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DATE OF COMPLETION

FUNCTIONAL BEHAVIOR ASSESSMENT


Date Written: November 27, 2012 Student: Mia Stallas

STUDENT INITIALS

School: George Street Elementary Birth Date: September 4, 2007

Table of Contents
I. Reason for Assessment II. Method of Assessment
a. b. Records Review Method i. Student Record Review Interviews Method i. Teacher/Staff Interview: ii. Parent/Guardian Interview: iii. Student Interview Direct Observations Method

c.

III. Summary of Assessment


a. b. c. Description of Behavior Summary of Records Review Summary of Interviews i. Summary of Interview with Teacher/Staff 1. Mr. Opal is Mias music teacher 2. Ms. Hunter is Mias primary teacher 3. Mr. Ks is Mias gymnastics instructor ii. Summary of Interview with Parent/Guardian iii. Summary of Interview with Student Summary of Direct Observations i. Music Class ii. Language Arts Class iii. Free Time iv. Gymnastics Class Summary of Data Collection i. Figure 1 : Event Recording by Setting and Frequency ii. Figure 2 : Event Recording by Antecedent, Behavior, and Consequence iii. Figure 3 : Event Recording by Specific Language and Setting Possible functions of a human behavior i. Positive Reinforcement ii. Negative Reinforcement Possible functions for Verbally Aggressive behavior among young, female children i. Alleviating Boredom / Creating Excitement ii. Social Dominance Hypothesized function of MIAS behavior i. Social Dominance ii. Adult and Peer Attention Hypothesized solutions for Verbal Aggression in young female students Hypothesized solutions for Verbal Aggression used by Mia Stallas Behavior Support Plan Team Signatures

d.

e.

IV. Hypotheses Statements And Hypothesized Solutions


a.

b.

c.

d. e. a. b.

V. Recommendations and Team Signatures

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DATE OF COMPLETION

FUNCTIONAL BEHAVIOR ASSESSMENT


Date Written: November 27, 2012 Student: Mia Stallas

STUDENT INITIALS

School: George Street Elementary Birth Date: September 4, 2007

I.

Reason for Assessment


Mia Stallas was referred by her mother Naomi Stallas for a Functional Behavioral Assessment (FBA) to target one behavior of concern: Verbal Aggression in school and community settings. Consent for assessment was obtained on October 1, 2012.

A Functional Behavioral Assessment was conducted to identify:


behavior to target with intervention (i.e., behavior of concern that interferes with Mias home, school, and community success.) antecedent events that predict when these behaviors are likely to occur, and consequence events that maintain/promote the behavior of concern hypothesized function of Mias behavior hypothesized solutions for Verbal Aggression used by Mia Stallas If a Behavioral Support Plan should be enacted for Mia Stallas

The reason for this assessment is to determine the potential function of the behaviors of concern served for Mia. By analyzing the contingencies that maintain/promote the behavior of concern, we will identify potential function(s) of Mias behaviors of concern. There are three areas that most school children try to avoid or access: attention from teachers, peers, and other persons, tangible activities and items, and sensory input such as noise or physical touch. Based on observational and testimonial data we will provide hypotheses that explain the antecedent(s) and function(s) of Mias use of Verbal Aggression in school and community settings. Please refer to Mias Contextual Factors Report for a more complete description of home, school, and community contingencies.

This FBA describes the method of assessment (section II), summarizes the assessment i.e., presents results of the records review, interviews, and systematic observations (section III), documents the potential function(s) of the behavior of concern (section IV), and presents the team recommendations for this case study (section V).

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DATE OF COMPLETION

FUNCTIONAL BEHAVIOR ASSESSMENT


Date Written: November 27, 2012 Student: Mia Stallas

STUDENT INITIALS

School: George Street Elementary Birth Date: September 4, 2007

II.

Method of Assessment
a. Records Review Method:
i. Student Record Review:

Student academic work samples Mia has not been given any formal testing to date Physical examination (8/2012) Vaccinations records (8/2012) Dental and vision examination (12/2011) Vision examination (12/2011)

b. Interviews Method: i. Teacher/Staff Interview: Teachers and staff were asked to (a) identify events that typically predict when behaviors of concern are most likely to occur (i.e., antecedents), (b) describe the setting (i.e., appearance and nature) of the behaviors of concern, and (c) identify the events that typically follow and may maintain the behaviors of concern. ii. Parent/Guardian Interview: Parents and guardians were asked to (a) identify events that typically predict when behaviors of concern are most likely to occur (i.e., antecedents), (b) describe the setting (i.e., appearance and nature) of the behaviors of concern, and (c) identify the events that typically follow and may maintain the behaviors of concern. iii. Student Interview: Mia was asked to (a) identify events that typically predict when behaviors of concern are most likely to occur (i.e., antecedents), (b) describe the setting (i.e., appearance and nature) of the behaviors of concern, and (c) identify the events that typically follow and may maintain the behaviors of concern. c. Direct Observations Method: Direct observations of student behavior: Mia was observed across 3 selected classroom activities: music class, language arts class, and free time on the school playgrounds. Observations were conducted on three consecutive days, 60 minutes per observation session. Mia was also observed in a community setting at her local gymnastics class. These additional observations were conducted on three consecutive sessions, 60 minutes per observation. Total observation time is 360 minutes.

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DATE OF COMPLETION

FUNCTIONAL BEHAVIOR ASSESSMENT


Date Written: November 27, 2012 Student: Mia Stallas

STUDENT INITIALS

School: George Street Elementary Birth Date: September 4, 2007

III.

Summary of Assessment
This section of the FBA report includes: (a) a summary description of the behaviors of concern (b) summary of records review, (c) summary of interviews, (d) a narrative description, based on the brief and informal observation, and (e) a summary of data collection.

a. Description of Behavior

VERBAL AGGRESSION
Definition: Verbal Aggressiveness (VA) a predisposition to attack the self-concept of others VA Is associated with name-calling, the use of threats and ultimatums, negativity, resentment, and suspicion Verbal Aggressiveness is generally considered a negative, destructive form of communication Bullying is the use of force or coercion to abuse or intimidate others. The behavior can be habitual and involve an imbalance of social or physical power. Indirect/Social Bullying: A form of bullying that is not direct or confrontational, for example, when a person or group purposefully excludes a particular person from activities or friendships or spreads rumors to harm another persons reputation. Manipulation: is an attempt to control, or persuade another person through enticing but harmful means. Cyber-bullying: Cyber-bullying is any bullying done through the use of technology. This form of bullying can easily go undetected because of lack of parental/authoritative supervision. I Hate You You are too dumb to know how to ______... (laughter) Shut up Im not your friend I could kill myself with this______... Nobody likes you Mia frequently uses verbally aggressive behavior directed toward peers. She consistently has verbal altercations with her classmates. According to her teacher, she uses language that upsets other students.

Related Behaviors

Specific Examples:

Details:

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DATE OF COMPLETION

FUNCTIONAL BEHAVIOR ASSESSMENT


Date Written: November 27, 2012 Student: Mia Stallas

STUDENT INITIALS

School: George Street Elementary Birth Date: September 4, 2007

b. Summary of Records Review Student academic work samples were reviewed to reveal satisfactory and on target academic progress. According to Mias most recent physical examination (8/2012), Mia is normal weight and height. Mias last physical examination shows no abnormalities and is considered normal by her physician. Mia is current with all state mandated vaccinations. Mia has not been prescribed any regular medications. Mias dental and vision examinations (12/2011) reveal normal dental and vision health. There have been no previous assessments of Mias behavior. Mia has not been given any formal testing to date. Mias school uses progress reports which were unavailable for this study. Mia does not have an IEP or a 504 plan. c. Summary of Interviews In this section of the FBA, we will examine the interviews conducted with staff, parent, and student. All interviews were informal brief conversations that crystalize Mias behavior of concern (and absence of the behavior of concern). i. Summary of Interview with Teacher/Staff: 1. Mr. Opal is Mias music teacher. Mr. Opal reports that Mia has a wonderful singing voice and sense of rhythm. He says, She is a natural! Mr. Opal was surprised to find out that Mias learning community felt the need for any behavior intervention. He describes her as a model student that shows leadership in his classroom. He has never observed the target behavior or any unproductive behavior from Mia. 2. Ms. Hunter is Mias primary teacher. According to Ms. Hunter, Mia does well in whole class lessons with high levels of interactivity. She also reports that Mia does well with independent seat work. She says, Mia has an advanced vocabulary and is very bright. According to Ms. Hunter, Mia uses high level words to express herself during her school day. She uses words like, ashamed, cautious, courageous, failure, and obnoxious. According to Ms. Hunter (and silent nods from Ms. Jones, the inclusion based special education teacher), Mia is reprimanded over five times a day for verbal aggression towards her classmates. According to Ms. Hunter, she uses language that upsets other students: Shut up, Im not your friend, you are not smart, and I hate you. Ms. Hunter reports that Mia usually engages in the behavior of concern (verbal aggression), when the instructor is working with students in her small group sessions or when Mia has free time on the playground. Ms. Hunter also reports that several events
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DATE OF COMPLETION

FUNCTIONAL BEHAVIOR ASSESSMENT


Date Written: November 27, 2012 Student: Mia Stallas

STUDENT INITIALS

School: George Street Elementary Birth Date: September 4, 2007

immediately follow Mias behavior of concern: peers becoming visibly upset/crying, verbal reprimanding by staff, one on one talk with teachers, and time outs. 3. Mr. Ks is Mias gymnastics instructor. According to Mr. K, Mia is a bright and talented pupil. Mr. K says that Mia has only exhibited verbal aggression towards her classmates once. According to Mr. K, she once told another student that he was too dumb to do a real cartwheel. Mr. K noticed that prior to the behavior of concern another instructor was working closely with the target student to teach him cartwheels. Mr. K reported that he spoke at eye level with Mia and assured her that there would be serious consequences for saying mean things at gymnastics class. After the behavior of concern occurred Mia was asked to apologize to the student. Mr. K summarizes the incident, Once she apologized, the gymnastic class continued as normal without further incident, and Mia has not exhibited the behavior since. ii. Summary of Interview with Parent/Guardian Mias mother, Naomi Stallas, describes Mia as a smart and sassy. She also refers to Mia as her little songbird. Mias mother reports that Mia frequently uses language that disturbs her: Shut up, Im not your friend, and I hate you. Mias mother also reports Mias tendency to be verbally aggressive with other children in the family when she goes over for visits. When asked by her mother about the disturbing language, Mia usually responds by shifting blame to others or with an innocent I dont know. Mias mother reports, Mia hits and then acts like she is the victim. According to Mias mom Mia usually engages in the behavior of concern when the focus is on other children. For instance, when I hug or get close to other children in the family, Mia usually lashes out verbally at the child. Mias mother also reports that the behavior of concern is always committed away from adult supervision. When asked about the events directly following the behavior of concern, Mias mother reports that Mia is usually verbally reprimanded and sent to her room (or isolated away from other children). Mias mother also says that she rarely commits the behavior of concern towards adults, thus Mias behavior of concern usually takes place when she visits her cousins.

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DATE OF COMPLETION

FUNCTIONAL BEHAVIOR ASSESSMENT


Date Written: November 27, 2012 Student: Mia Stallas

STUDENT INITIALS

School: George Street Elementary Birth Date: September 4, 2007

iii. Summary of Interview with Student According to Mia, she would like to be a singer/songwriter when she grows up. Mia says that she prefers the colors pink and purple and she likes Dora the Explorer. When asked, Mia reports that her favorite story is the Princess and the Pea. Mia self-identifies as smart in math and music. Mia also says that she has many friends at school. Mia also expressed her fondness for gymnastics class and her gymnastics instructor Mr. K. Mia reports that she gets really mad sometimes and then she says mean things. Mia also reports that the behavior of concern usually happens when nobody is paying attention or when kids pretend to be stupid. Mia says that she does not know what usually happens before the behavior of concern occurs. Mia also says that she usually gets put in time out when she says mean things. Mia reports that most of the time she says mean things when there is free time on the playground. Mia also says that she does not show the behavior of concern during music or math, because those teachers ignore her. When asked about what she gains/gets as a result of verbal aggression, Mia states Nobody is looking so I get to say mean things. Some kids annoy me. d. Summary of Direct Observations Direct observations were conducted, by the student-teacher/independent observer, to investigate the relative frequency and appearance of Mias behavior concern. This information is categorized by setting, antecedent events that typically precede the behaviors of concern, the consequences that typically follow (and may maintain/promote) the behaviors of concern, the absence of the behavior, and the specific language used in each setting. To obtain an adequate sample of Mias behavior, she was observed on 3 different observational days during music class, language arts class, free time, and gymnastic class. i. Music Class Mias music class is a 25 minute session executed on Mondays, Tuesdays, and Wednesdays of each week. The independent observer attended three music class sessions, on three consecutive days. Mias music class is neat and well organized. When it is time for music class, Mr. Opal appears through the doorway with a oneman band presence and a large smile. While all of the children immediately vie for a spot on the large circle time rug, Mia Stallas casually avoids the rush of her peers and opts for a seat on the outer rim of the circle. Mia appears relaxed as she sways to the music and belts out each lyric. She claps on the beat and displays obvious harmony with the music. The entire period goes by without signs of the behavior of concern.

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DATE OF COMPLETION

FUNCTIONAL BEHAVIOR ASSESSMENT


Date Written: November 27, 2012 Student: Mia Stallas

STUDENT INITIALS

School: George Street Elementary Birth Date: September 4, 2007

ii. Language Arts Class Mias language arts class is a 30 minute session executed each day of the week. The independent observer attended language arts class sessions, on three consecutive days. Mias language arts class is neat and well organized. The class begins with lecture style, direct, whole class instruction. Mia is attentive and engaged during this period of the lesson. The teacher then proceeds to break the class into small groups for targeted instruction. During all three observation sessions, the behavior of concern only started as the teacher began to circle the class for small group instruction. On one occasion, Ms. Jones was working with a student one on one. Shortly afterwards Mia stood from her seat and headed towards the pencil sharpener. On the way back to her seat, she leaned over the target student and said You are too dumb to know how to write your name. She proceeded to her seat with chuckling laughter. During another observational period she told students in her small group to Shut up twice. On another day she told a member of her small group that Nobody like you. After each event Mia was either spoken to by her teacher with public reprimanding, spoken to by her teachers in private talks, or sent to a time out area. In every instance a target student was made visibly upset. Mias reaction to these consequences was usually to cry and ultimately stop the behavior. iii. Free Time Mias free time on the playground is a 20 minute session executed each day after lunchtime. The independent observer attended three free time sessions, on three consecutive days. After the students eat lunch they are brought outside on a small playground area with slides, tunnels, and open spaces covered by playground foam. On all three observation days, there was one lunch/ recess attendant on the grounds, while 30 or so children climbed and ran through the brisk air. Mia seemed to be part of a six girl group that ran and played tag most of the time. On the playground, there were 3 reports from peers about Mia saying I Hate You. There were 6 reports from peers about Mia saying Im not your friend. There was 1 report from peers about Mia saying Nobody like you. There was also 1 report from peers about Mia saying I could kill myself with this rock... (laughter). All reports from peers were acknowledged by Mia as true statements. After each event occurred Mia was publicly reprimanding by the recess attendant and asked to stand on the wall for time out.

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DATE OF COMPLETION

FUNCTIONAL BEHAVIOR ASSESSMENT


Date Written: November 27, 2012 Student: Mia Stallas

STUDENT INITIALS

School: George Street Elementary Birth Date: September 4, 2007

iv. Gymnastics Class Mias gymnastics class is a 60 minute session executed every other Saturday of the month. The independent observer attended three gymnastics class sessions, on three consecutive class days. Mias gymnastics class is neat and well organized. There is a strong sense of order and efficiency. Mia was very homogenous, as she blended in with 13 tiny individuals (age 3-5) that were ready to receive instructions. Mia had come prepared for class and stood waiting for a nonverbal signal from Mr. K to enter the main gym floor. Upon this cue, the children raced to stand on top of circular foam mats that represented their place in the circle. A complete circle was soon formed around Mr. K, while his two assistants stood on the perimeter of the circle. Almost immediately after getting into position, loud, upbeat music filled the rafters. Mr. Ks bullhorn quality voice carried over the sound to instruct the class to leave their circles and start jogging around the mat. Mia was graceful and dynamic with fluid motions that followed multiple step instructions given by Mr. K. The three observational periods came and went without any sign of Mias behavior of concern. e. Summary of Data Collection The direct observations provided additional insights into the contexts that surround Mias behavior of concern. It is important to note that Mias behavior of concern was never (or rarely) exhibited during her favorite activities: music class and gymnastics. It is also significant to note that while Mia performs well in her language arts class, her behavior of concern is prevalent during this period of the school day. As illustrated by the following figures, Mia is also prone to engaging in Verbal Aggression during free time. Figure 1 will illustrate Event Recording by Setting and Frequency. Figure 2 will feature Event Recording by Antecedent, Behavior, and Consequence. Figure 3 will highlight Event Recording by Specific Language and Setting. Each chart presents all three days of observation and data collection.

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DATE OF COMPLETION

FUNCTIONAL BEHAVIOR ASSESSMENT


Date Written: November 27, 2012 Student: Mia Stallas

STUDENT INITIALS

School: George Street Elementary Birth Date: September 4, 2007

i. Figure 1 : Event Recording by Setting and Frequency This chart illustrates the number of times that Mia exhibited the behavior of concern and in what setting the behavior occurred over three observational sessions.

Observation of Target Behavior


5

Behavior

Music Class

Music Class

Observation 1

Observation 2

Observation 3

Music Class

Free Time

Free Time

Gymnastics Class

Gymnastics Class

Free Time

Observation Setting

Gymnastics Class

Language Arts Class

Language Arts Class

Language Arts Class

2= 2 instances 1= 1 instance 0= 0 instances Rating Key: 5= 5 instances 4= 4 instances 3= 3 instances

Frequency

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DATE OF COMPLETION

FUNCTIONAL BEHAVIOR ASSESSMENT


Date Written: November 27, 2012 Student: Mia Stallas

STUDENT INITIALS

School: George Street Elementary Birth Date: September 4, 2007

Figure 2 : Event Recording by Antecedent, Behavior, and Consequence


This chart illustrates the antecedent, behavior, and consequences observed over three observation sessions where the behavior of concern was present. The antecedents were teacher attention to others in small group, recess attendant attention on others, and other students receive one on one teacher attention/praise. The behavior is verbal aggression. The consequences were peer becoming visibly upset, public reprimanding by staff, private talking with teachers, and having time out.

Antecedent
Date
11.5.12 11.5.12 11.6.12 11.6.12 11.7.12 11.7.12

Behavior
Antecedent/ Setting Events
E F G F

Consequence
Consequence/ Outcome
H I/K

Context/Activity
B C B C

Identified Target Behavior

Student Reaction
L N L N L N

Staff Initials
c.d c.d c.d c.d c.d c.d

Verbal Aggression

H/J I/K H/J I/K

B C

G F

KEY
A. music class
E. Teacher Attention to others in small group F. Recess attendant attention on others G. Other students receive one on one teacher attention/praise

Verbal Aggression

H. Peer becoming visibly upset I. Public reprimanding by staff J. Private talk with teachers

L. Stopped

B. language arts class

M. Continued

C. free time

N. Intensified

D. gymnastics class

K. Time out

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DATE OF COMPLETION

FUNCTIONAL BEHAVIOR ASSESSMENT


Date Written: November 27, 2012 Student: Mia Stallas

STUDENT INITIALS

School: George Street Elementary Birth Date: September 4, 2007

ii. Figure 3 : Event Recording by Specific Language and Setting This infographic shows Mias specific language choices and the correlating settings.
http://infogr.am/Observation-Record-of-Verbal-Aggression

IV.

Hypotheses Statements And Hypothesized Solutions


This section of the report defines the possible functions of the behavior, describes the proposed (hypothesized) functions of Mias behaviors of concern, and lists intervention strategies to address the potential function of the behavior. In this section of the Functional Behavior Assessment we will examine traditional hypothesizes for the function of behavior in humans (and young female children) as well as present a hypothesized function of Mias behavior of concern. This section will also give a initial hypothesized solutions for Verbal Aggression in young female students as well as hypothesized solutions for Verbal Aggression used by Mia Stallas. a. Possible functions of a human behavior
Potential functions of behavior include: i. Positive Reinforcement: to get or obtain something (e.g., preferred activities, items, staff/peer attention, sensory stimulationvisual, auditory, vestibular balance) ii. Negative Reinforcement: to avoid or escape something (e.g., demands, interaction, sensory stimulationvisual, auditory, vestibular/balance)

b. Possible functions for Verbally Aggressive behavior among young, female children
i. Alleviating Boredom / Creating Excitement: Many of the girls in relevant studies reported that their verbal/social aggression behaviors were something to do to create excitement in their lives. ii. Social Dominance: Students may seek to establish themselves as a dominant figure within the social order at school.

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DATE OF COMPLETION

FUNCTIONAL BEHAVIOR ASSESSMENT


Date Written: November 27, 2012 Student: Mia Stallas

STUDENT INITIALS

School: George Street Elementary Birth Date: September 4, 2007

c. Hypothesized function of Mias behavior of concern i. Social Dominance: Mia seeks access to social and verbal dominance in her social order with peers. Mia has demonstrated a high level of command of the English language and vocabulary. Mia uses advanced (adult-like) verbal and social skills to hurt her peers as a form of social dominance. As Mia develops her advanced verbal skills she utilizes them not only for peaceful communication, but also for aggressive purposes. As her social skills are also highly developed, she has a more sophisticated strategy of aggression. Mia exerts her power by being able to harm a target person without even being identified (or held accountable).
Setting Events Antecedents Behaviors Function

language arts class: small group instruction

students need additional coaching

Verbal Aggression

gain social and verbal dominance

That is, when MIA encounters an instance where other students need additional coaching, she will engage in Verbal Aggression in order to gain access to social and verbal dominance.

ii. Adult and Peer Attention: Mia seeks to gain access to adult and peer attention. As
an only child, and a child without access to neighborhood play at home, Mia seeks the attention of peers and adults by committing acts of verbal aggression.

Setting Events

Antecedents

Behaviors

Function

Free time / lang. arts class: small group instruction

decreased levels of adult supervision

Verbal Aggression

gain access to adult and peer attention

That is, when MIA encounters decreased levels of adult supervision, she will engage in Verbal Aggression in order to gain access to adult and peer attention.

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DATE OF COMPLETION

FUNCTIONAL BEHAVIOR ASSESSMENT


Date Written: November 27, 2012 Student: Mia Stallas

STUDENT INITIALS

School: George Street Elementary Birth Date: September 4, 2007

d. Hypothesized solutions for Verbal Aggression in young female students Analysis of post-Harassment, Intimidation, Bullying laws, academic research has found that:
while girls are subjected to more indirect victimization than boys, they used more constructive conflict resolution strategies (such as compromise) than boys methods that may be particularly helpful in resolving girls conflicts in schools include humanistic approaches such as the method of shared concern and a range of processes whereby students act as peer helpers, e.g., buddy programs, peer support, peer counseling, peer mediation schools should do more work with bystanders and utilize restorative justice practices

e. Hypothesized solutions for Verbal Aggression used by Mia Stallas Here are some initial suggestions that may benefit Mia:
Mia would benefit from use of the social stories techniques and other activities that promote appropriate language and social etiquette She would also benefit from participating in a mentoring program for young girls Further exploration into materials of interest may also help to redirect Mias negative energy Mia would make an excellent peer coach. This position of authority may reduce her desire to establish dominance over her peers.

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DATE OF COMPLETION

FUNCTIONAL BEHAVIOR ASSESSMENT


Date Written: November 27, 2012 Student: Mia Stallas

STUDENT INITIALS

School: George Street Elementary Birth Date: September 4, 2007

V.

Recommendations and Team Signatures


a. A Behavior Support Plan At this time, it is recommended that a Behavior Support Plan be implemented to address Mias behaviors of concern due to the negative impact that these behaviors have on her educational performance and over potential for school and life success. To that end, a Behavior Support Plan (BSP) team will need to assemble. That team must identify antecedent and consequence based strategies to teach replacement behaviors and ensure that replacement behaviors are more relevant, effective, and efficient in addressing the functions of the behaviors of concern. Thus, the goal of the intervention plan should be to decrease the likelihood of the behaviors of concern and increase the likelihood of appropriate replacement behaviors. The BSP should have a strong emphasis on student strengths, antecedent control, and consequence modification. b. Team Signatures

____________________________ Completed by: China Davis, Independent Observer, Student Teacher William Paterson University

11.27.12 Date

____________________________ Completed by: ENTER NAME, School, Staff Position

___________________ Date

____________________________ Completed by: ENTER NAME, School, Staff Position

___________________ Date

____________________________ Completed by: ENTER NAME, School, Staff Position

___________________ Date

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DATE OF COMPLETION

FUNCTIONAL BEHAVIOR ASSESSMENT


Date Written: November 27, 2012 Student: Mia Stallas

STUDENT INITIALS

School: George Street Elementary Birth Date: September 4, 2007

SOURCES

Johns, B. H., & Carr, V. G. (1995). Techniques for managing verbally and physically aggressive students. Denver: Love Pub. Co. Bjorkqvist, K. (1994). Sex differences in physical, verbal, and indirect aggression: A review of recent research. Sex Roles. A Journal of Research, 30, 177-188 Cambridge Educational (Firm), Real Arts Media (Firm), & Films Media Group. (2011). Dealing with bullying. New York, N.Y.: Cambridge Educational.

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