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Image Processing Degradation And Resotration Model

Pi19404
February 3, 2013

Contents

Contents
Image Processing - Degradation And Resotration Model 3

0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4

Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Degradation Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Restoration Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Some Useful Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0.4.1 Random Process Passing Through LTI system . . . 0.4.2 Frequency domain description of Random process 0.4.3 Relation between input and output . . . . . . . . . 0.4.4 Some More Useful analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . .

3 3 4 4 4 5 6 6 7

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Image Processing - Degradation And Resotration Model

Image Processing - Degradation And Resotration Model


0.1 Introduction
In the document we set up model/framework to describe and represent how image undergoes distortions/degradations and how to recover the original image from degraded image.

0.2 Degradation Model


Consider an image f (x; y ) .Let the image undergo some degradation. and resultant image be described by g (x; y ). The degradation may be of form of motion blurring,out of focus optics ,light scattering etc. The Degradation process is modelled linear filter can be called as degradation filter/operator.

h(x; y)

and

h(x; y)

Noise is modelled as additive noise and is added to output of degradation filter. Noise could also have been added at the input of degradation filter . Since we are working with linear filter ,the noise term will be additive at the output of the filter. Noise is modelled as sample function of random process. output of the filter noise process maintains its form . At the

Thus noise in directly included at the output of the degrdation filter. The degraded and noisy image is represented by g (x; y ).

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Image Processing - Degradation And Resotration Model

0.3 Restoration Model


The objective is to find the estimate of orginal image f (x; y ). This is denoted by fr(x; y ). The degraded image g (x; y ) is passed through the restoration filter l(x; y ) which produces the estimate of original signal fr(x; y ). The restoration filter is designed based on the knowledge about the degradation model and noise model. The error in estimation will be reduced the more accurately we know about the degradation and noise or if assumed degradation and noise model fits the actual scenario better.

(a) Degration and Restoration Model

0.4 Some Useful Analysis


0.4.1 Random Process Passing Through LTI system
Consider a LTI filter h(t).Let input of LTI system be modelled as Wide sense-stationary stochastic process X(t). WSS process is completely characterized by its mean and autocorrelations function. Let X(t) be a wide sense stationary process applied at the input of LTI filter. The mean of process X(t) is defined as expectation of random

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Image Processing - Degradation And Resotration Model variable obtained by observing the process at some time T.

x (t) = E [X (t)]
The Auto-correlation function of random process X (t) is defined as expectation of product of random variables X (t1 ),X (t2 ) obtained by observing the random process at times t1 and t2 and depends only on the time difference between observation times t1 and t2

Rx (t1 ; t2 ) = E [X (t1 )X (t2 )] = Rx (t1 t2 )

Let the random process is transmitted through LTI filter. output Y(t) is governed by convolution operations. The output of LTI filter is given by

The

Y (t) =

h( )X (t  )dt

The output Y (t) is also a WSS random process characterized by its mean and autocorrelation. The mean and auto-correlation of Y (t) is related to X (t)

y (t) = x H (0)
where H (0) is the zero frequency DC response of the system. The mean of random process Y (t) produced at the output of LTI system in response to X (t) acting as input process is equal to the mean of X (t) multiplied by the DC response of the system. The autocorrelation of the output process is related to input process as follows

R y ( ) =

Z Z

h(1 )h(2 )Rx ( 1 + 2 )d1 d2

0.4.2 Frequency domain description of Random process


The frequency domain description of random process is defined using power spectral density. Power spectral density is defined as the fourier transform of auto-correlation function.

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Image Processing - Degradation And Resotration Model

Consider the input random process X (t) ,Let Sx (f ) define its PSD. The input random process is passed through a LTI filter.The PSD of the output process is related to PSD of input process as follows.

Sy (f ) = jH (f )j2 Sx (f )

0.4.3 Relation between input and output


Now we have two random processes X (t) and Y (t) . Relation between the two random process can be defined using cross correlation and cross-spectral density.

Rxy (t; u) = E [X (t)Y (u)] Rxy ( ) = Ryx ( )


It is the expected values of product of random variable X and Y observed at observation times t and u.
Sxy (f ) = Syx (f ) = Sxy (f )

If the stationary random processes are uncorrelated then cross correlation is zero.

0.4.4 Some More Useful analysis

Sgg (wx ; wy ) = jH (wx ; wy )j2 Sf f (wx ; wy ) Sf g (wx ; wy ) = H (wx ; wy ) Sf f (wx ; wy )

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Image Processing - Degradation And Resotration Model

Sgf (wx ; wy ) = H (wx ; wy ) Sf f (wx ; wy )

Sgg (wx ; wy ) = jH (wx ; wy )j2 Sf f (wx ; wy ) + Snn (wx ; wy )

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Bibliography

Bibliography
[1]

Adding Salt and Pepper Noise to Image. url: http://angeljohnsy.blogspot. in/2011/10/add-salt-and-pepper-noise-to-image.html.

[2]

[3]

isbn: 013168728X. Simon Haykin. Communication Systems. 5th. Wiley Publishing, 2009. isbn: 0471697907,
Upper Saddle River, NJ, USA: Prentice-Hall, Inc., 2006. 9780471697909.

Rafael C. Gonzalez and Richard E. Woods.

Digital Image Processing (3rd Edition).

[4]

Numerical Tour of Signal Processing.

matlabcentral / fileexchange / 9554 - a - numerical - tour - of - signal processing.


Wikipedia.

url: http : / / www . mathworks . in /

[5]

url: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Image_noise.

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