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Geddam Raj Manoj Neeraj Kumar Monikuntala Das Rahul Choudhury Sudeep V.

Zumbre Vinayak Gupta



A trap is a device which is used to prevent sewer gases from entering the buildings. The traps are located below or within a plumbing fixture and retains small amount of water. The retaining water creates a water seal which stops foul gases going back to the building from drain pipes. Therefore all plumbing fixtures such as sinks, washbasins, bathtubs and toilets etc. are equipped with traps. This article tells you the features of traps, various types of traps and water seal. A trap has following features. It may be manufactured as an integral trap with the appliance as in some models of European WC, or it may be a separate fitting called an attached trap, which is connected to waste or foul water outlet of appliances. The traps should be of a self-cleansing pattern. Traps for use in domestic waste should be convenient for cleaning. A good trap should maintain an efficient water seal under all conditions of flow.


1. Gully Trap: These traps are constructed outside the building to carry waste water discharge from washbasin, sinks, bathroom etc. and are connected to the nearest building drain/sewer so that foul gases from sewer do not come to the house. These are deep seal traps, the depth of water seal should be 50 mm minimum. It also prevents the entry of cockroach and other insects from sewer line to waste pipes carrying waste water. (Gully Trap)

2. P. Trap: This trap is used with Indian water closet (ORISSA Pattern). The traps are made from cast iron or UPV sheet. This trap also has water seal and prevents entry of foul gases to the house. (P Trap)


(S Trap) 3. S. Trap: This trap is similar to P. trap and is used for fixing water closets in toilets. The only difference between P trap and S trap is that P. trap is used for outlet through the wall whereas S. trap is used for outlet through the floor. 4. Floor Trap or Nahini Trap: This trap is provided in the floor to collect waste water from washbasin, shower, sink and bathroom etc. These are available in cast iron or UPVC material and have removable grating (JALI) on the top of the trap. The minimum depth of water seal should be 50 mm.

Silt Trap
The silt trap is provided only in situations where the waste water carries large amount of silt, sand, coarse particles etc. Traps [Examples]

Floor Trap
The floor trap is provided in floors to collect used water from floors of bathrooms , kitchens or washing floors. Leakage Due To Floor Traps PVC or CI pipe is embedded in concrete. Due to poor jointing or creep in concrete over the years, leaks may develop. M-seal or re-applying of concrete is effective.

Gully Trap
The gully trap is a deep seal trap which is provided on the external face of wall for disconnecting the waste water flowing from kitchen ,bath , washbasins and floors from the main drainage system.

Connections In Gully Trap

Sizes of traps

Reasons for Broken Plumbing Trap Seals

Trap Siphonage This is described as negative pressure within the fixture drain. However its most easily understood by describing it like this, picture a large amount of waste water hitting a waste stack at one time. As the the waste water goes by the other fixtures connected to the stack it can pull the water from their respective trap seals. Another scenario the could cause trap siphonage is a fixture using an S-trap. If the fixture is full and the waste water is released, the water rushing through the trap and waste pipe carrying some of the trap water with it. What happens is not enough liquid is left to form an adequate trap seal. A similar scenario can occur if a fixture is installed on a long run of piping that is unvented. If the water vacates a fixture into the trap in could build up enough velocity to drain the trap. Back Pressure So in the above weve described instances when a trap is compromised by being pulled out of the trap. However there are instances when water can be blown out of the trap, into the fixture and subsequently into the building. This is caused when a large amount of waste flows into the drainage system compressing the air in front of it, if the fixture at the point of compression is not vented properly it will blow out the trap and into the building. Wind Effect Have you ever been in your bathroom on a windy day and seen the water level in the toilet bob up and down? This same action can compromise the traps in your home. The pressure or suction caused by the strong winds can cause the water to rise and fall within the trap. If the fluctuations are big enough a small amount of trap seal may spill into the waste system causing the trap to be compromised. As you can imagine the seal is more susceptible to both back pressure and trap siphonage.

Reasons for Broken Plumbing Trap Seals

Evaporation This is a very common occurrence especially in instances where a fixture or drain is only used sporadically. What happens is the water in the trap evaporates when not used at least once a week. Laundry room floor drains, remote floor drains, fixtures and all traps in a summer home are all more vulnerable and evaporation will occur. Capillary Action This doesnt happen often but if there is a constant issue with a fixture loosing its trap seal this is something you can rule out. I think an example will serve this concept better than a lengthy explanation. Maybe a cleaning person runs out of clean water while mopping a large public toilet room. They may not what to fill up the bucket again, so they flush one of the water closets a few times to make sure the water is clean. They rise the mop off in the toilet and one of the strands of the mop dislodges and gets stuck inside the trap seal but stretches to the fixture branch and into the waste system. The water from the trap will wick up the string and into the waste piping, draining the trap seal.

Figure #10 Capillary Attraction

Illustration Of Joints In A Typical Domestic Toilet

Here we see a single stack system in operation in a house. There is no provision for a separate antisiphonage pipe ,as for two stories the single stack is quite efficient.

Shaft Dimensions

Connection Of Vertical Stack To Wall

The vertical stacks are placed 2 from the wall. Centre-to-centre distance of pipes is 9. The pipe dimensions due to the collar are considered as 150mm The depth of the shaft should be at least 2 1/2ft The length is then calculated on the basis of no. Of pipes.

The vertical stacks are held against the wall with the help of clamps. The clamps go around the collar of the pipe at the junction (6ft)

Types of pipes
Copper pipe ideal water supply lines leading from the main water supply pipe to household sinks and toilets. Copper is popular with plumbing contractors because it is clean, doesn't rust and is very reliable for both hot and cold water delivery. Copper pipes provide trouble-free service for decades. Copper pipes will freeze and burst if left exposed to the elements. If you have copper pipes that run through the outer walls of your home, be sure the walls contain plenty of insulation. PEX tubing Its flexibility and strength make it as reliable as copper but easier for plumbers to work with. PEX stands for cross-linked polyethylene and it is being used increasingly for water supply lines as a low cost alternative to copper piping. Developed in the 1960s, PEX has been used in Europe for decades but was only introduced to the U.S. in the 1980s. No material is freeze-proof but PEX is freeze- resistant and can expand and contract if the water inside freezes.

Types of pipes
PVC (Polyvinyl Chloride) pipe is the most common material used today for household drainpipes and vents. It comes in a wide variety of sizes and is durable and reliable. It is finding renewed acceptance as a copper substitute in pressurized water supply lines. It has long been popular for drainage and sewage piping. PVC pipe is inexpensive and popular with plumbing contractors because its joints fit tightly together to resists root intrusion and it is easy to repair. It can be quickly glued together to provide decades of trouble-free service. ABS piping is used in both ground and above-ground applications, and may also be installed outdoors, provided the pipes meet certain conditions. Based on local regulations, outdoor usage may require the pipes to contain pigments to prevent it from ultraviolet radiation or to be painted with a water-based latex paint. HDPE is high-density polyethylene plastic pipe often used for drainage in household plumbing. Clay piping is an older style, if you discover that you still have it in your home, you need to get it replaced as soon as possible. CPVC pipes are beige and are approved for use in hot or cold water service lines. Polyethylene tubes are black and approved for cold water use. Polybutylene is gray or beige and is usually sold in coiled lengths. Polybutylene is the only flexible pipe approved for hot and cold service lines.

Types of pipes
Orangeburg, also known as fibre conduit pipe, was a tarpaper-like material used for sewer lines from the 1860s through the 1970s. It became common again during World War II when iron and other materials were diverted to the war effort. Orangeburg pipe is very susceptible to root intrusion and has fallen out of favor with building code writers. Cast Iron pipes are tough and reliable. Today they are more commonly found in commercial and municipal applications than in residential plumbing. However, iron pipes can be found in older homes. Cast iron resists corrosion and can last a very long time. Plumbers work with cast iron drainage pipes, water supply lines and natural gas lines. Lead pipes have fallen out of favor today due to the danger of lead-related illnesses and health problems. Lead was the most common type of pipe for centuries because it was easy to work with. The word "plumbing" actually is derived from the Latin word for lead, "plumbum." If you have lead water supply lines, your water should be tested to determine the exposure level of your home. Sanders Home Services recommends replacing lead pipes with safer materials. At the very least, you should always run the tap for two or three minutes after it feels cold before drinking it or cooking with it. Galvanized steel pipes have also fallen out of favor in new construction. After years of use, minerals from water react with the galvanizing material to cause scale build up inside the pipe. This will eventually narrow the diameter of the pipe resulting in lower water pressure and reduced volume.

Types of joints

Standard sizes of fixtures

With Footrest

Seat With Cover

Combination Closet

Standard sizes of fixtures


Wash basin

Urinal - bowl

Plan layout of a public toilet

Plan layout of a toilet for handicap

Residence toilet

Public toilet

Minimum size for different type of toilets

Layout of a handicap toilet with bathing

Layout of a handicap toilet without bathing

It is difficult to prevent plumbing defects which result in leakages etc in spite of excellent and carefully detailed plumbing . in course of time the building materials undergo settling, contraction and expansion due to temperature variation ,thereby, making plumbing defects unavoidable. Care may be taken therefore by examination of the exposed plumbing after a period of few years and executing appropriate repair work for the same. Sensitive detailing and good workmanship can ensure plumbing which will last for years.

References Neufert standards Indian pluming code Time Savers Standards(Indian Edition)