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Simbol-simbol dalam Fisika

No 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 Rumus Alt 224 Alt 225 Alt 226 Alt 234 Alt 237 Alt 230 Alt 231 Alt 233 Alt 227 Simbol Abjad Yunani Alpha, huruf pertama Beta, huruf kedua Gamma, huruf ketiga Omega, huruf ke 24 Phi, huruf ke-21 Mu, huruf ke-12 Tau, huruf ke-19 Theta, huruf ke 8 Pi, huruf ke 16 Delta Epsilon Kappa Lambda Nu Xi Rho Sigma Chi Psi Arti Simbol Fisika Partikel radioaktif yang menyebabkan ionisasi mengandung muatan positif Partikel radioaktif yang menyebabkan ionisasi mengandung muatan negative Partikel radioaktif yang menyebabkan ionisasi mengandung muatan netral Simbol hambatan listrik; kecepatan sudut, huruf besarnya () untuk Ohm Fungsi Phi Euler Huruf besarnya () berarti fluks magnet Rumus pengurangan massa Rumus torsi, T =r x F = Fsin Biasa digunakan sebagai simbol sudut geometri Biasa digunakan dalam rumus lingkaran, 22/7 Fungsi delta Diract Konstanta permitivitas listrik Modulus Bulk Panjang gelombang; rapat muatan listrik per satuan panjang Frekuensi Satu jenis baryon dinamai denganhuruf besarnya( ) Rapat massa atau muatan liastrik per satuan volum, juga resistivitas listrik (hambat jenis) Konduktivitas listrik; rapat muatan listrik per satuan luas. Juga untuk konstanta Stevan-Boltzmann Suseptibilitas, m untuk magnet, dan e untuk listrik Dalam fisika kuantum, digunakan

untuk menyatakan fungsi gelombang, yang menyatakan keadaan.

Simbol matematika dasar


Nama

Simbol

Dibaca sebagai

Penjelasan

Contoh

Kategori

Kesamaan

sama dengan

x = y berarti x and y mewaki li hal atau nilai yang sama.

1+1=2

umum

Ketidaksamaan

tidak sama dengan

x y berarti x dan y tidak mewakili hal atau nilai yang 1 2 sama.

umum

< >

Ketidaksamaan x < y berarti x lebih kecil dari y. lebih kecil dari; lebih besar dari x > y means x lebih besar 3<4 5>4

dari y. order theory

Ketidaksamaan

lebih kecil dari atau sama dengan, lebih besar dari atau sama dengan

x y berarti x lebih kecil dari atau sama dengan y. x y berarti x lebih besar dari atau sama dengan y. 3 4 and 5 5 5 4 and 5 5

order theory

Perjumlahan

tambah

4 + 6 berarti jumlah antara 4 dan 6.

2+7=9

aritmatika

+
disjoint union A1={1,2,3,4} A2={2,4,5,7} the disjoint union A1 + A2 means the disjoint of and union of sets A1 and A2. A1 + A2 = {(1,1), (2,1), (3,1), (4,1), (2,2), (4,2), (5,2), (7,2)} teori himpunan

Perkurangan

kurang

9 4 berarti 9 dikurangi 4.

83=5

aritmatika

tanda negatif

negatif

3 berarti negatif dari angka 3.

(5) = 5

aritmatika

set-theoretic complement A B berarti himpunan yang mempunyai semua minus; without anggota dari Ayang tidak terdapat pada B. set theory {1,2,4} {1,3,4} = {2}

multiplication

kali

3 4 berarti perkalian 3 oleh 4.

7 8 = 56

aritmatika

Cartesian product XY means the set of all ordered pairs with the first element of each pair the Cartesian product of and ; the direct product of and selected from X and the second element selected from Y. {1,2} {3,4} = {(1,3),(1,4),(2,3),(2 ,4)}

teori himpunan

cross product (1,2,5) (3,4,1) = (22, 16, 2)

cross

u v means the cross product ofvectors u and v

vector algebra

division

bagi 6 3 atau 6/3 berati 6 dibagi 3.

2 4 = .5 12/4 = 3

/
aritmatika

square root

akar kuadrat

x berarti bilangan positif yang kuadratnya x.

4 = 2

bilangan real

complex square root if z = r exp(i) is represented in polar the complex square root of; square root coordinates with - < , then z= r exp(i/2). (-1) = i

Bilangan kompleks

absolute value |x| means the distance in

||

nilai mutlak dari

the real line (or the complex plane) betweenx and zero.

|3| = 3, |-5| = |5| |i| = 1, |3+4i| = 5

numbers

factorial

faktorial

n! adalah hasil dari 12...n.

4! = 1 2 3 4 = 24

combinatorics

probability distribution X ~ D, means the random X ~ N(0,1), thestandard normal distribution

has distribution; variable Xhas the tidk terhingga probability distribution D.

statistika

material implication

A B means if A is true then B is also true; if A is false then nothing is said about B.

x = 2 x = 4 is true, but x = 4 x = 2 is in general false (sincex could be


2

implies; if .. then

may mean the same as

2).

propositional

, or it may have the meaning for functionsgiven below. logic may mean the same as , or it may have the meaning for supersetgiven below.

material equivalence

if and only if; iff

A B means A is true if B is true and A is false if B is false. propositional logic

x+ 5 = y +2 x + 3 =y

logical negation The statement A is true if

not

and only ifA is false. (A) A A slash placed through another operator is the propositional same as "" placed in front. logic x y (x = y)

logical conjunctionor me

et in a lattice

The statement A B is true if A andB are both true; else it is false.

n< 4 n >2 n = 3 when n is a natural number.

and

propositional logic,lattice theory

logical disjunctionor join in a lattice n4 n 2 n3 The statement A B is true when n is

a natural number. propositional if A or B(or both) are true; if logic,lattice both are false, the theory statement is false. \

The xor propositio nal logic,Bool ean algebra universal quantification


||exclusive or

statement A B is true when either A or B, but not both, are true. A B me ans the same.

(A) A is always true,A A is always false.

for all; for any; for each predicate logic existential quantification

x: P(x) means P(x) is true for all x.

n N: n n.

x: P(x) means there is at least onex such that P(x) is true. n N: n is even.

there exists predicate logic

uniqueness quantification ! x: P(x) means there is there exists exactly one predicate logic definition x := y or x y means x is defined to be another name is defined as for y (but note that can also mean other things, such as congruence). everywhere P : Q means P is defined to be logically equivalent to Q. set brackets cosh x := (1/2)(exp x + exp (x)) A XOR B : (A B) (A B) exactly onex such that P(x) is true.

! n N: n + 5 = 2n.

:= :

{,}

the set of ... teori himpunan set builder

{a,b,c} means the set consisting ofa, b, and c.

N = {0,1,2,...}

{:} {|}

notation the set of ... such that ... teori himpunan himpunan kosong

{x : P(x)} means the set of all x for which P(x) is true. {x | P(x)} is the same as {x : P(x)}. {n N : n < 20} = {0,1,2,3,4}
2

berarti himpunan yang tidak memiliki elemen. {} juga berarti hal yang sama.

{n N : 1 < n < 4} =

himpunan kosong

{}

teori himpunan

set membership is an element of; a S means a is an is not an element element of the of everywhere, teori himpunan subset is a subset of A B means every element of A is also element of B. A B means A B but A B. A B means every element of B is also is a superset of element of A. A B means A B but A B. A B B; R Q A B A; Q R set S; a S means a is not an element of S.

(1/2) 2
1

teori himpunan

superset

teori himpunan

set-theoretic union A B means the set that contains all the elements from A and also all those from B, but no others. AB AB= B

the union of ... and ...; union teori himpunan set-theoretic

intersection intersected with; intersect

A B means the set that contains all those elements that A and B have in common. {x R : x = 1} N = {1}
2

teori himpunan set-theoretic complement A \ B means the set that contains all those elements of A that are not in B. {1,2,3,4} \ {3,4,5,6} = {1,2}

minus; without teori himpunan function applicati on

f(x) berarti nilai of fungsi f pada elemenx.

Jika f(x) := x , makaf(3) = 3 = 9.


2

()

teori himpunan precedence grouping Perform the operations inside the parentheses first. umum function arrow (8/4)/2 = 2/2 = 1, but 8/(4/2) = 8/2 = 4.

f:X Y

f: X Y means the from ... to teori himpunan function composition function f maps the set X into the set Y.

Let f: Z N be defined by f(x) = x .


2

if f(x) = 2x, fog is the function, such that and g(x) = x+ 3, (fog)(x) = f(g(x)). then (fog)(x) = 2(x+ 3).

composed with teori himpunan Bilangan asli N

N berarti {0,1,2,3,...}, but see the article on natural numbers for a different

{|a| : a Z} = N

N
Bilangan

convention.

Bilangan bulat

Z Q R C
infinity

Z berarti {...,3,2,1,0,1,2,3,...}.

{a : |a| N} = Z

Bilangan

Bilangan rasional Q 3.14 Q Q

Q berarti {p/q : p,q Z, q 0}.

Bilangan

Bilangan real R R berarti {limn an : n N: an Q, the limit exists}. Bilangan (1) R R

Bilangan kompleks C C means {a + bi : a,b R}. i = (1) C

Bilangan

is an element of

limx0 1/|x| =

infinity

the extended number line that is greater than all real numbers; it often occurs inlimits.

numbers

pi berarti perbandingan A = r adalah luas lingkaran dengan jari-jari (radius) r

pi

(rasio) antara keliling lingkaran dengan

Euclidean diameternya. geometry norm norm of; length of linear algebra summation ||x|| is the norm of the element x of anormed vector space.

|| ||

||x+y|| ||x|| + ||y||

sum over ... from ... to ... of aritmatika product

n k=1

ak means a1 + a2 +

k=1 k = 1 + 2 + 3 +4 =1+4+ 9 + 16 = 30
2 2

... + an.

k=1 (k + 2) = (1 product over ... from ... to ... of k=1 ak means a1a2an.
n

+ 2)(2 + 2)(3 + 2)(4 + 2) = 3 4 5 6 = 360

product

aritmatika Cartesian i=0 Yi means the set of all (n+1)-tuples (y0,...,yn). the Cartesian product of; the
n

n=1 R = R

direct product of set theory derivative f '(x) is the derivative of the prime; derivative of kalkulus indefinite integralor antider ivative indefinite integral f(x) dx means a function of ; the antiderivative of whose derivative is f. function fat the point x, i.e., the slope of thetangent there. If f(x) = x , thenf '(x) = 2x
2

'

x dx = x /3 + C

kalkulus definite integral a f(x) dx means the integral from ... to ... of ... with respect to kalkulus gradient signed areabetween the xaxis and the graph of the function f between x = a and x =b. 0 x dx = b /3;
b 2 3 b

del, nabla, gradie ntof kalkulus

f (x1, , xn) is the vector of If f (x,y,z) = partial derivatives (df / dx1, , df / dxn). 3xy + z then f = (3y, 3x, 2z)

partial derivative

With f (x1, , xn), f/xi is

If f(x,y) = x y, then

partial derivative the derivative of f with of kalkulus boundary boundary of topology perpendicular x y means x is is perpendicular perpendicular to y; or more to geometri bottom element the bottom element lattice theory entailment A B means the sentence A entails the sentence B, that is every modelin which A is model theory true, B is also true. inference infers or is derived from propositional logic,predicate x y means y is derived from x. x = means x is the smallest element. generally x is orthogonal toy. M means the boundary of M respect to xi, with all other variables kept constant.

f/x = 2xy

{x : ||x|| 2} = {x : || x || = 2}

If lm and mn th en l|| n.

x : x =

|=

entails

A A A

|-

A B B A

logic normal subgroup

is a normal subgroup of group theory quotient group

N G means that N is a normal subgroup of group G. Z(G) G

{0, a, G/H means the quotient of 2a, b, b+a, b+2a} / {0, b} = {{0, b}, {a,b+a}, {2a, b+2a}} Q / {1, 1} V, G H means that group G is isomorphic to group H where Q is thequaternion group andV is the Klein fourgroup. group Gmodulo its subgroup H.

mod group theory isomorphism