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# Intro to Power Systems Rodney Lucas Chapter 2 (2.3-2.

7)

13-31 odd

13. In a single-phase ac circuit, for a general load composed of RLC elements under sinusoidal-steady-state excitation, the average reactive power is given by B Vrms Irms sin

15. With load convention, where the current enters the positive terminal of the circuit element, if Q is positive then positive reactive power is absorbed A- True

17. Consider the load convention that is used for the RLC elements shown in Figure 2.2 of the text If one says the inductor absorbs zero real power and positive reactive power is it A-(TRUE). If one says that a capacitor absorbs zero real power and positive reactive power or delivers positive reactive power is it. B-(TRUE). If one says that a positive valued resistor absorbs positive real power and zero reactive power is it A- (TRUE)

## 19. The admittance of the impedance j 1/2 is given by A- -j2s

21. The three phase source line to neutral voltages are given by Ean= 10< 0o Ebn = 10 < +2400 Ecn = 10 < -2400 is the source balanced. A YES.

23. In a balanced system the phasor sum of the line to line voltages and the phasor sum of line to neutral voltages are always equal to zero B TRUE

25. For a balanced delta load supplied by a balanced positive sequence source the line currents into the load are 3 times the delta load currents and lag by 300 A- TRUE.

27. When working with balanced three phase circuits per phase analysis is commonly done after converting delta loads to Wye load, thereby solving only one phase of the circuit. A TRUE.

29. The total instantaneous power absorbed by a three phase motor (under balanced steady state conditions) as well as a balanced three phase impedance load is A Constant

31. One advantage of balanced three phase systems over separate single phase systems is reduced capital and operating costs of transmission and distribution. A- TRUE.

## Intro to Power Systems Chapter 2(2.3-2.7) Problems 20,26,31,48,49,50

20). A circuit consists of two impedances, Z1 = 20 < 300 and Z2 = 25 < 600 in parallel supplied by a source voltage V= 100 < 600 volts. Determine the power triangle for each of the impedances and for the source.
1 V1 100 Vrms 0 Hz 60 Z1 0 20<30 degrees 2 Z2 0 25 < 60 degrees

Two loads in ZT =20 < 300 x 25 < 600/ 20 < 300 + 25 < 600 = 11.5 < 43.20 I used this formula to find my total impedance, but noticed your answer used the other method finding the Siemens, so I used that method as well 1 / 1/ 20 < 300 + 1/ 25 < 600 = 1 / .433 j.025 + 1 / .02 j .0346 after working this problem through it yielded a result of ZT = 11.5 < 43.20 . I found my IT = 100 < 600 / 11.5 < 43.20 = 8.6 < 16.80 I1 = 25 < 600 x 8.6 < 16.80 / 25 < 600 + 20 < 300 =5 < 300 I2 = 20 < 600 x 8.6 < 16.80 / 25 < 600 + 20 < 300 = 3.9 < .30 S= VxI* 100< 600 x 5< -300 = 500 < 29.70 = 433 j247 I took the cos 29.7 x by 500 then the sin of 60 and multiplied by 500 this gave me my Real power 433 imaginary 247. The next power triangle S = 100 < 600 x 3.9 < -.30 = 390 < 59.70 used same process as prior example to complete second power triangle. The power triangle for the source S = VI* 100 < 600 8.6 < -16.80 = 860 < 43.2 0 = 626 +j589

IT = 8.6 < 16.80 ZT = 11.5 < 43.20 Es= 100< 600 I1 = 5< 30.30 I2 = 3.9 <.30 P1 = 433 watts Q1 = 247var P1 = 197 watts Q1 = 336var PT= 626 watts QT= 587var

## Intro to Power Systems Chapter 2(2.3-2.7)

26). A small manufacturing plant is located 2 km down a transmission line, which has a series reactance of .5/km. The line resistance is negligible. The line voltage at the plant is 480 < 00 (rms) and the plant consumes 120 kW at .85 power factor lagging Determine the voltage and power factor at the sending end of the transmission line by using (a) complete power approach and (b) a circuit analysis approach.

## I found the angle taking the = cos -1 .85 lagging = 31.780

Then to find the Q I took the Tan 31.78 x 120kW = 74.4 kvar.

Once I had the imaginary and the real I found the apparent using = 141.1 VA. This gave memy power traingle for this problem. I found the current I = S/Vs = 141/480 = 294 A I found the reactive power loss in the line using the current I = 2942 A x the total reactance of the line which is (.5 ) 2 = 1. 2942 x 1 = 86.436 kvar Ss= Ps + JQT = 120k + j160.83 = 1202 +j160.832 160/120 tan-1 = 200 < 53.20 kVA Vs= 200 kVA / 294 = 681 Vrms To find the power factor I took the angle of 53.20 and took the cos of that Cos 53.20 = .6 lagging.

31) Consider two interconnectd voltage sources connected by a line of impedance Z = jx , as shown.
1 L1 0H Z = jx V1 0 Vrms 0 Hz 0 V<d 3 V2 0 Vrms 0 Hz 0 V<d 2

a) I12 = V1 < V2 </ jx < 90 = V1 </ x < 90 = (V1/x < 90 )-(V1/x < 90 ) S12 = V1 I12 = V1 < [V1 / x < 90- V2 /x <90- ]
2 0 0 * 0 0 0 0

V1 / X < 90 - V1 V2 / X <90 +

P12 = V1 / X Cos 90 - V1 V2 / X Cos (90 + 1 2 ) = V1 V2 / X Sin (1 2) Q12 = V1 / X SIN 90 - V1 V2 / X SIN (90 + 1 2 ) = V1 /X [ v1 v2 COS (1 2)
2 0 0

b) P max = V1 V2 / X

## Intro to Power Systems Chapter 2(2.3-2.7)

48). Two balanced Y connected loads in parallel one drawing 15 kW at .6 power factor lagging and the other drawing 10 kVA at .8 power factor leading are supplied by a balanced three phase 480 volt source a) Draw the power triangle for each load and for the combined load b) Determine the power factor of the combined load and state whether lagging or leading c) Determine the magnitude of the line current from the source. d) delta connected capacitors are now installed in parallel with the combined load. What value of capacitive reactance is needed in each leg of the delta to make the source power factor unity Give your answer in e) Compute the magnitude of the current in each capacitor and the line current from the source.
2 1 Vs
3PH

L2
3PH 3PH

L1

0 V 0.5 Hz 15 kW .6 Pf

-1 0

-1 0

0

0

## Xdelta= 3V2/QT = 3(480)2 / 14 Kvar = 49.37 I = P/

= 23 kW / 480 = 27.6 A

## Intro to Power Systems Chapter 2(2.3-2.7)

49. Figure 2.33 gives the general delta wye transformatjon a) show that the general transformation reduces to that given in figure 2.16 for a balanced three phase load. b) Determine the impedances of the equivalent Wye for the following delta ipedance Z ab = j10 Zbc = j20 and Zca = - j25

Zab = zazb + zbzc + zcza zC Zbc = zazb + zbzc + zcza Za Zca = zazb + zbzc + zcza Zb Wye to Delta Zy = Zdelta / 3

Za =

Zb=

Zc =

## zcax zbc zazb + zbzc + zcza Deltal to Wye Zdelta = 3Zy

Za= j10 * -j25/ j10+J20+ -J25 = 250<-90/5<0 =50 < -900 Zb= j10 * j20/ j10+J20+ -J25 = 200<0/5<0 =40 < 00 Zc= -j25 * j20/ j10+J20+ -J25 = 500<-90/5<0 =100 <- 900

## Intro to Power Systems Chapter 2(2.3-2.7)

50) Consider the balanced three phase system shown in figure 2.34 Determine v1(t) and i2 (t). Assume positive phase sequence.
1 L1 0H j .1 V1 100 Vrms 60 Hz 0 100 < 0 L2 0H j 1 C1 0F -j 2 / 3 2

L1 0H j .1

## V1 100 Vrms 60 Hz 0 100 < 0 3 L2 0H -j 2

I analyzed this one phase at a time. ZT = 1/ 1/j1 +1/ -j2/3 = 1/ j j 1.5 Z2 = 1/-j .5 = - j2 I then added Z1 +Z2 = .1 + -j2 = ZT = -j 1.9 Is = 100 < 00 / 1.9 < -900 =52.6 < 900 A V1 = I x R = 52.6 < 900 x 2 < -900 = 105.2 < 00 V(t) = 105 cos (t + 0o) = 148 cos (t + 0o) v To find the current going through the capacitive load I found phase to phase < +300 = Vab = 173 < 300 cos ( t + 1200) = 122.3 cos ( t + 1200) The phase voltage was 100 < 00 I took this and divided it by my Z total to get my

## volts from original wye delta circuit . 100< 00 x

Iab = 173 < 300 / 2< -900 = 86.5 < 1200A. i(t) = Imax cos ( t + ) = 86.5