rule sets until it finds matching properties that leave the connection symbol green. Tekla Structures checks sub rule sets until it finds matching properties that leave the connection symbol yellow. Tekla Structures checks all rule sets and uses properties files in all matching rule sets. The order of properties files is important, since the last overrides.

The order of files in the tree is important. When Tekla Structures combines the properties files, the most recent files (the lowest in the tree) override previous ones. If you leave properties blank, Tekla Structures does not override previous properties with blank properties. Limitations Tekla Structures cannot iterate properties files directly. Use a single iteration rule set with sub rule sets. You cannot have many parallel iteration rule sets. Use a single iteration rule set and place it just before the default rule set. Place the combination rule sets above the iteration rule set in the tree. Combination rule sets can only be one level deep. Tekla Structures disregards empty rule sets, so include at least one rule in each rule set. See also Combining properties (52) Iteration with connection check (52) Combining properties The AutoDefaults combine feature combines separate properties files into one file. This means you define fewer files, because you use one file for several rules. If files contain different values for the same property, Tekla Structures uses the last property it finds. See the image below.

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AutoDefaults

See also

Combining and iterating properties (50) Iteration with connection check This example shows how you can use the iteration feature of AutoDefaults. In this example iteration sets the number of bolts according to the result of the connection check. When using this rule group for a connection in the model, AutoDefaults sets the number of bolts until the connection symbol is green.

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AutoDefaults

The iteration rule forces Tekla Structures to tests sub rules until the connection symbol is green in the model. Creating iteration rules First, create connection properties files for each number of bolts. See Editing connection properties (47). 1. Click Detailing > AutoConnection > AutoDefaults Settings... 2. Right-click the tree and select New rule group. Click the rule group and rename it to "Iteration example". 3. Browse the tree and find connection 144. Right-click it and select Create additional rule sets.... 4. Right-click the rule set and select Edit rule set..., to open the AutoDefault rules dialog box. 5. Change the Rule set name to "ITERATION". 6. Set Parameters file selection to Iterate until the connection symbol is green. 7. Click OK. 8. To create a rule set "2 bolts", right-click the first rule set and select Create additional rule sets.... 9. Right-click the new rule set and select Edit rule set.... AutoDefault rules dialog box appears. 10. Select rule Secondary 1 depth and set the minimum and maximum depth values for two bolts. 11. Set Parameters file selection to Use combination of first parameters. 12. Click OK. 13. Right-click the connection properties file standard.j144, and click Select connection parameters.. to open the Attribute File List dialog box. Select the properties file for two bolts and click OK. 14. Repeat steps 8 to 13 for other rule sets. Using rules and check together You can use the connection check result when applying AutoDefaults with iteration. If a rule matches, but connection do not pass the check and symbol remains red, AutoDefaults continues testing other rules and properties until the connection symbol is green. To apply a rule group and connection check for a connection: 1. 2. 3. 4. Open the connection properties dialog box. Load the <Defaults> properties. Click General tab and set AutoDefaults Rule Group to the "Iteration example" you created. Click Design type tab and set Connection check to Yes.

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AutoDefaults

5. Enter the load from secondary members in the fields Shear, Tension, Moment. 6. Click OK to create the connection. Checking To see which rules AutoDefaults used, right-click the connection symbol, and select Inquire. To see which values AutoDefaults set, double-click the connection symbol to open the connection dialog box, select <AutoDefaults>, then click Load. Reaction forces and UDL You can save reaction forces:


Using reaction forces

In the user-defined attributes of a part (for AutoConnection and AutoDefaults). On the Design tab in the connection dialog box (for AutoDefaults).

When you use reaction forces in a rule and AutoDefaults is activate, Tekla Structures first searches for reaction forces in the corresponding connections properties. If they do not contain reaction forces, Tekla Structures searches the user-defined attributes of the secondary part of the connection. If Tekla Structures finds no forces there, you cannot use reaction force rules. Shear force calculation is the exception. If you have not given any reaction force values, shear force is calculated using the UDL shear force routine. The UDL calculation is mainly intended for use with imperial units. It uses the yield stress value, profile dimensions, and UDL percentage to calculate the maximum allowable shear force. Tekla Structures compares the result with the Shear force rule in AutoDefaults.

Shear force calculation


UDL for AutoConnection

Yield stress is defined in the material catalog. Profile dimensions come from the profile catalog. UDL percentage is taken either from the connection dialog box or from an advanced option.

To switch on UDL calculation for AutoConnection: 1. On the Design tab in the connection dialog box, set the field Use UDL to Yes. 2. Enter the UDL percentage in the UDL % field. If this field is blank, Tekla Structures uses a default percentage (set using the advanced option XS_AUTODEFAULT_UDL_PERCENT). To switch on UDL calculation for AutoDefaults:

UDL for AutoDefaults

Set the advanced option XS_AUTOCONNECTION_USE_UDL to TRUE. Use the advanced option XS_AUTODEFAULT_UDL_PERCENT to set the UDL percentage.

1.9 Using the joints.def file


This section explains how to use the joints.def text file to set the default properties for different connection types. Not all connections use joints.def.

If you are new to using joints.def, we suggest you read each of the topics in this section thoroughly before making any changes.

Topics

About joints.def (55) Defining general defaults (56) Defining bolt diameter and number of rows (58)

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Using the joints.def file

Defining other bolt and part properties (59) How Tekla Structures uses joints.def (65) Connections that use joints.def (56)

About joints.def
Changing the joints.def file changes the default values for different connection types. You can open the joints.def file in any standard text editor.

Tekla Structures only uses the values in joints.def for blank fields. AutoDefaults and manual entries override joints.def.

If you use joints.def, you can still use some system default properties. To force Tekla Structures to use the system default for a particular property, give it the value -2147483648 in joints.def. By default, Tekla Structures includes the joints.def file in the system folder. Tekla Structures searches for joints.def in the standard search order. How joints.def works For each connection type, Tekla Structures follows these steps to assign bolt and part properties. 1. Tekla Structures determines bolt diameter and number of bolts according to the following criteria: Connection type Clip angle Shear plate End plate Gusset Diagonal According to Secondary beam height Secondary beam height Secondary beam height Length of angle profile Profile height

2. Tekla Structures uses bolt diameter to assign other bolt and part properties. How to read joints.def Lines beginning with // are comment lines. They are there to help you read the file, Tekla Structures does not use the information in comment lines. The first few lines contain some general settings: Set the following line to the unit of measure appropriate to the version you are using (for example, inches in the Imperial version).

To have Tekla Structures use the default values in joints.def, set the following line to 1. Set it to 0 to have Tekla Structures use the system defaults.

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Using the joints.def file

Properties for each connection type appear in individual sections, as shown below. Each section begins with a header row containing the column labels. Do not add columns to the file.

Entering values When you edit joints.def:

Enter absolute values or names Do not use feet and inch symbols Ensure that profiles exist in the profile catalog Ensure bolts exist in the bolt catalog.

Connections that use joints.def


Only the following connections use the joints.def file:

Connections Welded gusset (10) Bolted gusset (11) Bracing cross (19) Tube gusset (20) Tube crossing (22) Two sided angle cleat (25) Corner tube gusset (56) Corner bolted gusset (57) Wraparound gusset (58) Hollow brace wraparound gusset (59) Wraparound gusset cross (60) Wrapped cross (61) Gusseted cross (62) Corner wrapped gusset (63) Beam with stiffener (129) Column with shear plate (131) Bolted moment connection (134)

Connections Clip angle (141) Two sided end plate (142) Two sided clip angle (143) End plate (144) Shear plate simple (146) Welded to top flange (147) Welded to top flange S (149) Moment connection (181) Column with stiffeners W (182) Full depth (184) Full depth S (185) Column with stiffeners (186) Column with stiffeners S (187) Column with stiffeners (188) Shear plate tube column (189) Bent plate (190)

Defining general defaults


If Tekla Structures cannot find a property for a connection in the connection-specific sections of joints.def, it looks for the default property in the General section. Example In clip angles, Tekla Structures uses the default bolt diameter in the General section if the secondary beam height is larger than the highest value in the Clip angle section of joints.def.

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Using the joints.def file

The properties in the General section of joints.def are:

Properties
boltdia pitch clipweld angle-cc-inc

Description Bolt diameter. Distance from the center of one bolt to the center of the next. Weld size. Tekla Structures adds bolt to bolt distance and web thickness, then rounds the result up by this value. Complies with US AISC standard. Tekla Structures rounds the angle profile gap up by this value. Complies with US AISC standard. Size of the angle profile. Determines notch size. Determines notch size. Edge distance. Haunch plate height (h). Haunch plate width (b). Distance from the upper edge of the angle profile to the top of the secondary beam. No longer used. Edge distance for bolts (clip angles only). No longer used. Shear plate thickness. End plate thickness. Size of weld. Size of angle profile (clip angles only). Flange cut clearance. Size of slotted hole. Which part gets slotted holes: 1 for beam 2 for angle profiles 3 for both Refers to the Slots in list box options on the Bolts tab. See individual connection help for details.

lprofgapinc

lsize copedepth copelength boltedge webplatelen webplatewid beamedge

knifeclr clipedge gap shearplatethk endplatethk shearweld cliplsize flangecutclear slotsize clipslots

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Using the joints.def file

Properties
clipattach

Description How the clip angle is attached to the secondary and main parts: 1 is Both bolted 2 is Main bolted / Secondary welded 3 is Main not welded 4 is Main welded / Secondary bolted 5 is Both welded 6 is Main not bolted 7 is Secondary not welded 8 is Secondary not bolted 9 is Both bolted / welded Refers to the attachment type list box options on the Bolts tab. See individual connection help for details.

copedepthinc copelengthinc

Tekla Structures rounds cope depth up using this value. Tekla Structures rounds cope length using this value.

Defining bolt diameter and number of rows


Before you start, read How joints.def works (55). Use the rows beginning with BOLTHEIGHT in each connection-specific section of joints.def to define the default bolt diameter and default number of bolt rows for the following connection types:

Clip angle, shear plate, and end plate connections (58) Gusset connections (58) Diagonal connections (59)

Clip angle, shear plate, and end plate connections Tekla Structures calculates the default bolt diameter and number of rows vertically according to the height of the secondary beam. You can enter the following properties:

Property
name part sec.beam.height

Description Use the name BOLTHEIGHT Use the part name ANGLECLIP Maximum height of secondary beam for a certain number of bolts Bolt diameter. Must exist in the bolt catalog. Number of bolts vertically

diameter number_of_bolts

Gusset connections Tekla Structures calculates the default bolt diameter and number of bolt rows horizontally according to the length of the angle profile. You can enter the following properties:

Property
name

Description Use the name BOLTHEIGHT

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Using the joints.def file

Property
part lproflength

Description Use the part name GUSSET Length of angle profile

or
angleproflength diameter number_of_bolts

Bolt diameter. Must exist in bolt catalog Number of bolts horizontally

Diagonal connections Tekla Structures calculates the default bolt diameter and number of bolt rows horizontally according to the profile height. You can enter the following properties:

Property
name part conn.pl.height

Description Use the name BOLTHEIGHT Use the part name DIAGONAL Profile height

or
profileheight diameter number_of_bolts

Bolt diameter. Must exist in bolt catalog. Number of bolts horizontally

Defining other bolt and part properties


Before you start, read How joints.def works (55). Once Tekla Structures has used joints.def to calculate bolt diameter, it uses the result to assign other properties to bolts and parts, according to connection type. Example Enter the default properties for bolts and parts in clip angle connections in the rows beginning ANGLECLBOLTPART in the CLIP ANGLE section of joints.def. The table below lists the properties you assign for bolts and parts for each connection type. Gusset and diagonal connections have additional properties. See Gusset connection properties (60)and Diagonal connection properties (63).

Properties lookup table

Key to lookup table Connection type C S E G D Full name Clip angle Shear plate End plate Gusset Diagonal

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Using the joints.def file

Connection Type Property


name

Description Identifies the connection type. Example GUSSETBOLTPART for gusset connections.

C *

S *

E *

G *

D *

bolt diameter

Bolt diameter. Must exist in the bolt catalog. See also Profile type-dependent bolt dimensions (65)

shear plate thickness end plate thickness gusset thickness conn. plate thickness angle profile

Thickness of shear plate Thickness of end plate Thickness of the gusset Thickness of the connection plate Name of the angle profile to use: *

* * * * * *

or L profile

Must exist in the profile catalog Enter the exact name Example: L100*100*10 * * * * *

number

Number of bolts in each row: vertically horizontally

pitch

Distance between bolts from the center of each bolt. For vertical and horizontal bolts Distance from the center of a bolt to the edge of the part. For vertical and horizontal bolts Position of the first vertical row of bolts

* * *

* * *

* * *

* *

edge distance

vert.bolt firsthole

Gusset connection properties Enter these additional default properties in the row beginning GUSSETDEFDIM. Not all gusset connections use all these properties:

Option
name boltdia_def

Description
GUSSETDEFDIM

Affects plate shape

Bolt diameter for all bolt groups. Leave the Bolt size field blank in the dialog box to have Tekla Structures use the value in joints.def. See illustration.

tol_prim

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Using the joints.def file

Option
tol_sec dist_diag_prim

Description See illustration. Clearance between the first secondary part selected and the main part. Perpendicular distance from last secondary part selected to the nearest secondary. See illustration. See illustration. Clearance between braces. Bolt edge distance for the bolt groups on the Gusset tab. See illustration. See illustration. On the Gusset tab:

Affects plate shape

dist_diag_sec

angle_first_corner angle_sec_corner dist_between_diag first_bolt_from_lin e corner_dx corner_dy movey

Yes Yes

movey movez

On the Gusset tab:


movez

dist1

The length of the edge of the gusset plate that is perpendicular to the lowest brace. The length of the edges of the gusset plate perpendicular to the braces. The length of the edge of the gusset plate perpendicular to the uppermost brace. See illustration. Tolerance of stiffener. Dimensions of stiffener chamfer on the Gusset tab:

Yes Yes Yes

dist2

dist3

tol_lprof tol_stiffener chamfer_dx chamfer_dy chamfer_corner_dx chamfer_corner_dy

chamfer_corner_dx

chamfer-corner_dy side_length

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Using the joints.def file

Option
diafit_length

Description Fit length in Bracing cross (19) connection. Leave this field empty on the Parameters tab to have Tekla Structures use the value in joints.def.

Affects plate shape

The illustration below shows the properties on the Picture tab of the Boomerang wrapped diagonal (58) connection dialog box.

tol_lprof

corner_dy

corner_dx

dist_diag_sec

tol_sec

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Using the joints.def file

angle_sec_corner

dist3

dist_between_diag

dist2

dist1

dist_diag_prim

tol_prim

Diagonal connection properties Enter these additional default properties for bolts and parts in the rows beginning DIAGDEFDIM. Not all diagonal connections use all these properties:

Property
name boltdia_def

Description
DIAGDEFDIM

Bolt diameter for all bolt groups. Leave the Bolt size field blank in the dialog box to have Tekla Structures use the value in joints.def. Gap between the gusset plate and the brace. If tube profiles are closed with end plates, the gap between the gusset plate and the end plate. Depth of the cut in the brace. Enter a negative value to prevent the connection plate from being inside the tube brace. Distance from the edge of the brace to the edge of the connection plate. This dimension changes the width of the connection plate. On the Brace conn tab:

dist_gus_diag

dist_in

dist_dv

sec_cut_tol slot_length_tol

sec_cut_tol slot_length_tol tube_cut_tol

On the Brace conn tab:


tube_cut_tol

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Using the joints.def file

Property
conn_cut_dx conn_cut_dy

Description On the Brace conn tab:


conn_cut_dy conn_cut_dx

round_plate_tol

On the Brace conn tab:

end_plate_thk

flanges_cut_angle dist_flanges_cut dist_skew_cut

On the Brace conn tab:


flanges_cut_angle

dist_flanges_cut dist_skew_cut end_plate_thk

End plate field t in the Tube diag tab.

This illustration shows the properties that appear on the Picture tab of the Tube crossing (22) connection:

dist_dv

dist_in

dist_gus_diag

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Using the joints.def file

Profile type-dependent bolt dimensions For some connections, such as Clip angle (141) and Two sided clip angle (143), Tekla Structures calculates the bolt size according to the profile size. In this type of connections, Tekla Structures takes the bolt size from the PROFILE TYPE-DEPENDENT BOLT DIMENSIONS section of joints.def file if you leave the corresponding fields blank on the Bolts tab:

The options are:

Option
width one bolt firsthole

Description Width of the profile For single bolts, distance from the heel of the profile angle to the first hole. For two bolts, distance from the heel of the profile angle to the first hole. Distance between bolts from the center of each bolt. For vertical and horizontal bolts.

two bolts firsthole

pitch

Example

To find the bolt dimensions to be used with an L6X6X1/2 profile in a clip angle connection: 1. Tekla Structures searches the rows beginning PROFILEBOLTDIM for L6X6X1/2 in the PROFILE TYPE-DEPENDENT BOLT DIMENSIONS section of joints.def. 2. If there is no match, Tekla Structures searches the rows beginning ANGLECLBOLTPART in the CLIP ANGLE section of joints.def.

How Tekla Structures uses joints.def


This example explains how Tekla Structures calculates bolt diameter and other properties using joints.def. We are using a Bolted gusset (11) connection. The height of the diagonal profile is 10".

Tekla Structures calculates bolt size and number of bolts according to profile height. It searches the BOLTHEIGHT rows for a profile height of 10". The profile height is greater than 8.0 but less than 12.0, so Tekla Structures uses the row with the profile height 8.0. This sets the bolt diameter to 0.75.

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Using the joints.def file

Tekla Structures assigns the bolt and part properties according to the bolt diameter. It searches the DIAGBOLTPART rows for a bolt diameter of 0.75.

Result Property Bolt diameter Number of bolts horizontally Edge distance horizontally Edge distance vertically Distance between bolts horizontally Distance between bolts vertically Value 0.75 2 1.5 1.5 2.5 system default

Tekla Structures does not use the connection plate thickness or angle profile properties in this connection.

1.10 Using Excel in connection design


You can link system components and Excel spreadsheets, so when a component is applied or modified, an associated Excel spreadsheet application can be run. The configuration information is passed from the component to the spreadsheet, calculation run within the spreadsheet and component properties passed back to the connection.

You can use Excel in connection design for all steel components that have the Design tab in their properties dialog box.

Tekla Structures includes sample spreadsheet for connection design and a template spreadsheet you should use to create your own spreadsheet applications to use with Tekla Structures components. Before you start:

Create the connections and parts. Create the Excel spreadsheet for connection type, or use a predefined file. See more in Setting up Excel files (67).

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Using Excel in connection design

To use the Excel spreadsheet for connection design: Double-click the connection to open the connection properties dialog box. Go to the Design (or Design type) tab and select Excel in the External design list box. Click Modify. The connection properties are transferred from Tekla Structures to a connection type specific Excel spreadsheet, where the properties are calculated. 5. The calculated properties are saved to an output file. 6. The modified properties are transferred back to Tekla Structures and the connection is modified according to the changes. Topics Setting up Excel files (67) Sample implementation (67) Indicating component status (70) 1. 2. 3. 4.

Setting up Excel files


The following list describes what kind of files are needed for performing connection design with Excel:

Visual Basic script file linking Tekla Structures with external software. Excel spreadsheet containing calculations. Component type specific spreadsheet, which contains predefined calculations. When you run the connection design, the connection properties and information of the main and secondary parts are transferred to the Input and Component sheets of the spreadsheet. Connection specific result file, which displays the modified connection properties is stored to model folder.


File names and locations

This file is created automatically from the Calculation sheet of the spreadsheet. The file is updated each time you modify the connection. Calculation results can be stored as Excel spreadsheet, HTML or PDF format, depending on how calculation spreadsheet is configured.

Excel.vb file (located in the ..\Tekla Structures\<version>\environments\common\exceldesign folder) defines the Excel

spreadsheet file names and the locations. Excel searches for the spreadsheet in the following order and with following name: 1. File named component_ + number or name + .xls, from the current model folder:
..\<model>\exceldesign

For example, ..\test_model\exceldesign\component_144.xls 2. File name and path defined with advanced option XS_EXTERNAL_EXCEL_DESIGN_PATH:
XS_EXTERNAL_EXCEL_DESIGN_PATH (=%XS_DIR%\environments\common\exceldesign\) + "component_" + number + ".xls"

By default, the result file is stored in the model folder and named with component ID. For example, component_9502_res.xls.

Sample implementation
Below is described the contents of an Excel spreadsheet which is used for End plate (144) connection:

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Using Excel in connection design

When user clicks Modify in the End plate (144) properties dialog box, Excel.vb file calls Excel spreadsheet named component_144.xls. Contents The sample spreadsheet includes the following sheets: Inputs (user inputs on connection dialog).

Tekla Structures transfers the component properties from the component properties dialog box to this sheet.

Component

Tekla Structures transfers the component geometry and information on the main and secondary parts (for example, part profiles) into this sheet. The component attributes in the spreadsheet are the same as in the corresponding .inp file. See more about .inp files in Input files. This sheet includes calculations (the calculations can be as Visual Basic macros in the sheet).

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Using Excel in connection design

Calculation

Summary of calculation is collected to the Calculation sheet. This page or full Excel spreadsheet can be stored as a report of the calculation.

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Using Excel in connection design

Outputs

Excel adds the modified values to the Output sheet. These values are transferred back to the connection and connection in the model is modified accordingly.

Indicating component status


When you use Excel in connection design, you can have Tekla Structures use different colored component symbols to indicate the status of a component in the model. To do this, include the error attribute on the Output page of the Excel spreadsheet for the component. The possible values are:

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Using Excel in connection design

Value
1

Color Green

Status Bolt edge distances are sufficient. Passes the connection design check using the UK and US design codes embedded in the system.

Yellow Red

Bolt edge distances are insufficient according to the value in Tools > Options > Options... > Components. Tekla Structures cannot calculate the component properties. Possible reasons include:

Incorrect connection direction Incorrect work plane Inappropriate connection selected The connection design check was carried out using the embedded UK and US design codes and the connection cannot support the loading defined by the user.

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Using Excel in connection design

2
Introduction

Reinforcement

Once you have created a model of concrete parts, you will need to reinforce the parts. This chapter explains how to create reinforcement in Tekla Structures. It also includes a general description of reinforcement properties and an overview of reinforcement commands.

Audience Assumed background

This chapter is aimed at concrete detailers and designers. Before you start to create reinforcement, you need to have concrete parts in your model, as explained in Concrete Detailing. Running the structural analysis as explained in Analysis and Design gives you the required area of reinforcement. Read Loads for instructions on how to create loads.

See also

Numbering reinforcements

2.1 Getting started with reinforcement


In Tekla Structures, you can use different methods to create reinforcement. You can create:


Concepts

Single reinforcing bars Reinforcing bar groups Reinforcement meshes Reinforcement components.

We recommend that you use reinforcement components to create reinforcement whenever possible. They are adaptive, attached to a concrete part, and updated automatically if the dimensions of the reinforced part change, for example. Then create additional reinforcing bars using other tools.
Reinforcing bar groups Reinforcement meshes

consist of several identical, or very similar, bars. Tekla Structures always treats these bars as a group, modifies them in the same way, deletes them all at the same time, etc.

include bars in two perpendicular directions, i.e. main bars and crossing bars. Tekla Structures treats mesh bars as one unit but distinguishes the main and crossing bars. Reinforcement properties Every reinforcement object has properties which define it (for example, grade, diameter or size, minimum bending radius). Use the reinforcement properties dialog boxes to view or modify the properties of reinforcement. Click Detailing > Properties > Reinforcement to open reinforcement properties dialog boxes, or double-click an existing reinforcement object in the model. You can use reinforcement properties in filters. For example, you can select, modify, or hide reinforcing bars based on their properties.For more information, see Filtering objects.

Filtering by properties

Reinforcement

73

Getting started with reinforcement

In reports and drawings See also

You can include reinforcement properties and user-defined attributes in drawing and report templates. Basic reinforcement properties (74) Getting Started (7) with Detailing

2.2 Basic reinforcement properties


This section explains properties that are common to most types of reinforcement in Tekla Structures. Name Grade You can enter names for reinforcing bars. Tekla Structures uses names in reports and drawing tables. The strength of the steel used in reinforcing bars. Can also indicate other factors, such as the weldability or surface deformations of the bar. Depending on the environment, the nominal diameter of the bar, or a mark that defines the diameter. Complies with the design code you are using. Main bars, stirrups, ties, and hooks usually have their own minimum internal bending radii, which are proportional to the diameter of the reinforcing bar. The actual bending radius is normally chosen to suit the size of the mandrels on the bar-bending machine. Tekla Structures reinforcing bar bending types are recognized using internal bending type definitions. Internal bending types are hard coded to the software. However, these internal bending types are mapped to area specific reinforcing bar bending type codes in the rebar_schedule_config.inp file in the ..\Tekla Structures\<version>\environments\<environment>\system\ folder. This file can be localized to match local requirements. For more information on internal bending types, see Reinforcing bar bending types (116). Reinforcement catalog Gradesizeradius combinations are predefined in the reinforcement catalog. You can select which catalog to use, and add, modify, and delete the information it contains. See The Reinforcing Bar Catalog. To define the grade, size, and bending radius of a reinforcing bar, click Select... next to the Grade, Size, and Bending radius fields in the Reinforcing bar properties dialog box. The Select reinforcing bar dialog box appears, showing the available bar sizes for the chosen grade. You can also define whether the bar is a main bar or a stirrup or tie.

Size

Bending radius

Bending types

Select...

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74

Basic reinforcement properties

You can also enter the grade, size, and bending radius of individual reinforcing bars using the appropriate fields in the Reinforcing bar properties dialog box.

Class

Use Class to group reinforcement. To display reinforcing bars of different classes in different colors, click View > Representation > Object Representation... and select Color by class from the Color list box. For more information, see Color settings for parts. Reinforcing bar groups mainly have the same properties as single reinforcing bars. They can also have the following extra properties:

Bar groups


See also

Number of bars Spacing (see Spacing reinforcing bars (78)) Tapering (see Tapered bar group (85))

Hooks (75) Concrete cover (76) Spacing reinforcing bars (78) Omitting reinforcing bars (78) User-defined attributes of reinforcement (79) Meshes (79) Numbering reinforcements

Hooks
To add hooks to the ends of reinforcing bars for anchoring purposes, use the Hooks section of the Reinforcing Bar Properties dialog box, or the Hooks tab in the Reinforcement Mesh Properties dialog box:

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75

Basic reinforcement properties

The options for the hook at the beginning and end of the bar are:

Option

Description No hook Standard 90-degree hook Standard 135-degree hook Standard 180-degree hook Custom hook

The reinforcement catalog contains predefined dimensions for all standard hooks (minimum bending radius, minimum hook length). See The Reinforcing Bar Catalog. Custom hook To manually define the angle, radius, and length of a hook, select the Custom hook option and enter values to the following fields in the Reinforcing Bar Properties dialog box:

Field Angle Radius

Description Enter a value between 180 and +180 degrees. Internal bending radius of the hook. Use the same radius for the hook and for the reinforcing bar. If the hook and the reinforcing bar have different radiuses, Tekla Structures does not recognize the shape of the reinforcing bar.

Angle Radius Length

Length

Length of the straight part of the hook. If the length is set to zero, no hooks are created.

Concrete cover
Reinforcing bars need a concrete cover, to protect them against harmful elements, such as the weather and fire. When you create single bars, Tekla Structures uses the thickness of concrete cover to determine the position of the bar. You pick points to define the shape and plane of the bar. Cover thickness Use the Cover thickness fields in the reinforcement properties dialog boxes to define concrete cover.

Reinforcement

76

Basic reinforcement properties

Example

To create a beam stirrup, pick the corner points on the cross-sectional end plane of the beam to define the bar shape and plane. The cover thickness on the plane is the distance from beams bottom, top, and side surfaces to the stirrup. The cover thickness from the plane is the distance from the end surface of the beam to the stirrup, and perpendicular to the bar plane.

Concrete cover

Description Concrete cover on the plane For example, the distances from a beams bottom, top, and side surfaces to a stirrup. To specify different concrete covers on the different legs of a reinforcing bar, enter a thickness value for each leg in the On plane field, in the order you pick points to create the bar. If you enter less values than there are bar legs, Tekla Structures uses the last value for remaining legs. Concrete cover from the plane For example, the distance from a beams end surface to the closest stirrup, perpendicular to the stirrup plane.

Leg length

At the start and end point of a reinforcing bar, you can also define the concrete cover in terms of cover thickness or leg length.

Option Cover thickness Leg length

Description Defines the distance from the bar end to the concrete surface. Defines the length of the ultimate leg of the bar.

To define the length of an ultimate leg of a bar, use the Leg length option and the Snap to nearest points switch. Then pick anywhere on a part edge or line to indicate the direction for the bar leg.

Reinforcement components

When you use reinforcement components, Tekla Structures places the reinforcement using the dimensions of the part and the values in the Cover thickness field, or the graphic fields shown below:

Reinforcement

77

Basic reinforcement properties

Spacing reinforcing bars


Bar groups There are several ways to distribute bars in a reinforcing bar group. To create a bar group, open the Reinforcing Bar Properties dialog box. On the Group tab, select an option from the Creation method list box. The options are:

Option By exact spacing value with flexible first space

Description Creates fixed, equal spaces between the bars. The first space adjusts to even out bar distribution. Enter the spacing value in the Exact spacing value field. If the first space is less than 10% of the exact spacing value, Tekla Structures removes one bar. Same as the first option, but the last space adjusts to even out bar distribution. Same as the first option, but the middle space adjusts to even out bar distribution. If there are an odd number of bars (two middle spaces), the other middle space adjusts to even out bar distribution. Same as the first option, but both the first and last spaces adjust to even out bar distribution. Distributes the bars using the information you specify in the Exact spacing values field, so you can enter every spacing value manually. Use the multiplication character to repeat spacings, e.g. 5*200, to create five spaces of 200. Tekla Structures determines the spacing value based on the fixed number of bars. Enter the number in the Number of reinforcing bars field. Tekla Structures aims the spacing value as close as possible to the value in the Target spacing value field and determines the number of bars compatibly.

By exact spacing value with flexible last space By exact spacing value with flexible middle space

By exact spacing value with flexible first and last space By exact spacings

Equal distribution by number of reinforcing bars Equal distribution by target spacing value

See also

Omitting reinforcing bars (78)

Omitting reinforcing bars


You may occasionally need to omit specific reinforcing bars. For example, when several reinforced areas intersect, causing reinforcing bars to overlap, or when you want to start bar distribution at a specific distance from the end of a part. To indicate which bars to omit, select an option from the Reinforcing bar(s) not to be created to the group list box:


See also

None (all reinforcing bars included) First Last First and last

Spacing reinforcing bars (78)

Reinforcement

78

Basic reinforcement properties

User-defined attributes of reinforcement


Create user-defined attributes to add information about reinforcing bars, bar groups, or reinforcement meshes. Attributes can consist of numbers, text, or lists. To create user-defined attributes, click the User-defined attributes button in the reinforcement properties dialog box. Use the User field 1...4 fields to define the attributes you need. You can also change the name of these fields, and add new ones, by editing the objects.inp file. For more information, see Adding properties.

Meshes
A reinforcement mesh consists of reinforcing bars in two directions. You can define the following properties.

Diameter 2 Spacing 2 Overhang Spacing 1 Diameter 1 Length Overhang Width Create mesh Create mesh using the Detailing > Create Reinforcement > Reinforcement Mesh command or a component. Reinforcement meshes can be:

Mesh shape

Rectangular Polygonal

Reinforcement

79

Basic reinforcement properties


Distribution pattern of bars

Bent

You can create meshes with unevenly-spaced bars. You can also define a different bar size or multiple different bar sizes for the longitudinal bars and the crossing bars. Multiple bar sizes enable pattern creation. For example, if you enter bar diameters 20 2*6 in the longitudinal direction, Tekla Structures creates a pattern with one size 20 bar and two size 6 bars. This pattern can be repeated in the mesh along the longitudinal direction.

For more information, see Customizing reinforcement meshes (105). Mesh size The way you define the size of the mesh depends on the shape of the mesh and how it was created:


See also

Evenly-spaced rectangular meshes - manually define the size Polygonal and bent meshes - Tekla Structures automatically calculates the width and length Unevenly-spaced meshes - Tekla Structures calculates the size of the mesh using the values in the Distance(s), Left overhang, and Right overhang fields.

Reinforcement mesh (89)

2.3 Single bars, bar groups, and meshes


Tekla Structures includes the following tools to create single reinforcing bars, bar groups, and reinforcement meshes. In addition, you can use several system components for creating reinforcement. For more information, see Reinforcements.

Command Creating reinforcement using the Reinforcing Bar Shape Catalog (81) Reinforcing bar (83)

Icon

Description Creates a single reinforcing bar or a reinforcing bar group based on predefined reinforcement shapes. Creates a single reinforcing bar.

Reinforcing bar group (84)

Creates a reinforcing bar group.

Curved reinforcing bar group (87)

Creates a curved reinforcing bar group.

Circular reinforcing bar group (88)

Creates a circular reinforcing bar group.

Reinforcement

80

Single bars, bar groups, and meshes

Command Reinforcement mesh (89)

Icon

Description Creates a reinforcement mesh.

Reinforcement strand pattern (92)

Creates prestressed strands.

Reinforcement splice (94)

Joins reinforcing bars or reinforcing bar groups together with reinforcement splices.

Creating reinforcement using the Reinforcing Bar Shape Catalog


Create a reinforcement by selecting a reinforcement shape from a list of predefined shapes. The predefined shapes are based on the shapes that have been defined in the Rebar Shape Manager and saved in the RebarShapeRules.xml file. To create a reinforcement: 1. Click Detailing > Create Reinforcement > Shape Catalog. 2. Select one of the predefined shapes from the tree view on the left. You can add frequently used shapes to the tree view, or delete the shapes that you do not need. To add more shapes or categories to the tree view: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Click Organize catalog.... Create new category folders. Drag and drop the selected shapes to the folders. Change the names of the folders, if needed. Click OK.

6. Modify the leg lengths, general reinforcement properties, hook properties, or the reinforcing bar group properties, if needed. The leg length value can be entered with or without parenthesis.

With parenthesis: the leg length is calculated automatically according to the object dimensions. Without parenthesis: the exact value of the leg length is used.

If you select an existing reinforcement in the model and click the Get button, the properties of that reinforcement are displayed in the Reinforcing Bar Shape Catalog dialog box.

The hook properties are visible only if you have set the advanced option XS_REBAR_RECOGNITION_HOOKS_CONSIDERATION to FALSE.

7. Change the reference point of the reinforcement by double-clicking the different legs or hooks in the preview of the shape, if needed. The reference point defines the insertion point of the first reinforcing bar leg. 8. Click OK to close the Reinforcing Bar Shape Catalog dialog box.

Reinforcement

81

Single bars, bar groups, and meshes

9. In the model, place the mouse pointer over a part face or edge. A preview showing the placing and dimensions of the reinforcement is displayed.

10. Based on the preview, select a location for the reinforcement and click the left mouse button. The reinforcement with handles is created. 11. If you need to adjust the reinforcement: move or drag the start and end handles use Mini Toolbar to modify the properties use Reinforcing Bar Properties dialog box to modify the properties.

Reinforcement

82

Single bars, bar groups, and meshes

Reinforcement created with Reinforcing Bar Shape Catalog behave in the same way as reinforcement created with the other reinforcement commands. You can modify, copy, or delete the reinforcement, and the reinforcement adapt to the changes made to the part they are placed in. Limitations Reinforcing Bar Shape Catalog does not work with tapered reinforcing bar groups. Reinforcing Bar Shape Catalog works mainly with flat, 2D shapes. See also Reinforcing bar group (84) Working with reinforcement (95) Modifying reinforcement (99) Reinforcing bar bending shapes in the Rebar Shape Manager (108)

Reinforcing bar
Synopsis Preconditions This command creates a reinforcing bar. Create the part to reinforce. Calculate the required area of reinforcement. Usage 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Click Detailing > Properties > Reinforcement > Reinforcing Bar.... Enter or modify the bar properties. Click Apply or OK to save the properties. Click Detailing > Create Reinforcement > Reinforcing Bar. Select the part to reinforce. Tekla Structures attaches the bar to the part.

6. Pick the start point of the bar. 7. Pick the other bar reference points. 8. Click the middle mouse button to finish picking. Description Tekla Structures creates the reinforcing bar using the properties in the Reinforcing Bar Properties dialog box. The filename extension of a saved bar properties file is rbr.

Field Series and Start no Name Size Grade Bending radius

Description The mark series of the bar. The user-definable name of the bar. The diameter of the bar or a mark defining it. The steel grade of the bar. The internal radius of the bends in the bar. You can enter a separate value for each bar bend. Separate the values with spaces.

More information Numbering reinforcements Basic reinforcement properties (74)

Class

Used to group reinforcement.

Reinforcement

83

Single bars, bar groups, and meshes

Field Shape Angle Radius Length Cover thickness on plane Cover thickness from plane Start End User-defined attributes...

Description The shape of the hook. The angle of the custom hook. The internal bending radius of the standard or custom hook. The length of the straight part of the standard or custom hook. The distances from the part surfaces to the bar on the same plane as the bar. The distance from the part surface to the bar, or bar end, perpendicular to the bar plane. The concrete cover thickness or leg length at the first end of the bar. The concrete cover thickness or leg length at the second end of the bar. User-defined reinforcement properties.

More information Hooks (75)

Concrete cover (76)

User-defined attributes of reinforcement (79)

See also

Reinforcing bar group (84) Working with reinforcement (95) Modifying reinforcement (99)

Reinforcing bar group


Synopsis Preconditions This command creates a reinforcing bar group. Create the part to reinforce. Calculate the required area of reinforcement. Usage A reinforcing bar group includes several identical, or very similar, reinforcing bars. You first define the shape of a single bar, then the direction in which Tekla Structures distributes the bars. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Click Detailing > Properties > Reinforcement > Reinforcing Bar Group.... Enter or modify the bar group properties. Click Apply or OK to save the properties. Click Detailing > Create Reinforcement > Reinforcing Bar Group. Select the part to reinforce. Tekla Structures attaches the bar group to the part.

6. Pick the bar start point. 7. Pick the other bar reference points. The first set of points defines the plane of the first bar and the shape of a single bar in the group. 8. Click the middle mouse button to finish picking. 9. Pick the start point of the bar group.

Reinforcement

84

Single bars, bar groups, and meshes

10. Pick the end point of the bar group. The second set of points to indicates the distribution direction and length of the bars. Tapered bar group To create a tapered bar group: 1. Click Detailing > Properties > Reinforcement > Reinforcing Bar Group.... 2. Enter or modify the bar group properties. 3. On the Group tab, select an option from the Bar group type list: Option Normal Tapered Tapered ridge Tapered curved Tapered N Description Not tapered. One bar dimension changes linearly in the group. One bar dimension changes linearly. The dimension is longest in the middle of the group. One bar dimension changes along a curve. The dimension is longest in the middle of the group. One bar dimension changes linearly between N ridges. Enter the number of ridges in the Number of cross sections field. The reinforcing bars rise in a polygonal or circular shape along the longitudinal axis of the part.

Spiral

4. Click Apply or OK. 5. Click Detailing > Create Reinforcement > Reinforcing Bar Group. 6. Select the part to reinforce. Tekla Structures attaches the bar group to the part. 7. Pick points to define the shape of the bar at the first cross section. Click the middle mouse button to finish picking. 8. For the second and subsequent cross sections, pick points to define the shape of the bar. Click the middle mouse button to finish picking. If you select the Normal option, you only need to define bar shape and bar distribution length.

If you change the type of a tapered bar group, Tekla Structures adjusts the number of handles. You can then drag handles to modify the group.

Spiral bar group

To create a spiral bar group: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Click Detailing > Properties > Reinforcement > Reinforcing Bar Group.... Enter or modify the bar group properties. On the Group tab, select Spiral from the Bar group type list. Click Apply or OK. Click Detailing > Create Reinforcement > Reinforcing Bar Group. Select the part to reinforce. Tekla Structures attaches the bar group to the part.

Reinforcement

85

Single bars, bar groups, and meshes

7. Pick points to define the shape of the bar at the first cross section. Click the middle mouse button to finish picking. 8. For the second and subsequent cross sections, pick points to define the shape of the bar. Click the middle mouse button to finish picking. Description Tekla Structures creates the reinforcing bar group using the properties in the Reinforcing Bar Properties dialog box. The filename extension of a saved bar group properties file is rbg.

Field Series and Start no Name Size Grade Bending radius

Description The mark series of the bar. The user-definable name of the bar. The diameter of the bar or a mark defining it. The steel grade of the bar. The internal radius of the bar bends. You can enter a separate value for each bar bend. Separate the values with spaces.

More information Numbering reinforcements Basic reinforcement properties (74)

Class Shape Angle Radius Length Cover thickness on plane Cover thickness from plane Start End User-defined attributes... Creation method etc. Additional actions

Used to group reinforcement. The shape of the hook. The angle of the custom hook. The internal bending radius of the standard or custom hook. The length of the straight part of the standard or custom hook. The distances from the part surfaces to the bar on the same plane as the bar. The distance from the part surface to the bar, or bar end, perpendicular to the bar plane. The concrete cover thickness or leg length at the first end of the bar. The concrete cover thickness or leg length at the second end of the bar. User-defined reinforcement properties. How to create the bar group. User-defined attributes of reinforcement (79) Spacing reinforcing bars (78) Omitting reinforcing bars (78) Tapered bar group (85) Concrete cover (76) Hooks (75)

See also

Reinforcement mesh (89)

Reinforcement

86

Single bars, bar groups, and meshes

Working with reinforcement (95) Modifying reinforcement (99) Curved reinforcing bar group (87) Circular reinforcing bar group (88)

Curved reinforcing bar group


Synopsis Creates a group of curved reinforcing bars.

Preconditions

Create the part to reinforce. Calculate the required area of reinforcement.

Usage

To create a curved bar group: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Click Detailing > Properties > Reinforcement > Curved Reinforcing Bar Group... Enter or modify the reinforcing bar group properties. Click Apply or OK. Click Detailing > Create Reinforcement > Curved Reinforcing Bar Group. Select the part to reinforce. Tekla Structures attaches the bar group to the part.

6. Pick three points on an arc to define the curve.

Reinforcement

87

Single bars, bar groups, and meshes

7. Pick two points to indicate the distribution direction of the bars.

Description

Tekla Structures creates the curved reinforcing bar group using the properties in the Reinforcing Bar Properties dialog box. See Reinforcing bar group (84)for more information on the common properties in this dialog box. Working with reinforcement (95) Modifying reinforcement (99) Reinforcing bar group (84) Circular reinforcing bar group (88)

See also

Circular reinforcing bar group


Synopsis Creates a group of circular reinforcing bars.

Preconditions

Create the part to reinforce. Calculate the required area of reinforcement.

Usage

To create a circular bar group:

Reinforcement

88

Single bars, bar groups, and meshes

1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

Click Detailing > Properties > Reinforcement > Circular Reinforcing Bar Group.... Enter or modify the reinforcing bar group properties. Click Apply or OK. Click Detailing > Create Reinforcement > Circular Reinforcing Bar Group. Select the part to reinforce. Tekla Structures attaches the bar group to the part.

6. Pick three points to define the circular bars.

7. Pick two points to indicate the distribution direction of the bars.

Description

Tekla Structures creates the circular reinforcing bar group using the properties in the Reinforcing Bar Properties dialog box. See Reinforcing bar group (84)for more information on the common properties in this dialog box. Working with reinforcement (95) Modifying reinforcement (99) Reinforcing bar group (84) Curved reinforcing bar group (87)

See also

Reinforcement mesh
Synopsis Preconditions This command creates a reinforcement mesh. Create the part to reinforce. Calculate the required area of reinforcement. Usage You can create the following types of reinforcement meshes:

Rectangular

Reinforcement

89

Single bars, bar groups, and meshes

Polygonal Bent

Rectangular To create a rectangular mesh: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Set the work plane parallel to the plane where you want to create the mesh. Click Detailing > Properties > Reinforcement > Reinforcement Mesh.... In the Mesh type list, select Rectangle. Enter or modify the mesh dimensions and the other properties. Click Apply or OK to save the properties. Click Detailing > Create Reinforcement > Reinforcement Mesh. Select the part to reinforce. Tekla Structures attaches the mesh to the part.

8. Pick the start point of the mesh. 9. Pick a point to indicate the direction of the longitudinal bars. Tekla Structures creates the mesh parallel to the work plane, to the left of the points you picked. Polygonal To create a polygonal mesh: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. Click Detailing > Properties > Reinforcement > Reinforcement Mesh.... In the Mesh type list, select Polygon. Enter or modify the mesh properties. Click Apply or OK to save the properties. Click Detailing > Create Reinforcement > Reinforcement Mesh. Select the part to reinforce. Tekla Structures attaches the mesh to the part. Pick the start point of the mesh. Pick the corner points of the mesh. Click the middle mouse button to finish picking. Pick two points to indicate the direction of the longitudinal bars.

Bent To create a bent mesh:

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7.

Click Detailing > Properties > Reinforcement > Reinforcement Mesh.... In the Mesh type list box, select Bent. Enter the bending radius. Enter or modify the other mesh properties. Click Apply or OK to save the properties. Click Detailing > Create Reinforcement > Reinforcement Mesh. Select the part to reinforce. Tekla Structures attaches the mesh to the part.

Reinforcement

90

Single bars, bar groups, and meshes

8. Pick points to indicate the bending shape of the crossing bars. 9. Click the middle mouse button to finish picking points. 10. Pick two points to indicate the length and direction of the longitudinal bars. Description Tekla Structures creates the reinforcement mesh using the properties in the Reinforcement Mesh Properties dialog box. The filename extension of a saved mesh properties file is rbm.

Field Prefix and Start no Name Mesh

Description The mark series of the mesh. The user-definable name of the mesh. Select a mesh from the mesh catalog. You can also use a customized mesh.

More information Numbering reinforcements Basic reinforcement properties (74) Meshes (79) Customizing reinforcement meshes (105) Basic reinforcement properties (74) Meshes (79)

Grade Class Mesh type Width Length Bending radius Cross bar location Cut by father part cuts Cover thickness on plane Cover thickness from plane Cover thickness start Cover thickness end User-defined attributes... Hooks tab

The steel grade of the bars in the mesh. Used to group reinforcement. The shape of the mesh. Select Polygon, Rectangle, or Bent. For rectangular meshes, enter the width and length of the mesh. For bent meshes, enter the bending radius. Defines whether the crossing bars are located above or below the longitudinal bars. Defines whether the polygon or part cuts in the part cut also the mesh. The distance from the part surface to the main bars on the same plane as the bars. The distance from the part surface to the bar, or bar end, perpendicular to the bar plane. Thickness of concrete cover or leg length from the mesh starting point. Thickness of concrete cover or leg length at the end point of the bar. Used for bent meshes. User-defined reinforcement properties. The shape, angle, radius, and length of hooks at the start and end of the crossing mesh bars.

Meshes (79) Concrete cover (76)

User-defined attributes of reinforcement (79) Hooks (75)

Reinforcement

91

Single bars, bar groups, and meshes

The properties of standard meshes are defined in the mesh_database.inp file, located in the ..\Tekla
Structures\<version>\environments\<environment>\ profil folder.

See also

Working with reinforcement (95) Modifying reinforcement (99)

Reinforcement strand pattern


Synopsis Usage This command creates prestressed strands for concrete parts. To create prestressed strands for a concrete part: 1. Click Detailing > Properties > Reinforcement > Reinforcement Strand Pattern.... 2. Enter or modify the strand properties. 3. In the Number of cross sections field, enter a number based on the strand profile. For example: Strand profile Number of patterns 1

4. 5. 6. 7. 8.

Define the lengths of the debonding zones. Click Apply or OK. Click Detailing > Create Reinforcement > Reinforcement Strand Pattern. Pick the part you are creating strands for. Pick points to position the strands (for example, at the end of a part): The points you pick define the first cross section. Click the middle mouse button to finish picking.

Reinforcement

92

Single bars, bar groups, and meshes

9. If you chose to create a single cross section, pick two points to define the length of the strands. Click the middle mouse button to finish picking.

10. If you chose to create two or more cross sections, for each cross section, pick points to indicate the strand positions. Pick the strand positions in the same order as for the first cross section. After each cross section, click the middle mouse button to finish picking. Debonding strands To debond strands: 1. 2. 3. 4. Click Detailing > Properties > Reinforcement > Reinforcement Strand Pattern.... On the Debonding tab, enter the debonding properties. Click Add button to create a new row in the table. Enter the strand numbers in the Debonded strands field. The strand number is the picking order number of the strand: To set the same values for all the strands, enter all the strand numbers, separated by a space (e.g. 1 2 3 4). To set separate values for each strand, click Add to add a new row, then enter the strand number in the Debonded strands field.

5. Define the debonded lengths: To set symmetrical lengths, select the End lengths = start lengths checkbox and only enter values in the From start or Middle to start fields. Debonding lengths:

6. Click Modify and Apply. Tekla Structures displays the debonded section of the strand in red in rendered views, or as a broken line in wire frame views.

Debonded strands appear as broken lines in drawings. Description Tekla Structures creates straight or deflected strands based on the strand profile you indicate using the properties in the Reinforcing Bar Properties dialog box.

Reinforcement

93

Single bars, bar groups, and meshes

Field Series and Start no Name Size Grade Bending radius Class Pull per strand Number of cross sections User-defined attributes... Debonded strands

Description The mark series of the bar. The user-definable name of the bar. The diameter of the bar or a mark defining it. The steel grade of the bar. The internal radius of the bar bends. Used to group reinforcement. The pull per strand (kN). Defines the number of cross sections of the strand pattern. User-defined reinforcement properties.

More information Numbering reinforcements Basic reinforcement properties (74)

User-defined attributes of reinforcement (79) Debonding strands (93)

Enter the strand number in this field. The strand number is the picking order number of the strand. Enter the length of the debonding. If you select the Symmetry checkbox, values in fields From start and From Middle to start are copied to From end and Middle to end fields. Defines if the end and start lengths are symmetrical.

From start Middle to start Middle to end From end Symmetry

See also

Working with reinforcement (95) Modifying reinforcement (99) Reinforcing bar group (84)

Reinforcement splice
This command joins reinforcing bars or reinforcing bar groups together with reinforcement splices. Preconditions Usage Create the reinforcing bars or bar groups to join. There can be a gap between them. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Click Detailing > Properties > Reinforcement > Reinforcement Splice.... Enter or modify the splice properties. Click Apply or OK to save the properties. Click Detailing > Create Reinforcement > Reinforcement Splice. Select the first reinforcing bar or bar group. Select the second reinforcing bar or bar group.

Tekla Structures indicates reinforcement splices in the model using blue splice symbols:

Reinforcement

94

Single bars, bar groups, and meshes

If needed, you can move the splice along reinforcing bars. To move the splice: 1. Select the splice symbol. 2. Right-click and select Move. 3. Pick an origin and a destination point for the splice. Description Tekla Structures creates the reinforcement splice using the current properties in the Reinforcement Splice Properties dialog box. The filename extension of a saved splice properties file is rsp.

Field Joint type

Description The type of the splice. The options are:

More information Lap left creates the lap to the direction of the first reinforcing bar or bar group selected, Lap right to the direction of the second. Lap both centers the lap between the bars or bar groups.


Lap length Offset Bar positions

Lap right Lap left Lap both Muff joint Welded joint

The length of the lap joint. The offset of the splice center point from the point where the bars originally met. Defines whether the lapping bars are on top of each other or parallel to each other.

2.4 Working with reinforcement


To modify a single reinforcing bar, bar group, or reinforcement mesh, double-click the reinforcement to open the properties dialog box. To modify the properties of a reinforcement component, double-click the blue modeling tool symbol (M). To update the reinforcing bar, bar group, reinforcement mesh, or component you selected, click Modify. Topics Attaching reinforcement to parts (95) Using reinforcement handles (96) Using adaptivity (97) Reinforcement geometry validity (99)

Attaching reinforcement to parts


Attach reinforcement to a part or cast unit when you want the reinforcing bars to follow the part or cast unit if it is moved, copied, deleted, etc. Tekla Structures automatically attaches a reinforcement to the part you pick before you place the reinforcement. You can also manually attach reinforcement to a part or cast unit.

Reinforcement

95

Working with reinforcement

You must attach reinforcement to a part or cast unit to have Tekla Structures merge automatic reinforcing bar marks. See Merged reinforcement marks.

Attaching manually

To manually attach reinforcement to a part or cast unit: 1. Select the reinforcement to attach. 2. Right-click and select Attach to Part from the pop-up menu. 3. Select the part to attach the reinforcement to. To detach reinforcement from a part: 1. Select the reinforcement to detach. 2. Right-click and select Detach from Part from the pop-up menu.

Detaching

Using reinforcement handles


Tekla Structures uses handles to indicate:

The ends and corners of a reinforcing bar The distribution length of a bar group The corners and main bar direction of a mesh

When you select a reinforcement, the handles turn magenta. Examples Here are some ways to use handles to modify reinforcement:

Reinforcement

96

Working with reinforcement

Handles to change group distribution length Handles to move bar corners

Handles to move mesh corners Handles to change main bar direction To use handles to modify reinforcement: 1. Select the reinforcement to display its handles. 2. Click the handle you want to move. Tekla Structures highlights the handle. 3. Move the handle(s) like any other object. If Drag and drop is active, just drag the handle to a new position. For more information, see Moving an object, Moving an object using drag-and-drop and Polygon cuts.

Using adaptivity
Reinforcements follow the shape of the part also when their handles are located on the face or edge of the part. The following types of adaptivity are available:

Fixed adaptivity: handles retain their absolute distances to the nearest part faces. Relative adaptivity: handles retain their relative distances to the nearest part faces in relation to the parts overall size.

To modify the general adaptivity settings, go to Tools > Options > Options... > General. You can modify the adaptivity settings for each part separately. These modifications override the general settings. Example

Reinforcing bars in their original positions:

Reinforcement

97

Working with reinforcement

Fixed adaptivity:

Relative adaptivity:

Reinforcement

98

Working with reinforcement

Reinforcement geometry validity


Reinforcement creation or modification can result in invalid reinforcement geometry. For example, too big bending radius can cause invalid reinforcement geometry. The invalid geometry is visualized in the model. Tekla Structures displays a warning message, and draws a thin line between the reinforcement handles to show the invalid geometry. You can correct the reinforcement geometry by selecting the line and modifying the reinforcement properties. You can check the reinforcement geometry validity by running the command Tools > Diagnose & Repair Model > Diagnose Model. The report lists the reinforcements with invalid geometry. If a model contains reinforcements with invalid geometry, the reinforcements are not shown in the drawings. The reinforcements become visible when the geometry is corrected. Limitations Reinforcement geometry validity check does not work with circular or curved reinforcing bar groups.

2.5 Modifying reinforcement


To change the shape of the reinforcement, you can:

Add bar corners Remove bar corners Move bar and mesh corners Add points to reinforcing bars, bar groups, and bent meshes Remove points from reinforcing bars, bar groups, and bent meshes Change the direction of the longitudinal mesh bars Change the distribution length of bar groups

Reinforcement

99

Modifying reinforcement

See also

Ungrouping a reinforcement (100) Grouping reinforcements (101) Adding points to a reinforcement (102) Removing points from a reinforcement (103) Splitting reinforcing bar groups (104) Splitting reinforcing bars in a group (104) Combining two reinforcing bars or reinforcing bar groups into one (105) Customizing reinforcement meshes (105) Exploding reinforcement (107) Defining custom reinforcement components (107)

Ungrouping a reinforcement
You can ungroup reinforcing bar groups and reinforcement meshes. Only reinforcements where each reinforcing bar is in one plane can be ungrouped. To ungroup a reinforcement: 1. Click Detailing > Create Reinforcement > Ungroup. 2. Select one of the reinforcing bars in a reinforcing bar group or in a reinforcement mesh. The reinforcing bar group is replaced with single reinforcing bars. The single bars get the same properties and offsets as the group. If you ungroup a reinforcement mesh, the offsets for single bars are zero. Limitations Example Before ungrouping: You cannot ungroup circular or curved reinforcing bar groups.

After ungrouping:

Reinforcement

100

Modifying reinforcement

See also

Grouping reinforcements (101) Reinforcing bar (83) Reinforcing bar group (84) Reinforcement mesh (89)

Grouping reinforcements
You can group single reinforcing bars and reinforcing bar groups. Only reinforcements where each reinforcing bar is in one plane can be grouped. All groups are created with exact spacings. Single reinforcing bars need to have the same bending shape. To group single reinforcing bars or reinforcing bar groups: 1. 2. 3. 4. Click Detailing > Create Reinforcement > Group. Select all the reinforcing bars or reinforcing bar groups that you want to group. Click the middle mouse button. Select one reinforcing bar or reinforcing bar group to copy the properties from. The new group gets the same properties as the selected reinforcing bar.

The reinforcing bar or reinforcing bar group that you copy the properties from is also added to the group. This means, for example, that you cannot copy properties from a separate reinforcing bar group which you do not want to include in your new reinforcing bar group. Limitations Example Before grouping: You cannot create circular or curved reinforcing bar groups by grouping.

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After grouping:

See also

Ungrouping a reinforcement (100) Reinforcing bar (83) Reinforcing bar group (84)

Adding points to a reinforcement


You can modify the shape of a single reinforcing bar, reinforcing bar group, or a bent mesh by adding points to the reinforcement. To add points to a reinforcement: 1. Select a single reinforcing bar, a reinforcing bar group, or a bent mesh. 2. Click Detailing > Modify Polygon Shape.

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3. Pick the first existing polygon point (1). 4. Pick new points (2, 3). 5. Pick the second existing polygon point (4).

The new points are added to the reinforcement, and the shape of the reinforcement is modified.

Limitations

You cannot modify the shape of polygonal or rectangular meshes, or the shape of tapered reinforcing bar groups by adding points. Removing points from a reinforcement (103) Modifying the shape of a polygon

See also

Removing points from a reinforcement


You can modify the shape of a single reinforcing bar, reinforcing bar group, or a bent mesh by removing points from the reinforcement. To remove points from a reinforcement: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Select a single reinforcing bar, a reinforcing bar group, or a bent mesh. Click Detailing > Modify Polygon Shape. Pick the first existing polygon point (1). Pick the second existing polygon point (2). Pick a point to be removed (3 or 4). The point to be removed needs to be in between the two previously picked (1) and (2) points.

The points are removed from the reinforcement, and the shape of the reinforcement is modified.

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Limitations

You cannot modify the shape of polygonal or rectangular meshes, or the shape of tapered reinforcing bar groups by removing points. Adding points to a reinforcement (102) Modifying the shape of a polygon

See also

Splitting reinforcing bar groups


You can split normal and tapered reinforcing bar groups into two groups. 1. Click Edit > Split. 2. Select the reinforcing bar group. 3. Pick two points to indicate where to split the group.

You cannot split reinforcing bar groups diagonally.

See also

Splitting reinforcing bars in a group (104) Combining two reinforcing bars or reinforcing bar groups into one (105)

Splitting reinforcing bars in a group


You can split reinforcing bars in normal and tapered reinforcing bar groups using a split line. 1. Click Edit > Split. 2. Select the reinforcing bar group. 3. Pick two points to indicate where to split the bars.

Once split, each new reinforcing bar group retains the properties of the original group. For example, if the bars in the original group had hooks at both ends, bars in the new groups also have hooks at both ends. Modify the properties of the new groups if needed. See also Splitting reinforcing bar groups (104) Combining two reinforcing bars or reinforcing bar groups into one (105)

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Combining two reinforcing bars or reinforcing bar groups into one


You can combine two single reinforcing bars or reinforcing bar groups into one. Reinforcing bars can be combined if their end points are connected, or the bars are parallel and close to each other. However, in certain cases it is possible to combine reinforcements that are not connected nor parallel. The combined reinforcement gets the same properties as the first selected bar. To combine two single reinforcing bars or two reinforcing bar groups into one: 1. Click Edit > Combine. 2. Select the first single bar or bar group to be combined. 3. Select the second single bar or bar group to be combined. Limitations See also You cannot combine Tapered N reinforcing bar groups. Splitting reinforcing bar groups (104) Splitting reinforcing bars in a group (104)

Customizing reinforcement meshes


You can customize reinforcement meshes using the Select Mesh dialog box. 1. In the Reinforcement Mesh Properties dialog box, click the Select button next to the Mesh field to open the Select Mesh dialog box. 2. In the Select Mesh dialog box, select a standard mesh from the mesh catalog and use it as a basis for the customized mesh. 3. Modify the mesh properties. 4. Enter a name for the mesh in the Selected mesh field. The default name is CUSTOM_MESH. 5. Click OK to close the Select Mesh dialog box and to save the properties. 6. To save customized mesh properties for later use, enter a name in the Save as field in the Reinforcement Mesh Properties dialog box and click the Save as button.

To later use saved mesh properties in the Reinforcement Mesh Properties dialog box, select the name of the mesh properties in the Load list box and click the Load button.

Custom mesh properties

You can define the following properties for the customized reinforcement meshes:

Longitudinal distance

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Cross distance Longitudinal left overhang Longitudinal right overhang Cross left overhang Cross right overhang Length Width

Property Spacing method

Description Defines how the mesh bars are distributed. The options are:

Same distance for all: Use to create meshes with evenlyspaced bars. Tekla Structures distributes as many bars as possible for the length of Length or Width, using the Distance(s) and Left overhang values. The Right overhang is calculated automatically, and it cannot be zero.

Multiple varying distances: Use to create meshes with unevenly-spaced bars. Tekla Structures calculates the Width and Length based on the Distance(s), the Left overhang and the Right overhang values. If you do not change any of the values, the spacing method changes back to Same distance for all.

Distance(s)

Spacing values of longitudinal or crossing bars. If you select the Multiple varying distances spacing method, enter all spacing values, separated by spaces. You can use multiplication to repeat spacing values. For example:
2*150 200 3*400 200 2*150

Left overhang Right overhang

Extensions of longitudinal bars over the outermost crossing bars. Extensions of crossing bars over the outermost longitudinal bars.

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Property Diameter

Description Diameter or size of longitudinal or crossing bars. You can define multiple diameters for the bars in both directions. Enter all the diameter values, separated by spaces. You can use multiplication to repeat diameter values. For example, 12 2*6 in longitudinal direction and 6 20 2*12 in crossing direction.

Width Length Grade See also Reinforcement mesh (89) Meshes (79)

Length of crossing bars. Length of longitudinal bars. The steel grade of the bars in the mesh.

Exploding reinforcement
Before you can modify or remove single bars in a reinforcement component, you need to use the Explode Component command to ungroup the bars that the reinforcement contains. To ungroup reinforcing bars: 1. Click Detailing > Component > Explode Component. 2. Select the blue modeling tool symbol (M) on the reinforcement. Tekla Structures ungroups the reinforcing bars.

Defining custom reinforcement components


You can create customized reinforcement details and save them in the component catalog for later use. Preconditions Create a concrete part and reinforce it in the way you want the reinforcement to appear in the custom component. You can create the reinforcement either by exploding and modifying an existing reinforcement component, or by creating the reinforcing bars individually. 1. Click Detailing > Component > Define Custom Component.... 2. On the Type/Notes tab, select Detail in the Type list box, and enter a name for the custom reinforcement. 3. Click Next. 4. Select the reinforcing bars to use in the custom reinforcement and click Next. 5. Select the main part and click Next. 6. In DETAIL POSITION, select Main part to position the reinforcement by the main part. 7. Click Finish. Result You have now defined a simple custom reinforcement component, which you can use in locations similar to the one where it was originally created. This component is not parametric and Tekla Structures does not adjust dimensions to suit any changes in the model. To create a parametric custom component, see About variables. See also Exploding components Creating a custom component

Usage

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Adding a custom component to a model

2.6 Reinforcing bar bending shapes in the Rebar Shape Manager


You can define your own reinforcing bar bending shapes with the Rebar Shape Manager, and thus increase the amount of recognized reinforcing bar shapes. User-defined bending shapes are useful when Tekla Structures does not recognize the bending shape and assigns the UNKNOWN bending type to the shape. With the Rebar Shape Manager you can

customize the existing bending shapes and create new bending shapes establish your own rules for defining the bending shapes customize your own dimension mappings that are used in templates and reports import and export user-defined bending shapes use user-defined bending shapes in bending schedules and pull-out pictures

The Rebar Shape Manager is a tool for recognizing reinforcing bar shapes. You cannot control the reinforcing bar creation properties, such as cover thickness, reinforcing bar grade, or size, with this tool. The tool is meant for users who need to customize the bending shapes based on company or project requirements. See also Defining reinforcing bar bending shapes in the Rebar Shape Manager (108) Reinforcing bar bending shapes in the RebarShapeRules.xml file (108)

Reinforcing bar bending shapes in the RebarShapeRules.xml file


When you define your own reinforcing bar bending shapes in the Rebar Shape Manager, an XML file called RebarShapeRules.xml is created in the current model folder. In addition, Tekla Structures installation contains by default an XML file called
RebarShapeRules.xml. This file contains the most typical bending shapes of your environment, and it is located in the ..\Tekla Structures\<version>\environments\<environment>\system folder.

When you define new shapes, the shapes in the default RebarShapeRules.xml rule file can be appended to your own shapes. Tekla Structures reads valid RebarShapeRules.xml rule files in the model, firm, project and system folders, and merges the files. All the found bending shapes are displayed in the Rebar Shape Manager. See also Reinforcing bar bending shapes in the Rebar Shape Manager (108) Defining reinforcing bar bending shapes in the Rebar Shape Manager (108)

Defining reinforcing bar bending shapes in the Rebar Shape Manager


To define your own reinforcing bar bending shapes in the Rebar Shape Manager: 1. Select reinforcing bars in the model. 2. Click Tools > Rebar Shape Manager.... Rebar Shape Manager opens, and lists the selected reinforcing bars in the Model rebars list.

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Reinforcing bar bending shapes in the Rebar Shape Manager

Alternatively, you can first open the Rebar Shape Manager and then select reinforcing bars in the model. Click Get selected to add the reinforcing bars to the Model rebars list.

The Model rebars list shows the ID number and the shape code of the selected reinforcing bars. The Shape catalog list shows the shapes that exist in the default RebarShapeRules.xml rule file. Rebar Shape Manager does not automatically read any rule file but you need to open the file if you want to view or edit it.

3. Select one unknown shape from the Model rebars list. 4. To define the needed information for a bending shape, do the following: To define Shape code Bending shape rules Do this Enter a shape code for an unknown shape. Add or delete a bending shape rule by clicking the Add and Delete buttons on the right. Use the Reset button to restore the original values. Check hooks Select the check box if you want to define different shape codes or bending schedule fields for two bars that otherwise have exactly the same geometry, but one bar has hooks and the other one does not. If you select the check box, hooks are considered as hooks. If you clear the check box, hooks are considered as normal legs. Note that the Check hooks option works independently from the advanced option XS_REBAR_RECOGNITION_HOOKS_CONSIDERATION, and it allows bars that have different hooks to have different shape code or schedule fields regardless of the value of the advanced option. Update Update the existing shape code definition of the selected reinforcing bar. You can update the definition if you have modified the shape code, bending shape rules or the contents of bending schedule fields. Bending schedule fields Define the content for a bending schedule. Right-click a field to select a bending shape property or to enter a formula. The names of the Bending schedule fields (A, B, and so on) are used in templates and reports. To make sure that old reports also work correctly, we recommend that you use the same DIM_XX fields as in the rebar_schedule_config.inp file. 5. When you have finished defining the new shape, click Add to add the bending shape definition to the RebarShapeRules.xml file. To enable the Add button you need to change the bending shape rule, enter a shape code or select the Check hooks check box. 6. Click Save to save the RebarShapeRules.xml file.

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Reinforcing bar bending shapes in the Rebar Shape Manager

By default, the file is located in the current model folder. When you create, for example, a bending schedule, Tekla Structures uses the updated bending shape information, recognizes the added bending shape and assigns a correct shape code to it.

The Rebar Shape Manager is able to recognize bending shapes regardless of the modeling direction of the bars. This means that the modeling direction has no effect on the shape definition and the shape code. When defining the bending shapes, the start or the end of modeling direction is always sorted based first on bending angles, then on twist angles, and finally on leg lengths. However, bending radius is not taken into account in the sorting. This means that radius 1 may not always be less than radius 2 or vice versa. See also Reinforcing bar bending shapes in the Rebar Shape Manager (108) Adding new bending shape rules manually (110) XS_REBAR_RECOGNITION_HOOKS_CONSIDERATION

Adding new bending shape rules manually


If needed, you can manually add new bending shape rules for reinforcing bars in the Rebar Shape Manager. In some cases, the bending shape rules that the Rebar Shape Manager defines automatically are not sufficient to distinguish certain bending shapes. To manually define a rule for a reinforcing bar bending shape: 1. Click the Add button next to the Bending shape rules list. The New bending rule dialog box opens. 2. Select the options from the lists to define the new rule. The content of the lists depends on the shape and the bendings of the reinforcing bar. 3. Click OK to add the new rule to the Bending shape rules list. The OK button is enabled only when the rule is valid. See also Bending shape rule settings (110) Reinforcing bar bending shapes in the Rebar Shape Manager (108) Bending shape rule settings Use the New bending rule dialog box in Rebar Shape Manager to manually define rules for reinforcing bar bending shapes.

All the rule options are available in the New bending rule dialog box, even though only certain selections are valid, depending on the type of the conditions used. The left and right condition of a rule need to be of the same type. The values in the parentheses are the values that were used to create the bar shape.

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Reinforcing bar bending shapes in the Rebar Shape Manager

Option Angle (A)

Description Bending angle between the legs. Bending angle is always between 0 and +180 degrees. The angle cannot be negative.

Twist angle (T)

The rotation angle of a plane that has been created by two bars of consecutive lengths. The plane is rotated around the axis of the last bar creating the plane. For bars where all the legs lie in the same plane, the twist angle is either 0 degrees or +180 degrees. If the bar twists out of the plane, i.e. the bar is in 3D, the twist angle is between -180 and +180 degrees.

Leg1 Leg 2 Leg 3 Twist angle direction Plane created by legs 1 and 2

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Option Twist angle example

Description The twist angle between two planes is +90 degrees. The planes are created by legs 1 and 2, and legs 2 and 3.

Twist angle: +90 degrees Radius (R), (RX) Radius of the bending.
Radius *

means that the same radius is used in all bendings.

Rule Radius * = Radius 1 means that all the radius values are equal to the first radius. Straight length (S) Straight length between the start and the end of adjacent bendings. The rule is generated only when there is no straight part, for example, Straight length 2 = 0. Leg length (L) Leg (V) Leg distance from leg (D) Length of the leg. Leg direction as a vector value. Similar to Point/arc distance off from leg (H). The difference is that Point/arc distance off from leg (H) considers the bending radius, whereas Leg distance from leg (D) is measured from the sharp corner. When the legs are parallel, both Leg distance from leg (D) and Point/arc distance off from leg (H) give the same result.

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Option Point/arc distance along leg (K)

Description Distance parallel to a leg from outer edge to outer edge, or tangential to the bending The distances are positive or negative depending on the leg direction. Example:

Point/arc distance off from leg (H)

Distance perpendicular to a leg from outer edge to outer edge, or tangential to the bending The distances are positive or negative depending on the leg direction. Example:

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Reinforcing bar bending shapes in the Rebar Shape Manager

Option SHA SHR SHS SHLA SHLB EHA EHR EHS EHLA EHLB

Description Start and end hook properties. Use method A or B for the hook length calculation:

Standard radius (RS)

Standard minimum bending radius. The bending radius depends on the size and the grade of the bar.

Bar diameter (DIA), (DIAX) Center line length (CLL) Sum of leg lengths (SLL) Weight per length (WPL) Constant angle

Diameter of the reinforcing bar. Leg length according to the center line. Sum of all leg lengths. Weight per leg length. Constant value of the angle. Enter the value in the right most box.

Constant radius

Constant value of the radius. Enter the value in the right most box.

See also

Reinforcing bar bending shapes in the Rebar Shape Manager (108) Defining reinforcing bar bending shapes in the Rebar Shape Manager (108) Adding new bending shape rules manually (110)

Bending schedule fields in the Rebar Shape Manager


Use the Bending schedule fields in the Rebar Shape Manager to define content for templates and reports. Each of the Bending schedule fields can contain a shape property or a formula. When you right-click in a Bending schedule fields cell, you can:

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Reinforcing bar bending shapes in the Rebar Shape Manager

Select a shape property from the list. The content of the list depends on the reinforcing bar geometry. Select the (empty) option to clear the content of the current cell. Select the (formula) option to enter a formula. The variables in the formula can either be the shape properties visible in the pop-up menu, or direct references to other non-empty bending schedule field cells. You can use the same functions in the formulas as in custom components:

Mathematical functions. Statistical functions. String operations. Trigonometric functions. When you map angles and trigonometric functions in the Schedule field formula dialog box, enter the functions (sin, cos, tan) in small letters, for example sin(A1). Capital letters are not recognized, and a blank space will appear in reports.

If you have angles in a formula, the formula needs to be in radians. For example, if you want to subtract 180 degrees from angle A1, enter A1-PI in capital letters. If you enter A1-180 or A1-pi, the formula does not work. Bending schedule fields cell shows the result of a valid formula. If the formula is not valid, a question mark and text describing the error is shown.

Use the fields S, T, U or V to report angles. If you do not use these fields, you need to override the default unit settings in the Template Editor.

Example

Formula is L1+L3+L5-2*DIA

L1, L3 and L5 are the leg lengths measured from outer edge to outer edge H1 is the total width

to achieve H1: L1+L3+L5 minus 2*bar diameter

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Reinforcing bar bending shapes in the Rebar Shape Manager

See also

Functions in variable formulas Defining reinforcing bar bending shapes in the Rebar Shape Manager (108)

2.7 Reinforcing bar bending types


Tekla Structures recognizes different reinforcing bar bending shapes and assigns bending type identifiers to them. The table below lists these reinforcing bar bending types. If Tekla Structures does not recognize the shape of a reinforcing bar, it assigns the UNKNOWN bending type to it. The bending type identifiers in the table below are internal, hard-coded types of Tekla Structures. The leg dimensions (D1, D2, etc.) and bending angles (A1, A2, etc.) of reinforcing bars are internal dimensions and angles. You can map internal types, for example, to country- or project-specific types, and internal dimensions and angles to specific template attributes. You do this in the rebar_schedule_config.inp file. See Reinforcement in templates (137). Reinforcing bar bending dimensions are calculated so that the leg dimensions (D1, D2, etc.) follow the outer edge, or the edge extension, of the reinforcing bar. The total length is calculated according to the center line of the reinforcing bar. The magenta points in the images represent the points you pick in the model when you create reinforcing bars.

Type 1

Image

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Type 2_1

Image

Requires standard bending radius. 2_2

Non-standard bending radius. 3_1

3_2

4_2

4_3

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Type 4_4

Image

5_1

5_2

5_3

6_1

6_2

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Reinforcing bar bending types

Type 8

Image

Requires 180 degree hook. 10

11

D1 = Radius from center of circle to the center line of reinforcing bar. 12

13

Can also be modeled using hooks at both ends (i.e. model D1 and D5 using 90 degree hooks).

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Type 14

Image

Requires 90 degree hooks at both ends. 14_2

14_3

14_4

Requires 90 degree hooks at both ends.

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Type 14_5

Image

Recognized when the start point and end point are in the same location and no hooks are used. If XS_REBAR_RECOGNITION_HOOKS_CONSIDERATION is set to FALSE, reinforcing bars with hooks (types 14 and 48) are recognized as 14_5. 15

Requires hooks at both ends. 16_1

16_2

17

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Reinforcing bar bending types

Type 18

Image

19

20_1

20_2

21

22

23

Reinforcement

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Reinforcing bar bending types

Type 24

Image

25

26

Requires 180 degree hooks at both ends. 27

Requires 90 degree hooks at both ends. 28

Requires 180 degree hooks at both ends. 29

Requires 90 degree hooks at both ends. 29_2

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Reinforcing bar bending types

Type 29_3

Image

29_4

29_5

30

Requires 180 degree hooks at both ends. 31

Requires 90 degree hooks at both ends. 32

Requires 180 degree hooks at both ends.

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Type 32_2

Image

33 Requires 90 degree hooks at both ends. 34

35

Requires 180 degree hook. 36

Requires 180 degree hook. 36_2

Can also be modeled using hooks at both ends.

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Reinforcing bar bending types

Type 36_3

Image

Can also be modeled using hooks at both ends. 37

Requires 180 degree hook. 38

Requires 180 degree hook at one end and 90 degree hook at the other end. 38_2

39

40

Requires 180 degree hooks at both ends.

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Type 41

Image

Requires 90 degree hooks at both ends. 42

Requires 180 degree hooks at both ends. 43

43_2

44

Requires hooks at both ends. 44_2

Requires 180 degree hooks at both ends.

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Type 45

Image

Requires hooks at both ends. 45_2

Requires 180 hooks at both ends. 46

Requires hooks at both ends. 47

Requires 90 degree hooks at both ends. 48

Requires hooks at both ends.

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Type 48_2

Image

Requires hooks at both ends. 48_3

49

D1 = Reinforcing bar center line diameter. 49_2

50

Requires hooks at both ends.

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Type 51

Image

Requires 90 degree hooks at both ends. 52

Requires hooks at both ends. 53

Requires hooks at both ends. 54

Requires hooks at both ends. 55

56

Reinforcement

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Reinforcing bar bending types

Type 57

Image

58

59

60

61

Requires hooks at both ends. 61_2

Recognized if XS_REBAR_RECOGNITION_HOOKS_CONSIDERATION is set to FALSE.

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Type 61_3

Image

Requires hooks at both ends. 62

Requires hook. 63

Requires hook. 64

Requires hooks at both ends.

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Reinforcing bar bending types

Type 64_2

Image

Recognized if XS_REBAR_RECOGNITION_HOOKS_CONSIDERATION is set to FALSE. 65

Requires hooks at both ends. 65_2

Recognized if XS_REBAR_RECOGNITION_HOOKS_CONSIDERATION is set to FALSE. 66

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Reinforcing bar bending types

Type 67

Image

67_2

68

69_1

69_2

70_1

Reinforcement

134

Reinforcing bar bending types

Type 70_2

Image

71

72

73_1

73_2

73_3

Reinforcement

135

Reinforcing bar bending types

Type 74

Image

75_1

75_2

76

77

Reinforcement

136

Reinforcing bar bending types

Type 78

Image

79_1

79_2

80

UNKNOWN

For example:

Reinforcement in templates
Audience This topic is aimed at Tekla Structures users who need to localize reinforcing bar bending types or to create templates for reinforcing bar bending schedules.

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Reinforcement templates

You can show dimensions, bending angles, and bending types of reinforcing bars in drawings and reports by including reinforcement-specific attributes, such as DIM_A, ANG_S, SHAPE, and SHAPE_INTERNAL, in template fields. For more information on creating templates, see the Template Editor (TplEd) online help. Use the rebar_schedule_config.inp file in the ..\Tekla
Structures\<version>\environments\<environment>\system folder to map:

Mapping dimensions

Tekla Structures internal reinforcing bar dimensions and angles with specific template attributes Tekla Structures internal reinforcing bar bending types with specific bending types

These mappings are environment-specific by default. You can modify them to suit your company or project needs. You can use equations, functions, and if statements to calculate the dimensions and angles you need to show. Use any standard text editor (for example, Notepad) to edit the rebar_schedule_config.inp file. Examples The following example of the rebar_schedule_config.inp file maps the internal bending type 5_1 to the bending type identifier E, and the leg dimensions and bending angles to specific template attributes:

rebar_schedule_config.inp (Example 1)
BEND_TYPE_5_1[1]="E" BEND_TYPE_5_1[2]="DIM_A=D1" BEND_TYPE_5_1[3]="DIM_B=D5" BEND_TYPE_5_1[4]="DIM_C=D2" BEND_TYPE_5_1[5]="DIM_TD=TD" BEND_TYPE_5_1[6]="ANG_U=A1" BEND_TYPE_5_1[7]="ANG_V=A2"

With this mapping, the internal bending type 6_2 becomes XY, and the template attributes DIM_B and DIM_C will show the horizontal and vertical dimensions of the second leg D2, and DIM_E and DIM_F the horizontal and vertical dimensions of the fourth leg D4:

rebar_schedule_config.inp (Example 2)
BEND_TYPE_6_2[1]="XY" BEND_TYPE_6_2[2]="DIM_A=D1" BEND_TYPE_6_2[3]="DIM_B=D2*COS(A2*PI/ 180)" BEND_TYPE_6_2[4]="DIM_C=D2*SIN(A2*PI/ 180)" BEND_TYPE_6_2[5]="DIM_D=D3" BEND_TYPE_6_2[6]="DIM_E=D4*COS(A1*PI/ 180)" BEND_TYPE_6_2[7]="DIM_F=D4*SIN(A1*PI/ 180)" BEND_TYPE_6_2[8]="DIM_G=D5" BEND_TYPE_6_2[9]="DIM_TD=TD"

The following example maps the internal bending type 4 to the bending type identifier A if the dimensions D1 and D3 are the same. Otherwise it maps 4 to B:

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rebar_schedule_config.inp (Example 3)
BEND_TYPE_4[1]=if (D1==D3) then ("A") else ("B") endif BEND_TYPE_4[2]="DIM_A=D1" BEND_TYPE_4[3]="DIM_B=D2" BEND_TYPE_4[4]="DIM_C=D3" BEND_TYPE_4[5]="DIM_TD=TD"

If Tekla Structures does not recognize a reinforcing bar bending shape, it uses the internal bending type UNKNOWN for it. In the rebar_schedule_config.inp file you can also define how unknown bending types appear in drawings and reports. For example, you may just want to use the bending type identifier ???, and list all leg dimensions and bending angles:

rebar_schedule_config.inp (Example 4)
BEND_TYPE_UNKNOWN[1]="???" BEND_TYPE_UNKNOWN[2]="DIM_A=D1" BEND_TYPE_UNKNOWN[3]="DIM_B=D2" BEND_TYPE_UNKNOWN[4]="DIM_C=D3" BEND_TYPE_UNKNOWN[5]="DIM_D=D4" BEND_TYPE_UNKNOWN[6]="DIM_E=D5" BEND_TYPE_UNKNOWN[7]="DIM_F=D6" BEND_TYPE_UNKNOWN[8]="ANG_S=A1" BEND_TYPE_UNKNOWN[9]="ANG_T=A2" BEND_TYPE_UNKNOWN[10]="ANG_U=A3" BEND_TYPE_UNKNOWN[11]="ANG_V=A4" BEND_TYPE_UNKNOWN[12]="DIM_TD=TD"

See also

DIM_A ... DIM_G, DIM_H1, DIM_H2, DIM_I, DIM_J, DIM_K1, DIM_K2, DIM_L, DIM_O, DIM_R, DIM_R_ALL, DIM_TD, DIM_WEIGHT, DIM_X, DIM_Y ANG_S, ANG_T, ANG_U, ANG_V SHAPE SHAPE_INTERNAL Reinforcing bar bending types (116)

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Index
a
adaptivity reinforcement ............................................................97 add anchor rod...................................................................22 base plate....................................................................22 beam to column connection..................................23 adding points bent mesh .................................................................102 reinforcement ..........................................................102 reinforcing bar .........................................................102 reinforcing bar group.............................................102 anchor rods add ................................................................................22 anchoring hooks................................................................75 assemblies defining........................................................................30 attaching reinforcement to parts ............................................95 AutoConnection ........................................................ 39, 44 changing a connection............................................43 restrictions..................................................................40 rule groups..................................................................41 rule sets .......................................................................42 rules ..............................................................................48 rules.zxt .......................................................................43 setup.............................................................................40 using .............................................................................43 AutoDefaults .............................................................. 39, 44 accessing connection properties files.................46 checking properties ..................................................48 checking rules............................................................48 combining ........................................................... 50, 52 connection properties files ....................................46 defaults.zxt ......................................................... 45, 47 editing connection properties ...............................47 iterating............................................................... 50, 52 limitations...................................................................51 priority of rule sets...................................................47 reaction forces...........................................................54 rules ..............................................................................48 saving connection properties files .......................46 setup.............................................................................45 using............................................................................. 48 automatic properties ....................................................... 12 automating detailing....................................................... 25

b
base plate add ................................................................................ 22 beam profiles selecting ...................................................................... 28 beams connect to column ................................................... 23 bending radius................................................................... 74 bending shapes defining .....................................................................108 rebar shape manager...................................108, 110 reinforcement ..........................................................108 rules............................................................................110 bending types reinforcement ..........................................................108 bent mesh adding points ...........................................................102 removing points ......................................................103 bolt assemblies defining in connections .......................................... 38 bolts bolt group orientation............................................. 33 bolt group pattern.................................................... 33 bolt position ............................................................... 34 bolt spacing................................................................ 33 defining ............................................................... 30, 32 deleting........................................................................ 37 edge distance............................................................. 34 increasing bolt length ............................................. 32 number of ................................................................... 33 overview of properties on the bolts tab............. 30

c
cast-in-place........................... 100, 101, 102, 103, 105 cast-in-situ.............................. 100, 101, 102, 103, 105 CIP.............................................. 100, 101, 102, 103, 105 columns

140

connect to beam .......................................................23 combining reinforcing bar groups...........................................105 reinforcing bars .......................................................105 component catalog ..........................................................14 component design checking ......................................................................13 components concepts ........................................................................ 8 conceptual ..................................................................24 copying ........................................................................19 creating view..............................................................23 detailed........................................................................24 dialog box ..................................................................... 9 publish in catalog .....................................................19 symbols ........................................................................16 thumbnails..................................................................18 types ............................................................................... 8 using Excel..................................................................66 viewing ........................................................................23 conceptual components.......................................... 24, 25 concrete cover ...................................................................76 connect beam to column ........................................................23 connection library, see component catalog ..............14 connections beam to column ........................................................23 defining bolt assemblies .........................................38 copying components................................................................19 custom reinforcement meshes....................................105 customizing connections ................................................................39 modeling tools ...........................................................39 reinforcement ............................................... 105, 107

example ....................................................................... 67 using for components.............................................. 66 Excel.vb................................................................................ 67 exploding reinforcements ........................................................107 exploding reinforcements.............................................107

f
formulas rebar shape manager.............................................114 framing conditions ........................................................... 40

g
general tab ......................................................................... 12 geometry reinforcement ............................................................ 99 grouping mesh ...........................................................................101 reinforcement ..........................................................101 reinforcing bar group ............................................101

h
handles of reinforcement ....................................................... 96 holes creating ....................................................................... 32

i
indicating component status with Excel design...... 70 iterating AutoDefaults .............................................................. 52

d
default properties .............................................................12 default values setting with the joints.def file ..............................54 defaults.zxt .........................................................................47 Design type tab .................................................................13 detailed components ............................................... 24, 25 detailing automating .................................................................25

j
joints.def about ............................................................................ 55 bolt and part properties.......................................... 59 bolt properties in clip angle connections .......... 58 bolt properties in diagonal connections ............ 59 bolt properties in end plate connections........... 58 bolt properties in gusset connections ................ 58 bolt properties in shear plate connections........ 58 connections that use joints.def ............................ 56 defining bolt diameter and number of rows ...................................................................... 58 defining global defaults.......................................... 56 entering values.......................................................... 56 example of how Tekla Structures uses ............... 65 how it works .............................................................. 55

e
edge distance bolts..............................................................................34 editing connection properties..............................................47 Excel .....................................................................................67

141

interpreting.................................................................55

m
materials defining........................................................................29 mesh .....................................................................................89 bent...............................................................................89 grouping ....................................................................101 polygonal.....................................................................89 ungrouping ...............................................................100 modeling tools when to customize ...................................................39 modifying reinforcement ............................................................95 moving reinforcement splice ................................................94

o
omitting reinforcing bars ...............................................78

p
part position number .......................................................28 parts defining........................................................................27 dialog box tabs ..........................................................27 dimensioning..............................................................27 part position number ...............................................28 setting default prefix and start number.............29 plates defining........................................................................27 dimensioning..............................................................28 prestressed strands debonding ...................................................................92 properties automatic....................................................................12 default..........................................................................12 system default ...........................................................12 publish in catalog .............................................................19

r
reaction forces...................................................................54 rebar .....................................................................................83 bending types...........................................................116 rebar group .........................................................................84 rebar mesh ..........................................................................89 rebar shape manager bending shapes........................................................108 formulas ....................................................................114 rebarshaperules.xml ...............................................108

rules............................................................................110 reinforcement adaptivity .................................................................... 97 adding points ...........................................................102 basic properties......................................................... 74 bending radius........................................................... 74 bending shapes........................................................108 bending types .................................................. 74, 108 customizing..............................................................107 defining as custom components ........................107 exploding...................................................................107 geometry ..................................................................... 99 grouping ....................................................................101 hooks ............................................................................ 75 in templates .............................................................137 invalid geometry ....................................................... 99 modifying.................................................................... 95 omitting bars ............................................................. 78 prestressed strands................................................... 92 rebar shape manager.............................................108 rebarshaperules.xml ...............................................108 reinforcing bar shape catalog ............................... 81 removing points ......................................................103 spacing......................................................................... 78 splice ............................................................................ 94 strands ......................................................................... 92 ungrouping ...............................................................100 user-defined attributes........................................... 79 reinforcement mesh......................................................... 89 customizing..............................................................105 reinforcement splice moving ......................................................................... 94 reinforcing bar group....................................................... 84 adding points ...........................................................102 circular......................................................................... 88 combining .................................................................105 curved .......................................................................... 87 grouping ....................................................................101 removing points ......................................................103 splitting .....................................................................104 ungrouping ...............................................................100 reinforcing bar groups reinforcing bar shape catalog ............................... 81 reinforcing bar shape catalog ....................................... 81 reinforcing bars ................................................................. 83 adding points ...........................................................102 bending types ..........................................................116 combining .................................................................105 reinforcing bar shape catalog ............................... 81 removing points ......................................................103 removing points bent mesh .................................................................103 reinforcement ..........................................................103 reinforcing bar.........................................................103 reinforcing bar group ............................................103

142

reports on reinforcement ....................................................137 rule groups..........................................................................40 creating........................................................................41 rule sets ...............................................................................40 creating........................................................................42 editing..........................................................................42 priority .........................................................................47 rules ......................................................................................48 bending shapes........................................................110 rebar shape manager .............................................110 rules.zxt ...............................................................................43

t
tapered reinforcing bar groups..................................... 84 thumbnail images............................................................. 18

u
UDL ....................................................................................... 54 ungrouping mesh ...........................................................................100 reinforcement ..........................................................100 reinforcing bar group ............................................100 up direction ........................................................................ 11 user-defined reinforcement attributes....................... 79

s
setting up Excel files........................................................67 shape catalog.....................................................................81 shear force calculation....................................................54 slotted holes defining........................................................................36 spacing reinforcing bars .................................................78 spiral reinforcing bar groups .........................................84 splice.....................................................................................94 splitting reinforcing bar group.............................................104 reinforcing bars in a group ..................................104 strand pattern reinforcement ............................................................92 system default properties...............................................12

v
viewing components................................................................ 23

w
welds defining ............................................................... 30, 38

z
zxt files ........................................................................ 43, 47

143