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EXPERIMENT 20 (PRACTICAL NO.

33) TITLE: ECOLOGICAL STUDY OF A TERRESTRIAL OR AN AQUATIC AREA

NAME OF GROUP MEMBER: 1. CHONG SET LI 2. LIM KAI YIN 3. KUA EN YI 4. ZAHIDAH HUSNA BINTI ZULKIFLI CLASS: 6 PUSC (2012) TEACHERS NAME: PN. SARIMAH BT DAUD

1. OBJECTIVE
Learning the basic principles of ecology through students own effort Elements of ecosystem: biosis and abiosis Dynamic relationship of elements and flow of energy through ecosystem Using the simple apparatus and instruments in ecological studies Learning the methods of collecting and analyzing ecological data Writing an ecological study report Inculcating nature loving attitude Inculcating good moral values such as cooperation, independence, and selfconfidence

SOIL ANALYSIS 1. SOIL SAMPLING TECHNIQUE


Apparatus: metal cylinder and piston (to dig out soil) Procedure: a) Press the metal cylinder into the soil. b) Using the piston, remove the soil sample from the cylinder Discussion: 1. There are many methods to obtain a sample of soil, however, appropriate technique should be used to retain the original quality and structure of the soil in order to determine the actual characteristic or composition of the soil. 2. Using a corer This is the most commonly used method in soil sampling. This method does not disturb the original structure and quality of the soil. The corer consists of a sharp ended metal cylinder and a piston. 3. Scoop Another method to obtain soil sample is using scoops and spades. This method allows obtaining of soil from different depths. However, this method is less urged to be used as it may destroy the soil of area being studied. Use a garden trowel or shovel to carefully remove the top 10 cm of soil from a small area and set it on the ground. (Depth varies according to depth of soil wishing to be sampled)

4. Soil bore Using a soil bore maintains the natural condition of the soil under study. Soil samples can be obtained from various depths. Hence, a soil bore is suitable for the study of the characteristics of the different layers of a specific soil profile. A known disadvantage of this method is the migration of contaminants from one layer of the soil to another

Precaution : 1. Appropriate soil sampling method should be used to ensure the nature and the structure of the soil are not destroyed. Conclusion : The most suitable soil sampling technique is using metal cylinder and piston as it can retain the natural composition of the soil being studied. Apart from that, this method is convenient and the variation cost effective.

2. DETERMINATION OF THE TEXTURE OF SOIL


Introduction Soil texture is a soil property used to describe the relative proportion of different grain sizes of mineral particles in a soil. Particles are grouped according to their size into what are called soil separates. These separates are typically named clay, silt, and sand. Soil texture classification is based on the fractions of soil separates present in a soil. It is also important to note that soil texture changes slowly with time. Soil properties related to texture 1. Porosity an index of the relative pore volume in the soil 2. Infiltration The downward entry of water into the immediate surface of soil 3. Erodibility Generally, large particles are less erodible, exceptions being clay 4. Available water holding capacity The capacity of soil to retain water 5. Soil formation fine sand to coarse sand ratio for example 6. Permeability The quality of the soil that enables water to move downward through the profile Apparatus: 500cm measuring cylinder 100cmsoil sample 300cm water Procedure: a) the soil sample is added to the measuring cylinder and is covered with water. b) the contents is shake vigorously c) the mixture is allowed to settle out, according to density and surface area of particles for 48 hours. d) the volume of the various fraction of soil sample is measured

Formula : The percentage of soil component content is calculated using the following formula :

Results: Soil Components Stone Sand Fine sand Clay Organic matter Total Height of Soil Components(cm) 4.3 2.7 2.0 2.7 1.3 13.0 Percentage of Soil Components(%) 33.1 20.8 15.4 20.8 10.0 100

Discussion : 1. Soil particles precipitate at the bottom of measuring cylinder according to their density and surface area. 2. Stones are the major component of the soil sample, which made up 50% of the soil component. Whereas clay and sand made up 30% and 20% of the soil component respectively.

3. Stone particles have highest density among the soil particles, and therefore, they accumulate at the bottom of the measuring cylinder, followed by sand particles. Clay particles made up the uppermost layer of the soil sediment because of their very small density and surface area. Precaution : 1. The mixture of water and soil sample must be allowed to settle for a longer period of time to allow the soil particles to settle completely and accentuate distinctions among types ofparticles. Conclusion : From the experiment conducted, it can be concluded that the texture of the soil sample being studied is sandy loam.

3. DETERMINATION OF WATER CONTENT OF SOIL Introduction The state of water in soil is described in terms of the amount of water and the energy associated with the forces which hold the water in the soil. The amount of water is defined by water content and the energy state of the water is the water potential. Plant growth, soil temperature, chemical transport, and ground water recharge are all dependent on the state of water in the soil. While there is a unique relationship between water content and water potential for a particular soil, these physical properties describe the state of the water in soil in distinctly different manners. Soil water is held in the pore spaces between particles of soil. Within the soil system, the storage of water is influenced by several different forces. Soil water can be further subdivided into three categories: 1. Hygroscopic water - found as a microscopic film of water surrounding soil particles 2. Capillary water - held by cohesive forces between the films of hygroscopic water 3. Gravity water - water moved through the soil by the force of gravity Apparatus : Aluminum foil pie dish Electronic balance Oven Desiccator Tongs Thermometer Materials : 80 gm soil Procedure : a) An empty aluminum foil pie dish is weighted. The mass (a) is recorded. b) The broken-up soil sample is added to the pie dish and is weighed. The mass (b)
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is recorded. c) The pie dish containing the soil sample is placed in the oven at 110 oC for 24 hours. d) The sample is removed from the oven and is cooled in a desiccators. e) The sample is then weighted and the mass is recorded. f) The sample is returned to the oven at 110 oC for a further 24 hours. g) Steps (d) and (e) are repeated until consistent weighing are recorded (constant mass) . The mass (c) is recorded.

h) The percentage of water content is calculated as follows:

i) The soil sample is retained in the desiccator for experiment 4. Formula : The percentage of water content of soil is calculated using the following formula :

Results : Soil Sample Mass of aluminum foil pie dish, a (g) Mass of foil pie dish containing soil sample before dried, b (g) Mass of foil pie dish containing soil sample after dried, c (g) Mass of soil, b-a (g) Mass of water , b-c (g) Percentage of Water Content ( % ) Discussion : 1. The soil samples are heated in the oven at 110 C to eliminate all the water content in the soil. 2. The soil sample from Bandar Tun Hussein Onn 2 area contains 120.5% of water content. 3. The amount of water content in the soil depends on the texture and the properties of the soil. 20 g 24.1 g 120.5% 58.2 g Bandar Tun Hussein Onn 2 62.3 g 82.3 g

Precaution : 1. During the experiment, the soil samples must be reheated, re-cooled, and re-weighed until constant masses were obtained to ensure that the water content in the soil samples were totally removed.
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2. The soil samples must be retained well before conducting the experiment to prevent the loss of water from the soil samples to the surrounding due to evaporation. 3. The soil samples must be placed in the dessicator for cooling to prevent condensation which may affect the results of the experiment. Conclusion : The percentage of water content of soil samples from Bandar Tun Hussein Onn 2 is 120.5%

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4. DETERMINATION OF ORGANIC MATTER CONTENT Introduction Organic matter in soil consists of plant and animal material that is in the process of decomposing. Soil organic matter is the organic matter component of soil. It can be divided into three general pools: living biomass of microorganisms, fresh and partially decomposed residues, and humus. Soil organic matter is frequently said to consist of humic substances and non-humic substances. Non-living components in soil are a heterogeneous mixture composed largely of products resulting from microbal and chemical transformations of organic debris. Humus is the well-decomposed organic matter and highly stable organic material which feeds the soil population of micro-organisms and other creatures, thus maintaining high and healthy levels of soil life. Humification of dead plant material causes complex organic compounds to break down into simpler forms which are then made available to growing plants for uptake through their root systems. During the humification process, microbes secrete sticky gums; these contribute to the crumb structure of the soil by holding particles together, allowing greater aeration of the soil. Toxic substances such as heavy metals, as well as excess nutrients, can be chelated (that is, bound to the complex organic molecules of humus) and prevented from entering the wider ecosystem Apparatus : Desiccators Crucible and lid Tripod Bunsen burner Asbestos mat Fireclay triangle tongs

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Material : Dried soil sample Procedure: 1. The crucible and lid is heated strongly in the Bunsen Flame to remove all traces of moisture. 2. The crucible and lid placed in the desiccator to cool. The mass (a) is weighted and recorded. 3. The dried soil sample (kept from the previous experiment) is added from the desiccators and weighted. The mass (b) is recorded. 4. The soil sample in the crucible is heated, covered with the lid, to red-heat for 1 hour to burn off all the organic matter. The soil sample is allowed to cool for 10 min and is removed to the desiccator. 5. The crucible and soil sample is weighted when cooled. 6. Steps (c) and (d) are repeated until constant mass is recorded. 7. The percentage of organic content is calculated as follow:

8. The experiment on soil samples taken from different areas is repeated to demonstrate variation of organic content.

Formula :
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The percentage of organic matter content in soil sample is calculated using the following formula:

Results :
Soil Sample Mass of crucible and lid, a (g) Mass of crucible and lid containing dried soil sample before heating, b (g) Mass of crucible and lid containing dried soil sample after heating, c (g) Mass of soil sample, b-a (g) Mass of organic matter, b-c (g) Percentage of Organic Component ( % )

Bandar Tun Husesein Onn 2 37 g

77 g

31.6 g

40 g 45.4 g

113.5%

Discussion : 1. Soil samples are heated strongly to burn off all the organic matters present in the soil.
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2. The soil sample from Bandar Tun Hussein Onn 2 contains 113.5% of organic matters 3. The organic constituents in the soil composed of undecayed plant and animal tissues, partial decomposition products, and the soil biomass. 4. Humus is important soil organic matter which supply nutrients for plants grow and microbes in terrestrial ecosystems. Precaution : 1. The soil samples used are retained from Experiment 3 to ensure that the water content in the soil samples is totally removed. 2. The soil samples must be burnt cooled, weighed until a constant mass is obtained to ensure the complete decomposition of organic matter. 3. The lid of the crucible should be opened occasionally to ventilate the air inside the crucible to allow the entry of oxygen for the decomposition of organic matter in the soil. Conclusion : The percentage of soil organic content for the soil samples from Bandar Tun Hussein Onn 2 is 113.5%

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5. DETERMINATION OF AIR CONTENT OF SOIL Introduction Soil air is the part of ground air in the soil and is similar to the air of the atmosphere but depleted in oxygen content and enriched in carbon dioxide. Alternatively, the gaseous phase of soil is called soil air. As the soil water content increases the amount of air in the soil decreases. The composition of air in an well-aerated soil is close to the composition of atmospheric air, as the oxygen consumed in the soil by plants and micro-organisms is readily replaced from the atmosphere. Two important gases in soil air are carbon dioxide and oxygen. Carbon dioxide is produced as a by-product of plant root respiration and biological activity. Oxygen is consumed in the soil by the same processes, and plant roots require oxygen to function normally. Hence, the oxygen in the soil is consumed by plants and micro-organism and is replenished by oxygen from the atmosphere above the soil surface. Under reducing conditions soil air may contain methane, hydrogen sulphide, and ammonia. Apparatus : Tin can 500 cm beaker Metal seeker Material : Water Procedure 1. The empty can is placed with open end uppermost into a 500cm beaker and the beaker is filled with water above the level of the can. The water level in the beaker is marked. 2. The can that containing the water is removed carefully and the volume of water in the can is measured in a measuring cylinder. The volume (a) is recorded. The water level
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in the beaker will fall by an amount corresponding to the volume of water in the can. 3. The base of the can is perforated by using a drill, making about eight small holes. 4. The open end of the can is pushed into the soil from which the surface vegetation has been removed until soil begins to come through the perforations. The can is gently dig out, turned over and the soil is removed from the surface until it is level with the top of can. 5. The can containing the soil is placed with open end uppermost, gently back into the beaker of water and the soil in the can is loosen with seeker to allow air to escape. 6. The water level in the beaker will be lower than the original level because water will be used to replace the air which was present in the soil. 7. Water is added to the beaker from a full 100cm measuring cylinder until the original level is restored. The volume of water added (b) is recorded. 8. The percentage air content of soil sample can be determinate as follows:

9. The experiment on soil samples is repeated from different areas

Formula : The percentage of air content in soil sample is calculated using the following formula :
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Results : Soil sample Initial volumes of soil sample, a Bandar Tun Hussin Onn 2 Discussion : 1. Soil air contains oxygen, carbon dioxide and other gases such as methane, hydrogen sulphide, and ammonia. 2. The soil sample from Bandar Tun Hussein Onn 2 contains 55.56% of air content. 3. The can containing soil sample is immersed into the beaker of water and the water flows into the can through the perforation at the base of the can to allow the air in the soil dissolves in it. (ml) 450 ml Final volumes of soil sample, b (ml) 200 ml Volumes of air in soil sample, a-b (ml) 250 ml Percentages of volume of air in soil sample (%) 55.56%

Precaution : 1. The surface vegetation of the soil must be removed before pushing the perforated can into the soil to obtain the soil sample.
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2. The soil sample in the can needs to be loosen by using a seeker to allow the air in the soil sample to escape. Conclusion : The percentage of air content in the soil samples from Bandar Tun Hussein Onn 2 is 55.56%

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6. DETERMINATION OF SOIL PH Introduction The pH of soil or more precisely the pH of the soil solution is very important because soil solution carries nutrients in it such as Nitrogen (N), Potassium (K), and Phosphorus (P) that plants need in specific amounts to grow, thrive and fight off diseases. Many crops, vegetables, flowers and shrubs, trees, weeds and fruit are pH dependent and rely on the soil solution to obtain nutrients. The pH value of a soil is influenced by the kinds of parent materials from which the soil was formed. Human distractions like pollution can alter the pH of soil. Application of fertilizers containing ammonium or urea speeds up the rate at which acidity develops. The decomposition of organic matter also adds to soil acidity. If the soil solution is too acidic plants cannot utilize the nutrients they need. In acidic soils, plants are more likely to take up toxic metals and some plants eventually die of toxicity. Knowing whether the soil pH is acidic or basic is important because if the soil is too acidic the applied pesticides, herbicides, and fungicides will not be absorbed and they will end up in garden water and rain water runoff, where they eventually become pollutants in our streams, rivers, lakes, and ground water. Apparatus : Long test-tube Test-tube rack Spatula 10 cm3 pipete Material : BDH universal indicator solution Barium sulphate Distilled water

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Procedure : a) 1 cm3 of soil is put in a test-tube. 1 cm3 of barium sulphate is added to the test-tube to ensure flocculation of colloidal clay. b) 10 cm3 of distilled water and 5 cm3 of BDH universal indicator solution. The test-tube is sealed with the bung. The test-tube is shaken vigorously and the contents are allowed to settle for 5 minutes. c) The colour of liquid in the test-tube is compared with the colours on the BDH references colour chart and corresponding pH is read off. d) The experiment is repeated on soil samples from different areas. Results : Soil Sample Bandar Tun Hussein Onn 2 Discussion : 1. The pH of the soil is important to provide suitable medium for the growth of plants. 2. Barium sulphate is added to the soil sample in the test-tube to ensure flocculation of colloidal clay in the soil. 3. The pH value of the soil samples from Bandar Tun Hussein Onn 2 is between pH3 to pH6. Colour of Liquid In The Test-tube Yellow pH value of soil sample 3-6

Precaution :
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1. The test tube containing the soil solution must be shaken vigorously and the contents are allowed to settle for 5 minutes to ensure the complete flocculation of colloidal clay in the soil. Conclusion : The soil samples from Bandar Tun Hussein Onn 2 have a pH value of 3 to 6.

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DETERMINATION OF TYPES OF SOIL ORGANISMS Introduction Soil organisms are part of soil population. The types of soil organisms commonly found include Nematoda, Annelida, Myriapoda, Insecta, Mollusca and Amoeba. Tullgren funnel is a device used to separate insects and mites from leaf mold and similar materials to study the types of organisms presented. A soil or leaf litter sample is placed in the removable upper part of the funnel. Heat and light from the lamp creates a temperature gradient of approximately 14C in the soil sample. This stimulates the downward movement of soil arthropods, and similar organisms, through the gauze to a the collecting tube attached to the base of the funnel. The position of the lamp is adjustable to enable the temperature of the soil to be raised gradually.

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Baermann funnel is a device used to extract nematodes from a soil sample or plant material. A muslin bag containing the sample is submerged in water in a funnel sealed at the lower end by a rubber tube and clip. Being heavier than water, the nematodes pass through the muslin and sink to the bottom. This device relies on the phenomenon of the migration of the nematodes downward from soil or feces to water of warmer temperature. After permitting sufficient time to permit migration, the warm water is drained off, centrifuged, and examined microscopically for the presence of the nematodes.

BAERMANN FUNNEL

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Apparatus: Baermann funnel, Retort stand, Beakers, Magnifying glass, Microscope, glass slide Material : 4% formalin solution Procedure : Using Baermann funnel 1. A beaker containing 4% of formalin solution is prepared.
2. A muslin bag containing the soil sample is submerged in water in a funnel sealed at the

lower end by a rubber tube and clip.


3. The nematodes sank to the lower end of the rubber tube and are collected in the beaker

containing formalin solution by drawing off the clip at the lower end of the rubber tube after 48 hours. 4. The solution in the beaker is drained off, centrifuged, and examined by using microscope.
5. The appearance of the soil organisms is drawn and the name of the types of the animals is

stated.

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Results: Types of soil organism Nematoda Appearance of organism

Annellida

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Myriapoda

Insecta

Mollusca

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Amoeba

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Discussion : 1. The application of Baermann funnel relies on the characteristic of nematodes which migrate downward from soil or feces to water of warmer temperature. 2. The soil organisms found in the soil sample being studied are Myriapoda, Nematode, Amoeba, Insecta, and Annelida. Precaution : 1. The temperature of the soil in the Tullgren funnel is raised gradually by adjusting the position of the lamp to prevent the slower moving soil organism from being trapped in hard dry cakes of soil. 2. The Tullgren funnel and Baerman funnel are set up for 48 hours to provide sufficient time for the migration of the soil organisms in the soil sample.

Conclusion : 1. The soil organisms can be isolated by using Tullgren funnel and Baermann funnel devices. 2. The soil organisms found in the soil sample being studied are Ascaris, Phertima, Lulus, Locust, Helix Aspersa and Amoeba.

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DETERMINATION OF THE DENSITY OF PLANT SPECIES A. QUADRAT SAMPLING TECHNIQUE


Introduction Quadrats are generally used for the quantitative assessment of biodiversity occurring within an area. The objective generally relates to the quality of a particular feature, where species richness may be an important or valued attribute of that feature. Quantitative counts using quadrats provide a structured way to estimate the abundance of species to estimate their population size or to assess species richness and diversity of a biotope. There are three factors need to be considered in relation to the use of quadrats. Distribution of plants Shape and size of the quadrat Number of observations needed to obtain an adequate estimate of density

Systematic quadrat sampling is applied when samples are taken at fixed intervals, usually along a line. Random quadrat sampling is usually carried out when the area under study is fairly uniform, very large and when there is limited time available. When using random sampling techniques, large numbers of samples are taken from different positions within the habitat. A quadrat frame is most often used for this type of sampling.

SYSTEMATIC DISTRIBUTION OF QUADRAT

RANDOM DISTRIBUTION OF QUADRAT

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Apparatus : Quadrats measuring 1m2 Procedure : 1. A quadrat frame is placed on the field being investigated. 2. The frequency and the coverage of the plants inside the quadrat is counted, measured andrecorded. 3. 10 quadrats are sampled systematically at uniform distance all over the investigated field. 4. The percentage of relative species cover, relative density and relative frequency of the plant species found in the investigated field are determined Formula :

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RANDOM QUADRAT Results :


Table of data for the measurement of relative frequency of each species in quadrat sampling Habitat : Tropical plain Location/Place : Open grass field in school area Type of plants : Tropical plants Quadrat size : 1 m2
NAME OF SPECIES SPECIES A SPECIES B SPECIES C SPECIES D SPECIES E SPECIES F SPECIES G TOTAL Q1 / / / Q2 / / / Q3 / / / / NUMBER OF QUADRATS Q4 / / / / Q5 / / / / Q6 / / / / / Q7 / / / / / Q8 / / / / Q9 / / / / Q10 / / / / TOTAL NUMBER OF QUADRAT WITH PARTICULAR SPECIES 9 10 3 6 4 5 3 40 FREQUENCY OF EACH SPECIES (%) 90% 100% 30% 60% 40% 50% 30% 400% RELATIVE FREQUENCY OF EACH SPECIES (%) 22.5% 25.0% 7.5% 15.0% 10.0% 12.5% 7.5% 100%

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Table of data for the measurement of each species cover in quadrat sampling Habitat : Tropical plain Location/Place : Open grass field in school area Type of plants : Tropical plants Quadrat size : 1 m2
NAME OF SPECIES SPECIES A SPECIES B SPECIES C SPECIES D SPECIES E SPECIES F SPECIES G TOTAL Q1 0.18 0.08 0.14 Q2 0.10 0.12 AERIAL COVER OF SPECIES IN EACH QUADRAT Q3 0.10 0.15 0.08 0.07 Q4 0.31 0.09 0.003 0.08 Q5 0.27 0.007 0.15 0.11 Q6 0.23 0.10 0.002 0.002 0.09 Q7 0.09 0.09 0.002 0.04 0.12 Q8 0.29 0.04 0.003 0.08 Q9 0.003 0.08 0.01 0.06 Q10 0.09 0.045 0.005 0.04 TOTAL SPECIES COVER OF EACH SPECIES (m) 1.66 m 0.725 m 0.807 m 0.023 m 0.25 m 0.51 m 0.30 m 4.275 m SPECIES COVER OF EACH SPECIES (%) 16.6% 7.25% 8.07% 0.23% 2.50% 5.10% 3.00% 42.75% RELATIVE COVER OF EACH SPECIES (%) 38.83% 16.96% 18.88% 0.54% 5.85% 11.93% 7.02% 100%

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Table of data for the measurement of relative density of each species in quadrat sampling Habitat : Tropical plain Location/Place : Open grass field in school area Type of plants : Tropical plants Quadrat size : 1 m2
NAME OF SPECIES SPECIES A SPECIES B SPECIES C SPECIES D SPECIES E SPECIES F SPECIES G TOTAL Q1 257 83 21 AERIAL COVER OF SPECIES IN EACH QUADRAT Q2 176 212 1 Q3 192 254 17 4 Q4 264 136 2 10 Q5 365 19 23 8 Q6 295 173 2 1 12 Q7 161 167 1 7 10 Q8 296 69 2 16 Q9 6 101 35 10 Q10 161 70 15 8 TOTAL NUMBER OF PLANT IN EACH SPECIES 2167 1189 118 42 37 87 22 3662 DENSITY OF EACH SPECIES (m) 216.7 m 118.9 m 11.8 m 4.2 m 3.7 m 8.7 m 2.2 m 366.2 m RELATIVE DENSITY OF EACH SPECIES (%) 59.18% 32.47% 3.22% 1.15% 1.01% 2.38% 0.60% 100%

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Summary of the measurements obtained by the random quadrat sampling technique

NO.

NAME OF SPECIES

FREQUENCY (%)

RELATIVE FREQUENCY (%)

SPECIES COVERAGE (%)

RELATIVE SPECIES COVERAGE (%) 38.83% 16.96% 18.88% 0.54% 5.85% 11.93% 7.02% 100%

DENSITY (m)

RELATIVE DENSITY (%)

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7.

SPECIES A SPECIES B SPECIES C SPECIES D SPECIES E SPECIES F SPECIES G TOTAL

90% 100% 30% 60 % 40% 50% 30% 400%

22.5% 25.0% 7.5% 15.0% 10.0% 12.5% 7.5% 100%

16.6% 7.25% 8.07% 0.23% 2.50% 5.10% 3.00% 42.75%

216.7 m 118.9 m 11.8 m 4.2 m 3.7 m 8.7 m 2.2 m 366.2 m2

59.18% 32.47% 3.22% 1.15% 1.01% 2.38% 0.60% 100%

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SYSTEMATIC QUADRAT Results :


Table of data for the measurement of relative frequency of each species in quadrat sampling Habitat : Tropical plain Location/Place : Open grass field in school area Type of plants : Tropical plants Quadrat size : 1 m2

NAME OF SPECIES SPECIES A SPECIES B SPECIES C SPECIES D SPECIES E SPECIES F SPECIES G TOTAL Q1 / 2 Q2 / 4 Q3 / / 2

NUMBER OF QUADRATS Q4 / / / 3 Q5 / / / / 2 Q6 / / 4 Q7 / / / / 4 Q8 / / / / 3 Q9 / / / / / 4 Q10 / / 5

TOTAL NUMBER OF QUADRAT WITH PARTICULAR SPECIES 9 8 4 3 2 1 1 28

FREQUENCY OF EACH SPECIES (%) 90% 80% 40% 30% 20% 10% 10% 280%

RELATIVE FREQUENCY OF EACH SPECIES (%) 32.14% 28.57% 14.29% 10.71% 7.14% 3.57% 3.57% 100%

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Table of data for the measurement of each species cover in quadrat sampling Habitat : Tropical plain Location/Place : Open grass field in school area Type of plants : Tropical plants Quadrat size : 1 m2
NAME OF SPECIES SPECIES A SPECIES B SPECIES C SPECIES D SPECIES E SPECIES F SPECIES G TOTAL Q1 0.54 Q2 0.29 AERIAL COVER OF SPECIES IN EACH QUADRAT Q3 0.26 0.006 Q4 0.29 0.04 0.003 Q5 0.23 0.09 0.001 0.002 0.01 Q6 0.18 0.08 Q7 0.003 0.01 0.08 0.005 Q8 0.1 0.12 0.003 0.008 Q9 0.09 0.05 0.005 0.005 0.005 Q10 0.1 0.15 TOTAL SPECIES COVER OF EACH SPECIES (m) 2.080 m 0.539 m 0.017 m 0.087 m 0.020 m 0.008 m 0.005 m 2.756 m SPECIES COVER OF EACH SPECIES (%) 20.80% 5.39% 0.17% 0.87% 0.20% 0.08% 0.05% 27.56% RELATIVE COVER OF EACH SPECIES (%) 75.74% 19.56% 0.62% 3.16% 0.73% 0.29% 0.18% 100%

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Table of data for the measurement of relative density of each species in quadrat sampling Habitat : Tropical plain Location/Place : Open grass field in school area Type of plants : Tropical plants Quadrat size : 1 m2

NAME OF SPECIES SPECIES A SPECIES B SPECIES C SPECIES D SPECIES E SPECIES F SPECIES G TOTAL Q1 520 -

AERIAL COVER OF SPECIES IN EACH QUADRAT Q2 337 Q3 365 19 Q4 296 69 2 Q5 295 173 1 2 Q6 257 83 Q7 6 101 35 25 Q8 176 212 1 21 Q9 161 70 15 11 14 Q10 192 254 -

TOTAL NUMBER OF PLANT IN EACH SPECIES 2599 886 39 118 36 21 14 3713

DENSITY OF EACH SPECIES (m) 259.9 m 88.6 m 3.9 m 11.8 m 3.6 m 2.1 m 1.4 m 371.3 m

RELATIVE DENSITY OF EACH SPECIES (%) 69.99% 23.86% 1.05% 3.18% 0.97% 0.57% 0.38% 100%

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Summary of the measurements obtained by the systematic quadrant sampling technique

NO.

NAME OF SPECIES

FREQUENCY (%)

RELATIVE FREQUENCY (%)

SPECIES COVERAGE (%)

RELATIVE SPECIES COVERAGE (%) 75.47% 19.56% 0.62% 3.16% 0.73% 0.29% 0.18% 100%

DENSITY (m)

RELATIVE DENSITY (%)

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7.

SPECIES A SPECIES B SPECIES C SPECIES D SPECIES E SPECIES F SPECIES G TOTAL

90% 80% 40% 30% 20% 10% 10% 280%

32.14% 28.57% 14.29% 10.71% 7.14% 3.57% 3.57% 100%

20.80% 5.39% 0.17% 0.87% 0.20% 0.08% 0.05% 27.56%

259.9 m 88.6 m 3.9 m 11.8 m 3.6 m 2.1 m 1.4 m 371.3 m2

69.99% 23.86% 1.05% 3.18% 0.97% 0.57% 0.38% 100%

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COMPARE PARAMETERS BETWEEN SYSTEMATIC AND RANDOM QUADRAT SYSTEMATIC QUADRAT


NAME OF SPECIES Species A Species B Species C Species D Species E Species F Species G RELATIVE DENSITY 69.99% 23.86% 1.05% 3.18% 0.97% 0.57% 0.38% RELATIVE COVER 75.47% 19.56% 0.62% 3.16% 0.73% 0.29% 0.18% RELATIVE FREQUENCY 32.14% 28.57% 14.29% 10.71% 7.14% 3.57% 3.57%

RANDOM QUADRAT
NAME OF SPECIES Species A Species B Species C Species D Species E Species F Species G RELATIVE DENSITY 59.18% 32.47% 3.22% 1.15% 1.01% 2.38% 0.6% RELATIVE COVER 38.83% 19.96% 18.88% 0.54% 5.5% 11.93% 7.02% RELATIVE FREQUENCY 22.5% 25.0% 7.5% 15.0% 10.0% 12.5% 7.5%

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Discussion :
1. Quadrat sampling technique can be used to investigate the plants communities in a defined area. 2. Quadrat sampling technique involves the counting of the number of the plants and the aerial coverage of each plant species in a defined area. 3. Systematically distribution of quadrats is selected as the plant characteristics are close to the actual natural condition.

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B. SAMPLING TECHNIQUE USING LINE TRANSECT Introduction : A transect refers to a line that cut across a community to investigate the progressive invasion of plants into the community without causing any obvious change in that habitat. Transect is very useful especially when existing plants are zoned. This means the transect forms uniform sequential zones representing different communities. The division into zones is usually related to the uniform variation in physical factors in that habitat along lines that are perpendicular to the zones. An advantage of transect charts is that they can show a range of specific plants. By charting these transects at suitable time intervals, any progression change in the plants along the transect line can be detected and measured. Other information can be obtained from a series of transects through a specific plants area include composition, extrapolation, individual occurrence frequency and width of occurrence of different species. Line transect are the simplest and easiest sampling method to used. A line transect can be prepared by placing a measuring tape (15-30m) along desired line and marking the locations of individual plant that touch one or both sides of the tape. Apparatus : Rope (15.3 meters) Procedure : 1. A base line along the border of the area is determined under investigation. 2. A series of points along this base line is chosen either randomly or systematically. These points are used as the starting points for the transects to run across the area being investigated. The plants which touch the line as seen vertically above or below the transect line is recorded. 3. 10-20 lines are placed randomly in the area to provide enough samples to investigate the community.

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Formula : a) The frequency of a species is calculated by using the following formula :

b) The percentage of surface cover of each species is calculated as follow:

c) The relative species cover is calculated as follow :

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RESULTS: LINE TRANSECT 1

NAME OF SPECIES SPECIES A SPECIES B SPECIES C SPECIES D SPECIES E SPECIES F SPECIES G TOTAL

Number of interval with cross sectional length (cm) 1 9 3 12 2 14 6 20 3 20 10 12 42 4 15 11 26 5 28 2 30 6 17 12 3 33 7 9 1 10 8 30 8 2 40 9 29 1 30 10 29 29

Total cross sectional length of each species (m) 1.91 0.54 026 2.71

Surface cover of each species (%) 12.73 3.60 1.73 18.06

Relative species cover (%) 70.48 19.93 9.59 100

Frequency of each species (%) 90 70 60 220

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LINE TRANSECT 2

NAME OF SPECIES SPECIES A SPECIES B SPECIES C SPECIES D SPECIES E SPECIES F SPECIES G TOTAL

Number of interval with cross sectional length (cm) 1 10 8 18 2 21 10 3 34 3 19 13 5 37 4 25 9 4 38 5 9 14 23 6 18 11 2 31 7 13 6 3 22 8 9 7 2 18 9 13 13 10 13 7 1 21

Total cross sectional length of each species (m) 1.50 0.85 0.20 2.55

Surface cover of each species (%) 10.00 5.67 1.33 17.00

Relative species cover (%) 58.82 33.33 7.85 100

Frequency of each species (%) 100 90 70 260

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LINE TRANSECT 3

NAME OF SPECIES SPECIES A SPECIES B SPECIES C SPECIES D SPECIES E SPECIES F SPECIES G TOTAL

Number of interval with cross sectional length (cm) 1 12 5 1 3 2 23 2 10 14 4 2 30 3 20 7 4 5 1 1 38 4 9 13 6 3 31 5 6 8 2 16 6 20 4 1 25 7 17 6 3 3 29 8 10 4 2 5 2 23 9 15 3 1 4 1 24 10 28 3 2 1 1 35

Total cross sectional length of each species (m) 1.47 0.63 0.23 0.30 0.01 0.02 0.09 2.75

Surface cover of each species (%) 9.80 4.20 1.53 2.00 0.07 0.13 0.60 18.33

Relative species cover (%) 53.45 22.91 8.36 10.91 0.36 0.74 3.27 100

Frequency of each species (%) 100 90 90 80 10 20 50 440

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LINE TRANSECT 4

NAME OF SPECIES SPECIES A SPECIES B SPECIES C SPECIES D SPECIES E SPECIES F SPECIES G TOTAL

Number of interval with cross sectional length (cm) 1 17 10 8 35 2 24 6 6 36 3 28 8 12 48 4 27 12 3 42 5 16 17 4 37 6 21 7 28 7 19 13 11 43 8 20 4 10 34 9 18 4 6 28 10 25 5 30

Total cross sectional length of each species (m) 2.15 0.74 0.72 3.61

Surface cover of each species (%) 14.33 4.93 4.80 18.06

Relative species cover (%) 59.56 20.50 19.94 100

Frequency of each species (%) 100 80 100 280

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LINE TRANSECT 5

NAME OF SPECIES SPECIES A SPECIES B SPECIES C SPECIES D SPECIES E SPECIES F SPECIES G TOTAL

Number of interval with cross sectional length (cm) 1 27 1 28 2 40 2 42 3 35 3 38 4 28 28 5 36 1 1 38 6 29 1 30 7 36 36 8 27 2 1 30 9 33 1 34 10 20 20

Total cross sectional length of each species (m) 3.11 0.07 0.05 3.23

Surface cover of each species (%) 20.73 0.47 0.33 21.53

Relative species cover (%) 96.28 2.17 1.55 100

Frequency of each species (%) 100 50 40 190

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LINE TRANSECT 6

NAME OF SPECIES SPECIES A SPECIES B SPECIES C SPECIES D SPECIES E SPECIES F SPECIES G TOTAL

Number of interval with cross sectional length (cm) 1 30 2 1 2 1 36 2 25 2 1 3 1 32 3 29 1 2 1 2 35 4 28 3 3 1 35 5 16 1 17 6 18 5 2 3 1 1 30 7 27 6 2 2 1 38 8 24 3 4 31 9 17 4 2 2 1 26 10 11 2 1 1 15

Total cross sectional length of each species (m) 2.25 0.25 0.18 0.18 0.04 0.05 2.95

Surface cover of each species (%) 15.00 1.67 1.20 1.20 0.27 0.33 19.67

Relative species cover (%) 76.27 8.47 6.10 6.10 1.36 1.70 100

Frequency of each species (%) 100 80 100 80 40 40 440

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LINE TRANSECT 7

NAME OF SPECIES SPECIES A SPECIES B SPECIES C SPECIES D SPECIES E SPECIES F SPECIES G TOTAL

Number of interval with cross sectional length (cm) 1 34 4 1 2 41 2 32 1 1 1 35 3 25 1 2 1 29 4 27 3 3 33 5 23 2 1 1 27 6 39 2 41 7 17 1 1 1 20 8 21 5 2 1 29 9 31 2 2 35 10 20 3 2 25

Total cross sectional length of each species (m) 2.69 0.24 0.17 0.07 3.15

Surface cover of each species (%) 17.93 1.60 1.00 0.47 21.00

Relative species cover (%) 85.40 7.62 4.76 2.22 100

Frequency of each species (%) 100 100 90 60 350

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LINE TRANSECT 8

NAME OF SPECIES SPECIES A SPECIES B SPECIES C SPECIES D SPECIES E SPECIES F SPECIES G TOTAL

Number of interval with cross sectional length (cm) 1 21 9 6 4 2 3 45 2 30 15 5 1 1 52 3 25 18 3 1 1 48 4 26 13 12 6 3 60 5 21 11 8 2 42 6 20 5 9 5 3 2 44 7 30 18 2 12 4 2 68 8 20 17 10 4 51 9 14 8 14 3 2 41 10 14 17 3 3 37

Total cross sectional length of each species (m) 2.21 1.03 0.79 0.51 0.20 0.14 4.88

Surface cover of each species (%) 14.73 6.87 5.27 3.40 1.33 0.93 32.53

Relative species cover (%) 45.29 21.10 16.19 10.45 4.10 2.87 100

Frequency of each species (%) 100 80 90 80 80 70 500

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LINE TRANSECT 9

NAME OF SPECIES SPECIES A SPECIES B SPECIES C SPECIES D SPECIES E SPECIES F SPECIES G TOTAL

Number of interval with cross sectional length (cm) 1 13 8 5 2 2 30 2 19 10 2 6 1 1 39 3 24 6 4 4 1 1 1 41 4 15 4 1 11 2 2 35 5 10 9 1 5 2 2 29 6 18 11 3 10 1 43 7 17 5 4 12 3 41 8 20 6 2 9 2 1 1 41 9 34 7 5 1 1 1 49 10 17 5 1 2 2 27

Total cross sectional length of each species (m) 1.87 0.71 0.23 0.64 0.15 0.06 0.09 3.75

Surface cover of each species (%) 12.47 4.73 1.53 4.27 1.00 0.40 0.60 25.00

Relative species cover (%) 49.87 18.93 6.13 17.07 4.00 1.60 2.40 100

Frequency of each species (%) 100 100 90 90 90 50 60 580

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LINE TRANSECT 10

NAME OF SPECIES SPECIES A SPECIES B SPECIES C SPECIES D SPECIES E SPECIES F SPECIES G TOTAL

Number of interval with cross sectional length (cm) 1 21 10 5 3 38 2 16 8 3 2 29 3 13 7 3 4 4 31 4 28 3 1 1 2 35 5 24 5 5 1 35 6 30 5 6 1 1 43 7 32 6 7 45 8 23 12 4 3 2 44 9 17 11 2 2 32 10 14 15 6 8 1 44

Total cross sectional length of each species (m) 2.18 0.82 0.37 0.24 0.16 3.77

Surface cover of each species (%) 14.53 5.47 2.47 1.60 1.07 25.14

Relative species cover (%) 57.82 21.75 9.81 6.37 4.25 100

Frequency of each species (%) 100 100 90 70 80 440

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Summary of the measurements obtained by the line transect technique

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Picture of species found in randam quadrat, systematic quadrat and line transect Species A

NAME OF SPECIE S SPECIE SA SPECIE SB SPECIE SC SPECIE SD SPECIE SE SPECIE SF SPECIE SG TOTAL 1 191 54 26 2 15 0 85 20 3 14 7 63 23 29 1 2 9

Number of line transect

Number of intervals where species are found 10 21 8 82 37 24 16 10 10 10 5 4 3 5 47

Surface cover of each species (%) 142.25 39.21 21.19 12.47 1.81 1.86 3.53 222.32

Relative species cover (%)

Frequenc y of each species (%) 990 840 820 400 200 150 800 4200

4 21 5 74 72 -

5 6 7 8 9 311 225 269 221 187 8 5 25 18 18 4 5 24 15 6 103 79 51 20 14 71 23 64 15 6 9

653.24 176.71 90.28 50.90 7.94 6.44 14.49 1000

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Species B

Species C

56

Species D

Species E

57

Species F

Species G
58

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IMPLEMENTATION DATE

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DATE

ACTIVITY

NUMBER OF STUDENTS

5/10/2011

Briefing in class about the experiments that are going to be conducted by Pn.Sarimah Daud and Pn. Noliza Kastor

1. 2. 3. 4.

Chong Set Li Kua En Yi Lim Kai Yin Zahidah Husna

1/11/2011

Experiment 20 1. 2. 3. 4. Chong Set Li Kua En Yi Lim Kai Yin Zahidah Husna

1. Soil sampling technique 2. Determination of the texture of soil 3. Determination of air content of soil 4. Determination of soil pH 2/11/2011 Experiment 20

1. Determination of water content 2. Determination of organic matter content

1. 2. 3. 4.

Chong Set Li Kua En Yi Lim Kai Yin Zahidah Husna

8/11/2011

Determination of the density of plant sampling

1. 2. 3. 4.

Chong Set Li Kua En Yi Lim Kai Yin Zahidah Husna

1. Quadrat sampling technique (Random and systematic)

9/11/2011

Determination of the density of plant sampling

1. 2. 3. 4.

Chong Set Li Kua En Yi Lim Kai Yin Zahidah Husna


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1. Line transect technique 2. Calculation for random and systematic quadrat and line transect technique

REFERENCES

Brady, N. and Weil, R. The Nature and Properties of Soils. 13th ed. 2002 Dodd, M. (2011), Methods in Ecology and Evolution. DOI:10.1111/j.2041210X.2011.00118.x. Aiken, George. United States of America. United States Geological Survey. Organic Matter in Ground Water. 2002. 1 May 2007 Success in Biology for STPM Volume Penerbitan Fajar Bakti SDN. BHD. Lee soon Ching Liew Shee Leong Choong Ngok Mang Longman Pre-U Text STPM Biology Volume 2 Pearson Malaysia SDN. BHD Lee Ching J,Arunasalam First Edition for 2011 Southwood, T.R.E. (1994). Ecological methods. Chapman & Hall. ISBN 0-41230710-3

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ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
First and foremost, we would like to thank to our Biology teacher, Puan Sarimah Bt Daud for the valuable guidance and advice. She inspired us greatly to work in this experiment. Her willingness to motivate us contributed tremendously to our experiment. We also would like to thank her for showing us some example that related to the topic of our experiment. Besides, we would like to thank our friends who are willing to share information related to our report. Finally, an honorable mention goes to our families and friends for their understandings and supports on us in completing this experiment. Without helps of the particular that mentioned above, we would face many difficulties while doing this.

Sincerely,

_____________ (CHONG SET LI)

___________ (KUA EN YI)

____________ (LIM KAI YIN)

_________________ (ZAHIDAH HUSNA

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