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Kuliah 5 Pembangunan Ekonomi Dlm Konteks HE Di Malaysia

Kuliah 5 Pembangunan Ekonomi Dlm Konteks HE Di Malaysia


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Published by: saimin ginsari on Feb 11, 2009
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Warren Buffett (US). $62 billion y For many years, Warren Buffett has been overshadowed by Bill Gates who finally dropped his place to third this year. Buffett is often noted with his uncanny ability and talent to identify company stocks that are deemed to soar in the market. Being the richest person does not change his frugal lifestyle as he still lives in the $30,000 house he bought in the 50s, which now worth merely about $700,000.


Carlos Slim Helu (Mexico). $60 billion Carlos Slim Helu is a Mexican tycoon with business interest in telecommunication industry and sector, and is the man behind America Movil, the 5th largest mobile network company in the world, together with a few other mobile operators such as Telmex (Mexican Telecom) and Telnor (Northwest Telephones). Carlos belongs to a classic story of a poor immigrant moving from Lebanon at the age of 15, whose family made fortune in a foreign soil.

Bill Gates (US). $58 billion y Despite no longer the wealthiest person, Bill Gates, or William Henry Gates III, still retired a happy man this year, even though his passing over to successor Steve Balmer has been a day full of tears. The Microsoft he founded more than 30 years ago has long been benchmarked as the turning point of technology and life, and with this, he surely does not regret dropping out from Harvard University and getting the scolding from his parents, a lawyer and a businesswoman.

Lakshmi Mittal (India). $45 billion y Lakshmi Mittal was born and raised in India, but created most of his fortune from his London base. The company he inherits, ArcelorMittal, the world¶s largest steel company, accounts for about 10% of the world¶s steel production. Mittal is also the richest resident in Europe today. He is now living in Kensington Palace Gardens, the property he bought from Formula One honcho Bernie Ecclestone for about $130 million.

Mukesh Ambani (India). $43 billion y Receiving an MBA from prestigious Stanford University and being valued at $43 billion make Mukesh Ambani both rich and smart. Rumor has it that he never completed his Stanford studies but he would care little about it now. Mukesh now heads India¶s most valuable company, Reliance Industries, founded by his late father, and is also a Fortune 500 company. He is also the first ever Indian citizen to have reached a trillion mark in terms of net worth (In Indian currency of course).

Anil Ambani (India). $42 billion y The younger brother of Mukesh. If Mukesh went to Stanford, Anil did not want to be overshadowed and pursued his MBA in Wharton Business school. And the rivalry does not seem to end as both of them are now battling each other in court over a business deal. It is true they say fortune can break a family apart. Anil made sudden entry to the top ten list in 2008 after almost doubling his wealth within a year period. Married to a Bollywood actress Tina Munim.

Ingvar Kamprad (Sweden). $31 billion y Ingvar Kamprad is most likely less popular than the company he founded, IKEA. Born dyslexic did not stop Kampard from bringing up one of the most successful companies in the world. He once admitted that the Swedish-sounding names of the IKEA furniture were chosen because of his difficulty remembering stock numbers. Interestingly enough, despite his wealth, Kamprad still keeps the habit of eating in cheap restaurants, flying economy class and avoiding himself from wearing the suit.

KP Singh (India). $30 billion y The property businessman was not anywhere in the top 10 list last year but the successful listing of his company, DLF Limited tripled his fortune and jumped him to 8th place this year. The company now is the largest estate developer in India. Singh graduated in engineering, before recruited by the Indian Army soon after his graduation, and later turned to corporate world. Now practically retired, the running of the company is left to his children.

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Oleg Deripaska (Russia). $28 billion If for the past few years it is always Roman Abramovich who always made headlines as both Chelsea owner and Russia¶s richest man, it¶s now Oled Deripaska¶s turn. Oleg is the Chairman of RUSAL, the world¶s largest aluminium company, which employs a massive 100,000 people across a number of countries and continents. Like Roman, Oleg also has a home based in London, and as a matter of fact, was once rumored to have interest in taking over Chelsea¶s great rival, Arsenal.

Karl Albrecht (Germany). $27 billion y With little formal education, the Germany¶s richest man started a small grocery store with his mother and brother, Aldi, after the end of the World War II, which soon grew into a large discount supermarket. It did not stop there as the family opened up more and more supermarket and today the company can be proud with themselves with over 8,000 stores worldwide. Albrecht is a man very much elusive of publicity. His hobby? Raising orchards.

Malaysia¶s Richest Men 2008

Tiong Hiew King y Sibu-based Tiong Hiew King is the founder and chairman of Rimbunan Hijau group, which has local and international presence in the timber industry. Apart from its native country Malaysia, the group also has large presence in Papua New Guinea and Russia. Additionally, the company controls 3 major Chinese newspapers - Sin Chew Jit Poh, Guang Ming and Ming Pao.

Vincent Tan y Whether you like or dislike him, Tan Sri Vincent Tan is still one of the richest men in the country nonetheless. He was ranked 14th last year but good business in Berjaya pushed him to break the top 10 rank this year. The company he founded has interests in property development, resorts, hospitality, media and sports. This year he became a little bit more famous after embroiled in the Lingam tape controversy.

Syed Mokhtar Al Bukhary y Syed Mokhtar Al Bukhary, the richest Malay in the country, is a very much respected businessman and philanthropy. Coming from Arab descendent, Syed Mokhtar grew up north in Peninsular Malaysia, and had his first taste of business while still in secondary school. Failures threatened his way into success but he persevered all along to achieve the current status.

Yeoh Tiong Lay y Remember Tan Sri Yeoh Tiong Lay, remember YTL Corporation that carries his initials. YTL is one of the country¶s biggest corporations with diverse business interests such as energy & distribution, utilities, construction & property, hospitality and technology. Technically retired, much of the YTL running today is left to his son, Francis Yeoh.

Quek Leng Chan y Tan Sri Quek Leng Chan is the co-founder of Hong Leong Group Malaysia. Most Malaysians will associate the group with its flagship bank, Hong Leong Bank, but that is not the only major business the group is involved. Rather, the company has interest in a string of other ventures including semiconductor, automotive assembly, materials, newsprint as well as furniture.

Lee Kim Hua y Puan Sri Lee Kim Hua is the widow of the late Tan Sri Lim Goh Tong, who passed away in 2007, and left Genting Group as the legacy. Her wealth is rather by inheritance than by business involvement or investment. She is credited as the person who has always been behind Lim Goh Tong¶s hardship, struggle and success. The Group is now headed by her second son, Lim Kok Thay.

Teh Hong Piow y The Singapore-born Tan Sri Dato¶ Sri Dr. Teh Hong Piow is the founder and Chairman of Public Bank Berhad, one of the most profitable local banks in Malaysia. Teh did not have much formal education but he took his banking career seriously even though starting only as a clerk. He rose to become a bank officer in 5 years time, and joined Malayan Banking before leaving the bank to establish Public Bank.

Lee Shin Cheng y Tan Sri Dato¶ Lee Shin Cheng is the Chairman and CEO of IOI Group, which has core businesses in plantation, property development, refinery and manufacturing. Lee comes from a poor family and was forced to abandon school at the age of 11, and worked his way to become where he is standing today. He is also the pioneer of Yayasan Lee Shin Cheng Scholarship, which provides scholarship opportunity for unfortunate students.

Ananda Krishnan y Born in Kuala Lumpur, Ananda Krishnan, who is a Tamil origin, studied in Victoria Institutions (VI) and obtained his Degree in Politics from University of Melbourne, Australia. He went to pursue his MBA in the prestigious Harvard University and upon graduation, he ventured into a series of businesses, one after another, under Usaha Tegas entity. Astro, Measat and Maxis are among of his prominent ventures.

Robert Kuok y One can doubt how many types of sugars Robert Kuok can list down, but when it comes to cash, don¶t argue. From a moderate size sugar business, today, Kuok has his hands full with a wide range of industries and specializations. Some of them include property, energy, shipping, logistic, manufacturing and so on. He is now residing in Hong Kong, probably avoiding too much publicity here.


Konsep µmodenisasi¶ ± Suatu proses transformasi atau perubahan dalam segala aspek kehidupan masyarakat. Perubahan yg dialami oleh sesebuah masyarakat dapat berlangsung secara BERENCANA atau TIDAK BERENCANA. Perubahan yg berencana adalah suatu proses telah ditentukan matlamat, metode dan ukuran pencapaian terlebih dahulu sebelum suatu perubahan dilaksanakan. Perubahan berencana inilah yg kemudiannya disebut µmodenisasi¶. Modenisasi mengandungi 2 aspek utama iaitu pembangunan ekonomi dan pembangunan politik.

MENGIKUT SEJARAH, Konsep dan proses modenisasi ekonomi bermula di Eropah akibat daripada Revolusi Perindustrian (perubahan sistem ekonomi Eropah). Perkembangan yg berlaku di Eropah memberi kesan kepada wilayah bukan Eropah selepas berlakunya penjajahan. Penjajahan telah merubah lanskap sosial dan alam sekitar wilayah bukan Eropah.


Sebagai sebuah negara baru yang lahir selepas Perang Dunia Kedua, Malaysia berusaha melakukan perubahan sosioekonomi. Projek modenisasi yg diasaskan sejak pemerintahan kolonial British diteruskan dengan melakukan pelbagai perubahan dan penyesuaian.

Sejak awal lagi Malaysia ingin mencapai matlamat pembangunan ekonomi dengan mewujudkan sebuah MASYARAKAT INDUSTRI. Bagi mencapai tujuan tersebut, peringkat awal pembangunan ekonomi ditumpukan kepada: 1. Peningkatan infrastruktur ekonomi. 2. Pembangunan pertanian & industri gantianimport. Akhir 1960-an-1970-an - berasaskan

pembangunan teknologi
1980-an ± 1990-an - pembangunan ekonomi menitikberatkan industri berasaskan teknologi

yg lebih maju dan dasar penswastaan.
Menjelang tahun 2000 hingga kini, Malaysia mula memberikan perhatian kepada pembangunan ekonomi berteraskan K-


HUBUNGAN ETNIK DALAM KONTEKS PROJEK MODENISASI MALAYSIA. Di Malaysia, ekonomi dan etnisiti mempunyai hubungan bagai µaur dengan

Dlm aspek demografi, secara statistik, Melayu ialah kelompok etnik yg majoriti, namun majoriti dlm aspek demografi dan politik tidak semestinya majoriti dlm aspek ekonomi. Kelompok etnik Cina yg minoriti dalam aspek demografi pula merupakan kelompok majoriti

dalam ekonomi.

Di Malaysia, isu pembangunan ekonomi berkait rapat dgn isu sosial terutamanya isu kemiskinan dan agihan kekayaan menurut golongan etnik. Isu agihan pendapatan dapat dilihat daripada 2 sudut iaitu; 1. kelas sosial yg berbeza (kelas atas, menengah dan bawah) 2. kelompok etnik yang berbeza iaitu antara Melayu, Cina dan India.

DEB dilancarkan sbg sebahagian daripada strategi Tun Abd.Razak untuk menyatukan semula dan membangunkan negara selepas berlakunya Perisitiwa13Mei 1969; DEB hendak mencapai matlamat mencipta

kemakmuran bagi semua rakyat Malaysia tanpa mengira kaum.
DEB menekankan kepentingan meningkatkan kebajikan ekonomi Bumiputera.

Kadar Kemiskinan Mengikut Kaum & Kawasan (Semenanjung Malaysia)
Tahun 1970 Kadar Kemiskinan (Peratus) / Pendapatan Purata Keluarga Sebulan 64.8% 26.0% 39.2% 21.3% 58.7% RM172.00 RM394.00 RM304.00

Melayu/ Bumiputera Cina India Bandar Luar bandar

Dlm DEB kerajaan meletakkan sasaran untuk menambahkan

peratusan saham modal org
Melayu drp 2.5% dlm tahun 1970 kpd 30% menjelang tahun 1990.

Hakikatnya ± sejak pelaksanaan DEB, matlamat utk memperbesar golongan

Bumiputera di bidang pendidikan & menstruktur semula masyarakat Malaysia dengan mghapuskan pengenalan kaum mgikut jenis pkerjaan telah menjadi punca prselisihan antara kaum. Org bukan Melayu menentang usaha merapatkan jurang prbezaan sosioekonomi antara kaum(affirmative action). Mereka memperjuangkan penyusunan masyarakat berasaskan kelayakan, kebolehan & kemampuan.(Meritokrasi)

Pertelagahan antara konsep affirmative dan meritocracy ini telah menimbulkan ketegangan antara kaum khususnya dalam kalangan golongan kelas menengah Cina & Melayu .

DEB tidak berjaya mencapai matlamat agihan 30% saham kpd kaum Bumiputera. Antara puncanya: 1. Kegawatan ekonomi (1985-86). Ekonomi negara banyak bergantung kpd pengeluaran komoditi / bahan mentah mengalami kemelesetan.

Persoalan latar belakang, nilai & sikap Bumiputera yang belum serasi dengan budaya masyarakat industri moden menyebabkan kontraktor dan usahawan Melayu yang baru terbentuk mengalami pelbagai masalah.

Kejayaan DEB Kejayaan DEB 1970 1990

Kadar kemiskinan 49.3% 17.1% KDNK RM21 548 RM59 155 Pndptn Per Kapita RM1109 RM6180 Modal saham 2.4% 20.3% milik Bumiputera


Tahun Bumiputera Cina India Bandar Luar bandar

1970 64.8 26.0 39.2 21.3 58.7

1990 20.8 5.7 8.0 7.3 19.3

Menjelang tamatnya tempoh DEB (penghujung tahun 1990), kerajaan di bawah Majlis Perundingan Negara membincangkn persoalan perancangan ekonomi negara selepas DEB. Berdasarkan kajian yang dibuat ± pelaksanaan pelbagai langkah penyusunan semula masyarakat telah memberi peluang kpd Bumiputera utk menyertai sektor ekonomi moden (pembuatan & pengeluaran). Terdapat pertambahan bilangan dalam pekerjaan profesional.

Namun di sebalik kejayaan tersebut, usaha untuk melahirkan usahawan Bumiputera yg tulen belum berjaya. Dari segi pemilikan ekuiti saham pun Bumiputera masih belum mncapai kejayaan sepenuhnya. Permodalan Nasional Berhad (PNB) berusaha menanamkn kesedaran Bumiputera untuk melabur dalam perniagaan saham. Setelah tamat tempoh DEB, kerajaan perlu mencari strategi baru utk membangunkan sebuah masyarakat perdagangan & industri Bumiputera yg berjaya.

Salah satu strategi ialah dgn mggalakkan kerjasama antara usahawan Bumiputera dengan bukan Bumiputera. Kerjasama ini dapat membantu bangsa yang menekankan hubungan muhibah antara kaum. DEB digantikan dgn Dasar Pembangunan Nasional (DPN). Objektif DPN adalah utk

membina masyarakat Malaysia yg bersatu padu. Perpaduan masyarakat adalah
akar tunjang kpd kestabilan sosial & politik yg menjadi prasyarat mengekalkan pertumbuhan ekonomi negara yg berterusan. DPN juga digerakkan utk membentuk pembangunan yg seimbang meliputi aspek keadilan sosial, nilai, etika dan moral mengikut acuan tempatan.

DPN telah memperkasakan pendekatan dengan memasukkan beberapa dimensi baru dalam pelan tindakan iaitu: 1. Memberikan penekanan yg lebih dan mengurangkan kemiskinan relatif. Pendapatan garis kemiskinan tahun 1990:

kepada strategi pembasmian kemiskinan di kalangan golongan yg termiskin

RM370 sebulan (Semenanjung Malaysia), RM544 (Sabah) dan RM452 (Sarawak).
2. Menumpukan perhatian kepada pembangunan sebuah masyarakat perdagangan & perindustrian Bumiputera (MPPB) sbg strategi ke arah meningkatkan dan mengekalkan penyertaan bumiputera dlm kegiatan ekonomi.

Pada tahun 2020 (30 tahun selepas DEB) Malaysia akan menjadi sebuah negara yg maju sepenuhnya. Maju dalam konteks mesti mengikut acuan sndiri & bukannya mencontohi negara lain Konsep maju: Malaysia tidak harus dibangunkan dlm bidang ekonomi sahaja tetapi mesti menjadi negara yg maju dlm semua bidang: ekonomi, politik, sosial, rohani, psikologi & kebudayaan. Maju dlm erti kata perpaduan nasional & sosial, kestabilan politik, sistem kerajaan, mutu hidup, nilai sosial & kerohanian, maruah bangsa & keyakinan.


KAITAN DEB DENGAN WAWASAN 2020: -Usaha meneruskan pencapaian serampang dua mata DEB dlm WW2020.

-Usaha mewujudkan keadilan ekonomi dalam
masyarakat ± merapatkan jurang pendapatan kaum. -Perkongsian penuh dalam kemajuan ekonomi & imbangan yg adil dr segi pnyertaan & sumbangan semua kaum (pmbangunan sumber manusia). Menjelang tahun 2020 tidak seorang pun dapat mengatakan kumpulan kaum tertentu pada asasnya mundur dari segi ekonomi manakala satu kaum lagi maju. Imbangan yg adil dalam profesion & semua kategori pekerjaan utama mesti diwujudkan.

1. 2.


SEMBILAN CABARAN UTAMA WAWASAN 2020: Mewujudkan Bangsa Malaysia yg brsatu & mpunyai mtlmt dikongsi brsama. Mewujudkan masyarakat yg berjiwa bebas, tenteram & maju dgn keyakinan terhadap diri sndiri, bangga dengan apa yg ada & dicapai serta gagah menghadapi pelbagai masalah. Mewujudkn & membangunkan masyarakat demokratik yg matang, mgamalkn persefahaman matang, demokrasi Malaysia berasaskan masyarakat yg boleh mnjadi contoh kepada banyak negara membangun.

4. 5.


Mewujudkn masyarakat yg sepenuhnya bermoral & beretika. Mewujudkn masyarakat liberal & bertolak ansur, rakyat pelbagai kaum bebas mengamalkan idea, kebudayaan & kepercayaan agama masing2 & pada masa yg sama meletakkan kesetiaan kepada satu negara. Mewujudkn masyarakat saintifik & progresif, mempunyai daya perubahan tinggi & memandang ke depan, yg bukan saja menjadi pengguna teknologi tetapi juga penyumbang kepada tamadun saintifik & teknologi masa depan.

7. Mewujudkan masyarakat penyayang &
budaya menyayangi, iaitu sistem sosial yg mengutamakan kpentingan masyarakat, kebajikan insan tidak berkisar kepada negara atau orang perseorangan, tetapi sekeliling sistem keluarga yg utuh. Memastikan masyarakat yg adil dalam bidang ekonomi. Mwujudkn masyarakat makmur yg mempunyai ekonomi bersaing, dinamik, giat & kental.

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