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Iris Gwynne January 28, 2009 Andrew Carnegie The man who dies rich, dies disgraced.

These words spoken by Andrew Carnegie, a benevolent Scottish immigrant, who made his way to the top of business in America during the nineteenth century by making wise choices, making smart investments, and always maintaining control over situations. Entering the world in poverty, he made it to the top with his high goals and ambitions. Through the method of vertical integration and his philanthropic beliefs, Carnegie was able to become the most dominant figure of American business and society during the nineteenth century. Andrew Carnegie was able to make his companies so prosperous by his use of vertical integration. He bought companies that sold supplies to the steel industry. He would cut out middlemen and buy all of the companies that sold supplies to the steel industry, as well as the companies that produced the steel, shipped it, and sold it. By 1899 Carnegies company was the worlds biggest industrial corporation and produced one-fourth of the nations steel. Vertical integration enabled him to control every stage of the productive process in the business, from raw materials to marketing. Not only was Carnegie the dominant figure in American business by taking control of all aspects of his industry, he also gave most of his fortunes away, spending his later years as a philanthropist. In 1901, J.P. Morgan bought Carnegies entire business for $400 million, making Carnegie one of the wealthiest men in the world. Carnegie devoted his remaining years to utilizing his great fortune on philanthropic projects. He had written about his views on social subjects and the responsibilities of great wealth in Triumphant Democracy (1886) and Gospel of Wealth (1889). He left a great mark on society by making it big and then using his wealth for the benefit of others.