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Absorption Chiller

235 . 10163
0-2457-0068 , 0-2457-3982
E-mail: chanchai_kaset@hotmail.com

Abstract
At the present air-conditioners and chillers are the
machineries that use much electric energy. Because the
systems are vapor compression refrigeration systems which
are powered by electric motor and use refrigerant that makes
global worming. These cause absorption refrigeration
systems are used. That is heat energy to use replace the
electric energy for saving energy and environment.

[1]

..1850
Edmond Carre

(Sulphuric Acid) ..1859 Ferdinan


Carre (Edmonds brother)

.. 1960
(Single
Effect Absorption Chiller)

.. 1956-1959
J.S. Swearingen E.P. Whitlow
(Double
Effect Absorption Chiller)

(American Gas Association)

1960 ( ..1970)

(Direct-Fired Double-Effect Chillers)




1970 ( ..1970-1980)

80 90 ( ..1980-2000)

( ..2002 )

(Triple-Effect Absorption Chiller)


2
(
)




(Natural Refrigerant)



1
3 (1) (2)
(3)
Condenser

Generator

37C

Hig h pressure
refrigerant gas
Induction
m otor

32C
Cooling w ater

Mechanical
Com pressor
7C
12C
Chilled w ater

Im peller
P
Evaporator

Ab sorber

Low pressure
refrigerant gas

1
(Centrifugal Chiller)
: EBARA HITACHI

1
(1) (Generator, Desorber) (2)
(Condenser) (3) (Evaporator)
(4) (Absorber)




(ASHRAE, 1965)

1000C

1000C (Vacuum) 0.798 kPa


3.70C
(Lithium Bromide: LiBr)

10kPa

Condenser

Generator

41C

Refrig erant
vapor
64C

37C

115C
90C

40C

70C

0.85kPa
60

7C
12C
Chilled w ater
4C

40C

32C
Cooling w ater
P
Evaporator

40C

P
Ab sorber

Diluted
Solution
59C

2
: EBARA HITACHI
2 4

1 (Evaporatoration)
(Refrigerant)
0.798 kPa 40C
(Chilled Water Return)

12 140C

2 (Absorption)
(Chilled Water)
5 70C

2 (Absorption)
(Absorbent : LiBr)

Evaporator 0.798 kPa
1


3(Generator) Absorbent Pump
3 (Generation)
Generator




2 (Absorption)

4 (Condensation)

(Cooling
Tower)
1
(Chilled Water Return)

[3]
2


1.
2
1.1 78.48 147.15 kPa
Single Effect Steam Fired Absorption Chiller
1.2 130 1500C
Single Effect Steam Hot Water Fired Absorption Chiller
2. 2
2
2.1 784.8 kPa
Double Effect Steam Fired Absorption Chiller
1.2 180 2000C
Double Effect Steam Hot Water Fired Absorption Chiller
1

Single Effect
Absorption Chillers

(COP)
0.55 - 0.65

Double Effect
Absorption Chillers

1.00 1.35

Triple Stage
Absorption Chillers

1.40 1.60

-
-

2 Absorption Chiller
Type of Direct Fired
Natural Gas : NG
Liquefied petroleum gas : LPG
Diesel

Type of Stream Fired


Stream 784.8 kPa
Stream 147.15 kPa
Hot Water

(Steam Fired)

(Gas/0il Fired)

-
(500 - 800 kPa)
-
(100 kPa)
-
- Kerosene
-

(Hot Water Fired)

(Exhaust Heat
Fired)

-
(130 180 0C)
-
(80 110 0C)

-
-

-
(Co Generation)

1.

(Chemical Bonding)
(Hydrogen Bonding)

2.

3.

4.

5.

6.

7.

8.

9.

10.

1.


(Rectifying or Distillation Column)





(Water Chiller)

(COP)
2.

3. (Hygroscopic
Salt Solution)

(Chlorides) (Bromides)
(Iodies) (Lithium)
(Magnesium) (Calcium) (Zinc)

(Ph) 7

,
(Solubility Vapor
Pressure)

40 oF (4.44 oC)

(Lithium Bromide)
: LiBr
: 86.856

: Li = 8%, Br = 92%
: ()
: 3.46 ( 250C)
:

(Lithium Bromide Water)
53 55 wt%
(Corrosion Inhibitor)
(Surfactant)
4

H2SO4
KOH
H 2O
LiBr
LiCl
H 2O

H 2O
H2 O
NH3
H2O
H2 O
CK3NH3

5
Type
Lithium Molybdate

Chemical Symbol
Li2MoO4

Lithium Nitrate

LiNO3

Lithium Chromate

LiCrO4

Characteristics

LiBr

H2





(Vessel)


3




()

2

3
: ASHRAE(1965)
3






(Water Chilled)
(Pump
Spray)

4
: ASHRAE (1965)

Pressure, tem perature and concentration of the cycle


L.T.Generator

Cond enser

7kPa

90C
37.5C

80kPa
64C

150C

40C

Heat
Source
0.8MPa
Steam

62C

Cooling w ater
0.85kPa
7C
12C
Chilled
w ater
4C

32C

P
E vap orator

40C

P
Ab sorb er

Drain
H.T.Generator

Heat Exchanger
59C

: EBARA HITACHI









2

3 4

( 1,000 kPa)
( 120 kPa)








Absorption Chiller
1. (Small Power Consumption)
2. (Waste Heat is
Available)
3.
(Maintenance Cost) (Energy Cost)

4. (Low
Noise and Vibration)
5.
(Vacuum)
6. 0 100%
7. (No Need For an
Engineer)
8.
9. (Ozone Safe and
CFCs Free)
10. (Wide
Range Selection)

[1] . 2541.
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[2] . 2528.
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[3] .
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http://board.dserver.org/j/jadekun/00000053.html,
11 2551.