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tr&yl&NrKd U r[m*EmHak usmif;wdu

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"ry'bmom#Dum
(yxrwG?J ,ru0*f)

omoem-2556

aumZm-1374

c&pf-2012

rmwdum
taMumif;t&m

pmrsufESm

ed'gef;
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(1)

"ry' H bPHH Ak'H "ry' H oka'odw?H


"ry' H "&H oHCH 0aE oGmap& om'&H/
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(2)

yZaw {w "armwd "ry'Ed ondawm?


w t|uxmAsmcsm bmom#Dum uwm r,m/
{w-"ry' ac:qd&k onfh emrwifq
h ef; onfu
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od&m jrwfusr;f pm\ tjzpfaMumif?h (aom *aEm-qdt
k yfcw
Jh Hk ouwf*P
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(c)

"ry'bmom#Dum

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vG,rf a,mifEiS chf uf/ / vGecf ahJ om (10)ESpcf efaY vmufuyif

ed'gef;

"ry'bmom#Dum

(*)

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(C)

"ry'bmom#Dum

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"ry'bmom#Dum
*Em&ruxm*gxm
1/

r[marm[warmea' avmau avmuE'dem?


a,e o'ry aZmawm Zmvdawm Zvdw'd ed m/
(t[H-igonf?) r[marm[warmea'-Bu;D pGmaom arm[
wnf;[laom trku
d af rSmifonf ajr;S ,Suyf w
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rlxaom? a,e-tMuifjrwfpmG bk&m;onf? o'ry aZmawm-olawmf
aumif;w&m;wnf;[laom qDr;D wefaqmifu?dk Zmvdawm-xGe;f vif;
awmufyapawmfrt
l yfNy/D
2/

w yga' erdwmG orK'


od&rD awm?
o'r
ylaZwGm uwGm oHC pv/
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vnf;aumif;? t-xkjd rwfpmG bk&m;\? o'r-H r*fzv
dk f edAm ef "rue f

"ry'bmom#Dum

*Em&r

[k q,fwefaom w&m;awmfjrwfu?dk (ylaZrd-ylaZmfyg\?) ylaZwGm pylaZmfNy;D vnf;aumif;? oHC-t&d,moHCmawmftm;? tv- vuf


tkycf srD ;dk Scd ;dk jcif;uk?d (ua&mrd-jyKyg\?) uwGm p-jyKNy;D vnf;aumif;/
3/

wHwH um&Prm*r "rm"arok aum0da'g?


orwo
'ry a'g owm "ry'H okb/H
4/
a'aood ukPma0*-orkm[dwrmeaom?
,H a0 a'0rEkmeH yDwyd garmZ0eH/
wHwH um&PH-xdx
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dk aMumif;uk?d tm*r-pG
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okv
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jrwfw&m;ukd ykid ;f jcm;od&m tMuifa'oemygVdu?dk a'aood- a[mMum;
awmfrcl ahJ vNy/D
5/

y&r&mbwm w edyP
k m tw0Pem?
,m wryP'd yD rSd 'Dybmom, oPw
d m/
y&r&mbwm- q&mtqufquf aqmifu
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t"dym ,f toG,o
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onf? wryP'd yD rS-d oD[Vkd u
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f idk ;f om;wk\
Yd
bmomjzif?h oPw
d m-aumif;pGmwnfaeNy/D

"ry'bmom#Dum

uxm

6/

e om",wd aoomeH owmeH [dwor'?H


tay0 emr oma",s oAavmu om [dw/H
om (tw0Pem)-teuft"dym ,f toG,o
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zGijhf y t|uxm xdu
kd sr;f pmonf? aoomeH-oD[Vdk u
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ukeaf om? owmeH-ZrL'dyu
f Re;f om; tjcm;olrsm;\? [dwor'-H pD;yGm;\
jynfph jHkcif;uk?d (pD;yGm;ESijfhynhpf jHkcif;uk)d e om",wd-rNy;D apEkid ?f oAavmu-tvk;H pkaH om owavmu\? [dw-H pD;yGm;ud?k tay0 emr oma",stu,f Ny;D apEkid rf u
l m; aumif;avpG/
7/

wd tmoDormaee 'aEe orpm&dem?


ukrm&uayem[H axa&e xd&apwom?
o'r| w
d u
d mare oupH tbd,mpdawm/
wd- ok?Yd tmoDormaee- awmifw
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y[m, orH p&wDwd tawm('D.|-3 76)/ o'r| w
d u
d mare-o'ro
;Hk jzm
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uyrnfaom? xd&apwom-NrJNrHckdifchH wnfwHhaompdwfSdaom?
axa&e-ax&fonf? t[H-ighu?kd oup-H kad opGm? tbd,mpdawmaS;Iysy0f yf awmif;yeftyfonf? ([kwmG -jzpf/) bmod-H vSr;f pyf
8/

wH bmoH twd0w
d m &-*w 0peur?H
y[m,ma&my,dwmG e wEb
d moH raem&rH/
9/
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au0vH wH 0dbma0wGm aooH war0 twawm/
wH bmoH-xko
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f momukv
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d m &dw-H
tvGeu
f s,0f ef;onf\ tjzpfoaYdk &mufaom? 0peurH p-pum;tpOf

"ry'bmom#Dum

*Em&r

ukv
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f dk arGUavsmf
apwwfaom? wEb
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aumif;? 0g-zGijhf yvnf;aumif;? twawm-teuftm;jzif?h aooH-<uif;
useaf eao;aom? war0-xkydk 'k u
f ydk if? (0dbma0wGm- vnf;aumif;? 0gvnf;aumif;/)
10/

bmoEa&e bmodH tm0[aEm 0dbm0de?H


reaom yDwyd garmZH tw"rLyedw
d /H
0dbm0de-H ynmSw
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aytH/h
*Em&ruxm *gxmed, NyD;\/

earm w b*0awm t&[awm ormorK'/

,ru0*f
puKygvaw&0wK
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bmowd 0g ua&mwd 0g? wawm eH 'kur aEGwd pu0H 0[awm y'H}}
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om0wd,/H / yk'fukd ormofyk'f w'dwfyk'f[k 2rsdK;,lMu\? ormof
yk'f,l&m ]](1) oA+twd? (2) om0+twd? (3) om+t|d? (4) oA+tw?
(5) ok+tw}}[k 5rsdK; cJGEkdif\/
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pdEm-325)
om0+twd/ / o[+ta0e omyawa,se y0www
D d om0H? om0arw twDwd om0wd-Opm&Sd&m(Opmaygrsm;&m)NrdKU/ (*VKefysH-35-6)
om+t|d/ / ]]y&d*[dw|meravm[dw t|daem okeace [edwwm om0wd( Zm#D)}}ukd Munh
f ]]omem okeace+[edwH [&dw+H t|d {wmwd

"ry'bmom#Dum

,ru

om0wd-NrdKUwnfpOf acG;udkufcDsaqmif,ltyfaom tkd;&Sd&mNrdKU}}[kjyK? 0-vm


|ukd wjyK? tzGifhukd Munhf ]]om0wd,H-a&TbkHeef;cif; NrdKU&GmESif;pOf r&Sd
taoG; tdk;azG;azG;ukd acG;i,fwpfaumif aqmif,lcJhonf jzpfaomaMumihf
om0wdrnfaom r[m&mZXmeD aejynfawmfBuD; awmifvuf,mteD; ukyf
vkyfav;wm jyefig;&mjzihf ocsFmrSefvS wpfaumoavmufjzpfaom Xme}}[k
ay;Muonf/
oA+tw/ / "mef#D-200 ]]oAH "earw twDwd om0wd? oA
oma0g? "e0gpaum twoa'g? }}[k qkd\? "mef#D0dN*dK[fonf v[ku
0dN*dK[fwnf;? ]]oaAm+tawm {w twDwd om0wd-tvkH;pkHaom Opm&Sd&m
NrdKU}}[k *ku0dN*dK[fjyK? ok*EdponfuJhokdY ormoftqkH;ukd jyK? (wpfenf;)
ormoftqkH; ypnf;/(l-192? ed'D-266-7) #Dumtqkdukd twd
w'dwf0dN*dK[fjy[k ,l ]]oaAm+tawm om0awm? om0awm+{w twDwd
om0wd}}[kvnf; jyKMuao;\? okdYaomf twd ypnf;om t&Sdrsm;
ypnf;um; r&Sdoavmuf &Sm;aomaMumihf raumif;yg/
ok+tw/ / oraEm+tawm {wmwd om0wd-jynhfpkHaom Opm&Sd
&mNrdKU? 0arm'k'EmeHokwf ]]0H}}[laom a,m*0dbm*jzihf Oukd tm0jyK
ormoftqkH;ukd jyK/ (0daAm-16)
w'dwf om0wD/ / oH0&Ed {awemwd 0wH? 0k+x? 0awe+o[
y0wwDwd o0awm? o0w odaem+ed0gaom om0wD(o0w&aoh
\ ae&ma[mif;NrdKU)? (wpfenf;) o0awe+edAwm om0wD(o0w&aoh jzpf
aptyfaomNrdKU)? o0w+P+? um; tu&pdEu(o'gusrf;q&m)wdkY\
tqkdwnf;/ (r.|-1 62? r#D-1 140? arm*fed-2 57? 0dokwf#D-407)
um&ef2rsdK;/ / um&E(om0wd) um&E(om0wD)}}[k 2rsdK;&Sd
&m ormofyk'ftvkd um&E w'dwfyk'ftvkd um&E[k cJGrSwf&m\/
tjynhftpkH vkdufay;ykH/ / (raemykA*Frm? ay? y'Ed-]]raemykA*Frm ?
ay? y'H}}[laom? t,H "ra'oem-ukd?) om0wd,H-? (bmodwm-NyD? wdwnf;?) (raemykA*Frm ?ay? y'Ed-]]raemykA*Frm ?ay? y'H}}[laom? t,H
"ra'oem-ukd?) uH-ukd? tm&A-? (bmodwm-enf; wd-wnf;?) (raemykA*Frm ?ay? y'Ed-]]raemykA*Frm ?ay? y'H}}[laom? t,H "ra'oem-ukd?)

0*f

"ry'bmom#Dum

ud&-csJUOK;tHh? om0wd,H-om0wdNrdKU? tam-okH;aqmifcHpm;


tyfaom umr*kPf xku
d mr*kP\
f taqmufttkw
H jYdk zihf avmufvHk
<u,f0aom? ]]tam-<u,f0aom}}[k tvG,fay;Ekdifonf? r['aemajr0,fjrKyfxm; rsm;aomOpm&Sdaom? r[mabma*g-aeYpOftNrJ
ok;H pJt
G yfaom rsm;aom tok;H taqmif&adS om? tykwa um-om;orD;
r&Sdaom? r[mok0aPm emr-r[mok0Prnfaom? uk#Krdaum-ol
<u,fonf? ta[mod-&Scd NhJ y/D aom-xkrd [mok0Po<l u,fonf? {u'd0oH-wpfcak omaeY? ESmewdw-H a&csKd ;qdyo
f ?Ydk *Em-oGm;? ESwmG -a&
csKd ;Ny;D ? tm*paEm-jyefvmvaomf? tE&mra*-vrf;c&D;\ tMum;?
orEywomcH-jynhfpkHaom t&Guftcuf&Sdaom? 0g-t&GuftcufESihf
jynhpf aHk om? {uH-wpfyifaom? 0eyw- awmpk;d opfyifu?dk (awm\ tBu;D
qk;H jzpfaomopfyifu)kd ? 'domG -jrif? ]]t,H-awmpd;k opfyifonf? 0gpuKygvaw&H-ukd? tm&A-? (bmodwm-NyD? wd-wnf;?)}}[k t"dum&enf;
t& tjynhftpkH vkdufay;Ekdifonf? txuf tvG,fay;cJhonf/
tam/ / tmbkaom twda&uH A[kvH A[k0g&H ok0P&Zwm'd"eH psm,wDwd tam? tm+aps (pdEmteuf)+t? psukd jyK? !a'Gabmfvm?
tmukd &jyK?-"r#D/ "mef#D-725 ]]tZm,wd "eEd tam}}[kjyKum psukd
jyK\/ tampaom 3yk'fukd 0duwduwm;,l ]]r[mok0aPm emr-r[m
ok0Prnfaom? uk#Krdaum-ol<u,fonf? tam-onf? r['aem-onf?
r[mabma*g-onf? ta[mod-NyD}}[kvnf; ay;Ekdifonf? a&SUenf; if;wkdYukd
0daooe,l ay;onf/ (yg&mbm-2 207? 654)
uk#Krdaum/ / Oyabm*y&dabm*wH C&m0goudporm'ewH 0g
aum#d,wd y0wd,wDwd uk#KrH? uk#+OA? qifjrif;uRJEGm; v,f,m acsmif;
ajrmif; ZeD;r,m; a&TaiGpaom ouf&SdoufrJh OpmwkYdukd,l? xdkaemif ]]uk#KrH
t to 0g 0dZwDwd uk#Krdaum-ypnf;Opm&Sdol}}[kquf/("r#D)
0eywd/ / 0e+ywd 0eywd-awm\t&Sif? awm tBuD;qkH;
opfyifukd qkdvkdonf(0d.|-1 303)? "mef? "mef#D-540um; ryGihfbJoD;aom
anmifMuwfyif a&ozef;yif ydEJyifponfukd 0eywd[k qkd\/

"ry'bmom#Dum

,ru

uk?d ra[oum,-Bu;D aomtpd;k &ol[k qdt


k yfaom? 0g-wefc;kd Bu;D aom?
a'0wm,-ewfonf? y&d*[
ad wm-odr;f ydu
k t
f yfonf? b0dwd-jzpf
vdrrhf nf?}} wd-odaYk wG;? w-xkad wmpk;d opfyif\? a[|mbm*Hatmuftzku
Yd ?dk (atmufyidk ;f uk)d ? aom"maywGm-&Si;f vif;ap? ygum&y&dauyH-wHwkdif;tumt&Hukd? um&maywGm-jyKap? 0gvkuH-oJukd?
Moud&maywGm-usJjzefYap? 0g-cif;ap? "Zy#muH-wHcGefukum;ukd?
OmaywGm-pkdufxlap? 0eyw-awmpkd;opfyifukd? tvuF&dwGmwefqmqif? tv-vuftkyfukd? u&dwGm-jyK? 0g-csD? ]]ykwH 0gom;ukdaomfvnf;aumif;? "Dw&H 0g-orD;ukdaomfvnf;aumif;? oap
vab,sH-tu,f&tHh? ({0H owd-okdY&vaomf?) wkrSmuH-oifwdkY
tm;? 0g-wku
Yd ?dk r[moum&H-Bu;D pGmaom ylaZmf y ojcif;uk?d u&dmrdjyKygrnf? wd-okdY? yweH-qkawmif;rIukd? uwGm-jyK? yumrdzJomG ;Ny/D
ra[oum,/ / owd tbdb0wDwd aom? o (&d,
teuf)+t? r[aEm+aom ra[aom? tum,wDwd tum? tm+cg+t?
ua'Gabmfvm? ra[aom wd+tum ra[oum/ (oD#Dopf-1 427?
oDbm-2 90)
r[moum&H/ / ok|K+u&PH ouma&m(aumif;rGef kdaopGm jyKjcif;ylaZmfy ojcif;)? r[aEm+ouma&m r[mouma&m? q&mwkdYtvkd a&SU
wkrmS uHonf yk'\
f q|Duw
H nf;? a&S;ed, or'gefteufay;\? oDbm3 274 ]]wdPH &wemeH r[moum&H tumod}}teufay;ykH Iyg? ]]oupH+
umwaAm 'gwaAmwd ouma&m(kdaopGm jyKtyf ay;vSLtyfaom ypnf;)}}
[k jyK ]]wkrSmuH-oifwkdYzkdY? 0g-oifwkdYtwGuf? r[moum&H-BuD;pGmaom kd
aopGm (txl;wvnf) jyKtyfaom ypnf;ukd? u&dmrd}}[k wpfenf;ay;/
yumrd/ / y+urk+? uGpd "mwkokwfBuD;jzihf 0dbwfaMumihf u\
t-ukd 'DCjyK ]]yumrd}}[kvnf;aumif; 'DCrjyKbJ ]]yurd}}[k ygXf2rsdK;&Sd\
(ed'D-413)? Am*H-2 244-245 'DCjzihf ]]yumrd}}ukd ygXfrSef[k qkd\? q&mwkdY

0*f

"ry'bmom#Dum

tx-zJomG ;Ny;D &m xkt


d cgrS aemuf? e pd&a0-rMumrDyif?
t-xko
d <l u,f\? b&d,m,-r,m;\? ukp,
d -H 0rf;? *aAm-uk,
d 0f ef
onf? ywd|mod-wnfNy?D om-xkrd ,m;onf? *A-uk,
d 0f ef\? ywd|-d
wbm0H-wnfonf\tjzpfukd? wGm-od? w-xkdol<u,ftm;?
tma&mapod-ajymNyD? aom-xkdol<u,fonf? wm-xkdr,m;tm;?
*A-\? y&d[m&H-tapmiht
f a&Smufu?dk t'god-ay;Ny?D om-xkrd ,m;
onf? 'ormopa,e-q,fvvGe&f mtcg? ykw-H om;uk?d 0dZm,d-zGm;
jrifNy?D wH-xko
d m;uk?d emr*[P'd0ao-emrnf,&l maeY? (emrnfay;
uifyeG ;f wyf&maeY)? ao|d-olaX;onf? twem-rdro
d nf? ygvdw-H apmifh
a&Smuftyfaom? 0eyw-awmpkd;opfyifukd? edm,-rDS? v'wm&tyfonf\tjzpfaMumih?f w-xko
d m;\? emrH-trnfu?dk ygavmwd-ygv[l? tumod-jyKNy?D (rSnNfh y)D ? om-xkrd ,m;onf? ty&bma*-aemuftzkYd ? tnrd- tjcm;wpfa,mufvnf;jzpfaom? ykw-H om;uk?d
vbd-&NyD? w-xkdom;i,f\? emrH-ukd? plVygavmwd-plVygv[l?
(ygvi,f[
l )? uwGm-jyK? w&-tjcm;aom om;Bu;D \? emrHuk?d r[mygavmwd-r[mygv[l? (ygvBu;D [l)? tumod-Ny?D (rmwmydwa&m-rdbwko
Yd nf?) 0,yaw-t&G,o
f Ydk a&mufuek af om? awxko
d m;wdu
Yk ?dk C&AEaee-tdr[
f al om taESmiftzGUJ jzih?f 0g-tdraf xmif
um; 'DCjyK&ef ckdifvkHaomtaMumif;rjrifaomaMumihf &jzihf ]]yurd}}ukd
ESpfoufawmfrl\/
twem ?ay? tumod/ / pum;t& ewfuay; om;&ovkd jzpf
ae\? okdYaomf ewfaMumihf om;&onfr[kwfyg? om;&apaom twdwfuH
aMumihfom om;&jcif;jzpfonf? olaX;\ t,ltqrSm;ukd rSDonfESihfpyfom
]]twem? ay? tumod}}[k qkdonf? ewfu om;ukday; qkdjcif;r[kwfyg/
]]w-tm;? ygavmwd-[laom? emrH-ukd? tumod-NyD}}[kvnf; ay;Mu\?
tumodonf or'gefiJhaomyk'f r[kwfojzihf o'genf; rusyg/
0,yaw / / 0,H+ywm 0,ywm? ]]wH 0,ywH rmwmydwa&m

10

"ry'bmom#Dum

,ru

csay;jcif;jzih?f AEo
-k aESmifzUGJ ukeNf y/D ty&bma*-aemuftzkYd ? (aemuf
ykdif;)? rmwmydwa&m-rdbwkdYonf? umvH-aojcif;ukd? 0g-aocsdefukd?
tuHo-k jyKuek Nf y?D oAr-d tvk;H pkv
H nf;jzpfaom? 0db0H-pnf;pdrOf pmuk?d
wa&a,0-rdbrSwpfyg; tjcm;aom om;wkdYonfom? 0dpm&okvnfywfapukeNf y?D 0g-pDrcH chH u
GJ ek Nf y/D
wo ora,-xkdtcg? owm-jrwfpGmbk&m;onf? y0wdw0&"rpaum-jzpfapawmfrt
l yfNy;D aom jrwfaom "rpMum&So
d nf? 0gjrwfaom "rpMumukd jzpfapawmfrNl y;D (a[mawmfrNl y;D )onf? ([kwmG C&AEaee AEdwkumrm Zmwm(ax&.|-1 136? ty.|-1 341)}}wkdY
]]wH 0,ywH}}[k &SdykHukd axmufvQif vnf; ]]aw}}onf AEok\ uHyk'f
]]0,yaw}}um; aw\ 0daooewnf;? uwm;rSm ]]rmwmydwa&m}}wnf;?
xkdaMumihf ]]aw-wdkYonf? 0,yaw-t&G,fa&mufvaomf? 0g-t&G,fa&muf&m
tcg}}[k ay;jcif;rSm vkH;0roifhyg/
y0wdw0&"rpaum / / o'da`Epaom Akdvfw&m;[laom "rpufukd
a0ae,swdkYoEmef jzpfapjcif; (jzpfatmifa[mjcif;)ukd ]]y0wdw0&"rpaum}}[k qkv
d o
dk nf? ]]y0wD,
w
d m wd y0ww
d ?H p&wd y0www
D d pu?H p&+u?
"arm p+aom+pumwd "rpuH (tqufqufjzpfwwfaom o'da`Epom;
Akdvfw&m;)? 0&H+"rpuH 0&"rpuH? y0wdwH+0&"rpuH a,emwd y0wdw0&"rpaum-a0ae,swdkYoEmef jzpfapawmfrltyfaom jrwfaom tquf
qufjzpfwwfaom o'da`Epom; Akdvfw&m;&Sdonf? 0g-jrwfaom tqufquf
jzpfwwfaom o'ad `Ep om; Akv
d w
f &m;ukd jzpfapawmfrNl y;D onf}}[kjyK? txuf
tvG,fay;xm;onf/
wpfenf;/ / "arm+, twDwd "rH? p&wd ty#d[wH y0wwDwd
puH(rydwfyiftyfbJ ow0gwkdYoEmef jzpfwwfaom tmPmpuf)? "r+
wH+pumwd "rpuH(w&m;&Sdaom tmPmpuf)}}[kjyK a&SUenf;twkdif; quf
um ]]y0wdw0&"rpaum-a0ae,swdkYtay: jzpfapawmfrltyfaom jrwf
aom w&m;&SdaomtmPmpuf&Sdonf}}[kay;? xkdw&m;tmPmpufukd ]]a'Gar
bdua0 tEm yAZdawe e ao0dwAm}}ponfjzihf a0ae,swdkYtay: jzpfap

0*f

"ry'bmom#Dum

11

jzpf?) tEkyak Ae-tpOftm;jzif?h tm*Em-<uvmawmfr


l ? temxyd@-d
aue-temxydPfrnfaom? r[mao|dem-olaX;BuD;onf? pwkyPmoaum#d"eH-54 uka#aom Opmukd? 0daZwGm-pGefYvSL?
um&daw-aqmufvkyfaptyfaom? aZw0er[m0d[ma&-aZw0ef
ausmif;wkdufBuD;? r[mZeH-rsm;pGmaom vltaygif;ukd? o*ra* pewfjynfa&mufaMumif;vrf;vnf;aumif;? armura* p-edAm efa&muf
aMumif;vrf;vnf;aumif;? ywd|my,rmaem-wnfapawmfrv
l su?f
0d[&wd-aeawmfr\
l / [d-csUJ OK;th?H wxm*awm-jrwfpmG bk&m;onf?
jcif; trdefYay;jcif;udk qkdvkdonf/
wpfenf;/ / "are+puH "rpuH(toihftm;jzihfjzpfaom tmPm
puf)}}[k jyK a&SUenf;twkdif;qufum ]]y0wdw0&"rpaum-a0ae,swdkY
tay: jzpfapawmfrltyfaom jrwfaom toifhtm;jzifhjzpfaom tmPm
puf&Sdonf}}[kay;/
temxyd@daue/ / eDwdokw-237 ]]temxmeH yd@r'god(r.|1 61)}}tzGihfukd 0dN*dK[fjy[k ,l ]]temxmeH yd@H ''gwDwd temxyd@d
aum(tm;ukd;&mrJholwkdYtm; tpmtm[m&ukd ay;wwfaomolaX;)}}[k qkd\?
okwed.|-2 5? r#D-1 141ponfwkdYum; jycJhaom r.|-1 61tzGihfukd
t"dym,fzGihf[k ,l ]]temxmeH+yda@m temxyda@m? temxyda@m+
{w {wo 0g twDwd temxyd@daum(tm;ukd;&mrJholwdkYtwGuf tNrJ
wnfxm;tyfaom tpmtm[m&&SdaomolaX;)}}[k 0dN*dK[fppf jyK\? trnf
onf trsm;aumif;usdK;aqmifrIaMumihf trsm;u *kPfwifac:qkdtyfaom
(urmaMuaomfvnf; O'gef;rausaom) trnfjzpfonf? olaX;BuD;\ emrnf
&if;rSm ok'w jzpfonf/
armura*/ / ]]oEdr*H("r.|-2 268)}}ukd rSD; ]]armuH *pEd
{awemwd armu*grD? armu*grD p+aom+ra*g pmwd armu*grdra*g}}
[kjyK? *grdudkacs/

12

"ry'bmom#Dum

,ru

rmwdyuawm-r,fawmfbufr?S toDw,
d m-&Spaf omif;vnf;aumif;?
ydwyd uawm-crnf;awmfbufr?S toDw,
d m-&Spaf omif;vnf;aumif;?
wd-ok?Yd a'GtoDw
d wduv
k o[a[d-wpfoed ;f ajcmufaomif;
aom aqGawmfrsdK;awmfwkdYonf? um&daw-aqmufvkyfaptyfaom?
toDwd,m/ / ]]toDwd,m o[a[d}}[k qkdvkdvsuf o[a[d
yk'af usonf? (wpfenf;) aemuf ]]a'GtoDw
d wduv
k o[a[d}}rS ]]wdukvo[a[d}}ukd ,l ]]toDwd,m-&Spfq,faom? (wdukvo[a[d-aqGawmfrsdK;awmftaxmifwkdYvnf;aumif;?) 0g-toDwd,m wdukv
o[a[d-aqGawmfrsdK;awmf&Spfaomif;wkdYvnf;aumif;}}[kay;/("r#D-13)
a'GtoDwdwdukvo[med/ / wD {0+ukvmed wdukvmed?
wduv
k meH+o[med wduv
k o[med-aqGrsKd ;awmfw\
Ydk taxmifw?Ydk
(wpfenf;) o[H+wdukvmed wdukvo[med-taxmifaom aqG
rsdK;awmfwkdY? aemufenf; o[ESihf wdukvudk a&SUaemufjyef? toDwd+
wdukvo[med toDwd,m 0g+*kPdwmed+wdukvo[med toDwdwdukvo[med-&Spfq,faom (&Spfq,fjzihf ajrmuftyfaom) aqGrsdK;
awmftaxmifwkdY? 0g-&Spfaomif;aom aqGrsdK;awmfwkdY? a'G+toDwdwdukvo[med 'DG[d 0g *kPdwmed+wdukvo[med a'GtoDwdwdukvo[med-ESpfck (ESpfvD)aom (ESpfckjzihf ajrmuftyfaom) aqGrsdK;awmf&Spf
aomif;wkdY? 0g-wpfodef;ajcmufaomif;aom aqGrsdK;awmfwkdY/("r#D)
wpfenf;/ / ]]'DG[d *kPdaw[d toDwdo[yrmP0aE[d wdblwukav[d("r#D)}} tzGifhtvkd ]]toDwd+o[H toDwd,m 0g *kPdwH
+o[H toDwdo[H-&Spfq,faom (&Spfq,fjzihf ajrmuftyfaom)
taxmif? (&Spfaomif;)? 'DG[d+*kPdwH+toDwdo[H a'GtoDwdo[HESpfckwkdYjzihf ajrmuftyfaom &Spfaomif;? (wpfodef;ajcmufaomif;)? a'GtoDwdo[H+y&drmPH a,oEd a'GtoDwdo[med? a'GtoDwdo[+P?ed'D-319? 320/ a'GtoDwdo[med p+wmed+wdukvmed pmwd a'GtoDwdwdukvo[med-wpfodef;ajcmufaomif; twkdif;t&Snf&Sdaom
aqGawmfrsdK;awmfwkdY}}[kjyK? o[ESihf wdukvudk a&SUaemufjyef/

0*f

"ry'bmom#Dum

13

edaj*m"r[m0d[ma&-edaj*m"mkaH usmif;wku
d Bf u;D ? {uar0-wpf0gywf
vk;H om? 0m0goH-rk;d vywfv;Hk aeawmfrjl cif;jzih?f 0g-0gqkad wmfrjl cif;
jzihf? 0od-aeawmfrlNyD? temxyd@daue-temxydPfolaX;onf?
um&daw-aqmufvkyfaptyfaom? aZw0er[m0d[ma&-aZw0ef
ausmif;wku
d Bf u;D ? {ule0Dowd0med-wpfcjk zifh ,kwaf vsmah om ESpf
q,faom 0gwkyYd wfv;Hk vnf;aumif;? 0g-190gwkyYd wfv;Hk vnf;aumif;?
0domcg,-0domcgonf? ow0o
D wdaum#d"ey&dpm a*e-27uka#aom
Opmukd pGev
Yf LS jcif;jzih?f um&daw-aom? ykAm &mar-ykAm kaH usmif;wku
d f ?
qAmed-ajcmuf0gwdkYywfvkH;vnf;aumif;? wd-okdY? 'dGEH-ESpfck
ukefaom? ukvmeH-trsdK;wdkY\? *kPr[wwH-tusdK;aus;Zl;rsm;ukef
onf\tjzpfu?dk y#dp- pJ
G ? om0w- om0wNd rKd Uuk?d edm,-rS
D ? y0Dowd0med-250gwkyYd wfv;Hk ? 0m0goH-jzih?f 0od-Ny/D
0m0goH/ / 0H+tm0gaom 0m0gaom-rdk;vywfvkH; aejcif;
(yg&mbm-2 81)? (wpfenf;) 0a+tm0gaom 0m0gaom-rdk;tcg
aejcif;(rtlyged-2 408)? yk'f\pyf&m 0odonf turu"mwfjzpfojzihf
uHr[kwfEkdif? Bud,m0daooewnf;? xkdaMumihf ]]0m0goH-rkd;vywfvkH;
aejcif;ukd}}[k ray;oifh/
*kPr[ww/H / tjcm;ae&mrsm; *kPo'g oDvpaom*kPfteuf
a[m ,l ]]*kPftm;jzihf jrwfonf\tjzpf}}[k ay;Mu\? xkdteufrjzpf
oifh? trsdK;2rsdK;wkdY\ omoemawmftm; tusdK;aus;Zl;rsm;ykHukd jyaomt&m
jzpf tmedoHoteufjzpfoihf\? *kPfESifhaus;Zl; oabmwl,l ]]*kPfaus;Zl;
rsm;onftjzpfu}dk }[kvnf; ay;Mu\? q&mwku
Yd m; xko
d *Ydk P
k Ef iS afh us;Zl; oabm
wlxm; ay;jcif;ukd ESpfoufawmfrrlyg(oarmbm-1 7)/ ]]*kaPe+r[Em
*kPr[Em(tusdK;aus;Zl;tm;jzifh rsm;aomtrsdK;wkdY)? *kPr[EmeH+bma0g
*kPr[wH? ]]*kPr[EwH}}[k qkdvkdvsuf Eukdacs? *kPr[war0 *kPr[wwm-tusdK;aus;Zl;tm;jzihf rsm;ukefonf\tjzpf}}[kjyK/

14

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,ru

temxyd@daumyd-temxydPfolaX;onfvnf;aumif;? 0domcg-0domcgrnfaom? r[mOygodumyd-OygodumrBuD;onfvnf;


aumif;? edA'H-rjywf? 'd0o-wpfaeY\? 0g-wpfaeY? (wpfaeYvQif)?
a'G 0ga&-ESpBf urd w
f w
Ykd idk w
f idk ?f wxm*w-uk?d Oy|meH-qnf;uyfjcif;
iSm? *pE-d uke\
f ? (wpfenf;)wxm*w-jrwfpmG bk&m;tm;? Oy|meHqnf;uyf&mt&yfo?Ydk *pE-d oGm;uke\
f ? p-qufOK;tH?h *pEm -oGm;ukef
vaomf? '[&omraP&m-&[ef;i,f ukd&ifwkdYonf? aem-igwkdY\?
[aw-vufwkdYukd? MoavmauEd-Munfhukefvdrfhrnf? wd-odkY
awG;? wkp[wm-tcsD;ESD;aom vuf&Sdukefonf? (vufcsnf;ouf
ouf)? ([kwGm-?) e *wykAm-roGm;zl;ukef? yka&bwH-qGrf;pm;&m
umv\ a&SUtzkYd ? 0g-rGe;f rwnfrh t
D csed f ? bwawm bw 0g yka&wd
yka&bw?H -ygpda,m-428/ *pEm -oGm;ukev
f aomf? cg'eD,abmZeD,m'Ded-cJzG,f abmZOftp&SdonfwkdYukd? *a[wGm0-,lomvQif? *pEdoGm;ukef\? ypmbwH-qGrf;pm;&mumv\ aemuftzkdY? 0g-rGef;vJGNyD;
tcsdef? *pEm-ukefvaomf? y-ig;rsdK;ukefaom? aboZmed-aq;wkdY
ukdvnf;aumif;? t|-&SpfrsdK;ukefaom? ygemed p-azsmf&nfwkdYudkvnf;
aumif;? *a[wGm0-,lomvQi?f *pE-d oGm;uke\
f ? ye-onfomru
ao;? awoH-xkt
d emxydPo
f al X;ESifh 0domcgwk\
Yd ? eda0oaeok-aetdrf
wdYk ? 'dEG H 'dEG -H ESpcf Ek pS cf u
k ek af om? bduK o[meH-&[ef;taxmifwzYdk ?Ydk
'd0o/ / 'd0o 'dGwduwKEd {ua0 'd0o 'dG0ga& 0g
wd0ga& 0g bma*? bkraw 0g {wH omrd0peH? {uoa,0 'd0ao 'Gd0g&H 0g
wd0g&H 0gwd tawm?-oD#Dopf-2 5/
Oy|meH/ / a&SUenf;tvkd ]]Oy|[eH Oy|meH? Oy+Xm+,k?-ck'u.|11?}}[kjyK? or'gefteuf 'kwd,mouf(ygpda,m-18? 60? 307? ul.r[med?
ygaxbm-1 385)/ aemufenf;tvkd ]]Oy*Em wd|wd {wmwd Oy|meH}}[kjyK?
uHteuf 'kw,
d mouf('D.|-2 299? ygpda,m-18? 60? 307? okwrf [mbm3 490)/

0*f

"ry'bmom#Dum

15

0g-twGuf? (wpfenf;) 'dGEH 'dGEH bduKo[meH-ESpfaxmifESpfaxmif


ukeaf om &[ef;wkzYd ?Ydk 0g-twGu?f edp-H tNr?J ynwmoemae0-cif;xm;
tyfNy;D aom ae&m&Su
d ek o
f nfom? a[mE-d jzpfuek \
f ? a,m-tMuif&[ef;
onf? tEygeaboaZo-k pm;zG,af omufzu
G af q;wkw
Yd iG ?f ,H-tMuif
t&mukd? pwd-tvdk&Sd\? w-xkd&[ef;\? (wH-xkdt&monf?)
,xdpdwar0-tMuiftMuiftvkd&Sdtyfonfhtwkdif;omvQif? (tvkd&Sd
oavmufomvQif)? orZwd-jynfhpkH\? 0g-a&mufvm\? (wpfenf;)
w-\? 0g-onf? ,xdpdwar0-tMuiftMuiftvkd&Sdtyfonfom
vQifjzpfaom? wH-t&monf? orZwd-\/ awok-xkdtemxydPf
olaX;ESihf 0domcgwkdUwGif? temxyd@daue-temxydPfolaX;onf?
{u'd0ord- wpf&ufvnf;? (wpf&ufrQvnf;)? owm-jrwfpmG bk&m;uk?d
yOH-jyemukd? (odvkdaom teuft"dym,fukd)? e ykpdwykaAm-rar;
tyfz;l ? aom-xkt
d emxydPo
f al X;onf? ]]wxm*awm-jrwfpmG bk&m;
ck rk mavmwd Ak'-
onf? Ak'o
ck rk mavm-bk&m;jzpf El;nHah wmfr\
l ? Ak'o
okukrm&wm? Aka'g [kwGm Ak'bma0e 0g okckrmvwm?-"r#D/ cwd,okcrk mavm-rif;rsKd ;jzpf El;nHah wmfr\
l ? ]*[ywd-ol<u,fonf? arightm;? A[lyuma&m-rsm;aomaus;Zl;&Sd\?} wd-okdYMuHawmfrl?
r,S-H ightm;? "r-H w&m;uk?d a'aoaEm-a[mawmfrv
l aomf? udvar,syifyef;awmfr&l m\?}} wd-okaYd wG;? ow&-d jrwfpmG bk&m;? t"drwodaea[e-vGeu
f aJ om twkid ;f t&Sn&f adS om cspjf cif;aMumih?f 0g-vGeu
f J
pGm cspfcifMunfkdjcif;aMumihf? t"drwodaea[emwd t"duo'g,?
tpvyoma'e?-"r#D/ yOH-jyemukd? e ykpwd ud&-rar;bl;wJh? yeokdYaomfvnf;? owm-onf? wo-xkdtemxydPfolaX;onf? edodErawa,0-xkdifNyD;cgrQjzpfaomfom? 0g-xkdifNyD;vQifxkdifNyD;jcif;? ]]t,H
ao|d-olaX;onf? rH-ighu?dk t&udw
A|mae-rapmifah &Smufxu
dk af om
ae&m? &uwd-apmihfa&Smuf\? [d-rSef\? t[H-igonf? uyowo[m"dumed-urmwpfodef;tvGef&Sdukefaom? pwm&d-av;ckukef

16

"ry'bmom#Dum

,ru

aom? toacsF,smed-toacsFwkdYywfvkH;? tvuFwy#d,wH-wefqm


qifjcif;tm;jzihf jyifqifxm;tyfaom? 0g-tvSjyifxm;tyfaom?
twaem-rdr\
d ? oDo-H OK;acgif;uk?d qdEw
d mG -jzwfvnf;aumif;? tueD -d
rsuv
f ;Hk wku
Yd ?kd Oyma#wGm-xkw
f vnf;aumif;? [',rHo-H ESv;Hk om;uk?d
Oyma#wGm-xkw
f vnf;aumif;? ygPorH-toufEiS w
fh al om? ykw' g&Hom;orD;r,m;uk?d y&dpZ w
d mG -pGe
Yf vnf;aumif;? yg&rda,m-yg&rDawmf
wdu
Yk ?kd yla&aEm-jynhaf pawmfrv
l su?f 0g-jznhu
f siahf wmfrv
l su?f ya&oHolwpfyg;wkt
Yd m;? "ra'oewar0-w&m;ukd a[mawmfrjl cif;tusKd ;iSm
omvQi?f yla&o-jynfah pawmfrcl NhJ y?D 0g-jznhu
f siafh wmfrcl NhJ y?D {o ({aom)olaX;onf? rH-ighukd? t&udwA|mae-rapmifha&Smufxkdufaom
ae&m? &uwd-apmihfa&Smuf\?}} wd-okdYMuHawmfrl? {uH-wpfck
aom? "ra'oeH-w&m;a'oemawmfudk? uaxwda,0-a[mawmfrl
onfom/
w'g-xkt
d cg? om0wd,
-H ? ow rEkaum#da,m-7uka#
aom vlwkdYonf? 0oEd-aeukef\? awok-xkdvlwkdYwGif? owK-jrwfpGm
bk&m;\? "ruxH-w&m;ESihf ,SOfaom pum;awmfukd? 0g-w&m;pum;
awmfu?dk "are+,kwm +uxm "ruxm? okwmG -Mum;em&? yaum#drwm-5uka#twkdif;t&Snf&Sdukefaom? rEkm-vlwkdYonf? t&d,om0um-t&d,mjzpfaom wynfw
h o
Ydk nf? Zmwm-jzpfuek Nf y?D a'Gaum#drwm-2uka#twkdif;t&Snf&Sdukefaom? rEkm-wkdYonf? ykxkZemykxZk Ofwo
Ydk nf? (Zmwm-ukeNf y?D ) awok-xkt
d &d,mom0uESifh ykxZk Of
wkw
Yd iG ?f t&d,om0umeH-t&d,mjzpfaom wynfw
h \
Ykd ? 0g-wkrYd mS ? yka&bw-H qGr;f pm;&mumv\ a&SUtzkYd ? 0g-rGe;f rwnfrh t
D csed f ? 'geH-tvSL
ukd? a'Ed-ay;vSLukef\? ypmbwH-qGrf;pm;&mumv\ aemuftzkdY?
0g-rGef;vJGNyD;tcsdef? *Ermvm'd[wm-vuf eHYomyef;tp&Sdonf &Sd
ukefonf? 0g-eHYomyef;tp&SdonfwkdYukd vufpJGukefonf? ([kwGm-?)

0*f

"ry'bmom#Dum

17

0waboZygeum'De-d t0wf aq; azsm&f nftp&So


d nfwu
Ykd ?dk *g[maywGm-,lap? "r0ewm,-w&m;emjcif;tusKd ;iSm? *p E-d oGm;ukef
\? (wd-ok?Yd ) a'Ga,0-2rsKd ;omvQijf zpfuek af om? udpm ed-vkyif ef;
d cg? {u'd0oH-wpfcak omaeY??
wdo
Yk nf? ta[ok-H &Su
d ek Nf y/D tx-xkt
r[mygavm-r[mygvonf? *Ermvm'd[aw-vuf eHo
Y myef;tp&Sd
onf&u
dS ek af om? 0g-eHo
Y myef;tp&So
d nfwu
Ydk dk vufpu
GJ ek af om? 0d[m&Hausmif;ok?Yd *paE-oGm;aeukeaf om? t&d,om0au-t&d,mjzpfaom
wynfw
h u
Ydk ?dk 'domG -jrif? ]]t,H r[mZaem-rsm;pGmaom vltaygif;
onf? uk[- tb,ft&yfo?Ydk *pw-d oGm;aeoenf;?}}wd-ok?Yd ykp-d
wGm-ar;? 0g-ar;vaomf? ]](t,H r[mZaem-onf?) "r0em,w&m;emjcif;tusKd ;iSm? (*pw-d oGm;ae\?)}}wd-ok?Yd okwmG -Mum;od&?
]]t[rd-igonfvnf;? *rdmrd-oGm;tHh?}} wd-okdYajym? *EmoGm;? owm&H-jrwfpmG bk&m;uk?d 0Edw
mG -&Scd ;dk ? y&doy&d,aE-y&dowf
tpGef ? edo'D -d xkid Nf y/D
p-qufOK;tHh? Ak'g emr-bk&m;&SifwkdYrnfonf? "rH-w&m;ukd?
a'aoEm-a[mawmfru
l ek v
f aomf? o&PoDvyAZm 'De-H o&P*kPf
oDv &Sif&[ef;tjzpftp&SdonfwdkY\? Oyed,H-tm;BuD;aom rSD&m
taMumif;uk?d MoavmauwGm-Munhaf wmfr
l ? tZmo,0aoe-tvkd
ESipfh yfojzih?f (tvk\
d tpGr;f jzif)h ? "r-H uk?d a'aoEd- a[mawmfru
l ek \
f ?
a'Ga,0 udpm ed/ / ]]yka&bwH ?ay? *pE}d }onf a'Ga,0\ okyw
f nf;?
a'Ga,0um; oly0Ewnf;? ]]awok-wkw
Yd iG ?f t&d,om0umeH-wk\
Yd ? a'Ga,0ukefaom? udpmed-wdkYonf? ta[okH-ukefNyD? (uwrmed a'G-tb,f2rsdK;wkdY
enf;) yka&bwH-? ay? *pEd-ukef\? (rmed a'G-2rsdK;wkdYwnf;/)}}[kvnf;
ay;Ekdifonf/
tZmo,0aoe/ / tmo,Ed {w owm ed0oEDw
d tmoa,mow0gwk\
Yd aexkid &f m? tm+od+P?-om&w-1 75/ pdwH tm*r aowd
{wmwd tmoa,m(oD#o
D pf-1 99)? tmo,Ed 0oEd {wmwd tmoa,m-

18

"ry'bmom#Dum

,ru

wom-xkad Mumih?f wH 'd0oH-xkad eY? owm-onf? w-xkrd [mygv


\? Oyed,H-tm;Bu;D aom rD&S mtaMumif;uk?d MoavmauwGm-Munhf
awmfr
l ? "r-H uk?d a'aoaEm-a[mawmfrv
l aomf? tEkyAk u
d xH-tpOf
twkid ;f a[majymxku
d af om w&m;pum;uk?d uaxod-a[mawmfrNl y/D
ow0gwdkY\ aexkdif&m wGif;acsmufpaomt&yf? tmoa,m 0d,mwd tmoa,m-'d|dESihf Pf(yg&mbm-1 135)? tmoa,m0 tZmoa,m? t"d
teufr&Sd? tZmo,t& 'd|dESihf Pfwnf;/
csJUOK;thH-'d|donf ow'd|d Oap''d|dtm;jzihf 2yg; &Sd\? Pfonf
]]tEkavmrcEd}}[kac:aom 0dyemPf ]],xmblw}}[kac:aom uruwmPftm;jzihf 2yg;jym;\? xkdwGif 'd|donf 0eddw(0#frDSaom0#frS rxGufajrmufvkdaom) ow0gwkdY\ ae&mwnf;? Pf(0dyemPf
uruwmPf)onf 0d0eddw(edAmefrSDaom-edAmefukdawmihfwaom)
ow0gwkdY\ ae&mwnf;/(om&w-1 75? oD#Dopf-1 99? yg&mbm-1 135)
tEkykAduxH/ / ]]tEkykAH uaxwAuxH('D#D-1 310? oD#Dopf-2
279)}}ukd Munhf ]]tEkykAH+uaxwAm tEkykAD? tEkykA+P+? tEkykAD
p+om+uxm pmwd tEkykAduxm}}[kjyK? q&mwkdYum; tm0k'djzihf ]]tmEkykAduxm}}[k &Sdapvkd\/ ]]tEkykA uxH}}[k 0gusvnf;&Sd\/
eDwdy'ed-2 697/ / xkd ]]tEkykA-tpOf&Sdaom}}[k ay;\? xkdtvdk
]]tEkykAH+{wdm twDwd tEkykAD}}[kjyK ]]tEkykAduxH-tpOf&Sdaom pum;
ukd}}[k ay;/
'D#D-2 66? r#D-2 35/ / xkd ]]tEkykAd,m tEkykAH uaxwAuxH}}[k
zGi\
fh ? xkt
d zGiu
fh dk Munh
f ]]ykA
+tEkyl g tEkyAk -D a&S;tm;avsmaf omoabmtpOf? tEkyAk ,
d m+uaxwAm+uxm tEkyAk u
d xm-tpOftm;jzihf a[mxku
d f
aom w&m;pum;}}[kvnf; jyKMu\/
"r#D-128/ / xkdtvdk ]]tEkykAd,m+y0wm+uxm tEkykAduxmtpOftm;jzihf jzpfaom w&m;pum;}}[kjyK/
yg&ma,m-44/ / xkd ]]uxeH uxm? tEkykaAe+uxm tEkykAduxm-tpOftm;jzihf a[mjcif;}}[k jyK\? vm &jyK/

0*f

"ry'bmom#Dum

19

ao,sxd'H-tb,ftEkykAduxmukdenf; 'geuxH-'geESihfpyfaom
w&m;pum;ukv
d nf;aumif;? oDvuxH-oDvESipfh yfaom w&m;pum;ukd
vnf;aumif;? o*uxH-ewfjynfESihf pyfaom w&m;pum;ukdvnf;
aumif;? umrmeH-umr*kPw
f \
Ydk ? tm'De0H-tjypfuv
dk nf;aumif;? 0gqif;&Jukd jzpfapwwfonf\tjzpfuv
kd nf;aumif;? Moum&H-,kwn
f yhH Hk
ukv
d nf;aumif;? oHuad voH-npfnrf;yku
H v
dk nf;aumif;? 0g-oHo&m
ESyd pf ufavmifNrKd uyf u
Hk v
dk nf;aumif;? aeuar-umrrS xGuaf jrmufaom
&Sif&[ef;tjzpfESifh psmefpaom w&m;? tmedoHoH-tusdK;ukdvnf;
aumif;? yumaood-xif&Sm;apawmfrlNyD? 0g-a[mjyawmfrlNyD/ wHxdktEkykAduxmudk? okwGm-Mum;em&? r[mygavm-r[mygvrnf
aom? uk#Krdaum-ol<u,fonf? pdaEod-pOf;pm;NyD? ]](u-tb,fokdY
ao,sxd'/H / yk'fukd edygwfyk'f,l ay;cJhonf? ]]ao,sxm+'H}}
[k 2yk'fcJG ]]'H-tEkykAduxm[lonf? ao,sxm-tb,fenf;}}[kvnf;
ay;yg("r#D? oD#Dopf-1 31? oDbm-1 291)/ ,'d'Hyk'fuJhokdY vdif 3yg;
0kpf2yg;tm;jzihf ae&mtm;avsmfpGm ay;Ekdif\(r#D-1 197? eDwdokw-378)/
tm'De0H/ / tm'Dea0g
a0gwd a'gaom(r.|-3 65? tH.|-3214)?
a'gaomwd tedpwm'dem tym'g'dem p 'lodwbma0g? ,awm aw
0dnLeH pdwH em&ma"Ed/ tx0g tm'DeH 0gwd y0awwDwd tm'Dea0g?
y&ruyPwm (r#D-3 38)/ 'D#D-2 69? tH#D-3 223-wdkY ]]y0wwd}}[k
pmysufaeonf? y0wwdukd trSef,lvQif ]]y0wwd {awemwd}}[k &Sd&rnf/
oHudavoH/ / ]]oHuad voEd rvdeH("r#D)}}[laom tzGifht& udvdo
"mwf\ rvDe(npfnrf;jcif;) teuf,l a&SUenf;ay;onf? ]]oHudavaomwd
aw[d owmeH oHudvdeH(tH.|-3 214)? oHudvdeEd 0dAm"uwm
Oywmyuwm p(tH#D-3 223)}}tzGihft& udvdo"mwf 0dAm"e(ESdyfpufjcif;)
teuf Oywmye(avmifNrdKufjcif;)teuf,l aemufenf;ay;onf/
aeuar tmedoHoH/ /aeuar tmedoHoEd yAZm,H psmem'Dok p
*kaP 0dbma0od?-tH#D-3 224? r#D-3 38? "r#D/

20

"ry'bmom#Dum

,ru

pOf;pm;oenf;) y&avmuH-aemufavmuod?Yk *pE-H oGm;olo?Ykd ykw-


"Dwa&m 0g-om;orD;wdo
Yk nfvnf;aumif;? bmwa&m 0g-nDtpfuw
kd Ykd
onfvnf;aumif;? abm*g 0g-pnf;pdrOf pmwdo
Yk nfvnf;aumif;? e tEk*pE-d tpOfrvdu
k u
f ek ?f o&D&r-d cEmud,
k o
f nfaomfvnf;? twem-rdrd
ESi?hf o'- twl? e *pw-d rvdu
k ?f ar-ightm;? C&m0gaoe-tdrf aejcif;
jzifh? u-bmtusdK;&SdtHhenf;? yAZdmrd-&Sif&[ef;jyKawmhtHh? wdodkY pOf;pm;NyD/ wH-udk? okwGm-? r[mygavm-aom? uk#Krdaum-onf?
]]y&avmuH-odkY? *pEH-odkY? ykw"Dwa&m 0g-aumif;? bmwa&m 0g-aumif;?
abm*g 0g-aumif;? e tEk*pEd-ukef? o&D&rd-vnf;? twem-ESifh? o' e
*pwd? ar-tm;? C&m0gaoe-jzifh? u-enf;? yAZdmrd-tHh?}} wd-odkY?
pdaEod-pOf;pm;NyD}}[k tmum&twGif;oGif;vnf; ay;Edkifonf/ aom-xdk

r[mygvonf? a'oemy&da,momae-a'oemawmf\ tqHk;?


owm&H-jrwfpGmbk&m;odkY? OyouFrdwGm-csOf;uyf? yAZH-&Sif&[ef;
tjzpfudk? ,mpd-awmif;NyD? tx-xdktcg? eH-xdkr[mygvudk? owmonf? ]]aw-oif\? 0g-rSm? aumpd-wpfpw
kH pfa,mufaom? tmykpw
d A,kwa um-yefMum;xdu
k o
f nf\tjzpfEiS ,
hf OS af om? 0g-cGiahf wmif;xku
d f
aom? wd-aqGrsKd ;onf? tw-d &So
d avm}} wd-od?Yk tm[-ar;awmf
rlNyD? baE-jrwfpGmbk&m; ar-\? 0g-rSm? ued|bmwm-nDi,fonf?
twd-&Sdyg\? wd-odkYavQmufNyD? awe [d-xdkodkYjzpfvQif? wH-xdk
nDi,fu?kd tmykpm [d-yefMum;acsavm? 0g-cGiahf wmif;acsavm? wdodrYk ed aYf wmfrNl y?D aom-xdrk [mygvonf? om"lw-d aumif;ygNyb
D &k m;
[k? or#pd w
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H ? (uwday;)? owm&H-ud?k 0Ew
d mG -&Scd ;kd ? a*[Hod?Yk *Em-oGm;? ued|-H nDjzpfou
l ?kd yaumomaywGm-ac:ap? wmwighnD r,S-H ig\? ro a*a[-tdrf ? o0dnmPur-d pdwEf iS w
hf uG
jzpfonfaomfvnf;jzpfaom? 0g-ouf&adS omfvnf;jzpfaom? t0dnmPurd-pdwfr&Sdonfaomfvnf;jzpfaom? 0g-oufrJhaomfvnf;jzpfaom?
ud-d wpfpw
kH pfcak om? ,H "eH-tMuifOpmonf? tw-d &S\
d ? oA-H tvH;k pHk

0*f

"ry'bmom#Dum

21

aom? wH-xdOk pmonf? w0-oif\? bma&m-wm0efwnf;? eH-wm0efu?kd


y#dyZm[d-,lavm? "eH y#dyZ *PS?-Zm.|-7 164/ wd-odkYajymNyD?
wkarS ye-oifwdkYonfum;? u-bmudk? u&dx-jyKukefrnfenf;
wd-od?Yk tm[-ar;Ny?D t[H-igonf? owK-jrwfpmG bk&m;\? oE-d
au-txH? yAZdmrd-&Sif&[ef;jyKawmhrnf? wd-odkYajymNyD?
bmwdu-tpfukd u-bmud?k uaxod-ajymvdu
k o
f enf; wG-H oifu
h ?kd
ar-uRefawmfonf? va'g-pyf? 0g-\? rmw&d ydw&d-pyf? rmw&dtaronf? rwm,-aovaomf? rmwm 0d,-tarudkuJhodkYvnf;
aumif;? ydw&d-tazonf? raw-aovaomf? ydwm 0d,-tazudu
k o
hJ Ykd
vnf;aumif;? va'g-&tyfygNyD? aw-oif\? a*a[-tdrf? r[m0dba0g-rsm;pGmaompnf;pdrOf pmonf? (tw-d &Syd g\?) a*[H-tdrf ? tZm0oaEa[0-aeukefaomfom? 0g-vsufom? yknmed-aumif;rIwdkYudk?
umwH-k jyKjcif;iSm? oum-pGr;f Edik yf g\? {0H-od?Yk rm u&dw- rjyKygukeEf iS ?hf
wd-odaYk jymNy/D
a*[H tZm0oaEa[0/ / txuf vuPteufay;cJhonf? tE
ypnf;qkH;aom yk'frsm;aemif wwd,m0dbwf&SdvQif ukdPf;(uwm;)teuf
vuPteuf [dwfteuftm;jzihf 3rsdK;ay;Ekdifonf? xkdaMumihf uwm;MuH
]]tZm0oaEa[0-aeukefonfomjzpfukefaom? (wkarS[d-wkdYonf?) yknmed
umwkH oum}}[kvnf;aumif; [dwfMuH ]]wkarS[d t*g&H-? tZm0oaEa[0-aeukefonf\tjzpfaMumihfom? yknmed umwkH oum}}[kvnf;aumif;
ay;Ekdifonf? ukdPf; vuP [dwfeuf& rmetE wwd,m/-upfbm-2
489/
a*[H teuf/ / tZm0oaE[d t"d tbd tmOyom&wkdYukd
teufrJh,l a*[Hukd txuf owrDteufay;cJhonf? t"dukd tbdb0e
teuf tmudk r&d,m'teuf,lvQif a*[H uHteufwnf;? ]]a*[H-ukd?
tZm0oaEa[0-pkd;tkyf tykdif;tjcm;tm;jzihf aeukefvsufom}}[k ay;
(arm*f-2 2? arm*fed-1 152)/ t|uxmtvkdum; Oyom&teuf&Sdonf

22

"ry'bmom#Dum

,ru

wmw-ighnD t[H-onf? owK-jrwfpmG bk&m;\? "ra'oeH-ud?k okwmG ? C&m0gao-tdrf[laomae&m? 0odwHk-aejcif;iSm? e oaumrdrpGrf;Edkif? owm&m-jrwfpGmbk&m;onf? twdoPSokckrH-tvGefodrf
arGUEl;nHhaom? wdvuPH-oHk;yg;aomvuPmodkY? 0g-vuPm,mOf
oH;k yg;od?Yk tma&maywGm-a&S;Iwufa&mufap? 0g-wif? tm'drZy&da,momeuvsmaPm-tptv,ftqH;k wdYk aumif;aom? "armw&m;ud?k a'odawm-a[mawmfrt
l yfNy/D aom-xdw
k &m;ud?k t*g&raZtdrf\tv,f? 0oaEe-aeolonf? yla&wHk-jynfhapjcif;iSm? 0gjznfhusifhjcif;iSm? e oum-rpGrf;Edkif/ wmw-ighnD yAZdmrd-&[ef;
jyKawmhrnf? wd-odkY ajymNyD? bmwdu-tpfudk wm0-a&S;OK;pGm?
wkPma,0-EkysdKukefao;onfom? tw-jzpfygukef\? r[vuumav-BuD;ol\tcg? 0g-BuD;&ifh&mtcg? yAZdx-&Sif&[ef;jyK
&ukefvwHU? wd-odkYajymNyD? wmw-ighnD [d (,om)-tMuif
aMumihf? r[vu-BuD;&ifhol\? ([wyg'g-pyf)? 0g-tm;? (te0g-pyf)? twaem-rdr\
d ? [wyg'gyd-vufajcwdo
Yk nfaomfvnf;?
te0g-em;raxmifukefonf? a[mEd-jzpfukef\? twaem-rdrd\?
0ao-tvdk? e 0wEd-rjzpfukef? wum ye-aqGrsdK;wdkYonfum;?
udr*-tb,ftaMumif;aMumif?h (twaem-rdr\
d ? 0ao-tvdk ? 0wE-d
jzpfukeftHhenf;?) ]]ye-tEG,um;}}[k ay:atmifay;Ekdifonf? ]]udr*FEd
ya*0...aum ye 0ga'g udar0 0wAH("r#D)}}[laom tzGifhtvkd ]]wum
ye-um;? udr*-tb,frmS ajymqkzd ,
G &f adS wmhtehH nf;}}[k tvG,af y;/ (wom-

xkad Mumih?f ) oGm[H (aom+t[H)-xdik gonf? w0-oif\? uxH-pum;ud?k


e ua&mrd-rjyKEdkif? 0g-rvdkufemEdkif? orPy#dywa,0-&[ef;wdkY\
jzpfap r&Sdonfjzpfap owrDteufomwnf;('D.|-1 218? oDbm-3 302)/
oD#Dopf-2 210um; ]]ury0peD,,kawjzihf owrDteuf 'kwd,mouf}}
[k qkd\? odkYaomf ae&m t"donf ury0peD,r[kwfaomaMumihf pOf;pm;
yg[k q&mwkdY rdefYawmfrl\(oDbm-3 301)/

0*f

"ry'bmom#Dum

23

tusifhudkom? yla&mrd-jznfhusifhawmhrnf/
Z&mZZ&dwm a[mEd [wyg'g te0g?
, aom 0d[wwmarm uxH "rH p&dwd/
,- tMuifo\
l ? [wyg'g- vufajcwko
Yd nf? Z&mZZ&w
d mZ&maMumihf tkrd if;ukeo
f nf? 0g- Z&mni;f tkrd if;ukeo
f nf? ([kwmG ) tZ&Dwd ZZa&m? Z&"mwf Z&ypnf;(arm*f-7 152)? ZZa&m+a,oH
twDwd ZZ&dwm? (wpfenf;) ZZ&H +wm *wm ZZ&dwm?-"r#D/ te0gem;raxmifuek o
f nf? 0g-tvkt
d wkid ;f rjzpfuek o
f nf? a[mE-d jzpfuek f
\? aom-xkdolonf? 0d[wwmarm-ysufpD;aom tm;tifSdonf?
([kwmG -) uxH- tb,fov
Ydk Qi?f "r-H w&m;uk?d p&dwd- usiEhf idk yf g
awmhthHenf;/
wmw-ighnD t[H-igonf? yAZdmrd {0-&Sif&[ef;jyKawmh
rnfom? wd-odaYk jym? w-xdn
k o
D nf? 0d&0Ea0-ajymqdjk rnf
wrf;aepOfyif? owK-\? oEu
d -H txHo?Ykd *Em-? yAZ-H &Si&f [ef;tjzpf
udk? ,mpdwGm-awmif;? v'yAZLyora'g-&tyfNyD;aom&Siftjzpf
&[ef;tjzpf&o
dS nf? ([kwmG -?) tmp&d,yk Zm,meH-q&mOyZm,fw\
Ykd ?
oEad u-txH? y0med-ig;0gwdyYk wfv;kH ? 0odwmG -ae? 0k|0amrkd;vywfvkH; aeNyD;onf? 0g0guRwfNyD;onf? ([kwGm-?) y0ga&wGmy0g&PmjyKNyD;? 0g-aomf? owm&H-odkY? OyouFrdwGm-? 0EdwGm-?
0d&0Ea0/ / tem'&teuf q|Douf? tem'&d,Bud,mukd ]]pOf}}
[k ay;jcif;rSm ay;kd;teufwnf;? ]]0d&0Ea0-ajymqkdjrnfwrf;aeonfom
jzpfaom? w-xkdnDukd? (tem'&d,-tav;rxm;rl?)}}[kvnf; ay;Mu\?
xkdokdY ay;jcif;ukd q&mwkdY ESpfoufawmfrrl/(eda'o? Am? Am#D? upfbm-1
434) 0d&0Ea0gwd tem'&aw omrd0peH? 0d&0EH ued|bmw&H tem'&H
uwGm?-"r#D/
0k|0am/ / 0odwmwd 0ka|m? 0H+0ka|m 0k|0am? 0ESihf

24

"ry'bmom#Dum

,ru

ykp-d ar;avQmufNy?D (u-tb,foYkd ar;avQmufoenf;) baE-jrwfpmG


bk&m; ro omoae-omoemawmf? "k&med-wm0efwdkYonf?
uwd-tb,frQ&u
dS ek o
f enf;? wd-odYk ar;avQmufNy?D bduK -&[ef;
*E"&k -H *E"&k vnf;aumif;? 0g-pmayusr;f pmukd aqmifjcif;[laom wm
0efvnf;aumif;? 0dyem"k&H-0dyem"k&vnf;aumif;? 0g-tedp p
aomtm;jzihf xl;jcm;pGm Irw
S yf mG ;rsm;jcif;[laom wm0efvnf;aumif;?
wd-od?Yk a'Ga,0-2rsKd ;omvQijf zpfuek af om? "k&med-wdo
Yk nf? (a[mE-d
&Su
d ek \
f ?) wd-odYk rdeUf awmfrNl y?D baE-jrwfpmG bk&m; *E"&k -H *E"&k
onf? uwrH ye-tb,fygenf; 0dyem"k&-H onf? uwrH ye-enf;
wd-odkYar;avQmufNyD? twaem-rdrd\? ynmEklaye-ynmtm;
avsmfaomtm;jzifh? 0g-ynmPftavsmuf? {uH-wpfrsdK;aom?
(edum,H) 0g-edum,fudkaomfvnf;aumif;? a'G-2rsdK;ukefaom? eduma, 0g-edum,fwdkYudkaomfvnf;aumif;? ouvH-tvHk;pHkaom?
awyd#uH-3ykHaom yd#uwkdY\ taygif;[laom? 0g-yd#u3yHk[laom?
Ak'0 peH 0g ye-bk&m;&Si\
f pum;awmfuakd omfvnf;aumif;? yeedygwf
0k|ukd a&SUaemufjyef? (wpfenf;) 0ka|m+0am tmwd 0k|0am-aetyf
NyD;aom rkd;v&Sdonf(oDbm-3 288)? 0dwmwd 0k|H? 0k|H+0H {awemwd
0k|0am(rtlyg&med-1 430)}}[kjyK/
*E"&k /H / a*g PH xmwd wd|wd {wmwd *aEm? a*g+xm+t?"r#D?
]]*aEmwd y&d,wd[&PH(0dok'd-1 91? om&w-2 211)}}[laom tzGihfukd
Munhf XmElypm&tm;jzihf usrf;pmukd aqmifjcif;txd,l? okdYr[kwf ]]*E+
[&PH *aEm([&Pyk'faus)}}[k MuH? xkdaemif ]]"kAwd [owDwd (wm0efxrf;
aqmifolukd nOf;qJwwfaomaMumihf) "k&H? "kAD+t? Aukd&jyK?-oDbm-2 212?
eDbm-2 390/ *aEma,0+"k&H *E"k&H}}[k qufyg/
awyd#uH/ / wDPd+yd#umed wdPH yd#umeH+orla[m (orm[ma&m) 0g awyd#uH? awok 0k'dokwfBuD;jzihf (aw aru0paeok p po'g
jzihf) wdukd awjyK(l-248? 0daAm-64)?? (wpfenf;) wDPd+yd#umed wdyd#uH?

0*f

"ry'bmom#Dum

25

teufrJh? O*PSdwGm-oif,l? w-xdkedum,fyd#uwfudk? "m&PH-

aqmifjcif;vnf;aumif;? uxeH-a[mjcif;vnf;aumif;? 0gpeH-qdkap


jcif;vnf;aumif;? 0g-ydcYk sjcif;vnf;aumif;? wd 'H-wm0eftm;vk;H
onf? *E"&k H emr-*E"&k rnf\? ye-tzdw
Yk pfyg;um;? ov[u
k 0kwad emayghyg;aom toufarG;rI&adS om? yEaoemoembd&w-tpGet
f zsm;
usaom ausmif; vGefpGmarGUavsmfaom &[ef;\? twbma0-tw
abm? 0g-cEmud,
k f ? c,0,H-ukejf cif;ysujf cif;tmH&k adS om 0dyem
bm0emudk? y|aywGm-jzpfap? omwpud&d,0aoe-tjrJjyKjcif;\
tpGr;f jzif?h 0dyeH-0dyemud?k 0awGm-wd;k yGm;ap? t&[w*[
PHwdyd#uar0 awyd#uH? wdyd#u+P? wd ukd {0k'djyK/ ('D#D-2 151?oH#D2 516? tH#D-3 255? l-248? 0daAm-64)
c,0,H y|aywGm/ / txuf eDbm-2 126twkdif; ay;cJhonf?
okdYay;jcif;onf ]]c,0,H y|aywGmwd 0dyeH tm&bdwGm(r#D-3 304)}}
[laom tzGihfESihf nD\? xkd tm&bdwGmjzihf y|aywGm yo'g tm&r(p
wiftm;xkwfjcif;)teufa[maMumif;ukd jyonf? pwiftm;xkwfjcif;[lonf
vnf; jzpfapjcif;yifjzpf&um; ]]y|aywGm-jzpfap}}[k ay;&onf? ]]c,0,H+
tm&rPH {wdmwd c,0,H}}[kjyK? tm&rPtausMuH/ (tbd.|-2 204?
rlv#D-2 145)
wpfenf;/ / owdy|me y|meukd 3enf;zGihf&m wwd,enf; yo'g
\ xGe;f jyeufudk ]]tvGet
f uJ ajy;0ifjcif;(ouf0ifjcif;)teuf}}[k qk\
d (tbd.
|-2 204? rlv#Dum-2 145)? xkdteufukd,l ]]c,0,H-ukefjcif;ysuf
jcif;oabmodkY? y|aywGm-Pfjzihf ouf0ifwnfaeap}}[kay;? (wpfenf;)
Oy|me(pJGNrJpGmwnfjcif;-xifjcif;)teufa[m,l ]]c,0,H-ukefjcif; ysuf
jcif;oabmukd? y|aywGm-Pf pJGNrJpGm wnfap? 0g-Pf xifap}}[k
ay;/ ]]c,0,H-ukefjcif; ysufjcif;ukd? y|aywGm-jzpfap}}[kvnf; ay;Mu\?
ukejf cif;ysujf cif;oabmrSm jzpfaptyfaomt&m r[kw?f olb
Y momjzpfaeaom
oabmom jzpfaomaMumifh raumif;yg/

26

"ry'bmom#Dum

,ru

t&[wzv
kd u
f kd &,ljcif;[laom? wd 'H-wm0efonf? 0dyem
"k&H emr-0dyem"k&rnf\? wd-odkY rdefYawmfrlNyD/ baE-jrwfpGm
bk&m; t[H-onf? r[vuumav-Bu;D &ifo
h \
l tcg? 0g-Bu;D &if&h m
tcg? yAZad wm-&Si&f [ef;jyKco
hJ nf? ([kwmG -?) *E"&k -H ud?k yla&wH-k
jynfhapjcif;iSm? 0g-jznfhusifhjcif;iSm? e oudmrd-rpGrf;Edkifawmhyg?
0dyem"k&H ye-0dyem"k&udkum;? yla&mrd-jynfhapygrnf? 0gjznfu
h siyhf grnf? ar-wynfah wmftm;? ur|meH-ur|mef;ud?k uaxxa[mawmfryl guke?f wd-odaYk vQmufNy?D tx-xdo
k aYkd vQmuf&mtcg?
t-xdkr[mygvtm;? owm-onf? ,m0t&[wH-t&[wzdkvf
wdkifatmif? uaxod-a[mawmfrlNyD/
aom-xdrk [mygvonf? owm&H-jrwfpmG bk&m;ud?k 0Ew
d mG -?
twem-rdrEd iS ?hf o[*grdaem-twlomG ;rnfjzpfuek af om? bduL -&[ef;
wdu
Yk ?kd y&da,oaEm-&Smvaomf? o|d-ajcmufq,faom? bduL -&[ef;
wdu
Yk ?kd vbdwmG -&? aw[d-xd&k [ef;wdEYk iS ?hf o'- twl? edur w
d mG -xGuf
? 0Doa,mZeowr*H-,lZem 120 &Sdaom c&D;udk? *Em-oGm;NyD;?
0g-oGm;Ny;D vaomf? {uH-wpfcak om? r[E-H Bu;D pGmaom? ypE* grH-tpGef
tzsm; jzpfaom&GmodkY? ywGm-a&muf? ww-xkd&Gm? oy&d0ga&mtjcHt&H&[ef;wdkYESifh wuGjzpfonf? ([kwGm)? yd@m,-qGrf;tvdkYiSm?
yg0dod-0ifNyD? rEkm-vlwdkYonf? 0woraE-usifh0wfESifh jynhfpHkukef
aom? bduL -wdu
Yk ?kd 'domG 0-jrifomvQi?f 0g-jrifvQijf rifjcif;? yoEpdwm-Munfdkaompdwf&Sdukefonf? ([kwGm)? tmoemed-ae&mwdkYudk?
ynmaywGm-cif;ap? edo'D gaywGm-xdik af p? yPDawe-rGejf rwfaom?
tm[ma&e-qGrf;paomtm[m&jzifh? y&d0dodwGm-jyKpkvkyfauR;NyD;?
]]baE-t&Sib
f &k m;wdYk t,sm-t&Sib
f &k m;wdo
Yk nf? uk[- tb,ft&yf
od?Yk *pE-d oGm;Murnfenf;}} wd-od?Yk ykpw
d mG -ar;? ]]Oygoum-Oyg
oumwdkY ,xmzmoku|meH-tMuifMuifcsrf;om&mt&yfodkY? (*pmr-

0*f

"ry'bmom#Dum

27

oGm;ukeftHh?)}} wd-odkY? 0kaw-ajymqdktyfaomf? y@dwm-ynm&Sd


ukeaf om? rEkm-vlwo
Ykd nf? ]]b'Em-t&Siw
f o
Ykd nf? 0m0goH-rd;k v
ywfv;kH ae&mjzpfaom? 0g-rd;k vywfv;kH aejcif;iSm? aoemoeH-ausmif;tdyf
&mae&mud?k y&da,oE-d &Smaeuke\
f ?}} wd-od?Yk wGm-od? ]]baEt&Sib
f &k m;wdYk t,sm-wdo
Yk nf? rH awrmoH-0gwGi;f oH;k vywfv;kH ?
"-&Gm? oap 0ao,sKH- tu,faeukeftHh? ({0Howd-odkY
jzpfvaomf?) r,H-wynfah wmfwo
Ykd nf? o&aPok-o&P*Hw
k Ykd ? ywd|m,-wnf? oDvmed- oDvwdu
Yk ?kd *aPS,smr-,lEidk u
f ek &f m\?}} wdodkY? tm[Hok-avQmufukefNyD? awyd-xdk&[ef;wdkYonfvnf;? ]]r,H-wdkY
onf? rmed ukvmed-trsdK;wdkYudk? edm,-rSD? b0ed&PHb0rS xGuaf jrmufaMumif;tusiu
hf ?kd 0g-b0rS vGwaf jrmufatmif? u&dmr-jyKusiu
fh ek t
f ?hH wd-odYk awG;? t"d0gaooH-k rdrw
d \
Ykd txuf
0ifoufwnfaeapukeNf y?D 0g-vufcu
H ek Nf y/D
rEkmwdo
Yk nf? awoHxd&k [ef;wdt
Yk m;? 0g-wd\
Yk ? y#dnH 0efcrH I
udk? 0g-uwdpum;udk? *a[wGm,l? 0d[m&Hausmif;udk? y#dZ*dwGm
okwo
f if&iS ;f vif;? &w|d me'd0g|memednOfh ae&mt&yf aeYae&m
t&yfwu
Ykd ?kd 0g-nOfah e&m aeYae&mwdu
Yk ?kd orma'wGmNy;D pD;ap? t'Hok
ay;vSLukeNf y/D awxd&k [ef;wdo
Yk nf? edA'HtNrJrjywf? war0 *grH
xd&k mG odo
Yk m? yd@m,iSm? y0doEd0ifukef\? txxdktcg? aexdk
&[ef;wdkYodkY? {aumwpfa,mufaom? a0aZmaq;q&monf? OyouFrdwGmcsOf;uyf? ]]baEwdkY A[leHrsm;pGmaomvlwdkY\? 0oe|maeae&mt&yf? tzmokurd emrrcsrf;omjcif;rnfonfvnf;?
(ruse;f rmjcif;rnfonfvnf;)? a[mwdjzpfwwf\? wo xdrk csr;f om
jcif;onf? OyaEjzpfvaomf? r,SH wynfah wmftm;? uax,smxajym
yguke?f aboZH aq;uk?d 0g-aq;ukorIu?kd u&dmrdjyKvyk af y;ygrnf?}}
wdodkY? y0ga&odzdwfMum;NyD/ axa&mr[mygvax&fonf?

28

"ry'bmom#Dum

,ru

0lyem,du'd0ao0guyf&maeY? Oye,wd {wmwd Oyem,daum?


0+Oyem,daum 0lyem,daum(rtlyg&med-1 428)/ aw bduL
wdkYudk? tmraEwGmac:? ykpdar;NyD? (utb,fodkY ar;oenf;)
]]tm0kaomigh&iS w
f ?Ydk rH awrmoH 0gwGi;f oH;k vywfv;kH ? uwd[d
tb,frQavmufuek af om? &d,myax[d&d,mykxw
f jYkd zif?h 0Dw-d
emarxukev
f eG af pMurnfenf;}} wdodaYk r;Ny/D baE&m;
pwl[d 4yg;ukeaf om? (&d,myax[dwdjYk zif?h 0Dwed marmrukef
vGeaf pMuygrnf?) wdodYk avQmufMuukeNf y/D tm0kaomwdYk {wH
odYk &d,mykxf4yg;jzifh ukev
f eG af pjcif;onf? u yetb,fov
Ykd Qi?f
ywdyl H oifah vsmrf nfenf;? tyraw[d rarhravsmo
h w
l o
Ykd nf? b0dwAH
eEkjzpf&monfr[kwfygavm/ [drSef\? r,HwynfhawmfwdkYonf?
"&rmeuoufawmfxif&Sm;&Sdawmfrlaom? Ak'\? oEdum
txHawmfr?S ur|meHud?k *a[wGm? tm*wmvmcJu
h ek Nf y?D Ak'g p
emrbk&m;&SifwdkYrnfonfudkvnf;? yrma'earhavsmhjcif;jzifh? tm&ma"wkH ESpo
f ufapjcif;iSm? e oumrpGr;f Edik ?f a0goifwo
dYk nf? aw
xdkbk&m;&SifwdkYudk? uvsmPZmoa,eaumif;aom tvdkqEjzifh?
tm&ma"wAmESpo
f ufapxdu
k u
f ek \
f / p-qufOK;tH?h yrw emr
arhavsmhaomyk*dKvfrnfolzdkY? 0g-arhavsmholtwGuf? pwma&m4yg;
ukeaf om? tyg,mtyg,fwo
Ykd nf? oua*[o'domrdr\
d tdrEf iS hf
wluek \
f ? tm0kaomwdYk tyrwmrarhravsmo
h w
l o
Ykd nf? a[mx
jzpfMuukeaf vm? wdodY kajymNy/D baE&m; wkarS yet&Sib
f &k m;
&d,myax[d/ / ]]&d,eH y0weH &d,m? &d,m,+yxm &d,myxm}}ESihftnD ukd,ftrlt&mjzpfjcif;\ taMumif;jzpfaom ]]oGm;jcif;
&yfjcif; xkdifjcif; avsmif;jcif;}}wkdYukd ]]&d,mykxf}}[k ac:qkdonf? oGm;-&yfxkid -f avsmif;tcku
d jf zpfaom kyt
f pOftwef;ukd aumuf,&l onf/ (om&w1 203)

0*f

"ry'bmom#Dum

29

wkdYonfum;? utb,fodkY? (0Dwdemarx-ukefvGefapukefrnf


enf;) wdodYkavQmufuek Nf y/D tm0kaomwd?Yk t[Honf? wD[d
(oGm;-&yf-xkid t
f m;jzih)f ok;H rsKd ;ukeaf om? &d,myax[dwdjYk zif?h 0Dw-d
emarmrdukev
f eG af pygrnf? yd| ausmufuek ;f ud?k e yoma&mrd
qefaY wmhrnfr[kw?f wdodaYk jymNy/D baE&m; om"kaumif;yg\?
tyrwmrarhravsmu
h ek o
f nf? a[mxjzpfygukeaf vm? wdodYk
avQmufuek Nf y/D
txxdrk aS emuf? ax&r[mygvax&fonf? ed'H tdyjf cif;od?Yk
taemurEroufa&mufvaomf? yXrrmaoyXrvonf? 0g0gqkdvonf? twduaEvGefvaomf? rZdrrmaorZdrvonf? 0g0gacgifvonf? orawa&mufvaomf? tuda&ma*grsufpda&m*g
onf? OyZd jzpfNy/D qd'C
#awmaygufaom a&td;k rS? O'u"m&m 0d,
a&tvsOfwkdYuJhodkY? tuD[drsufvHk;wdkYrS? tk"m&mrsuf&nftvsOf
wdo
Yk nf? y*&Ed ,dpk ;D uke\
f / aomxkrd [mygvax&fonf? oA&w
tvkH;pkHaom nOfhywfvkH;? 0g-wpfnvkH;? orP"rH&[ef;w&m;ukd?
ed'H taemurE/ / taemurEukd owrD(vuP)teuf,l
ay;cJhonf? ]]yXrrmaoonf? twduaEaomf? rZdrrmaoonf? oraw
aomf? ed'H-tdyfjcif;odkY? taemurE-aom? ax&-\? tuda&ma*gonf? OyZd}}[kvnf; wpfenf;ay;yg? qufOK;tHh-r[mygvax&fonf "kwif\
tpGrf;jzifh avsmif;jcif;&d,mykxfukdom y,fonf? b0ifusvsuf yuwd
tdyfpufjcif;ukd y,fonfr[kwf? xkdaMumihf ed'Ht& avsmif;jcif;&d,mykxfukd
,l&onf? b0ifusvsuf yuwdtdyfpufjcif;ukd r,l&[k "r#D qkd\? okdYaomf
rsufpda&m*g jzpf&onfrSm wu,fukd rtdyfpufjcif;aMumihfom jzpf&um;
b0ifusvsuf yuwdtdyfpufjcif;ukdyg ,loihfonf/
orP"r/H / twaem udpH emr orP"arm? oacFyawm oDvorm"dynm(ax&.|-2 274)? psmeH 0g ra*g 0g zvH 0g orP"arm emr(ygpd
a,m-42)? aum {o baE orP"arm emrmwd? 'Gwomuma& oZm,H

30

"ry'bmom#Dum

,ru

uwGmjyKusi
hf ? tkP*k r aetkPw
f uf&mtcg? *AH tdycf ef;ok?Yd
y0dow
d mG ? edo'D d xkid Nf y/D bduL wko
Yd nf? bdum pm&a0vm,qGr;f
tusdK;iSm vnfv
h nf&mtcsed f ? 0gqGr;f cH<ucsed f ? ax&\? oEu
d H
okdY? *EmoGm;? ]]baE&m; bdumpm&a0vmqGrf;tusdK;iSm vSnfh
vnf&m tcsed yf gwnf;? 0g-qGr;f cH<ucsed yf gwnf;?}} wdok?Yd tm[Hok
avQmufuek Nf y/D tm0kaomwkYd awe [dxdo
k jYdk zpfvQi?f ywp0D &Hoydwf
ouFe;f uk?d *PSx,lMuavm? wdokaYd jymNy/D twaem\? ywpD0&Huk?d *g[maywGm,lap? edur d xGuNf y/D bduL wko
Yd nf? w
xdkr[mygvax&f\? tuD[dwkdYrS? tledrsuf&nfwkdYukd? y*&aE
,kpd ;D aeonfwu
Ydk ?dk 'domG ? ]]baE&m; {wHrsu&f nf,pdk ;D jcif;onf?
ubmaMumhief nf;}} wdok?Yd ykpo
k ar;ukeNf y/D tm0kaomwkYd
ar\? tueD d wku
Yd ?dk 0gwmavwko
Yd nf? 0dZEd xd;k uke\
f ? wdokYd
ua&mr? twbma0 p c,0,H y|ayr r[mOygodauwd("r.|-1 185)/
tzGihfrsm;ukd Munhf orP"r[lonf ]]oDv orm"d ynm psmef r*f
zkdvf aum|mour|mef;ukd GwfqkdESvkH;oGif;jcif; cEmukd,f tjzpftysufukd
Ijcif;}}wkdYwnf;? a&SUem;wGif ]]ur|meH uaxod}}[k qkdcJhojzihf ae&m
aum|mour|mef;ukd &GwfqkdESvkH;oGif;jcif; cEmukd,f tjzpftysufIjcif;udk
orP"rt& ,loifhonf? ]]orPmeH+"arm orP"arm(rtlyged-2 365)}}
[kjyK/
bdumpm&a0vm,/ / bdum, pma&m p&PH {wmwd bdumpma&m-qGrf;tusdK;iSm vSnfhvnfjcif;&Sdaom&[ef;? bdum+p&+P?-0drwd2 113)/ bdum, p&wDwd bdumpma&m-qGrf;tusdK;iSm vSnhfvnfaom
&[ef;(om&w-3 247)/ bdum pm&+a0vm bdum pm&a0vm-qGr;f tusKd ;
iSm vnfhvnfjcif;&Sdaom(vnfhvnfaom) &[ef;\ tcsdef? (wpfenf;) bdum
p&d,wd (p&Ed) {wmwd bdumpma&m(tEk#D-2 181? ygpda,m-525)? p&wd
{wmwd pma&m? bdum,+pma&m bdumpma&m? bdumpma&ma,0+a0vm
bdumpm&a0vm-qGrf;tusdK;iSm vnfhvnf&mtcsdef(oDbm-1 290)/

0*f

"ry'bmom#Dum

31

ajymNy/D baE&m; a0aZeaq;q&monf? y0g&dwm-zdwx


f m;tyfNy;D
ukefonf? trSm eEk-jzpfuek o
f nf r[kwyf gavm? wxkad q;q&m
tm;? uaxrajymqkyd guket
f ?hH wdokY ad vQmufuek Nf y/D tm0kaom
wkYd om"kaumif;Ny?D wdokaYd jymNy/D awxk&d [ef;wko
Yd nf? a0Z
tm;? ux,ok ajymMuukeNf y/D aomxkad q;q&monf? awvHqDu?dk
ypdwmG csu
f ? ayaoodykaYd pNy?D axa&monf? emom,ESmacgif;?
awvHqDu?dk tmoda Emavmif;xnfv
h aomf? (cyfvaomf)? edoEd -
f nfom? ([kwmG aum0xkid v
f suo
f m? (xkid &f if;om)? ]]edoEd a um0-xkid o
)}}[k o'wa y;/ tmodw
d mG avmif;xnfNh y;D ? (cyfNy;D )? taEm*grH
&GmwGi;f ok?Yd yg0dod 0ifNy/D a0aZmonf? wHxkrd [mygvax&fu?dk 'domG
? tm[avQmufNyD? (utb,fokdY avQmufoenf;) ]]baE&m;
t,st&Si\
f ? tueD d wku
Yd ?dk 0gawmonf? 0dZwd ud&xk;d owJq
h ?kd }}
wdokdYar;avQmufNyD/ OygouOygoum tmrtdrf;? wd
okaYd jymNy/D baE&m; r,mwynfah wmfonf? awvHuk?d ypdwmG
? ayodwH ykaYd ptyfygNy?D a0gt&Sib
f &k m;wko
Yd nf? emom,? awvH
ukd? tmodwHoGef;avmif;tyfNyDavm? wdokdY ar;NyD/ Oygou
um tmrtdrf;? wdokdY ajymNyD/ 'ged,cktcg? uD'doH
tb,fuo
hJ Ydk Ityfoenf; 0g-b,fvakd eoenf; wdokY d ar;Ny/D
Oygouum kZaw0emusifonfomwnf;? wdokdY ajymNyD/
a0aZmonf? ]]r,migonf? {u0ga&ae0wpfBurd w
f nf;jzifo
Y mvQi?f
0lyoreorwH Nird ;f apjcif; pGr;f Edik af om? awvHuk?d y[dwH ykaYd ptyfNy?D
utb,faMumif?Y a&ma*gonf? e 0lyoaEm Ek acgrNird ;f oenf;?}}
wdokdY? pdaEwGmawG;? ]]baE&m; a0gt&Sifbk&m;wkdYonf?
edo'D w
d mG xkid
f ? awvHqDu?dk tmodwH avmif;xnft
h yfygoavm?
trSm/ / to+r? rukrd jS yK? "mwGeo
f u
f adk cs ]]trS}}[k &So
d ifah omfvnf;
&GwfvG,fapjcif;iSm 'DCjyK ]]trSm}}[k &Sd&onf/

32

"ry'bmom#Dum

,ru

edyZw
d mG avsmif;? (awvHuk?d tmodwH avm)}} wdok?Yd ykpd
ar;Ny/D axa&monf? wkPDS qdwq
f w
d ?f ta[modjzpfNy?D ykeyKeH xyf?
ykp,
d rmaemydar;tyfygaomfvnf;? e uaxodrajym/ aomxkad q;
q&monf? ]]0d[m&Hok?Yd *Em? ax&\? 0oe|meHae&mt&yfu?dk
MoavmaumrdMunfhthH}} wdokdY? pdaEwGmMuH? ]]baE&m;
awe [dxkdokdYjzpfvQif? *px<uawmfrlygukef?}} wdokdYajym?
ax&Huk?d 0daZwmG jyefvw
T
f ? 0d[m&Hok?Yd *Em? ax&\?
0oe|meHuk?d MoavmauaEmMunfv
h aomf? puFreedo'D e|mear0
pBuoGm;&mt&yf xkdif&mt&yfukdom? 'doGm? o,e|meHtdyf&m
t&yfukd? t'doGmrjrifrl? ]]baE&m; a0gwkdYonf? edodaE[d
xkid u
f ek v
f su?f tmodwH avmif;xnft
h yfoavm edyaE[d avsmif;
ukev
f su?f (tmodwH tyfoavm)}} wdok?Yd ykpd Ny/D axa&monf?
wkPDS qdw?f ta[modNy/D ]]baE&m;? {0Hok?Yd rm u&dw rjyKygukeEf iS ?hf
orP"arm emr&[ef;w&m;rnfonfu?dk o&D&H uk,
d u
f ?dk ,mayaEe
&SnfaomumvodkY a&mufapolonf? (rQwapolonf)? 0g-apvsuf?
umwkHjyKusifhjcif;iSm? oumpGrf;Ekdifyg\? edyZdwGmavsmif;? tmodx
avmif;xnfyh guke?f }} wdok?Yd ykeyKe-H xyf? ,mpdawmif;yefNy/D
]]tm0kaom'g,um wGHoifonf? wm0a&S;OK;pGm? *poGm;avm?
(wpfenf;) wm0 *p-oGm;OK;avm? raEwmG wkid yf ifNy;D vaomf? Zmedmrdod&vdrfhrnf?}} wdokdYajym? a0ZHukd? Oa,smaZod
jyefvw
T Nf y/D p-qufOK;th?H wwxk&d mG ? ax&\? wDaqGrsK;d wkYd
onf? ae0 (twd)r&Sdukef? omavm[dwmaoG;om;awmfpyfolwkdY
onf? e twd r&Su
d ek ?f auetb,foEl iS ?hf o' twl? raE,swkid yf if
&mtHeh nf;? yetajzum;? u&Zuma,eokwaf oG;aMumifh jzpfaom
cEmudk,fESifh? o'twl? raEaEmwkdifyifonf? (a[mwd-jzpf\? utb,fodkY wdkifyifoenf;) ]]tm0kaom ygvdwigh&Sif ygvtrnf&Sd

0*f

"ry'bmom#Dum

33

aom cEmudk,f wm0a&S;OK;pGm? 0a'[dajymprf;avm? wGHonf?


tueD d rsuv
f ;kH wku
Yd ?dk Moavmauod uMunfrh nfavm O'g[k
okdYr[kwf? Ak'omoeHbk&m;&Sif\ omoemawmfukd? (Moavmauod uavm) [dtajzum;? 0g-tMuifaMumihf? terw*ood
tyfaom tptydik ;f tjcm;r&Sad om? 0g-rodtyfaom tptydik ;f tjcm;
&Sad om? oHom&0aoHo&m0#f? w0oif\? tuu
d mPrsupf d
uef;ol\tjzpf\? 0g-rsufpduef;jcif;\? *Pem emrta&twGuf
rnfonf? ewd r&S?d yeonfomruao;? taeumedwpfyg;ru rsm;
pGmukefaom? Ak'owmedbk&m;t&mwkdYonfvnf;aumif;? Ak'o[medbk&m;taxmifwo
Ydk nfvnf;aumif;? twDwmedvGeo
f mG ;ukeNf y/D
awoifonf? awokxkdbk&m;&SifwkdYwGif? {uAka'gydwpfqlaom
bk&m;&Siu
f v
dk nf;? e y&dpad PmrjyKpk rvkyaf uR;tyf? 'ged? rH
taEm0Hrd;k wGi;f ? taEm0H emarwEd bkra w Oya,m0peH(ygpd
Yd wfv;Hk ? e edyZ
d mrdrtdyaf wmh
a,m-485)}} wa,m rmaook;H vwky
terw*o/ / terw*udk ]]tnmw*}}[kzGihfaom rlv#Dum-18
twkdif;ay;cJhonf? ]]e+trw+t*}}[k yk'fcJG? ]]rnawwd rawm? rawma,0
trawm? (to'g waAm)? trawm+ta*g trwa*g? ewd+trwa*g
,mwd terwa*g-odtyfaomtptykdif;tjcm;r&Sdaom? (wpfenf;) e+
trawm? terawm+ta*g ,mwd terwa*g-rodtyfaom tptykdif;
tjcm;&Sdaom}}[kjyK/
wpfenf;/ / ]]tEk+trw+t*}}[kyk'fcJG? ]]e+rawm trawm? trawm+ta*g ,mwd trwa*g? tEk*Em (tEk tEk)+trwa*g terwa*g}}[kjyK? ]]terw*o- ESp&f maxmifavSmuf Pfjzifah vQmufvnf; razmuf
rjyef {uefodtyfaom tptydkif;tjcm;r&Sdaom? 0g-ESpf&maxmifavSmuf
PfjzifhavQmufvnf; razmufrjyef {uefrodtyfaom tptydkif;tjcm;
&Sdaom}}[k ay;/ (oH.|-2 145? oH.#D-2 150? om&w-1 218? eDbm. 163? yg&m.bm 1-401)

34

"ry'bmom#Dum

,ru

tH?h wdokt
Yd "d|mef? awrmoHok;H vywfv;Hk ? edA'0&D ,
d H pJNG raJ om
0D&d,ukd? 0g-tNrJrjywf BudK;pm;tm;xkwfrIukd? u&dmrdjyKawmhtHh?
womxkdaMumihf? (xkdokdYjyKjcif;aMumifh)? awoif\? puLedwkdYonf?
eEK 0gysufpD;rlvnf; ysufpD;ygapukef? bdZEK 0gaygufuGJrlvnf;
aygufuGJygapukef? Ak'omoear0jrwfpGmbk&m;\ omoemawmf
uko
d m? "ma&[daqmifavm? puLedwdu
Yk ?dk rm "ma&[draqmifEiS ?hf }}
wdokw
Yd idk yf ifNy?D blwum,Hr[mbkwf4yg;rDaS om cEmuk,
d u
f ?dk
blwum,Ed pwkr[mblweddwH cEyuH?-"r#D/ Mo0'aEmqHk;r
vko
d nf? ([kwmG -?) rm *gxma,m*gxmwku
Yd ?dk tbmod&Gwf
qkNd y/D (u-tb,fo&Ykd w
G q
f o
kd enf;) puLed ?ay? yrZow
D -d puLed ?ay?
yrZod[l? tbmod-NyD/
puLed [m,EK rrm,dwmed aomwmed [m,EK wax0 uma,m?
oAr'd H [m,wk a'[edw
d H uu
m&Pm ygvw
d wGH yrZo/d
rrm,dwmed- ighOpm[k jyKtyfukefaom? 0g- jrwfEkd;tyfukefaom?
]]rm puLeD}}wd / / wdwpfv;kH tausBu?H okrYd [kwf odavoenf;
tm0kwdenf;paom enf;t& wdukd 2cgay;? ]]u&Zuma,e ye o'
raEaEm}}onf ]]aue o' raE,s}}[laom tar;ykpm 0gus\ tajzjy 0doZem0gus? ]]0a'[d ?ay? rm puLed}}onf ]]u&Zuma,e ye o' raEaEm}}\
wkid yf ifyu
Hk jdk yaom tmum&0gus-[k ,l ay;onf/
Mo0'aEm/ / t0+0'+tE? tEypnf;onf tem*wfumv umrwukd xGef;jy\? xkdaMumihf ]]Mo0'aEm-qkH;rvkdonfjzpf? (Bud,maooe
teuf)? 0g-qkH;rvkdonf\ tjzpfaMumihf? ([dwfteuf)? 0g-qkH;rvkdaom?
(axa&m-onf?) (wkvsm"du&P0daooeteuf)? 0g-Mo0'aEm-qkH;rvkdv
aomf? (vuPteuf)}}[k teuf4rsdK; ay;Ekdifonf? txuf ]]uwm;vGefwkdY
pyfapzkdY&m yk'fryg [kwGmxnfhavrif;}}ESihftnD uwm;vGef,l ay;cJhonf/
em*wfumv rmeE xGe;f jyumrwm/ umrwrmS Bu,
d m0doo
d f aMumih[
f w
d -f
0dao vuaP xGef;av av;twm?-a&T-534-5/

0*f

"ry'bmom#Dum

35

puLed- rsupf w
d o
Ydk nf? [m,EK- ,kwaf vsmrh v
l nf; ,kwaf vsmyh gapuke?f
aomwmed-em;wkdYonf? [m,EK- ukef? uma,m- wpfukd,fvkH;onf?
wax0- xkdYtwlyif? ([m,wk-,kwfavsmhrlvnf; ,kwfavsmhygap?)
a'[eddwH- ukd,frSDaom? 'H oArd- tvkH;pkHonfaomfvnf;?
[m,wk-ap? ygvdw-ygvtrnfSdaom cEmukd,f u um&Pmtb,ftaMumif;aMumif?h wG-H oifonf? yrZo-d arhavsmb
h o
d enf;/
ygavm+t twDwd ygvdawm? ygv+w? emrnfu ygvwnf;?
ygvdwr[kwf? xkdaMumihf ]]ygvdw-ygvdw}}[k ray;&/

puLed ZD&EK rrm,dwmed aomwmed ZD&EK wax0 uma,m?


oArd'H ZD&wk a'[eddwH u um&Pm ygvdw wGH yrZod/
rrm,dwmed- ukefaom? puLed-wdkYonf? ZD&EK- aqG;ajrhrlvnf;
aqG;ajrhygapukef? aomwmed- wkdYonf? ZD&EK- ukef? uma,m- onf?
wax0- yif? (ZD&wk- aqG;ajrhrlvnf; aqG;ajrhygap?) a'[eddwHaom? 'H oAr-d aomfvnf;? ZD&wk- ap? ygvdw- uk,
d f u um&PmaMumifh? wGH- onf? yrZod- enf;/ |-3/
puLed bdZEK rrm,dwmed aomwmed bdZEK wax0 uma,m?
oArd'H bdZwk a'[eddwH u um&Pm ygvdw wGH yrZod/
rrm,dwmed-ukefaom? puLed-wdkYonf? bdZEK- ysufpD;rlvnf;
ysufpD;ygapukef? aomwmed-wkdYonf? bdZEK-ukef? uma,m-onf?
wax0- yif? (bdZw
-k ysupf ;D rlvnf; ysupf ;D ygap?) a'[edw
d -H aom?
'H oAr-d aomfvnf;? bdZw
-k ap? ygvdw-uk,
d f u um&Pm-aMumif?h
wG-H onf? yrZo-d enf;/
{0HokdYvQif? wD[d3yk'fukefaom? *gxm[dwkdYjzifh? twaem
rdrt
d m;? Mo0g'Htqk;H truk?d 'wGmay;Ny;D ? edoEd a um0xkid v
f suf
omvQif? ewKurHESmESwfrIukd? uwGmjyK? *grHokdY? yd@m,iSm?
yg0dod Ny/D a0aZmonf? wHr[mygvax&fu?dk 'domG ? ]]baE&m;

36

"ry'bmom#Dum

,ru

ewKurHukd? uwH ujyKtyfNyDavm}} wdokdY? ykpdNyD/ Oygou


um tmrtdr;f ? wdokaYd jymNy/D baE&m; uD'o
d H tb,fuo
hJ Y kd
Ityfygao;oenf;(b,fvkdaeygao;oenf;) wdokdYar;NyD/
Oygouum kZa w0 emusio
f nfom? wdokaYd jymNy/D baE
&m; a0gt&Sib
f &k m;wko
Yd nf? edo'D w
d mG ? ewKurH uk?d uwHjyKtyfyg
oavm edyZdwGm? (uwHavm)? wdokdYar;NyD/ axa&m
onf? wkPDSqdwfqdwf? ta[modNyD? ykeyKeHxyf? ykpd,rmaemyd
ar;tyfygaomfvnf;? udd bmudrk Q? e uaxodrajym/ txxkt
d cg?
eHxkdrax&fukd? a0aZmonf? ]]baE&m;? wkarSwkdYonf? oyg,H
avsmufywfonfu?kd e ua&mxrjyKuek ?f tZawm,aeYr?S y|m,
p? ]tokauernfaom aq;q&monf? arighzkdY? 0g-twGuf?
awvHukd? yuHcsuftyfNyD?} wdokdY? rm 0'dwrajymygukefESifh?
t[rd wynfah wmfonfvnf;? ]r,monf? a0gt&Sib
f &k m;wkzYd ?Ydk 0gtwGu?f awvHuk?d yuH Ny?D } wdok?Yd e 0umrdrajymyg?}} wdok?Yd
tm[avQmufNy/D aomxkrd [mygvax&fonf? 0g-ud?k a0aZeonf?
ypumawmy,fpGefYtyfonf? ([kwGm-?) 0d[m&HokdY? *Em? ]]wGH
onf? 0gukd? a0aZemydonfvnf;? ypumawmy,fpGefYtyfonf?
tod\? orP&[ef; &d,myxHukd? rm 0dZdrpGefYvGwfESifh?}}
wdokq
Yd ;kH rNy/D
y#dudawm wdudpm, a0aZemyd 0d0Zdawm?
ed,awm rpK&mZ u ygvdw yrZod/
(r,myd-igonfvnf;? a0aZm-aq;q&mud?k ) wdupd m ,- aq;
ukjcif;rS? y#duad wm- y,fjrpftyfNy?D a0aZemyd- aq;q&monfvnf;?
(t[H-ighukd? wdudpm,-rS?) 0d0Zdawm-aSmifMuOftyfNyD? rpK&mZaorif;\? 0g-aorif;onf? ed,awm-tNrJowfrSwftyfolwnf;?
]]aovlwnf;}}[lvkd/ (wpfenf;) rpK&mZ- aorif;tvdkYiSm? 0g-

0*f

"ry'bmom#Dum

37

aorif;zkdY? ed,awm-NrJ\? ]]aozkdY aocsm\}}[lvkd/ ygvdw-ukd,f u tb,faMumifh? wGH-onf? yrZod-enf;/


wdodkY? rm, *gxm,*gxmjzifh? twmeHrdrdudk,fukd?
Mo0'dwmG qk;H rNy;D ? orP"rH &[ef;w&m;uk?d tumodjyKNy/D tx
xkdrSaemuf? rZdr,marrZdr,mrfonf? 0g-oef;acgif,mrfonf?
twdua EvGev
f aomf? tykAH a&S;vnf;rus? tp&drH aemufvnf;rus?
(wpfenf;) tykAH tp&drHra&S;raESmif;? (wpfcsdefwnf;)? txkd
r[mygvax&f\? tuDed ap0wkdYonfvnf;aumif;? udavom p
udavomwko
Yd nfvnf;aumif;? bZo
k ysupf ;D ukeNf y?D (aygufuu
JG ek Nf y)D /
aomxkdr[mygvax&fonf? oku0dyaumoku0dyujzpf
aom? 0g-psmeftap;rpyfojzihf ajcmufuyfaom 0dyem&Sdaom?
t&[m&[Emonf? [kwmG ? *AH tdycf ef;ok?Yd y0dow
d mG 0if? edo'D d
xdik Nf y/D
bduL wko
Yd nf? bdum pm&a0vm,qGr;f tusKd ;iSm vSnv
hf nf&m
tcsdef? 0g-qGrf;cH<ucsdef? tm*Emvm? ]]baE&m; bdumpm&umavmqGr;f tusKd ;iSm vSnv
hf nf&m tcsed yf gwnf;? 0g-qGr;f cH<u
csed yf gwnf;?}} wdok?Yd tm[Hok avQmufuek Nf y/D tm0kaomigh&iS w
f Ydk
umavmqGr;f cHcsed af vm wdokaYd r;Ny/D baE&m; tmrrSeyf g?
wdokaYd vQmufuek Nf y/D awe [dxdo
k jYkd zpfvQi?f *px<uMuavm?
oku0dyaum/ / a, ye cPduorm"draw XwGm 0dyeH y|aywGm t"d*wt*r*g? aw tm'dawm tE&E&m p orm"daZe psmea*Fe
0dyemAE&H y#doEmemeH tbm0g okum 0dyem {awoEd oku0dyem emr(ax&.|-2 545)/ twkdif; ay;cJhonf/ ]]orxbm0emodae[mbma0e okum vlcg toded'g 0dyem {awoEd oku0dyum
('D#D-2 117? om&w-45)}}[laom tzGifhtvkd ]]oku0dyaum-orx
tap;"mwf r,SOfpyfojzihf ajcmufuyfaom 0dyem&Sdaom}}[k ay;/ oku
0dyemyk'faemif ormoEuypnf;ouf? e-ukdacs/ (yg&mbm-1 58)

38

"ry'bmom#Dum

,ru

wdokYd rdeNYf y/D baE&m; wkarS yewko


Yd nfum;? utb,foyYdk g
enf; wdokaYd r;ukeNf y/D tm0kaomwkYd ar\? tueD d wko
Yd nf?
y&d[eD med,kwaf vsmu
h ek Nf y?D wdodaYk jymNy/D awxk&d [ef;wko
Yd nf?
wxkdr[mygvax&f\? tuDedwkdYukd? MoavmauwGmMunfh?
tkyP
k a ewmrsu&f nfwjYdk zihf jynfah om rsuv
f ;kH &Su
d ek o
f nf? [kwmG
? ]]baE&m; rm pdE,dwawmifawmif rMuHpnfygukefESifh?
([k[
d 'dk 'D D rawG;ygukeEf iS )hf ? r,Hwko
Yd nf? a0gwkt
Yd m;? y#dZ*
d mrjyK
pkvyk af uR;uket
f ?hH }} wdok?Yd ax&Huk?d ormaowGmoufom&m
&ap? 0g-ESpo
f rd t
hf m;ay;? uwA,
w
k u
H jyKxu
dk o
f nf\tjzpfEiS hf
,SOaf om? (jyKoifjh yKxu
dk af om)? 0wy#d0wH 0wfBu;D 0wfi,fu?dk uwGm
? *grHok?Yd yd@m,iSm? y0doo
k ukeNf y/D rEkmwko
Yd nf? ax&Huk?d
t'domG rjrif? ]]baEwkYd trSmuHwk\
Yd ? ta,smt&Sio
f nf? uk[
tb,frmS ygenf;}} wdok?Yd ykpw
d mG ? wH y0w xkjd zpfyu
Hk ?dk okwmG
? ,m*kH ,m*ku?dk ayaowGmykaYd p? o,Huk,
d w
f idk ?f yd@ygwHqGr;f
uk?d tm'g,,l? *Em? ax&Huk?d 0Ew
d mG &Scd ;dk ? yg'rlavajc&if;?
y&d0wrmemvl;vSdrfhukefvsuf? a&m'dwGmikd? ]]baE&m; r,HwkdY
onf? a0gwkt
Yd m;? y#dZ*
d mryguket
f ?hH wkarSwko
Yd nf? rm pdE,
w
d
ukefESifh?}} wdokdY? ormaowGm? yurokzJoGm;ukefNyD/
wawmxkdtcgrS? y|m,p? edA'HtNrJrjywf? ,m*kbwH
,m*k qGrf;ukd? 0d[m&ar0ausmif;okdYomvQif? ayaoEdykdYapukef\?
axa&mydonfvnf;? wa&tjcm;ukefaom? o|dajcmufq,f
aom? bduL wku
Yd ?dk ed&E&H tNrrJ jywf? Mo0'wdqk;H r\? awxk&d [ef;
wko
Yd nf? wxkrd [mygvax&f\? Mo0ga'tqk;H tr? XwGm- wnf
? y0g&Pm,y0g&PmaeYonf? Oyu|m,eD;uyfvaomf? oaA0
tvkH;pkHaom &[ef;wkdYonfyif? y#dord'g[dy#dord'gav;yg;wkdYESifh?
y#dord'g[d/ / y#d 0dokH 0dokH ordZEd {wm[Dwd y#dord'g-toD;toD;

0*f

"ry'bmom#Dum

39

o[wuG? t&[wH t&[wzv


dk o
f ?Ydk ygykPo
k a&mufuek Nf y/D p ye
qufOK;tHh? awxkd&[ef;wkdYonf? 0k|0mrkd;vywfvkH; aeNyD;ukef
onf? 0g0guRwNf y;D ukeo
f nf? (ormem-jzpfuek v
f aomf?) owm&Huk?d
'|Kumrmzl;jrifjcif;iSm tvk&d u
dS ek o
f nf? [kwmG ? ax&Huk?d tm[Hok
ukefNyD? (utb,foYkd avQmufukefoenf;) ]]baE&m; owm&H
uk?d '|Kumrmukeo
f nf? trSjzpfuek \
f ?}} wd-okYd avQmufuek Nf y/D
axa&monf? awoHxdk&[ef;wdkY\? 0peHukd? okwGm? pdaEod
pOf;pm;Ny?D (u-enf;) ]]t[Honf? 'kAa vmtm;r&S?d tE&mra* p
vrf;c&D;\ tMum;vnf;? trEky&d*[
w
d mbDv;l wko
Yd nf odr;f yku
d f
tyfaom? t#0Dawmtkyfonf? twd\? r,digonf? {aw[d
&[ef;wkEYd iS ?Yf o' twl? *paEoGm;vaomf? oaAtvk;H pkaH om &[ef;
wko
Yd nf? udvrdEd yifyef;Muvdrrhf nf? bdur d qGr;f ukv
d nf;? vbdwHk
&jcif;iSm? e oud
Ed pGr;f Ekid Mf uvdrrhf nfr[kw?f ar&[ef;wku
Yd ?dk
yka&w&ar0-a&S;OK;pGmomvQi?f ayaomrdapvTwt
f ?hH }} wd
okdY pOf;pm;NyD/ txxdkrSaemuf? aexkd&[ef;wkdYukd? tm[NyD? (uenf;) ]]tm0kaomwk?Yd wkarSwdo
Yk nf? yk&awma&SU? 0g-u? *px
oGm;Muukef?}} wdodkYajymNyD/ baE&m; wkarS yet&Sifbk&m;wkdY
onfum;? (u-tb,fokdYygenf;) wdodkY ar;ukefNyD/ t[Honf? 'kAa vm-tm;r&S?d tE&mra* p-vnf;? trEky&d*[
w
d mcJGjcm;pdwfjzm odaMumif;Pfynmrsm;(oarmbm-3 112)? y#dordEED (y#dordZ E )D wd y#dord' g-toD;toD; cJjG cm;wwf (cJjG cm; odwwfaom) Pfynm
rsm;(yg&mbm-1 149? l-370)? y#dord'gPfonf (1) twy#dord'gtusdK;w&m;wkdYukd cJGjcm;pdwfjzm odEkdifaomPf (2) "ry#dord'g-taMumif;
w&m;wkdYukd cJGjcm;pdwfjzm odEkdifaomPf (3) edkwdy#dord'g-rSefuefaom
o'gwkdYukd cJGjcm;pdwfjzm odEkdifaomPf (4) y#dbmey#dord'g-]]tw "r
edkwd}}[laom a&SUPf 3rsdK;ukd cJGjcm;pdwfjzm odEkdifaomPftm;jzihf 4yg;
&Sdonf/ (tbd0d-307? y#doH-2 85-8? tbd.|-2 370? y#doH.|-1 3)

40

"ry'bmom#Dum

,ru

aom? t#0D-onf? twd-\? r,d-onf? wkarS[d-wkdYESihf? o'-twl?


*paE-aomf? oaAukeaf om? (wkarSwdo
Yk nf?) udvrdx-Muvdrrhf nf?
wkarSwko
Yd nf? yk&awm? 0gu? *pxuke?f wdodYk rdeNYf y/D baE
{0Hok?Yd rm u&dw rjyKMuESi?hf r,Hwko
Yd nf? wkarS[d t&Sib
f &k m;wkEYd iS ?hf
o'a ,0twlomvQi?f *rdmroGm;Muygrnf? wdodYk avQmuf
MuNy/D ]]tm0kaomwkYd a0gwkt
Yd m;? {0HokYd oGm;jcif;onf? rm kpw
d
rESpo
f ufEiS ?hf {0H oaEokjYd zpfvaomf? r,SH tm;? 0g-\? tzmokuH
rcsr;f omjcif;onf? b0dwdvdrrhf nf? r,SH \? ueda|m yenDonf
um;? wkarSt&Sib
f &k m;wku
Yd ?dk 'domG ? ykp
d wdar;vdrrhf nf? tx
xdo
k aYkd r;&mtcg? txkn
d t
D m;? rr\? puLeHwk\
Yd ? y&d[eD bm0H
,kwaf vsmu
h ek o
f nf\tjzpfu?dk tma&map,smxajymjyvku
d Mf uavm?
aomxkn
d o
D nf? r,SH \? oEu
d H txHo?Ydk ud wpfpw
Hk pfa,mufu?dk
y[dP
d wd {0apvTwv
f rd rhf nfom? awexkad pvTwt
f yfoEl iS ?hf o'-
twl? tm*p
d mrdvmcJv
h rd rhf nf? wkarSwko
Yd nf? rr\? 0paeepum;
jzif?h 'oAvjrwfpmG bk&m;ukv
d nf;aumif;? toDwrd [maxa& p
&Spu
f syd af om r[max&fwu
Ydk v
dk nf;aumif;? 0Ex&Scd ;dk Muavm?}} wd
okaYd jym? awxk&d [ef;wku
Yd ?dk Oa,smaZodapvTwNf y/D
awxk&d [ef;wko
Yd nf? ax&Huk?d crmaywGmonf;cHap? 0g-uef
awmhawmif;yef? taEm*grH&GmwGi;f ok?Yd y0doo
k 0ifuek Nf y/D rEkm
wko
Yd nf? awxk&d [ef;wku
Yd ?dk 'domG ? edo'D gaywGmxkid af p? bduH
qGr;f uk?d 'wGmvSL? ]]baEwkYd t,smeHt&Sib
f &k m;wd\
Yk ? *remuma&mc&D;oGm;rnfh tjcif;t&monf? 0g-c&D;oGm;jcif;\ taMumif;onf?
kpdw/ / kp+,+tZweD tm0dbwf? tmukd w-jyK? ]]a0g-wdo
Yk nf? {0HodkY? rm kpdw-ukefESifh}}[kay;jcif;rSm o'gusrf;ESihf rnDyg? ESihf tvm;wl
]]u om"k e kpw
?d rm,oEm erd oHCaba'g kpw
d } }ponfudk Munfv
h Qif
a0gonf or'gefom jzpfxu
dk \
f ? uwm;rjzpfxu
dk /f

0*f

"ry'bmom#Dum

41

ynm,wd uxif&Sm;ygoavm? 0g-ay:vmygoavm?}} wdokY d


ar;avQmufuek Nf y/D OygoumwkYd tmrtdr;f ? owm&Huk?d '|Kumrm
zl;jrifjcif;iSm tvd&k u
dS ek o
f nf? trSjzpfuek \
f ? wdokY d ajymukeNf y/D
awxkv
d w
l o
Ydk nf? ykeyKeH xyf? ,mpdwmG awmif;yefvaomf? awoH
xk&d [ef;wk\
Yd ? *reqEar0oGm;jcif; tvkq
d Euo
dk m? 0g-oGm;vkjd cif;
uko
d m? wGmod? tEk*EmtpOfvu
dk
f ? y&da'0dwmG ikad <u;? ed0wokjyefMuukefNyD/ awydxkd&[ef;wkdYonfvnf;? tEkykaAetpOf
tm;jzifY? aZw0eHaZw0efausmif;okdY? *Ema&muf? owm&ukd
vnf;aumif;? toDwdr[maxa& pwkdYukdvnf;aumif;? ax&
\? 0paeepum;jzifY? 0EdwGm? yke'd0aoaemufwpfaeY? ,w
tMuifvrf;? ax&\? ueda|mnDonf? 0owdae\? wH 0Dx
xkv
d rf;od?Yk yd@m,iSm? y0doo
k 0ifuek Nf y/D uk#Krad umol<u,fonf?
awxkd&[ef;wkdYukd? omedwGmaumif;pGmod? 0grSwfrd? edoD'gaywGmxdik af p? uwy#doEma&mjyKtyfNy;D aom y#doEm&&So
d nf?
0g-avmuGwfysLiSm EIwfqufpum;ajymMum;rI jyKNyD;onf? (ormaemaomf?) ]]baEwdYk ar\? bmwduawa&maemifawmfjzpfaom ax&f
onf? uk[ tb,frmS ygenf;}} wdok?Yd ykpd ar;Ny/D txxdo
k aYkd r;&m
tcg? txko
d <l u,ftm;? awxk&d [ef;wko
Yd nf? wH y0w xdjk zpf
yku
H ?dk tma&mapokH ajymjyukeNf y/D aomxko
d <l u,fonf? wHxkjd zpfyu
Hk ?dk
okwmG 0Mum;&omvQi?f (Mum;vQiMf um;csi;f )? awoHxk&d [ef;wk\
Yd ?
yg'rlavajc&if;? y&d0awaEmvl;vSrd v
hf su?f a&m'dwmG id
k ? ykpd Ny?D
(u-enf;) ]]baEwdYk 'ged,cktcg? ubmuk?d umwAH jyKxu
dk yf g
oenf;}} wdokdYar;NyD/ axa&monf? awmt&yfrS?
updwpfpw
Hk pfa,muf\? tm*reHvmjcif;uk?d ypmoDowdvkv
d m;
ae\? 0g-arQmv
f ifah e\? wxko
d \
l ? *wumava&muf&mtcg?
ypmoDowd/ /ywd+tm+odod (odo)+t+wd? tma&S;&Sdojzihf odod

42

"ry'bmom#Dum

,ru

awexko
d El iS ?hf o' twl? tm*rdwd<uvmvdrrhf nf? wdokdY
ajymukeNf y/D baEwdYk t,Holonf? ar\? bm*daea,smwljzpf
aom? ygvdawm emrygvdwrnfolygwnf;? {wHygvdwudk? ayaoxapvTwaf wmfrMl uyg? 0g-ckid ;f awmfrMl uyg? wdokaYd vQmufNy/D
{0Hok?Yd ayaowkH apvTwjf cif;iSm? 0g-ckid ;f jcif;iSm? e oumrpGr;f Edik ?f
ra*vrf;? y&dyaEmab;&efonf? tw-d \? wHxkyd gvdwud?k yAmaZwGm&Sijf zpfap? 0g-&Sijf yKay;? ayaowk-H iSm? 0wdoif\
h ? wd
okdYajymukefNyD/ baEwdkY {0HodkY? uwGm- ayaox-ukef? wd
okYdavQmufNy/D txxdrk aS emuf? eHxkyd gvdwuk?d yAmaZwGmap?
trmorwHwpfvxuf0uf wpfq,fhig;&ufrQywfvkH;? ywpD0&*[Pm'Ded oydwu
f ikd yf kH ouFe;f ukid yf kH tp&So
d nfwu
Ydk ?dk odum aywGm
oifap? r*H vrf;uk?d tmpduw
d mG ajymjy? y[dPo
k apvTwu
f ek Nf y/D
aomxdkudk&ifygvdwonf? tEkykaAetpOftm;jzifh? wH *grH
xd&k mG od?Yk ywGma&muf? *gr'Gga&&GmwHcg;? {uHwpfa,mufaom?
r[vuH vlBu;D ud?k 'domG jrif? ]]rH *grHud?k edm,rS
D ? aumpd
wpfpHkwpfckaom? tm&naumawmjzpfaom? 0d[ma&mausmif;
onf? twd &Syd goavm}} wdod?Yk ykpd Ny/D baE&m; twd &Syd g\?
wdodaYk vQmufNy/D aum emrtb,frnfaomax&fonf? ww
xdak usmif;? 0owdaeygoenf; wdodaYk r;Ny/D baE ygvdwawa&m emrygvtrnf&Sdaom ax&frnfolonf? 0g-ygvdwax&f
rnfolonf? 0owd\? wdodkYavQmufNyD/ artm;? r*Hudk?
tmpdux
ajymjyyguke?f wdodaYk jymNy/D baE&m; wGH t&Sib
f &k m;
onf? aumtb,foo
l nf? todjzpfygoenf; wdodYk ar;Ny/D
ax&\? bm*daea,smwlonf? trSd jzpfyg\? wdodYk ajymNy/D
(odo)"mwfonf pmteufukd a[m\? od 'DCjyK(eDw"d mwk-183? "mwGw) ?
ed'D-434 oDo"mwf[k qkd\? xkdtvkd 'DCjyKzG,frvkd/

0*f

"ry'bmom#Dum

43

tx? eHxdu
k &kd ifygvdwud?k *a[wGmac:,l? 0d[m&Hausmif;od?Yk
aeodykdYaqmifNyD/ aomxdkudk&ifygvdwonf? ax&Hudk? 0EdwGm?
trmorwH ywfv;kH ? 0wy#d0wH 0wfBu;D 0wfi,fu?kd uwGm-? ax&H
ud?k ormaumif;pGm? y#dZ*w
d mG ? ]]baE ar\? rmwkvuk#Krad um
OK;av;jzpfaom ol<u,fonf? wkrSmuHt&Sifbk&m;wdkY\? tm*reH
<uvmjcif;ud?k ypmoDowdvkv
d m;aeyg\? 0g-arQmv
f ifah eyg\? {x
<uygukef? *pmroGm;MuygukefpdkY?}} wdodkY? tm[avQmufNyD? awe
[dxko
d jYdk zpfvQi?f ar\? rH ,|daum#awmifa0S;tpGe;f (tzsm;)
udk? *PSm[dqJGudkifavm? wdodkYajymNyD/ aomxdkudk&ifygvdw
onf? ,|daum#ud?k *a[wGmudik
f ? axa&eESi?hf o'? taEm*grH
&GmwGif;odkY? yg0dodNyD/ rEkmwdkYonf? ax&Hudk? edoD'gaywGmxdkif
ap? ]]baE a0gwd\
Yk ? *remuma&monf? ynm,wd uavm}}
wdod?Yk ykpo
k ukeNf y/D OygoumwdYk tmrtdr;f ? *Em? owm&H?
0EdmrdtHh? wdodkYrdefYNyD/ awxdkvlwdkYonf? emeyuma&e
trsKd ;rsKd ;tjym;jym;aom pum;jzif?h ,mpdwmG awmif;yef? tvbEm
r&ukev
f aomf? ax&Hud?k Oa,smaZwGmapvTw
f ? OyyxHxuf0uf
aomc&D;od?Yk 0g-c&D;w0ufo?Ykd *Emvdu
k o
f mG ;? a&m'dwmG -? ed0wo
k
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axa&eonf? Oyedm,rSD? 0k|ykAHa&S; aecJh&mjzpfaom? 0g
a&S; aecJzh ;l jcif;&Sad om? (aecJzh ;l aom)? u|e*&H emru|e*&rnfaom?
*grHodkY? ormykPdaumif;pGm a&mufNyD? aomxkdudk&ifygvdwonf?
*grawm&GmrS? edurdwGmxGuf? 0g-aomf? t&anawm? *DwH
oDcsi;f ud?k *g,dwmG oDq
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d a'g 0d,rde;f r\

44

"ry'bmom#Dum

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toHuJhodkY? yk&domeHwdkY\? ouvo&D&HtvHk;pHkaom udk,fudk? 0g


wpfu,
kd v
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y&d,m'g,/ / y&d+tm+'g+wGm? ]]xuf0ef;usif+ykdif;jcm;um+,l}}
[laom teufonf o'w ]]ukefcef;ap}}[laom teufonf a0g[m&w
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'H Ob,rd 0wd/ Oyw p ed0g&,rmear0 pwkblrurd ukovpdwH
*PSmwd ap0 acaywd pmwd a0'dwAH?-tH.|-1 15/

0*f

"ry'bmom#Dum

45

? ,|daum#ud?k 0daZwmG vTw


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jzpfygaomfvnf;? uddbmudkrQ? e uaxodrajym/ txxdktcg?
eHxkdudk&ifukd? axa&monf? tm[-NyD? (u-enf;) ]]wm'daoexdk
oifuJhoYkd Ityfaom? ygaye-,kwfrmolonf? *[Ppyf? rr\?
,|daum#d*[PudpHawmifa0S;pGef;ukd qJGukdifjcif;udponf? ewd?}}
wdajymNyD/ aomxkdudk&ifonf? oHa0*yawmxdwfvefYjcif;okdY
a&mufonf? ([kwmG )? umom,medouFe;f wku
Yd ?dk 0g-ouFe;f 0wfenf;
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onf? Zmawmjzpfonf? trdSjzpfyg\? ponfomruao;? oGm[H

46

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,ru

(aom+t[H)xkdwynfhawmfonf? yAZaEmyd&SifjyKcJhaomfvnf;?
o'g,o'gw&m;aMumifh? 0g-uH uHtusdK;ESifh &wem3yg;*kPfukd ,kH
Munf? yAZdawm&SifjyKcJhonf? e trSd-r[kwfyg? r*y&dyEba,e
vrf;c&D; ab;&efrS aMumufjcif;aMumifh? yAZdawmcJhonf? trSd-\?
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*d[yd gaygydvl,w
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uvsmPHaumif;rIu?dk u&dodjyKEidk v
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onfvnf;? tEmuef;ukef\? ty&dPm,uma&SUaqmifvrf;jyr&Sd
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tm,jyK? aemufenf;tvkd oH+"m+wGm? wGmukd ,jyK? r'g oa& ]]r'g}}[laom
a,m*0dbm*jzihf ed*[dwfukd 'jyK(l#D-28? 0daAm-27)/ (wpfenf;) ed*[dwfudk
w0*EejyK? (oEm)? 0Zm'D[d yAZm'a,mjzifh eudk 'jyK(l-409)/ (wpfenf;)
0Zm 'D[dokwfjzifh oH"mudk o'gjyK(Esmo-638? 0daAm-25)? (wpfenf;) 0*EH
0g 0a*okwf 0go'gjzifh ed*[dwfudk 'jyK(Esmo-638? 0daAm-25)/ o'g,mwd
o'gedrdwH? o'g,mwd 0g urzvmed &wew,*kP o'[dwGm?-ax&.|1 475/

0*f

"ry'bmom#Dum

47

ydaoaomfvnf;aumif;? ty&my&Htjcm;aomt&yf tjcm;aom


t&yfokdY? 0g-wajymif;jyefjyef? y&d0wEmydvl;vSdrfhae&aomfvnf;
aumif;? w,moifEiS ?hf o'? *reH emroGm;jcif;rnfonf? ew?d }} (wpf
enf;) a"0-yif? edyZ w
d mG -? r&Emyd-ao&onfvnf;jzpfaom? ty&my&H-rS? y&d0wE-onfvnf;jzpfaom? ar-\? w,m o'? *reH emr ewd}}

wdokdY? 0wGmrdefY? ]][Em[H ?ay? o[m,wm}}wd[lukefaom?


rm *gxmwdkYukd? tbmod&GwfqkdNyD/
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(yuwdrsufpd)om csdKUwJhonf? ynmrsufpdcsdKUwJhjcif; r[kwf[k jyonf? ]][wmed
+puKed {wmwd [wpuK}}[kjyK/ (ax&.|-1 249)
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t,erS ,acs?-"mef#D-193/ uEma&m p+aom+t'geH pmwd uEm&'geH}}

48

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to-d jzpf\? (wxmyd- xko


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'kwd,yg'onf um&P0guswnf;/ ("r.|-1 296)

0*f

"ry'bmom#Dum

49

wxmxdt
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y@Ko'g teDa&mifa[m(r"k-23? rPd'Dy-1 151)? "mef? "mef#D-96tvkd

50

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,ru

Xmemwnfae&mrS? pma0wkumarm Ek acga&GUavsmapjcif;iSm tvd&k dS


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wlaom ausmufjzm? o'doukad cs? y@Kurvodvm {0+tmoeH y@KurvodvmoeH}}[kjyKawmfrl\/ (eDbm-1 11)

0*f

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51

oifNy?D ygy*&[D- ,kwrf molwu


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(tH.|-3 105)? "rH *&wd rmaewDwd "r*k(oarma,m-270)? "r*ka,0
"r*kaum? t,H ygavm-onf? omoae-omoemawmf? &awm-

arGUavsmfonf? ([kwGm) edodaEm-aeNyD/


txxdt
k cg? txdo
k Md um;\? {wHtMuo
H nf? ta[modNyD? (u-enf;) ]]t[Higonf? {0lyokdY oabm&Sdaom?
ygy*&[daem,kwrf molukd uJ&h UJ wwfaom? "r*kuavmukw& m
w&m;[laom tav;jyKzG,f&Sdaom? 0g-w&m;ukd av;pm;jrwfEkd;aom?
t,st&Si\
f ? oEu
d H txHo?Ykd oap e *rdmrdtu,f roGm;
tH?h ({0H owdodYk roGm;onf&adS omf?) ar\? rk'g OK;xdyo
f nf? ow"mckepfpdwf ckepfjzm? zav,suGJ&m\? wxdkt&Sif\? oEduH
odkY? *rdmrdtHh?}} wdokdYtMuHjzpfNyD/ wawmxdkrSaemuf?
o[aeawm a'0daEm a'0&Zo&d Ed a &m?
wcFaPe tm*Eme puKygvrkyg*rd/
o[aeawm-aom? a'0&Zod&dEa&m- ewfjynf\ toa&
ukd aqmifaom? a'0daEm-onf? wcFaPe-xkdcPjzifh? 0g-wpfcP
csif;jzifh? wm'daom+caPm wcFaPm? ]]wcaPm}}[k qkdvkdvsuf ed*[dwf

52

"ry'bmom#Dum

,ru

vm?-ucFgr[m#D-2 216/ tm*Eme-vm? puKygvH-puKygvax&fo?Ydk

(uG,af omrsupf &d adS om ygvtrnf&adS omax&fo)Ydk ? Oyg*rd- csO;f uyfNy/D


p yequfOK;tHh? Oy*EmcsOf;uyfNyD;? ax&\? t0d'la&
teD;? y'o'H ajcoHu?kd tumodjyKNy/D txxkt
d cg? eHxdo
k Md um;
udk? axa&monf? ykpd? (u)? ]]{aomolonf? aumtb,fol
enf;}} wd-NyD/ baE t[Honf? t'daumc&D;oGm;ygwnf;? 0gc&D;onfygwnf;? wdodaYk vQmufNy/D Oygouum uk[ tb,f
t&yfodkY? ,modoGm;rnfenf; wd-ar;NyD/ baE om0wd,HodkY?
,mrdoGm;ygrnf? wdodaYk vQmufNy/D tm0kaom'g,um ,m[d
oGm;avm? wdodkYajymNyD/ baE ta,sm yet&Sifbk&m;onf
um;? uk[odkY? *rdwd<urnfenf; wdodkY ar;avQmufNyD/
t[rd onfvnf;? waw0xdo
k m0wNd rKd Uodo
Yk m? *rdmrdoGm;rnf?
puKygvH/ / e|puKbEd p uKy&d[eD puKtEpuK t to 0g 0dZw
w
D d
puK? ygvH ygvemrH emrurH ocFg ornm a0g[ma&m yPwd t to
0g 0dZwDwd ygavm? puK p+aom+ygavm pmwd puKygavm?-"r#D/ q&mwkdY
um; ]]puKem+Oyvuda wm+ygavm puKygavm-uG,af omrsupf jd zihf rSwt
f yf
aom ygvax&f}}[k MuHawmfrl\/
p ye/ / ed,Hrsm;tvkd p\teufukd 0gusm&r ye\teufukd 0daoo
,l ]]p ye-quftxl; jyqkdOK;tHh}}[k ay;(*rD&w-1 203)? q&mwkdYum;
p ye2yk'v
f ;Hk 0gusm&r,l txuftwkid ;f ay;awmfro
l nf/ p ye[k wuGwuf
&m p-eufrSmquf ye-euf xl;csuf"dym,fpJG(a&T-41)/
t'daum/ / t'geH+*pwDwd t'daum(oDbm-4 24? ygpdwfbm-2
12)? aemuf ]]'ook yknud&d,0wLok {uH vbdmrd}}[laom pum;ukd
axmuf odMum;rif;onf ukd,fjzifh jyKtyfaom a0,sm0pukokdvfudk vkdvm;
jcif;aMumihf ]]wynfhawmf odMum;rif;ygbk&m;}}[k ravQmufbJ ]]wynfhawmf
c&D;oGm;ygbk&m;}}[k avQmufonf? xkad Mumihf odMum;rif;rSm rkom;rjzpf? tzk;d tkd
a,mifzefqif; t&Sifr[muytm; qGrf;vSL&muJhokdY rSwf&rnf("r#D)/

0*f

"ry'bmom#Dum

53

wdodkYrdefYNyD/ baE awe [dvQif? {uawm0wpfaygif;wnf;


om? 0g-twlwlom? *pmroGm;MuygpdkY? wdodkYavQmufNyD/ tm0kaomum t[Honf? 'kAa vmtm;r&S?d r,mESi?hf o'? *pE

oGm;aom? w0oif\? wpfenf;- w0-onf? r,m o' *pE-aomf?
yyamMumjrifhjcif;onf? b0dwdjzpfvdrfhrnf? wdodkYrdefYNyD/
r,SH\? tpm,duH taqmwvsif jzpfaptyfaom udponf? 0gtvsifpvdk jyKzG,fonf? ewd? t[rdonfvnf;? ta,seESifh? o'?
*paEmvaomf? 'ook10yg;ukeaf om? yknBu,
d 0wLokyknBu,
d
0wKww
Ykd iG ?f {uHwpfyg;ud?k vbdmrd&vdrrhf nf? baE {uawm0om? *pmr-ukefpkdY? wdodkYavQmufNyD/ axa&monf? ]]{aom
olonf? oyK&daomolawmfaumif;onf? b0dwdvdrfhrnf?}}
wdod?Yk pdaEwmG awG;? ]]awe [dvQi?f o' *rdmrd-rnf? Oygou-um ,|daum#-ukd? *PSqGJukdifavm?}} wdodkY? tm[NyD/
oaumonf? wxmxkdajymonfhtwdkif;? uwGm? yx0ajrudk?
ocyaEmcsKH;vsuf? 0gIHUvsuf? om,ESora,naecsrf;tcg?
aZw0eHaZw0efausmif;odkY? ormayodaumif;pGm a&mufapNyD/
axa&monf? ocFyP0g'do'Hckoif; xufpnftp&SdonfwdkY\
toHudk? okwGm- ]]{aomtoHonf? uwtb,ft&yf? 0gb,fu? oa'gtoHenf;}} wd ykpd/ baE om0wd,H? 0g-u?
tpm,du/H / tm,dwAH y0awwAEd tm,du?H +Ps? um&dwaf us?
udk {jyK {ukd tm,jyK vm ,ukd ujyK? oDCH+tm,duH tpm,duH?
twd+tm,du?twdo'g oDCteufa[m(oDbm-3 147? oD#o
D pf-2130)/
yknBud,0wLok/ / uwAmwd ud&d,m? yknH p+wH+ud&d,m pmwd
yknud&d,m-jyKxkdufaom aumif;rI? yknud&d,m pm+om+0wK pmwd yknud&,
d 0wK-xkx
d t
dk usKd ;wk\
Yd wnf&mtaMumif;jzpfaom jyKxu
dk af omaumif;rI/
-tbd.|-1 201? eDbm-2 433/

54

"ry'bmom#Dum

,ru

(oa'gtoHygwnf;?) wdodaYk vQmufNy/D r,Hwdo


Yk nf? ykaAa&S;
? *reumavoGm;&mtcg? pda&eMumjrifrh ?S *rdrmS a&mufcu
hJ ek Nf y?D
wdodkYrdefYNyD/ baE t[Honf? OZkr*Hajzmifhaom vrf;udk?
Zmemrdodyg\? wdodaYk vQmufNy/D wo caPxdck P? axa&m
onf? ]]t,Holonf? rEkamonf? e-r[kw?f a'0wmewfonf?
b0dwdjzpfvrd rhf nf?}} wdod?Yk ovauod aumif;pGmowfrw
S f
Ny?D 0g-rSwcf sucf sNy/D
o[aeawm a'0daEm a'0&Zo&d Ed a &m?
ocydwGme wH r*H cdyH om0wdrm*rd/
o[aeawm-aom? a'0&Zo&d Ed a &m-aom? a'0daEm- onf?
wH r*-H xkv
d rf;uk?d ocyw
d mG e-csK;H ? 0g- IUH ? cdy-H vsijf refpmG ? om0w-
om0wNd rKd Uok?Yd tm*rd-a&mufNy/D
wdodkY? aomxdkodMum;onf? ax&Hudk? aewGmyifhaqmif?
ax&a0\omvQi?f twm, tusKd ;iSm? ued|uk#Krad uenDjzpf
aom ol<u,fonf? um&dwHaqmufvkyfaptyfaom? yPomvH
opf&u
G rf ;dk ausmif;od?Yk aewGmydaYk qmif? zvautif;ysOf ? 0gxdik cf kH
? edo'D gaywGmxdik af p? yd,o[m,u0aPecspt
f yfaom oli,f
csi;f \ toGijf zif?h wxdo
k <l u,f\? oEu
d -H txHo?Ydk *Em-? ]]or
plVygvrdwaf qG plVygv}} wdod?Yk yaumodac:Ny/D ]]orrdwaf qG
ubmvJ}} wdodYk ar;Ny/D ]]ax&\? tm*wbm0Ha&muf
vmonf\ tjzpfudk? Zmemododoavm}} wdodkY ar;NyD/ e
Zmemrdrodyg? axa&monf? tm*awm u ye-a&mufvmNyaD vm
yPomvH/ / yPmed+q'emed a,oEd yPp'em? yPp'em+omvm
yPomvm-opf&Gufrkd;&Sdaomausmif;? ]]yPp'eomvm}}[k qkdvkdvsuf q'e
ukd acs(tbd.|-1 37? ty.|-1 9)/ (wpfenf;) yaP[d+qm'dwm+omvm
yPomvm-opf&GufwkdYjzihf rkd;tyfaomausmif;(ty.|-2 36? Ak'0H.|-97)/

0*f

"ry'bmom#Dum

55

wdodaYk r;Ny/D ]]orrdwaf qG tmrtdr;f ? 'ged-,cktcg? t[Honf? 0d[m&H-ausmif;okdY? *Em-? ax&Hudk? w,monf? um&dwyPomvm,aqmufvyk af ptyfaom opf&u
G rf ;dk ausmif;? edoEd u
H
xdkifaeonfudk? 'doGm? tm*awmvmcJhonf? trSd\?}} wdodkY?
0wGmajym? yumrdzJoGm;NyD/ uk#Krdaumydonfvnf;? 0d[m&H-okdY?
*Em-? ax&H -uk?d 'domG -? yg'rlavajc&if;? y&d0waEmvl;vSrd hf
vsu?f a&m'dwmG ? ]]baE t[H-onf? 'HtaMumif;ud?k 'domG ?
wkrmS uHwdt
Yk m;? yAZw
d kH &Si&f [ef;jyKjcif;iSm? 0g&Si&f [ef;jyKciG u
hf ?kd em'go (e+t'go)ray;cJh?}} wdtm'DedodkYtp&Sdaom pum;wdkYudk?
0wGm-? a'GESpaf ,mufuek af om? 'go'g&auuRejf zpfaom uav;wdYk
ud?k bkZad uRerf [kwo
f w
l u
Ykd ?kd uwGm-? ax&-\? oEad u-?
yAmaZwGm&Sijf zpfap? ]]taEm*grawm&GmwGi;f rS? ,m*kbwm'Ded
,m*k qGrf;tp&SdonfwdkYudk? tm[&dwGmaqmif,l? ax&Hudk? Oy|[xjyKpv
k yk af uR;Muavm?}} wdodaYk jym? y#d,ma'odpDpOfNy/D
omraP&mudk&ifwdkYonf? 0wy#d0wH0wfBuD; 0wfi,fudk? uwGm?
ax&Hud?k Oy|[ok jyKpv
k yk af uR;ukeNf y/D
txxdt
k cg? {u'd0oHwpfaeY? 'dom0godaemxdx
k kd t&yfwYkd
aeukefaom? 'domok 0oEd oDavemwd 'dom0godaem?-"r.|*H-44/
bkZda/ / {odwAmwd m? o+Ps? bkZm 0d,+m bkZdm-rdrdvufwkdYuJhokdY apckdif;tyf apckdif;EkdifolwkdY('D#D-1 259)? wpfenf;pdwaAmwd am? ok+Ps? bkaZm+am {wmwd bkZdmtvkd&Sdxkdufaom (rdrdtvkd&Sdovkd okH;Ekdifaom) vuf&SdolwkdY(r#D-2 235)/
bkaZm+{awoH twDwd bkZdm-udk,hfukd,fukd apmifha&SmufEkdif pm;EkdifzkdY&ef
vuf&SdolwkdY? bkZ+udef?-ygpda,m-242? axmr/ "mef#D-516um; bkZ
"mwf ygveteuf taZm[m&teuf oypnf;? oa'Gabmfvm[k qkd\?
]]bkEd ygavEd taZm[&Ed 0gwd bkZdm-udk,hfukd,fukd apmifha&SmufEkdif
udk,fhbmom pm;EkdifolwkdY}}[kMuH/

56

"ry'bmom#Dum

,ru

bduLwdkYonf? ]]owm&Hudk? ydmrzl;Murnf?}} wdodkYMuH


? aZw0eHod?Yk tm*Em-? wxm*wHud?k 0Ew
d mG -aumif;? toDw-d
r[maxa&wdu
Yk ?kd 0Ew
d mG pvnf;aumif;? 0d[m&pm&duH ausmif;
wdkY vSnfhvnfjcif;ukd? (ausmif;pOfvSnfhvnfjcif;udk)? 0g-jzihf? p&Em
vSnfhvnfukefvaomf? puKygvaw&\? 0oe|meHae&mt&yf
od?Yk ywGma&muf? ]]'rd ae&mudv
k nf;? ydmrMunfMh upd?Yk }}
wdodaYk jym? om,Hnaecsr;f tcg? wHxdak e&mod?Yk tbdrck g
a&S;Iukefonf? ta[oHkjzpfukefNyD/ wo caPxdktcsdef? r[maraCmBu;D pGmaomrd;k onf? O|[dwufvmNy/D awxd&k [ef;wdo
Yk nf?
]]'ged-? twdom,aESmtvGen
f aeapmif;oGm;Ny?D 0grd;k csKyo
f mG ;Ny?D
araCm prd;k onfvnf;? O|dawmwufvmNy?D ygawm0eHeufapmapm
omvQi?f *Em-oGm;? ydmr-Mupk?Yd wdodaYk jym? ed0wo
-k
jyefuek Nf y/D a'a0grd;k onf? yXr,mrHyXr,mrfywfv;kH ? 0dwmG &Gm
oGe;f ? rZrd ,marrZrd ,mrf? 0d*awmuif;Ny?D 0g-wdwNf y/D axa&m
onf? tm&'0&D ad ,mtm;xkwt
f yfaom 0D&,
d &So
d nf? ([kwmG )? tmpdPp uFraemavhusit
hf yfNy;D aom pBuo
mG ; jcif;&S\
d ? 0g-pBua vQmuf
avh&Sd\? womaMumifh? ypdr,maraemufqHk;,mrf? 0g-rdk;aomuf
,mrf? puFreHpBuavQmuf&m t&yfodkY? Mow&doufa&mufNyD/ pqufOK;thH? w'gxdktcg? e00k|m,&GmNyD;aomrkd;\ tpom&Sdao;
aom? 0g-rd;k &GmNy;D cgpjzpfaom? t0Dwd 0ka|m? ea0g+0k| {wdmwd
e00k|m? (wpfenf;) 0eH 0k|H? e0H+0k|H {wdmwd e00k|m-rMumjrifhao;
0d[m&pm&du/H / p&PH pm&dum? p&+Ps? vm ,ukd ujyK? (wpf
enf;) p&PH pma&m? pma&m {0 pm&dum? pm&+u? 0d[ma&ok+pm&dum
0d[m&pm&dum? 0d[m&pm&duHESihf p&Emukd tab'ab'lypm& (uHESihf Bud,m
t&ruJGbJ cJGqkdaom) pum;[k ,l a&SUenf; uHteufay;onf? aemuf
enf;um; Bud,m0daooeteufwnf;(oD#Dopf-2 202? oDbm-3 280)?
]]0d[m&pm&duH-iSm}}[k or'gefteufvnf; ay;Mu\/(rtlyg&med-3 182)

0*f

"ry'bmom#Dum

57

aom &GmoGef;jcif;&Sdaomajr/ blr,


d majr? A[lrsm;pGmukeaf om? E-

a*gyumewforD;uGr;f aoG;aumifwo
Ykd nf? 0g-yk;d uwyD gaumifwo
Ydk nf?
aEm a*gayg &uaum a,oH 0m b0wmwd Ea*gyum?-axmr?
0d"mef/ O|[ok ay:xGuv
f mukeNf y/D awxdek wforD;uGr;f aoG;aumif

wko
dY nf? axa&onf? puFraEpBua vQmufvaomf? a,bka,sersm;
aomtm;jzif?h 0dyZo
k aoaMuysupf ;D ukeNf y?D taE0godumteD;aewynfh
wdo
Yk nf? ax&\? puFre|meHpBua vQmuf&mt&yfu?dk umva0apmapmyif? e orZo
k wHjrufrvSn;f rdMuuke/f wa&tjcm;
ukeaf om? bduL wdo
Yk nf? ]]ax&\? 0oe|meH-ok?Yd yd-mrMunhfMupkdY?}} wdodkYajym? tm*Emvmvaomf? puFrae?
rwygPauaoaeaom yd;k aumifi,fwu
Ykd ?kd 'domG ? ]]aumtb,f
olonf? ro t&yf? puFrwdpBua vQmufoenf;}} wdod?Yk
ykpo
-k ar;ukeNf y/D baEwkYd trSmuHwd\
Yk ? OyZma,monf? (puFrwd\?) wdodYk avQmufuek Nf y/D awxd&k [ef;wdo
Yk nf? OZm,ok uJh
&JUukeNf y?D (u-enf;) ]]tm0kaomwd?Yk orP&[ef;\? urH trIu?dk
(vkyyf u
Hk )kd ? yxMunfMh uavm? opuKuumavrsupf t
d jrif&o
dS \
l
tcg? 0g-rsufpdjrif&mtcg? oH0dZwd+puK {wmwd opuKaum?
opuKu+umavm opuKuumavm?-rtlyged-4 677/ edyZdwGm
avsmif;? ed'g ,aEmtdyv
f su?f udd bmudrk Q? tuwGmrl? 'ged
? puK0u
d vumavcsKd UwJah omrsupf &d o
dS \
l tcg? 0g-rsupf t
d jrif
ysupf ;D csKd UwJ&h m tcg? ]puFrmrdpBua vQmuf\? 0g-tH?h } wdodYk Mu
H ?
(taMumif;jy)? {waurQtwkid ;f t&Sn&f u
dS ek af om? ygPauyd;k
aumifi,fwu
Ykd ?kd rma&odaoapNy?D (aoatmif vkyrf Nd y)D ? ]twH tusK;d
pD;yGm;ud?k u&dmrdjyKt?hH } wdodMYk u
H ? (MuaH omfvnf;)? tewH
tusK;d pD;yGm;rJu
h ?kd ua&mwdjyKae\? (jyKrad e\)}} wd-okYd uJ&h UJ ukeNf y/D
tx acgxdt
k cg? awxd&k [ef;wdo
Yk nf? *Em-? wxm*w

58

"ry'bmom#Dum

,ru

tm;? tma&mapoHkavQmufukefNyD? (u)? ]]baE puKygvawa&m


onf? ]puFrmrd\? 0g-tHh} wdodkY MuH? (taMumif;jy)? A[lukefaom? ygPau-wkdYukd? rma&od-NyD?}} wd-odkYavQmufukefNyD/
wkarS[d wdo
Yk nf? aomxdpk uKygvud?k rma&aEmaoaponfu?kd 'da|m
u yejriftyfygoavm wdodaYk r;awmfrNl y/D baE e 'da|m
rjriftyfyg? wdodaYk vQmufuek Nf y/D wkarSwdo
Yk nf? wHxdpk uKygv
ax&fudk? e yx ,ax0rjrifukefouJhodkY? wax0xdkYtwlyif?
aomydxdpk uKygvax&fonfvnf;? aw ygaPxdyk ;kd aumifwu
Ykd ?kd e
ywdrjrif&/ bdua 0wdYk cDPmo0geHukeNf y;D aomtmoa0g&Sad om
&[EmwdkY\? 0g-rSm? r&Papwem emraojcif; apwemrnfonf?
0gaoapvdkaom apwemrnfonf? ewd? wdodkY rdefYawmfrlNyD/
baE t&[wt&[wzv
kd \
f ? Oyeda,tm;Bu;D aom rS&D m
taMumif;onf? owd&Syd gvsu?f uomaMumif?h taEmrsupf u
d ef;ol
onf? Zmawmjzpf&ygoenf; wdodYk ar;avQmufuek Nf y/D bdua 0
wdkY twaemrdrd\? 0gonf? uwur0aoejyKtyfcJhaom uH\
tpGrf;aMumifh? (taEm-onf? ZmawmNyD?) wdodkY rdefYawmfrlNyD/
baE awexdpk uKygvax&fonf? utb,ftukov
dk u
f u
H ?kd uwH
jyKtyfcyhJ goenf; wdodYk ar;avQmufuek Nf y/D bdua 0wdYk awe
[dvQif? okPmxem;axmifMuavm/
twDawvGeaf vNy;D aomtcg? Am&mPod,-H Am&mPoDNrKd U?
r&Papwem / / {ua'olypm& OyvuPenf;tm;jzihf &[EmrSm
aoapvkdaom apwem r&Sd[k rdefYawmfrlonf? aomwmyefpaom atmufzv
|mefyk*dKvfrsm;rSmvnf; aoapvkdaomapwem r&Sdyg/("r#D)
Am&mPod,/H / Am&mPom,+t0d'la& b0g Am&mPoD-Am&Pm
jrpf\ teD; &SdaomNrdKU? Am&mPom+P+? um; y#doH.|-2 214tvkd
wnf;/

0*f

"ry'bmom#Dum

59

ty.|-2 242/ / xkd [dr0EmrS &aohyapuAk'wkdYonf 12yg; tkyfpk


zJGUum *Erm'eawmifrS aumif;uifc&D;jzifh <ua&mufoufqif;&m jzpfaom
aMumihf ]]Am&mPoD}}ac:onf[k qkd\? xkdtvkd ]]Am&o+oa,m {w
*pEd Mow&Ed y0doEDwd Am&mPoD-12yg;aom od(&aohyapuAk')wkdY
<ua&mufoufqif;&mNrdKU}}[kjyK? Am&o+od+? & 'DCjyK oukd PjyK
ukd acs/ okdYr[kwf ]]Am&o+oa,m Am&mPoD? Am&mPoD {w *pEd
Mow&Ed y0doEDwd Am&mPoD? Am&mPod+P+?}}[k ormo*Aw'dwf
0dN*dK[fjyK/
wpfenf;/ / odef;aygif;rsm;pGmaom bk&m;&SifwkdY\ "rpMumw&m;a[m
awmfrl&ef oufqif;&mjzpfaomaMumifh Am&mPoDac:aMumif; ty.|-2
242 yif wpfenf;qkd\? enf; ]]ormorK'ocFgwmeH taeuowo[meH Mow&|meH}}[k zGihf&m ]]ormorK'ocFgwmeH}}jzihf odt&ukd
jyonf? ]]taeuowo[meH}}jzihf A[kv\y&d,m,fukd jyonf[k ,l
]]A[kvm+oa,m {w *pEd Mow&Ed y0doEDwd Am&mPoD-rsm;pGmukef
aom bk&m;&SifwkdY\ ("rpMumw&m;a[mawmfrl&ef) oufqif;&mNrdKU? A[kv+
od+? A 'DC [ukd & Oukdtm vukd PjyK? ukd acs}}[kMuH/ okdYr[kwf
]]A[kvm+oa,m Am&mPoD? Am&mPoD {w *pEd Mow&Ed y0doEd
Am&mPoDeH 0g Mow&|meEd Am&mPoD? Am&mPod+P+?}}[k ormo
*Aw'dwf0dN*dK[fjyK/
"mef#D-200/ / 0ge&oDoH wHoPmaem 0g ygomaPm {w twDwd
Am&mPoD-arsmufacgif;&Sd&mNrdKU? 0g-arsmufOK;acgif;oPmefausmuf&Sd&mNrdKU?
0ge&oDo+P+? 0udk AjyK eESihf& a&SUaemufjyef & 'DCjyK eukd PjyK
o-ukd acs/
Zm#Dopf/ / a'G &mZmaem &PEd {wmwd Am&mPoD-rif;2yg;wdkY ppfwkduf
&mNrdKU? 'Gd+&P+o+? 'Gdukd AmjyK & 'DCjyK/
axmr/ / xkd 0&Pmjrpf toDjrpf\ teD; &SdaomaMumihf Am&mPoD
rnfaMumif;ukd qkd\? ]]0&Pm p+toD p 0&PoD? 0&Pod,m+t0d'la&
b0g Am&mPoD-0&Pmjrpf toDjrpfteD; wnf&SdaomNrdKU}}[kjyK 0&PoD+
P? 0ukdAjyK/

60

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,ru

umod&anumodrif;onf? &ZH rif;\tjzpfu?kd (rif;\jzpfaMumif;jzpf


&m bk&ifajrm ufrpI onfu)dk ? (r[mZaee-rsm;pGmaom vltaygif;ud?k )
uma&aEjyKapvaomf? {aumaom? a0aZmonf? *gred*arok&Gm
ed*;Hk wdYk ? p&dwmG vSnv
hf nf? a0Zur-H aq;q&m\tvkyu
f ?kd 0g-aq;
ukorIu?kd a0Z+urH a0ZurH?-rtlyged-4 213/ ua&maEmaomf?
{uHaom? puK'Ak v
H tm;enf;aom rsupf &d adS om? 0grsupf t
d m;enf;
aom? (rsupf rd aGJ om)? w rde;f rud?k 'domG ? ykp?d (u)? ]]awoiftm;?
utb,foaYkd om? tzmokuH ruse;f rmjcif;onf? (a[mwd-enf;)}}
wd (ykp)d / tu[
D d wdjYk zif?h e ymrdrjrif&yg? wdodaYk jymNy/D
awoifzh ?Ykd 0g-twGu?f aboZH aq;ud?k u&dmrdjyKay;rnf? (azmfpyf
ay;rnf)? wdodYk ajymNy/D omrdt&Sif ua&m[djyKay;ygavm?
wdodaYk jymNy/D artm;? ubmud?k 'oday;rnfenf; wd
odaYk r;Ny/D aruRerf \? tueD d wdu
Yk ?kd yguwdumedyifu,
kd t
f m;jzihf
jzpfonfwu
Ydk ?dk 0g-e*kt
d wkid ;f jzpfonfwu
Ykd ?kd yuwd,m+OyEm ed yguwdumed&Z/H / txuf eDw"d mwk-388twkid ;f ay;onf? ]]&anm+bma0g
&ZH? &mZ+Ps?-oD#Dopf-2 233}}[kjyK? uma&aEum; u&"mwf um&dwfaP
ypnf; tEypnf;jzihfNyD;aom um&dwfkyfwnf;/
arm*f? arm*fy-H 303/ / xkt
d vkd ]]&ZH rif;\ trIupd u
?kd 0g-tkycf sKyrf u
I ?kd
uma&aEjyKvaomf}}[k ay;? ]]&anm+urH &ZH(axmr? r[mbm-2 454)}}
[kjyK? uma&aEum; a&SUenf;uJhokdY um&dwfkyfr[kwf? ok'kyfwnf;? u&"mwf
pk&m'dawm aP P,m ]]aP P,m}}[laom a,m*0dbm*jzihf aPypn;f
ouf? xkad emif wem'dMoypn;f ouf tEypn;f ouf? uGp"d mwkjzifh Moypn;f ukd
acs/ (arm*fed-2 172? upfbm-2 405)
arm*fyH#D-237 / / xkdtvkd ]]&ZH-rif;\Opmjzpfaom t*Fg7vD pHknDcHh
cdkif EdkifiHawmfudk? uma&aE-jzpfapvaomf}}[kay;? ]]&anm+'H &ZH(0drwd1 35? ygpda,m-61)}}[kjyK? u&"mwf y0we (jzpfjcif;)teufukd a[m\/

0*f

"ry'bmom#Dum

61

rtlyged-2 367/ umwHk iSm? oap ou


d odtu,f pGr;f Edik t
f ?hH

({0HowdodpYk rG ;f Edik o
f nf&adS omf?) t[HuRerf onf? ykw" w
D m[dom;
orD;wdEYk iS ?hf o' twl? awoif\? 'goDuRerf onf? b0dmrdtH?h
wdodaYk jymNy/D aomxdak q;q&monf? ]]om"kaumif;Ny?D }} wd
odYk ajym? aboZH aq;ud?k oH0'd [dpDraH zmfpyfNy?D {uaboaZae0wpfrsKd ;wnf;aom aq;jzifo
h mvQi?f 0g-aq;wpfzw
kH nf;jzifo
h mvQi?f
tueD d wdo
Yk nf? yguwdumedukeo
f nf? ta[oHk jzpfuek Nf y/D om
xdrk ed ;f ronf? pdaEod BuNH y?D (u)? ]]t[Higonf? oykw" w
D mom; orD;
wdEYk iS hf wuGjzpfonf? ([kwmG )? {waq;q&mtm;? 0g-\? a&SUenf;
y#dZmepyf? aemufenf; 'goDpyf? 'goDuRerf onf? b0dmrdtH?h wd
ok?Yd y#dZme0efccH NhJ y?D yeodaYk omfvnf;? rHighu?kd oaPSeodraf rGUaom?
ormpma&eaumif;pGmjyKusijhf cif;jzif?h e acg ork'gp&dwd-jyKusihf
vdrrhf nfr[kw?f 0g-ajymqkq
d ufqv
H rd rhf nfr[kw?f eHxdak q;q&mud?k
0amrdvSnphf m;tH?h }} wd-odMYk uNH y/D omxkrd ed ;f ronf? 0gud?k
a0aZeonf? tm*Emvm? ]]ba'ESr uD'o
d H tb,fuo
hJ Ykd Ityf
oenf;}} wdod?Yk yk|mar;tyfonf? (ormemaomf?) ]]ykaAa&S;?
ar\? tueD d wdo
Yk nf? axmuHtenf;i,f? kZo
k emusiu
f ek Nf y?D 'ged
ye,cktcgum;? twda&uw&Hom vGeu
f pJ mG ? kZE d emusiu
f ek f
\?}} wd-odkY? tm[/ a0aZmonf? ]]t,Hrdef;ronf? rHudk?
0awmG vSnphf m;? udd bmudrk Q? t'gwkumrmay;jcif;iSm tvdrk &S?d
artm;? {wm,rde;f ronf? 'dEm ,ay;tyfaom? bwd,mtzd;k
tcjzif?h e tawmtusK;d r&S?d wpfenf;-ar-onf? {wm,-onf? 'dEm ,aom? bwd,m-ud?k e tawm-tvdrk &St
d yf? 'gae0yif? 0g-,ckcsucf si;f
yif? eHxdrk ed ;f rud?k tEH uef;onfu?kd 0guef;atmif? u&dmrdjyK
awmht?hH }} wd pdaEwmG ? a*[Htdro
f ?Ykd *Em? b&d,m,r,m;tm;?
{wrwH taMumif;ud?k tmpdud ajymjyNy/D omxdrk ,m;onf? wkPDS

62

"ry'bmom#Dum

,ru

ta[mod/ aomxdak q;q&monf? {uHwpfrsdK;aom? aboZHudk?


a,maZwGm,SOfap? 0gazmfpyf? wmxdkrdef;r\? oEduHodkY?
*Em? ]]ba't&Sirf rH aboZH aq;ud?k ta[d vdr;f avm?}}
wdodkYajym? tmayodvdrf;apNyD/ txxdktcg? tm
xdkrdef;r\? a'G2vHk;ukefaom? tuDedrsufvHk;wdkYonf? 'Dyodcg 0d,
rD;awmufwdkYuJhodkY? 'Dy 'Day 0g odcg 'Dyodcg?-"r*H-9/ 0dZm,ok
Nidrf;ukefNyD/ puKygavmonf? aom a0aZmxdkaq;q&monf?
ta[modjzpfNy/D
bdua0wdkY w'gxdktcg? rrigbk&m;\? ykaweom;awmf
jzpfaom puKygvonf? uwurH jyKtyfcahJ om uHonf? ypawm ypawmaemuf aemuf? 0gaemufu aemufu? tEkAEd tpOfvu
kd Nf y/D
[dOyrmaqmif xifatmifjyOK;tHh? {wH ygyurH emrraumif;rI
rnfonf? "k&H 0efu?kd 0[awmxrf;aqmifaom? AvdA'EGm;vm;\?
AvDA' AvdA'/ / p+0a&m p 0&m-usufoa&+qk
vmbfwdkY? 0a&+''gwDwd Aa'g? 0&+'g+t? 0udk A &udk 'jyK? AvH+
t tww
D d AvD? AvD p+aom+Aa'g pmwd AvDAa'g-cGet
f m;jynfrh wf
usuo
f a&qkvmbfukd ay;wwfaomEGm;vm;? tvdk ]]AvD+Aa'g}}udk pyf
aomaMumifh ]]AvDAa'g}}[k &Sd&rnf/ (axmr? ygpdwfbm-1 13? X.jyK-46)
wpfenf;/ / AvH+0',wDwd AvDAa'g? Av+0'+P? v\t-udk jyK
' "udk 'jyK 0udk AjyK("mef#-D 495)? tvdv
k nf; ]]AvDAa'g}}[kyif &S&d rnf?
"mef#eD -d 495 ESihf olpd um; v\ t-udk jyK ]]AvdAa'g}}[k &S\
d
AvdA'/ / eDwdokwed-2 264tvkd ]]Avdem xmr0aEe+A'wd
t[rDwd ua&mwDwd AvdAa'g? AvD+A'(t[Huma&)+t? vD &jyK?}}[k
qdkojzihf ]]AvdAa'g}}[k &Sd&rnf? "m'D yg*Hopf-2 24wdkYvnf; "mef#D-496
twdkif; 0dN*dK[fqdkum ]]Av+0'}}rS v\ t-udk jyK ]]AvdA'}}[kyif &Sd\/
Avdy'/ / edom-106 ]]rZdr0,ywumav omrdumeH Avd-

0*f

"ry'bmom#Dum

63

y'Hajcod?Yk puH vSn;f bD;onf? (tEk*pw)d 0d,tpOfvu


kd o
f uJo
h ?Ykd
tEk*pwd tpOfvu
kd \
f ? wdod?Yk 'H 0wHK twdw0f wKu?kd uaxwGma[mawmfr
l ? tEkoE tEkoaEu?kd 0g-tquftpyfu?kd Ca#wGmpyfawmfr
l ? 0g-qufo,
G jf yawmfr
l ? ywd|mydwrwdu
-H wnfap
tyfNy;D aom ajrnuf&adS om? (ajrnufjzihf csyd yf w
d t
f yfaom)? omoeHy'geoDvwm (ylaZmfru
I kd tvGeaf y;jcif;tavh&o
dS nf\tjzpfaMumif)h Avdya'g
emr}}[k qd\
k ? ]]Avdaem+ y'H(y'geH) Avdy'H? Avdy'H+oDvH tmwd Avdya'g
(EGm;&Siw
f t
Ykd m; ylaZmfru
I kd tvGeaf y;avh&adS omEGm;vm;)}}[kBu?H ,cktcg ygXf
udk ygVdt|uxm#DumwdkY rawGU&awmhyg/
tEkoE/ / tEkoED,wd a'oem {wm,mwd tEkoEd(aewd.|68)? tEkoEeH tEkoEd? tEkoE[wDwd tEkoEd? tEkoED,wDwd tEkoEd
(oD#Dopf-1 455)/
ywd|mydwrwdu/H / a&S;u ay;kd;teuftwkdif; rwdumukd ajrnuf
a[m,l ay;cJhonf? ]]rwdumveEd 0g vmcgveEd 0g(0d.|-3 153)}}
[laom pum;t& xkdacwfu ypnf;wpfckckukd xkwfykd;NyD;aemuf ajrnufESihf
csdwf2rsdK;wGif wpfrsdK;rsdK;jzifh ydwf xkdajrnuf csdyfay: wHqdyfkdufESdyfMu[ef
wl\? ]]ywd|mydwm+rwdum , a,e 0gwd ywd|mydwrwduH}}[kjyK/
"r#D-18/ / xkd ]]ywd|mydwy&da,momeH}}[k zGihf\? ]]y&da,momeH}}
ukd Munhf ]]ywd|mydw+tw+u}}[kcJGum twukdum; orwuJhokdY NyD;
qkH;jcif; teufa[m[kMuH? rSef\-twESifh orwrSm oHa&S;&Sdjcif; r&Sdjcif;om
uGm\? Oyom&rygaomyk'o
f nf Oyom&ygaomyk'u
f o
hJ Ydk teufx;l ukd a[mEkid f
&um; twESihf orwukd teufwlMuHcGihf&Sd\(oD#Dopf-1 149? 211)? ]]ywd|m
ydw+H twH ywd|mydwrw?H ywd|mydwrw+H {w twDw
d ywd|mydwrwu
d }H }
[kjyK/ twum; tZ+w? Zukd wjyK? (wpfenf;) tm+'g(,ljcif;teuf)+w?
'ukd wjyK tmukdacs tmukd&jyK(rPd#D-1 182? #Ded-84)? (wpfenf;)
tmy(y&dykPteuf)+w? yukd wjyK tmukd &jyK NyD;\/ (ed'D-484)

64

"ry'bmom#Dum

,ru

"r#Dtvkdteuf/ / ywd|mydwrwduHtu&mudk wnfapjcif; (a&;om;


jcif;)[laom tqkH;udp&Sdaom? 0g-tu&mukd wnfapjcif;(a&;om;jcif;)udp
Ny;D qk;H Ny;D aom? omoeH-o0PfvmT ud?k (taMumif;Mum;pmud)k ? &mZrk'g ,rif;\
wHqdyfjzifh? v aEm 0d,cwfESdyfouJhodkY? ywd|mydwrwduH-(twKywd0wK
"ra'oem\ tpGrf;jzihf a0ae,swkdY\oEmef) wnfapjcif;(a[majymjcif;)
[laom tqkH;udp&Sdaom? 0g-wnfapjcif; (a[majymjcif;)udp NyD;qkH;NyD;aom?
omoeH-(pkPd,tzJGUy&d,wdw&m;[k qkdtyfaom) tqkH;trtmPmpufukd?
vaEm-(raemykA*Frmpaom *gxmtzJGU[kqkdtyfaom bk&m;&Sif\ wHqdyf
awmfjzifh) cyfESdyfvkdaom? "r&mZm-onf? raemykA*Frm ?ay? y'Ed-raemykA*Frm
?ay? y'H[laom? rH *gxH-ukd? tm[-NyD/
qufOK;tHh-teufay;ykH OyrmebufrS ]]ywd|mydwrwduH omoeH
vaEm}}wkdYukd Oyar,sbufvnf; ,lay;onf? xkdYjyif Oyrmebuf ]]&mZrk'g,}}[k vaEm\ ukdPf;&SdouJhokdY Oyar,sbuf vaEm\ ukdPf;ukd
]]raemykA*Frmwsm'd*gxmAEocFgwAk'rk'g,}}[k xnfh\? pma&;NyD;aom
o0PfvTmukd rif;wHqdyfcyfESdyfouJhokdY 0wKaMumif;tm;jzihf a[mawmfrltyf
NyD;aom pkPd,zJGUy&d,wdw&m;[laom tmPmpufukd raemykA*Frmpaom
*gxmzJGU[laom bk&m;wHqdyfawmfjzihf cyfESdyfawmfrlvkd ]]raemykA*Frm}}paom
*gxmukd rdefYawmfrlonf-[lvkd/
wpfenf;/ / ]]ywd|mydw+rwm+u}}[kc?GJ ]]ord',
d H rwmoa'g aywd
(0Zd&-123)}}ukd Munhf rwmo'g ord'd (NyD;jynhfpkHjcif;)teufa[m[k ,lum
]]ywd|mydwm+rwm {wmwd ywd|mydwrwduH-NyD;jynfhpkHaom wnfapjcif;
(a&;om; a[majymjcif;)&Sad om? 0g-tjynht
f pkH wnfapNy;D (a&;om; a[majym
NyD;)aom}}[k jyK/
tu&mteuf yrmPteuf/ / rwmo'g tu&mteufa[m ,l
]]wnfaptyfNyD;aom tu&m(urnf;pm)&Sdaom}}[kvnf; ay;Mu\? teuf
t"dym,f&aomfvnf; rwmo'g tu&mukd ra[m&um; ckdifvkHrIr&Sd? yrmP
teufa[m,l ]]ywd|mrwduH-wnfaptyfNyD;aom twkdif;t&Snf&Sdaom}}
[kvnf; ay;Mu\? t"dym,fqufpyf r&ojzihf raumif;yg/
ywd|mydwrwu/H / "r#D ]]ywd|mydwrwuH}}[k oH0aPwAyk'f &dSae
onfrmS pmysu[
f efw\
l ? ]]rwau XwGmwd r okw
y&da,momae

0*f

"ry'bmom#Dum

65

o0PfvTmudk? (taMumif;Mum;pmudk)? &mZrk'g,rif;\wHqdyfjzifh?


v aEm 0d,cwfESdyfouJhodkY? "r&mZm-w&m;rif;jzpfawmfrlaom
jrwfpmG bk&m;onf? raemykA* rF m ?ay? y'Ed- raemykA* rF m ?ay? y'H [laom?
rH *gxH-*gxmukd? tm[-a[mawmfrlNyD/
raemykA* rF m "rm raemao|m raemr,m?
reom ap y'ka|e bmowd 0g ua&mwd 0g?
wawm eH 'kuraEGwd puH0 0[awm y'H/
XwGm('D#D-2 147)}} rwauukd ]]y&da,momae}}[k zGihfjcif;ESihf "r#D ]]ywd|mydwy&da,momeH}}[k zGifhjcif;rSm xyfwlusojzihf a&S;u ]]ywd|mydwrwuH}}[k &Sdava&mhovm;[k pOf;pm;rd\/
"r&mZm rH *gxrm[/ / 0gusukd teuf 4rsdK;ay;Ekdif\? xkdwGif
txuf rH *gxHEiS hf ]]raem ?ay? y'Ed} }ukd 0daooe+0daoos,
l ay;cJo
h nf?
wdo'gvnf; ed'e (a&SU*gxmudk Tefjyjcif;teufa[m) edygwfwnf;?
xk
d wdaemif rH *gxHEiS fh 0dbwfwal tmif tH0b
d wfausonf/
wpfenf;/ / wdo'g tmum&aZmwu,l ]]"r&mZm-onf? raem
ykA*Frm ?ay? y'Ed-raemykA*Frm ?ay? y'H[l? rH *gxH-ukd? tm[-NyD}}[k
ay;? um; ]]wGmroufao; [lay; xGuaf &;tmum&}}ESit
fh nD jzpfonf?
wdaemif vdet
f eufrQudk xGe;f jyaom yxrm0dbwfausonf/
wpfenf;/ /tmum&aZmwu wdo'gaemuf&Sv
d Qif a&SU ykpm 0gpu
(tar;teufudk a[maom) uo'g xnfph u
G
f ]]"r&mZm rH *gxH tm[?
(u-tb,fokdY a[mawmfrloenf;) raemykA*Frm ?ay? y'Ed-raemykA*Frm
?ay? y'H [l? tm[-Ny}D }[kay;? wdo'g tmum&aZmwu aemufjyrl
0gpuykpm uo'gukd a&SUrSmpGuf teuforefjrJ/
wpfenf;/ /yxrenf;twkid ;f wdudk ed'ew xkad emif tH0b
d wf
ausonf[k ,l ]]"r&mZm rH *gxH tm[-Ny?D (u-tb,f*gxmuk?d tm[enf;) raemykA*Frm ?ay? y'Ed-raemykA*Frm ?ay? y'H[laom? rH *gxH*gxmuk?d tm[-Ny}D }[k ay;/

66

"ry'bmom#Dum

,ru

"rm-apwoducf Emw&m; 3yg;wko


Yd nf? raemykA* rF m-pdwo
f mvQif
a&SUoGm;acgif;aqmif&Sdukef\? raemao|m-pdwfomvQif tjrwfqkH;&Sd
ukef\? raemr,m-pdwfaMumifh NyD;pD;&ukef\? y'ka|e-tbdZmtp&Sd
aom tjypfwkdYonf zsufqD;tyfaom? reom-pdwfjzihf? ap bmowd
0g-tu,frlvnf; ajymqkt
d ?hH ap ua&mwd 0g-tu,frlvnf; jyK
vkyt
f ?hH wawm-xko
d Ydk ajymqkd jyKvyk jf cif;aMumif?h eH-xkyd *k Kd vo
f ?Ydk 'ku-H
qif;&Jonf? taEGw-d tpOfvu
dk \
f ? (udr0d -tb,fuo
hJ eYdk nf;) 0[awm-0efaqmifEGm;vm;\? y'H-ajcokdY? puH-vSnf;bD;onf? (taEGwd)
f nfv
h rdk l ]]bdua 0}}[kxnh?f reom
0-tpOfvu
dk o
f uJo
h w
Ydk nf;/ tmvkyx
ukdPf;teuf wrLwvuPteuf? ]]ap ua&mwd 0g}}aemif ]]ap pdaEwd
0g-tu,frlvnf;MuHtHh}}[kvnf; xnfhay;Mu\/

ww-xkd raemykA*Frm "rmtp&Sdaom *gxm? raemwd-raem


[lonfum;?(wdum; y'w0yd vmo)? umrm0p&ukovm'dab'Humrm0p&ukokdvf tp&Sdaom tjym;&Sdaom? oArd-tvHk;pHkvnf;jzpf
aom? pwkblrdupdwH-av;yg;aombHk jzpfaompdwfwnf;? wpfenf;wdo'g emr0gpu,l ]]ww-? umrm0p&ukovm'dab'H-aom? oArdaom? pwkblrdupdwH-onf? raemwd- raemrnf\}}[kvnf; ay;/ ye-quf?

0g-xko
d yYdk ifjzpfygaomfvnf;? ro ya'- raemykA* rF m "rm[laom
yk'f? w'g-aq;q&mjzpf&m xkdtcg? w 0Z-xkdaq;q&m\
(oEmef)? OyEpdw0aoe- jzpfaompdwf\ tpGrf;jzihf? 0g-jzpfaom
pdwEf iS hf pyfojzih?f ed,rD,rmeH-rSwo
f m;tyfaomf? 00wy,
D rmeH-toD;
toD; ykdif;jcm; xm;tyfaomf? y&d pZrmeH (y&d pZd,rmeH)-ykdif;jcm;
tyfaomf? a'greo[*wH-a'greo[*kwfjzpfaom? y#dCor,kwpdwar0-y#dCor,kwfpdwfukdom? vAwd-&tyf &Ekdif\/
y&d pdZd,rmeH/ / 'd0g'dqd'd"mwfonf turu"mwf jzpfaomaMumifh
]]jzwf}}[laom teufukd ra[mEkdif? ]]jywf}}[laom teufudkom a[mEkdif\?

0*f

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67

ykA* rF mwd-ykA* rF m[lonfum;? awe-xkpd w


d Ef iS ?hf yXr*grdem-yxrjzpf
avh&o
dS nf? 0g-y"mejzpfavh&o
dS nf? [kwmG ? orEm*wm-jynhpf u
kH ek \
f /
"rmwd({w)-"rm[laom ygXf? (twK'g&bma0e-twK'g&\
tjzpfjzih?f vArmem-&xku
d u
f ek af om?) "rm emr-"rwrYdk nfonf? *kPa'oemy&d,wde
d weZd 0D 0aoe-*kP"r a'oem"r y&d,wd" r
edweZd 0D "rw\
Ydk tjym;tm;jzih?f pwma&m-4yg;wkw
Yd nf;/ ]]"rmwd"rm[lonfum;? *kP ?ay? 0aoe-jzihf? pwma&m-wkdYonf? "rm emr-\}}
[kvnf; tvG,fay;Ekdif\/ awok-xkd4yg;aom "rwkdYwGif? e [d "arm

?ay? ok*wwd({w)-]]e [d "arm ?ay? ok*w }}[laom ygVd&yf?


t,H-"ronf? *kP"arm emr-*kP"rrnf\/
ae&m ]]jzwf}}[k ay;&aomaMumifh k"m'dqd'd"mwfom jzpfoihf\? "mwGef'f
ESihf wuG uHa[m,ypnf;ukd ZjyK Za'Gabmfvm NyD;&um; ]]y&d pdZrmeH}}
[kom ygXf&Sdoifh\(|jyK)/ y&d pdZd,rmeHonf wpfae&mwnf;om &Sd\?
tjcm;aom ygVdt|uxm#DumwkdY y&d pdZrmeHom &Sd\/
um&dwfurky/f / y&d pdZd,rmeHukd twnf,lvkdrl 'd0g'dqd'd"mwfonf
tur"mwfjzpfojzihf ok'u
ryk f r&SEd idk &f um; um&dwu
f ryk [
f Mk u
H ]]y&d pdZd,rmeH-xuf0ef;usif jywfom;aptyfaomf}}[kay;? y&d+qd'd+rme? uw&d
tvkdufukd Munfaom ]]'d0g'dawm a,m}}[laom 0dem"dum&a,m*0dbm*jzihf
'd0g'd,ouf? um&dwfypnf;oufacs uHa[m,ouf? wxm uw&d pjzifh
"mwGef'fESihf wuG 'd0g'd,ukd ZjyK Za'Gabmfvm? uHa[m,aMumihf vm
NyD;ap&m\? ]]y&d pdZrmeH}}[k &Sdoavmufum; r&Sif;yg/
awe ?ay? orEm*wm/ / tzGihfonf ykA*Frwpfyk'fukdom zGifhaom
oH0Pemr[kwf? raem+ykA*Frm ESpfyk'fukd zGifhaom oH0Pemwnf;? tzGihf
jzihf ]]ykAH *pwd y0wwDwd ykA*Farm? (ykA*FrH)? ykAH ykaA y"mebma0 (ykaAe
y"mebma0e 0g) *pwd y0wwDwd ykA*Farm(ykA*FrH)-a&S;OK;pGm jzpfonfy"metjzpfjzpfonf? 0g-y"metjzpfjzihf jzpfonf}}[laom 0pewukd jyonf?
xkd [kwGmjzihf bm0y"mejzpfaMumif;ukd jyonf[k "r#Dqkd\? xkdaemuf
orEm*wmjzihf zGihfaomaMumifh ]]raem+ykA*FrH a,oHwd raemykA*Frm}}[k

68

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,ru

e [d "arm t"arm p Oabm or0dygudaem?


t"arm ed&,H aewd "arm ygaywd okk*w/
[d-rSe\
f ? "arm-*kPw
f &m;onfvnf;aumif;? 0g-ukov
dk w
f &m;
onfvnf;aumif;? t"arm-*kPf\qefYusifbuf w&m;onfvnf;
aumif;? 0g-tukokdvfw&m;onfvnf;aumif;? Oabm-w&m;ESpfyg;
wkdYonf? or0dygudaem-wlrQaomtusdK; &Sdukefonf? oarm+0dygaum
or0dygaum? or0dygaum+{awoHwd or0dyguD? e (a[mEd)-rjzpfukef?
t"arm-*kP\
f qefu
Y sib
f ufw&m;onf? (t"rpm&-t"rudk usiahf vh
&Sdolukd?) ed&,H-i&JokdY? aewd-aqmif\? eD"mwfonf 'Gduru"mwfjzpf
]]t"rpm&}}[k uHwpfrsdK;xnfhonf? "arm-*kPfw&m;onf? 0g-ukokdvf
A[kAD[dormof wJGyg/ "r#Dtvkd ]]raemykA*Frm-pdwfomvQif y"mejzpfonf\
tjzpf&Sdukef\}}[kay;? raemonf yHkvdef eyHkvdef[k tbd"mef qkdaomfvnf;
eyHv
k ed rf sm;aomaMumihv
f nf;aumif; ouw eyHv
k ed [
f k qkad omaMumifv
h nf;
aumif; ]]ykA*FrH}}[k eyHkvdefxm;onf/
yXr*grdem/ /txuf |jyKtwkdif; ay;xm;onf? "r#Dtvkd ]]yXr*grdemonf? [kwGm-? 0g-jzpfaom? awe-xkdpdwfjzihf? (ukdPf;) 0g-aMumihf? ([dwf)
orEm*wm-aumif;pGm oifhavsmfaomtm;jzihf jzpfonf? (wpfenf;) awexkpd w
d Ef iS ?fh (o[w)? orEm*wm-aumif;pGm oifah vsmaf omtm;jzihf ,SOo
f nf}}
[kay;/ ]]awe-aMumihf}}[kay;&m wwd,m0dbwf yrD0dbwf[k 2rsdK;,l
Ekid o
f nf? yr,
D v
l Qif um&Pteuf om0dbwfouf? trSwrk pS aom okwjf zihf
omukd emjyK/(oH.|-1 249? oH#D-1 249? "r#D? 0daAm-93)
ykA*Frteuf/ / ykA*Fro'gonf ]]a&SUuoGm;}}[k teuf,l&aom yka&
pm&duykA*Fr ]]y"me}}[k teuf,l&aom y"meykA*Fr ESpfrsdK;ukd a[m\?
ae&m y"meykA*Frwnf;?? xkdaMumifh ]]yXr*grdem}}[k zGifh&m yXro'gukd
]]a&S;OK;pGm}}[kvnf;aumif; ]]y"me}}[kvnf;aumif; ay;Ekdifonf/ ]]*pwd oDavemwd *grd? (oDC,m,d+pdwu
H o
hJ Ydk ukd &jyK)? yXrH+*grd yXr*grd}}[kjyK/
tma'g y"mae yXrH?-tbd"mef-933/

0*f

"ry'bmom#Dum

69

w&m;onf? ("rpm&-"rukd usihfavh&Sdolukd?) ok*w-ok*wdokdY? ok*wum; "mwfuH? "rpm&um; um&dwfuH? ygaywd-a&mufapEkdif\/


"rH a0g bdua 0 a'aomrd tm'duvsmPEd {w-"rH a0g ?ay?
tm'duvsmPH [laom ygXf? t,H-"ronf? a'oem"arm emra'oem"r rnf\? 0g-a[mtyfaom"rrnf\? bdua0-wkdY a0goifwkdYtm;? tm'duvsmPH-tpvnf; aumif;aom? "rH-w&m;ukd?
a'aomrd-a[mawmfrltHh/ " ye bdua0 ?ay? a*,sEd {w" ye bdua 0 ?ay? a*,s[
H al om ygXf? 0g-a*,st
H p&Sad om
ygXf? t,H-"ronf? y&d,wd"arm emr-y&d,wd"rrnf\? 0gok*w/ /ok*w rlvyk'f&if;rSm ]]okE&m+*wd ok*wd}}[k a'Gabmfr&Sd
aomfvnf; qef;usrf; Oya'otm;jzihf Z*kdPf;&Sd&rnfjzpfaomaMumifh *a'G
abmf&Sd&onf? teufay;aomtcg xdka'Gabmf rvkdawmhyg? rSef\-qef;aMumifh
ausysufaom tu&mukd teufay;aomtcg aqmif,l ay;&ouJhokdY qef;
aMumifh ydkaeaom tu&mukdvnf; csef teufay;&onf/qef;aMumifh ysuf
aus ,Gif;uGufauG aqmifaveufay;cg? qef;aMumifh ykdvQH ,if;y'H csef
eufay;yg/
okwH a*,sEd/ / a*,sEd wdo'gonf y'w0dyvmoedygwfwnf;?
ygVdawmf&if; ]]*gxH a0,smu&PH}}ponfjzihf ]]a0'vH}}wkdifatmif t*Fg 9
yg;ukd jyaomaMumifh xkduseforQukd ,lzkdY&m tm'dteufa[m wdo'gwpfck
tausMuH wpfenf;ay;onf/ a&SU0gusvnf; enf;twkdif; ay;Ekdifonf/
y&d,wd"arm / /y&d,mykPdwAm-oif,lxkduf\? wd y&d,wd? y&d+
tmy+wd? (,f)vm tmukd &jyK? edom#D-370 ]]y&d+t, ygykPae+wd?
(wpfenf;) y&d+,m+wd/ (wpfenf;) y&dAsw ygu#H ,Ed {wm,mwd y&d,wd?
(wpfenf;) y&d ykeyKeH ,Ed {wm, a'0wEd y&d,wd? y&d edAmeH ,Ed ygykPEd {wm,mwd y&d,wd? y&d orEawm ykeyKeH 0g tZm,dwAm odudwAm
y0awwAmwd y&d,wd? y&d+,m+wd?-edom#D-370/ y&d,wd p +om+"arm
pmwd y&d,wd"arm-oif,lxkdufaomw&m;/

70

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,ru

oif,x
l u
dk af om w&m;rnf\/ bdua 0-wkYd "-omoemawmf?
{uap-tcsKd Uukeaf om? ukvykwm -trsKd ;aumif;om;wko
Yd nf? "r-H ygVd
awmf"rukd? y&d,mykPEd-oif,lukef\? okwH-okwfukdvnf;aumif;?
a*,sH-a*,sukdvnf;aumif;? y&d,mykPEd-ukef\/ wo acg ye
ora, ?ay? cEm a[mEDw
d {w-wo acg ye ora, ?ay? cEm a[mEd
[laom ygXf? t,H-"ronf? edw"arm emr-edw"rrnf
\? 0g-ow0gr[kwaf om oabmw&m;rnf\? woacg ye ora,pdwfjzpf&m xkt
d cg? "rm-oabmw&m;wkdYonf? a[mEd-ukef\? cEmcEmwko
Yd nf? a[mEd- uke\
f / edZ0D "armwdy-d edZ0D "r[al omtrnfonf
vnf;? 0g-toufr[kwaf om oabmw&m;[laom trnfonfvnf;?
{aom {0-edw"ryifwnf;/ awok-xkad v;yg;aom "rww
Ydk iG ?f
ro Xmae-t&m? (raemykA*Frm "rm[laom ygXft&m?)
edweZd 0D "arm-edweZd 0D "ru?dk t"dayawm-tvk&d t
dS yf\? aomxked
d weZd 0D "r[o
l nf? twawm-teuftm;jzih?f (w&m;uk,
d t
f m;
jzih)f ? a0'emuaEm-a0'emuEm vnf;aumif;? onmuaEm-aumif;?
aumif;? ocFg&uaEm-aumif;? wd-ok?Yd wa,m-oH;k yg;ukeaf om? tlyad em-emrfjzpfuek af om? cEm-cEmwkw
Yd nf;/ [d-rSe\
f ? {aw-emrf
cEm3yg;wko
Yd nf? {awoH-emrfcEm 3 yg;wk\
Yd ? raem-pdw[
f al om?
ykA* aF rm-a&SUoGm;onf? 0g-y"mew&m;onf? (twd) ? wd-xkad Mumih?f
(xkdokdY pdwf[laom a&SUoGm;&Sdukefonf\tjzpfaMumifh?) raemykA*Frm
emr-raemykA* rF wkYd rnf\/
a0'emuaEm ?ay? wd/ / wd pyf&aom yk'frsm;onf (rnfonfh 0d
bwfjzifhaeae) ]]ukd jzihf ESihf ?ay? }}[k uHpaom teufrsm; ray;&? uHp
aom teufrsm;onf Bud,mwpfckck orEDwpfckckESifhwJGrS &tyfaom teuf
rsm;wnf;? wdo'gum; xkdteufrsm;ukd rjyEkdif? xkdYaMumifh wdo'gESihf wJG
&m 0dbwf[lorQ vdefteufukdom xGef;jy&aomaMumifh ]]vnf;aumif;}}
[kom teufay;&onf/

0*f

"ry'bmom#Dum

71

ye-y&d[m&yurw
S pfyg; apm'uyuudk qkOd K;tH?h uxH-tb,fo?Ydk
0g-tb,ftaMumif;aMumifh? {aw[d-emrfcEm 3 yg;wkdYESihf? o'-
wuG? {u0wKaum-wlaom rS&D m&Sad om? {um&raPm-wlaom tm
Hk&Sdaom? tykA-H a&S;vnf;rus? tp&drH-aemufvnf;rus? (wpfenf;)
tykAH tp&dr-H ra&S;raESmif;? {uuaP-wpfNyKd ief ufaomcP? OyZ-
rmaem-jzpfaom? raem-pdwfonf? 0g-pdwfu? ykA*Farm emr-a&SUoGm;
rnfonf? a[mwd-jzpfEidk o
f enf; wd-um; tar;wnf;/ (repdwf\?) Oym'yp,a|e-emrfcEm 3 yg;wkdY\ jzpfjcif;\ taMumif;\
tjzpf[al om teufaMumif?h {aw[d-wkEYd iS ?fh o' - wl? {u0wKaumaom? {um&raPm-aom? tykAH-rus? tp&drH-rus? {uuaP-?
OyZr maem-aom? raem-onf? ykA* aF rm emr-onf? a[mwd-jzpfEidk \
f ?
wd-um; tajzwnf;/ [d-csJUOK;tHh? 0g-Oyrmaqmif xifatmifjy
OK;tH?h A[lo-k rsm;pGmaom vlwo
Ydk nf? {uawm-wpfaygif;wnf;? *grCmwm'De-d &Gmukzd suq
f ;D jcif;tp&Su
d ek af om? urmed-trIwu
Ydk ?dk ua&maEok-jyKukefvaomf? {awoH-olwkdUwGif? aum-tb,folonf?
{awoH-olwkdY\? ykA*Farm-a&SUoGm;enf; 0g-acgif;aqmifenf;
wd-okdY? 0kaw-ajymqkdtyfaomf? 0g-ar;tyfaomf? aeoH-xkdolwkdY
wGi?f a,m-tMuifoo
l nf? aeoH-xko
d w
l \
Ydk ? ypa,m-taMumif;onf?
a[mwd? ,H-tMuifolukd? edm,-rSD? aw-xkdolwkdYonf? wH urHxk&d mG ukd zsuq
f ;D jcif;trIu?dk ua&mEd- jyKMuuke\
f ? awoH-xko
d w
l w
Ydk iG ?f
'awm 0g-'waomfvnf;jzpfaom? rdawm 0g-rdwa omfvnf;jzpfaom?
aom-xko
d Ul uk?d awoH-xko
d w
l \
Ydk ? ykA* aF rmwd-a&SUoGm;[l? 0g-acgif;
aqmif[l? 0kpwd ,xm-qkdtyfouJhokdY? 0g-ajztyfouJho/kdY
tykAH tp&drH/ / e+ykaAm tykaAm-a&S;r[kwfaompdwf? e+p&darm tp&darm? ykvdif eykvdif2rsdK;jzpfaom]]raem}}ESihf t&wlojzihf ]]e+ykAH tykAH}}[k
vnf; qkdEkdifonf? xkdaemuf Bud,m0daooeteuf tH0dbwfouf/

72

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,ru

{0Hor'-H Oyrmetwkid ;f Ny;D pD;jcif;&Sad om? 0g-ykt


H vm; Ipm;tyf
aom? 'H-Oyar,sukd? a0'dwAH-odxkduf\/ umaumavmue
enf;ponft& {awoH awoHwkdYukd aum 'awm pyf ed'g&Pork'g,
ykA*Farmpyf omrDteufay;onf/ wd-okdYvQif? Oym'yp,a|e-

jzpfjcif;\ taMumif;\ tjzpf[al om teufaMumif?h {awoH-emrf


cEm 3yg;wkdY\? raem-pdwf[laom? ykA*Farm-a&SUoGm;onf? (twd)?
wd-xkdokdY pdwf[laom a&SUoGm;&Sdukefonf\tjzpfaMumifh? (aw-xkd
emrfcEm 3yg;wko
Yd nf?) raemykA* rF m-raemykA* rF wkYd rnf\/ [d-rSe\
f ?
(Oym'yp,a|e[laom pum;onf rSe\
f ?) aw-xkad pwoducf Em 3
yg;wko
Yd nf? rae-pdwo
f nf? tEkyZ a E-rjzpfvaomf? OyZw
d -kH jzpfjcif;iSm?
e oaumEd- rpGr;f Ekid u
f ek ?f raem ye-pdwo
f nfum;? (wpfenf;) ye-tzkYd
wpfyg;um;? raem-pdwo
f nf? {uapo-k tcsKd Uukeaf om? apwodauok-apwoduw
f o
Ydk nf? tEkyZ a Eoyk -d rjzpfygukeaf omfvnf;? OyZw
-d
a,0-jzpfEidk o
f nfom/
{0H or'rd'/H / ]]orwd or'g vuD("mef (385)}}ESihftnD or'gyk'fonf
wdvdefwnf;? ]]or'H}}[k &SdaomaMumifh {0HESihf A[kAD[dormofpyf
xm;aomyk'[
f k od&\? 'Hvnf; Oyar,su
H dk iJah om eyHv
k id yf 'k w
f nf;? ]]orZe H
or'g edywd? {0H t0d&ZeuedywduHwd tawm(om&w-1 405)? {0Hor'Ed
{0HorZeuH {0H ydwAH 'H rr taZoeH(r#D-261)}}ukd axmuf
]]{0H-twl? 'H or'H-OyrmeESihf jynfhpHkaom Oyar,sukd? a0'dwAH\}}[k a&S;u ay;Muaom teufukd pOf;pm;yg/
e [d/ / [dukd 'VDu&P,l ay;cJhonf? yua[wk[k ,l ]](uomaMumifh? re-\? Oym'yp,bma0g-apwodufcEmwkdY jzpfjcif;\ taMumif;
\ tjzpfukd? 0dnm,wd-odtyfoenf;?) [d (,om)-aMumifh? aw-wkdYonf?
rae-onf? tEkyZaE-aomf? OyZdwHk-iSm? e oaumEd-rpGrf;Ekdifukef? (womaMumifh? re-\? Oym'yp,bma0g-ukd? 0dnm,wd-\)}}[kvnf; ay;Ekdif
onf/ e [d wuf&m [deufrSm [dwfyg 'VDpJG(a&T-43)/

0*f

"ry'bmom#Dum

73

ye-tzkdYwpfyg;um;? t"dywd0aoe-t"dywd\tpGrf;jzihf? 0g-rdrdESihf


pyfaomw&m;wk\
Yd t&Sio
f cif\tjzpfjzih?f {awoH-apwoducf Em
3yg;wk\
Yd ? raem-pdw[
f al om? aoa|m-tjrwfq;Hk onf? (twd) ? wdxkdaMumifh? (xkdokdY pdwf[laom tjrwfqkH;&Sdukefonf\ tjzpfaMumifh)?
(aw-xkad pwoducf Em 3yg;wko
Yd nf?) raemao|m-raemao|wkrYd nf
\/ [d-csUJ OK;tH?h 0g-Oyrmaqmif xifatmifjyOK;tH?h apm&m'De-H "m;jytp
&So
d w
l \
Ydk ? apm&aZ|um'a,m-"m;jyBu;D tp&So
d w
l o
Ydk nf? t"dywdaemtBuD;tuJwkdYonf? 0g-rdrdESihfpyfolwdkY\ t&SifocifwkdYonf? ([kwGm?) ao|m-jrwfukefonf? (a[mEd) ,xm-jzpfukefouJhokdY? wxmxkt
Yd wl? aword- xkad pwoducf Em 3 yg;wk\
Yd vnf;? 0g-wkx
Yd ufvnf;?
raem0-pdwfonfom? t"dywd-tBuD;tuJonf? 0g-rdrdESifhpyfaom
w&m;wkdY\ t&Sifocifonf? raem0-om? aoa|m-tjrwfqHk;onf?
(a[mwd)/
ye-tzkdYwpfyg;um;? 0g-raem ao|m[laom oH0aPwAyk'f\
twoH0PemrSwpfyg; raem r,m[laom oH0aPwAyk'f\ tw
oH0Pemukd qkOd K;tH?h 'gktm'D[-d opfom;tp&Su
d ek af om taqmuf
tOK;wkaYd Mumif?h edyE m ed-jzpf&ukeaf om? 0g-Ny;D pD;&ukeaf om? wmed wmed
b@med-xkdxdkb@mwkdYonf? 'gkr,m'Ded emr-'gkr,tp&SdonfwkdY
rnfonf? a[mEd ,xm-jzpfukefouJhokdY? wxm-xkdY twl? awyd-xkd
apwoducf EmoH;k yg;wko
Yd nfvnf;? reawm-pdwaf Mumif?h edyE w
m -jzpf&
ukeo
f nf\ tjzpfaMumif?h 0g-Ny;D pD;&ukeo
f nf\ tjzpfaMumif?h raemr,m emr-raemr,wkdY rnf\/
y'ka|emwd-[lonfum;? tm*EKau[d-tm*EKujzpfukeaf om?
wmed wmed/ / wmed w wnf a,mouf edjyK 'DCjyK ]]wmed}}[k
wpfyk'fwnf; NyD;aomtcg 0dpmbduanok a'G(arm*f-1 54)okwfjzihf ]]wmed
wmed}}[k 'Gdkyf (ESpfkyf)jyK/

74

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,ru

tbdZm'D[-d tbdZmtp&Su
d ek af om? a'gao[d-tjypfwo
Ydk nf? y'ka|ezsuq
f ;D tyfaom? (wpfenf;) a'gao[d-tjypfwaYdk Mumif?h y'ka|e-ysuf
pD;aom? ]]reom-pdwfjzihf}}[k ygVdawmfpyf? [d-csJUOK;tHh? yuwdraemyuwdpw
d o
f nf? b0*Fpw
d -H b0ifpw
d w
f nf;? wH-xkb
d 0ifpw
d u
f ?dk ty'|k -H
tbdZmtp&Sdaom tjypfwkdYonf rzsufqD;tyf? (wpfenf;) wH-xkd
b0ifpw
d o
f nf? ty'|k -H tbdZmtp&Sad om tjypfwaYdk Mumifh rysupf ;D /
[d-Oyrmaqmif xifatmifjyOK;tHh? yoEH-Munfvifaom? O'uH-a&
onf? a[mwdpyf? 0g-a&ukd? Oyudvd|Hpyf? tm*EKau[d-tm*EK
ujzpfuek af om? eDvm'D[-d tkt
d p&Sad om0wKwo
Ydk nf? Oyudv
|d -H zsuf
qD;tyfonf? (ormeH-jzpfvaomf?) (wpfenf;) eDvm'D[d-wkdYaMumifh?
Oyudv
|d -H npfErG ;f onf? (ormeH-aomf?) eDavm'um'dab'H-kad oma&
tp&Sdaom tjym;&Sdonf? a[mwd ,xm-jzpfouJhokdY? p-xkdokdYyif kd
aoma&tp&Sad om tjym;&Syd gaomfvnf;? e0H-topfjzpfaom? O'uHa&onf? e (a[mwd ,xm)-r[kwo
f uJo
h ?Ydk yk&rd -H a&S;jzpfaom? yoEO'uar0gyd-Munfvifaoma&onfyifvnf;? e (a[mwd ,xm)-r[kwf
ouJo
h ?Ydk wxm-xkt
Yd wl? wrd- xkb
d 0ifpw
d o
f nfvnf;? (a[mwdpyf?)
0g-xkdb0ifpdwfukdvnf;? y'k|Hpyf? tm*EKau[d-tm*EKujzpfukef
aom? tbdZm'D[-d tbdZmtp&Su
d ek af om? a'gao[d-tjypfwo
Ydk nf?
y'k|-H zsuq
f ;D tyfonf? (wpfenf;) a'gao[d-wkaYd Mumif?h y'k|-H ysupf ;D
onf? a[mwd-\? p-okaYd omfvnf;? e0H-topfjzpfaom? pdw-H pdwo
f nf?
e (a[mwd)-r[kw?f yk&rd -H a&S;jzpfaom? b0*Fpw
d a r0gyd-b0ifpw
d o
f nf
yifvnf;? e (a[mwd)- r[kwf/ (a,e um&aPe-tMuiftaMumif;
aMumifh? wH-xkdb0ifpdwfonf? 0g-xkdb0ifpdwfukd? tm*EKau[d-ukef
aom? tbdZm'D[-d ukeaf om? a'gao[d-tjypfwo
Ydk nf? y'k|-H zsuq
f ;D
tyfonf? a[mwd-\?) awe (um&aPe)-xkt
d aMumif;aMumif?h b*0gjrwfpmG bk&m;onf? tm[-a[mawmfrNl y?D (u-tb,foYdk a[mawmfrl
oenf;) ]]yb&rd'H ?ay? Oyudv
|d }}Ed- yb&rd'H ?ay? Oyudv
|d H

0*f

"ry'bmom#Dum

75

[l? (tm[-NyD/) bdua0-wkdY 'H pdwH-pdwfonf? yb&HxGufaomta&mif&Sd\? (NydK;NydK;jyufjyuf ta&mifxGuf\)? w-xkd


pdwu
f v
dk nf;? tm*EKau[d-ukeaf om? Oyuda vao[d-uyf zsuq
f ;D
wwfaom tjypfwkdYonf? Oyudvd|H-uyf zsufqD;tyfNyD/
{0H-okdY? 0g-qkdtyfNyD;aomenf;jzihf? y'ka|e-tbdZmpaom
tjypfwkdYonf zsufqD;tyfaom? reom-pdwfjzihf? ap bmowd 0gtu,frlvnf; ajymqkdtHh? ap ua&mwd 0g-tu,frlvnf; jyK
vkyt
f ?hH aom-xkyd *k Kd vo
f nf? bmormaem-ajymqkv
d aomf? pwkA"d -H 4
yg;tjym;&Sad om? 0pD'pk & w
d ar0-0pD'pk ku
d u
f o
dk m? bmowd-ajymqk\
d ?
ua&maEm-jyKvaomf? um,'kp& w
d ar0-um,'kpku
d u
f o
dk m? ua&mwd-jyKvyk \
f / tbmoaEm-rajymvaomf? tua&maEm-rjyKvaomf?
tbdZm'D[-d tbdZmpaomtjypfwo
Ydk nf? wm, y'k|rmeowm,w acg/ / ]]poa'g twLye,ae-po'gonf pdwf[laom teufukd
aqmifjcif;teuf jzpf\? acgoa'g ye 0pemvuFma&-pum;wefqmteuf
jzpf\? (tzGifhtvkd teufray;&)? t0"m&aP 0g-wpfenf; t0"m&P
teuf jzpf\}}[k zGihfjy\(tH#D-1 100)? xkdaMumifh ]]w-xkd pdwfukdvnf;?
acg-pifppf}}[k ay;&onf? 0gustm;jzihf emrnfwyfvQif ]]w ?ay? Oyudvd|H}}
onf OyEsmo0guswnf;/
bmowd 0g ua&mwd 0g/ / wpf&Hwpfcg ajymHkom ajym\ jyKHkom
jyK\? 2rsdK;vHk; wpfqufwnf; rjzpf? wpfcgwpf&Hum; ajymvnf; ajym jyK
vnf; jyK\? okYd 0duyfteufvnf; rjrJ orkpn
;f teufvnf; rjraJ omaMumifh
0go'grsdK;ukd ]]ted,rw-rjrJaomteufukd a[maomedygwf}}yk'f[k ac:qkd
&onf/ okdY ted,rwt&m ypKyefajymqJ jyKqJ[kom owfrSwfcsufr&Sd?
twdwfajymNyD; jyKNyD; tem*wfajymvwHU jyKvwHUwkdYESihfvnf; oufqkdif\?
okdY umvowfrSwfcsufr&Sdaom (umv3rsdK;vkH;ESihfqkdifaom) ted,rw
0wrmem ypKyaEokwf ]]0wrmem}}[laom a,m*0dbm*jzifh 0wrmefouf&
onf/ oD;oD;&Hcg NydKif&Hcg ted,rwm xGef;ownf;/

76

"ry'bmom#Dum

,ru

xkdzsufqD;tyfaom pdwf&Sdonf\ tjzpfaMumifh? wd0d"H-3yg;tjym;&Sd


aom? raem'kp&dwH-raem'kpkdufukd? yla&wd-jynfhap\? {0H-okdY?
0g-qkt
d yfNy;D aomenf;jzih?f t-xkyd *k Kd v\
f ? 0g-rSm? 'o-q,fyg;ukef
aom? tukovuryxm-tukokdvfuryxwkdYonf? yg&dy&l -xuf
d y&dy&l m?
0ef;usif jynfu
h ek o
f nf\ tjzpfo?Ydk 0g-jynhpf jHk cif;ok?Yd y&dy&l EDw
y&dyl&meH+bma0g yg&dyl&D? *pEd-a&mufukef\/
wawm eH 'kur aEGww
D -d um;? wawm wd0"d 'kp& w
d awm-xkd3 yg;
tjym;&Sdaom 'kpkdufaMumifh? wH yk*vH-xkdyk*dKvfokdY? 'kuH-qif;&Jonf?
taEGwd-tpOfvkduf\/ 'kp&dwmEkbma0e-'kpkduf\ tmEkabmf
aMumifh? pwlo-k 4yg;ukeaf om? tyga,ok-tyg,fwo
Ykd v
Ydk nf;aumif;?
rEkaok-vlwYdk ? wrwbm0H 0g-,kwef rd ahf om uk,
d cf Em&So
d \
l tjzpf
okv
Yd nf;aumif;? *p EH- a&mufaom? (wH yk*v
-H xkyd *k Kd vo
f ?Ydk ) um,0wKurd- uk,
d [
f al om rS&D m&Sad om 0dygu'kuv
nf;aumif;? w&rd- uk,
d rf S
wpfyg; pdwf[laom rSD&m0wK&Sdaom 0dygu'kuvnf;aumif;? wdok?Yd rdem y&d,ma,e-y&d,m,ftm;jzih?f um,duapwodu-H
pwlok tyga,ok/ / *p EH pyf&aomaMumifh uHteuf owrDouf?
okdYr[kwf aemuf0wK*gxmtzGifh ]]ok*wdba0 edAwH}}rS edAwHukd Munfh
*pEH *rk"mwfukd y0weteufMuHNyD; tyga,ok Moumoteuf,lum
]]pwlok-ukefaom? tyga,ok-wkdY? *pEH-jzpfaom? rEkak 0g-wkdYrlvnf;?
wrwbm0H-okdY? *pEH-a&mufaom}}[kvnf; ay;yg? q&mwkdYum; ]]pwma&m
tyga,}}[k &Sdapvkd\/
wrwbm0H/ / ]]wr+twbm0}}[k cJG ]]warm+twbma0g ,mwd
wrwbma0g}}[kjyK? xkdaemif bm0y"me bm0avmyMuH? (wpfenf;) ]]wr+
tw+bm0}}[k cJG ]]warm+twm ,mwd wrawm-,kwfedrfhaom
ukd,fcEm&Sdol? wrw+bma0g wrwbma0g}}[kjyK? ]]wrbm0H}}[kvnf;
ygXf&Sd\? xkdokdY&SdvQif ]]ware+,kawm warm(oH.|-1 149? tH|-2 321)?
wr+bma0g wrbma0g}}[kjyK ]]wrbm0H 0g-,kwfedrfhaom ukd,fcEm

0*f

"ry'bmom#Dum

77

ukd,fvnf;jzpf pdwfvnf;jzpfaom? 0dygu'kuH-tusdK;jzpfaom'ku


onf? tEk*pw-d tpOfvkduf\/ ,xm u-Oyrmtb,fuJhokdYenf;
(wpfenf;) u-tb,fonf? (tEk*pwd) ,xm-tpOfvkdufouJhokdY
enf; puH0 0[awm y'Ed-puH0 0[awm y'H [lonfum;? "ka&xrf;ykd;? ,kw-uyf,SOftyfaom? "k&H-xrf;ykd;ukd? 0[awm-xrf;
aqmifaom? AvDA'-EGm;vm;\? y'H-ajcokdY? puH-vSnf;bD;onf?
(tEk*pw)d 0d,-tpOfvu
dk o
f uJo
h w
Ydk nf;/ [d-csUJ OK;tH?h aom-xkEd mG ;vm;
onf? "k&H-xrf;ykd;ukd? {urd 'd0oH-wpf&ufywfvHk;aomfvnf;aumif;?
a'Gyd ('d0ao)-2&ufwyYdk wfv;kH aomfvnf;aumif;? yyd ('d0ao)-5&uf
wkyYd wfv;kH aomfvnf;aumif;? 'oyd ('d0ao)-q,f&ufwyYdk wfv;kH aomf
vnf;aumif;? tkrmord-wpfvxuf0uf 15&ufywfvHk;aomfvnf;
aumif;? rmord- wpfvywfv;kH aomfvnf;aumif;? 0[aEm-xrf;aqmif
vaomf? puH-vSnf;bD;ukd? ed0awwHk-qkwfepfapjcif;iSm? Z[mwHk-pGefY
ypfjcif;iSm? e oaumwd ,xm-rpGr;f Ekid o
f uJo
h ?Ydk tx acg-pifppfum;?
t-xkdEGm;vm;\? 0g-onf? yk&awm-a&SUokdY? tbdurE-oGm;
vaomf? ,k*-H xrf;yk;d onf? *D0-H vnfyif;uk?d Am"wd-ESdyfpuf\? ypawm-aemufokdY? y#durE-qkwfvaomf? puH-vSnf;bD;onf?
&Sdol\ tjzpfokdYvnf;aumif;}}[kyif ay;yg/ q&mwkdYum; ]]wrbm0H}}ukd ygXf
rSef,l ]]wrwbm0H}}ukd ygXfysuf[k qkdawmfrl\/
tEk*pw/d / tzGihft& taEGwdukd ]]tEk+wd}}[k jzwfapvkd\? ]]tEk
+{wd}}[k jzwfjcif;ukd rESpfouf/ qufOK;tHh-]]wawm eH 'ku raEGwd}} ygVdawmf
jzihf tusdK;0dygufvkdufaMumif;ukd jyonf? ]]bdua0 w'g rr ykawe uwurH
ypawm ypawm}}[laom t|uxmpum;jzihf tukokdvfuHvkdufaMumif;ukd
jy\? xkdokdYjzpfvQif ygVdawmfu tusdK;vkduf t|uxmu uHvkduf jzpfae&um;
ygVdawmfESihf t|uxm rqefYusifbl;vm;[k ar;zG,f&Sd\? uHESihftusdK;0dyguf
wkdYrSm uif;rjzpfaomaMumihf rqefYusif[k ajz&ygrnf? rSef\-uHvkdufvQif
tusdK;vkduf tusdK;vkdufvQif uHvkduf\/ ("r#D)

78

"ry'bmom#Dum

,ru

OKrk o
H -H aygifom;uk?d y#d[ewd-xdcu
dk \
f ? 'G[
D -d 2yg;ukeaf om? ar[d
tmuma&[d-tjcif;t&mwkjYd zih?f Am"EH- ESyd pf ufwwfaom? puH- onf?
w-xkEd mG ;vm;\? y'gEky'du-H a&SUajc a&SUajctm;avsmaf om aemuf
ajcokYd tpOfvu
dk o
f nf? (z0g;ajcxyf xufMuyfruGm vku
d o
f nf)? a[mwd
,xm-jzpfouJo
h /Ydk wax0-xkt
Yd wlomvQi?f y'ka|e-tbdZmpaom
tjypfwo
Ydk nf zsuq
f ;D tyfaom? reom-pdwjf zih?f wDP-d 3yg;ukeaf om?
'kp& w
d med-wku
Yd ?dk yla&wGm-jynfah p? Xdw-H wnfaom? yk*v
-H yk*Kd vo
f ?Ydk
ed&,m'Do-k ed&,tp&Sad om *wdww
Ydk iG ?f ww ww-xkx
d *dk wd? *w*w|mae-a&muftyfa&muftyfaom t&yf? 'kp& w
d rlvuH-'kpku
d [
f l
aom t&if;cH&adS om? um,durd- uk,
d f jzpfonfvnf;jzpfaom? apwodurd- pdwf jzpfonfvnf;jzpfaom? 'ku-H 'kuo
nf? tEkAEw-d tpOf
vkduf\? wd-*gxmtzGifh tNyD;wnf;/
*gxmy&da,momae-*gxm\tqHk;? woo[m-oHk;aomif;
twkid ;f t&Sn&f u
dS ek af om? bduL -&[ef;wko
Yd nf? y#dord' g[d-4yg;aom
y#dord'gwkdYESifh? o[-wuG? t&[wH-t&[wzkdvfokdY? ygykPoka&mufuek Nf y?D orwy &dom,yd-a&mufvmaom y&dowf\vnf; 0gwGuv
f nf;? a'oem-a'oemawmfonf? omwdu
m-tusKd ;ESiw
fh uGjzpf
onf? 0g-tusdK;&Sdonf? ozvm-tusdK;ESihfwuGjzpfonf? 0g-tusdK;&Sd
onf? ta[mod-jzpfNyD? wd-puKygvaw&0wK tNyD;tqHk;wnf;/
puKygvaw&0wKbmom#Dum Ny;D \/
y'gEky'duH/ / y'H p+tEky'H p y'gEky'H-yxrajcvSrf;+xkdajcvSrf;tm;
avsmfaom 'kwd,ajcvSrf;? y'gEky'H+*pwDwd y'gEky'duH-yxrajcvSrf; xkdajc
vSrf;tm;avsmfaom 'kwd,ajcvSrf;okdY+tpOfvkdufonf(r#D-3 63)/
t&[wH/ / t&[E+bma0g t&[wH-&[Em\ jzpfaMumif; t&[wzkdvfpdwf? ]]t&[EwH}}[k qkdvkdvsuf Eukd acs/

2-r|uk@vD0wKbmom#Dum
raemykA* rF m "rmwd"rmtp&Sad om? 0g-[laom? 'kw,
d *gxmyd
udv
k nf;? om0w,
d aH ,0om0wNd rKd Uom? r|uk@vr|uk@vDu?kd
tm&A? bmodwmtyfNyD/
ud&csJUOK;tHh? om0wd,H? t'dEykAaum emrt'dEykAurnf
aom? jAm[aPmykPm ;onf? ta[mod&Scd NhJ y/D awexdyk P
k m ;onf?
updwpfpw
kH pfa,muftm;? udd bmudrk Q? e 'dEy Ak H a&S;ray;tyf?
0gray;tyfpzl;? awexdaYk Mumif?h wHxdyk P
k m ;ud?k ]]t'dEy Ak a um}}awG0t'dEykAu[lomvQif? (OD;uyfap;ESJ[lomvQif)? omeok
aumif;pGm odukefNyD? 0g-emrnfrSnfhukefNyD/ wxdkykPm;\? 0g-rSm?
yda,mcspftyfaom? remaygpdwfESvHk;udk wdk;yGm;apwwfaom? 0g
jrwfE;kd tyfaom? {uykwa umoem;apmifah &Smuftyfaom wpfa,muf
wnf;aomom;onf? ta[mod&SdNyD/ tx? txdkom;zkdY? 0gtwGu?f ydvEeH wefqmud?k uma&wkumarmjyKapjcif;iSm tvd&k o
dS nf?
([kwGm)? ]]ok0Puma&a&Tyef;xdrfonfwdkYudk? oap uma&mrd
tu,f jyKaptHh? ({0H owd-odkYjyKaponf&Sdaomf)? bwa0weH
aeYpmxrif; vpm&dum ponfu?kd (xrif;&dum uk)d ? 'gwAH ay;xdu
k f
onf? b0dwdvdrfhrnf?}} wdodkYawG;? o,ar0udk,fwdkif
omvQif? ok0PHa&Tudk? aumawGmxk? r|medajymif acsmjzpf
ukefaom? uk@vmedem;awmif;wdkYudk? uwGm-jyK? t'goday;NyD/
bwa0weH/ / bZwd *pwDwd(tvkyform;vufodkY a&mufwwfaom
aMumihf) a0weH? bZ+weef? bZukd 0DjyK ukd {0k'djyK?-axmr? oDbm-4
16/ a0wd y0wwd {awemwd a0weH? 0D+we?-arm*f-7 108? bwH p+
a0weH p bwa0weH/ bwa0weEd a'0odubwa0(aeYwkdif;aeYwkdif;
ay;tyfaom aeYpmxrif;ukv
d nf;aumif;) rmodum'dy&dA,
(vwkid ;f vwkid ;f
ay;tyfaom vpm&dum paom &dum ukv
d nf;aumif;) w w ukvurol&bm0gEklaye?-'D.|-1 265/

80

"ry'bmom#Dum

,ru

awexdkaMumifh? txdkykPm;\? ykawmom;onf? r|uk@vDawG0r|uk@vD[


l om? (a&Tem;awmif;ajymif[
l om)? ynm,dw
xif&mS ;Ny?D wxdrk |uk@vD\? aomVo0duumav16ESp&f &dS m
tcg? y@Ka&ma*gjzLzwfjzLa&mftqif;&Sad om a&m*gonf? 0g-aoG;
tm;enf;a&m*gonf? 0g-tom;0ga&m*gonf? O'yg'djzpfNy/D w
xdkr|uk@vD\? rmwmtaronf? ykwHom;udk? MoavmauwGm
Munfh? ]]jAm[PykPm; awoif\? ykw\? 0g-rSm? a&ma*g
a&m*gonf? OyaEmjzpfNy?D eHxdo
k m;ud?k wdupd m ay[daq;ukapavm?}}
wd-Ny/D abmwd&Sirf a0ZH aq;q&mud?k oap tmaemrdtu,f
yifhaqmiftHh? ({0H owdaomf?) bwa0weHaeYpmxrif; vpm
&dumponfudk? (xrif;&dumukd)? 'gwAHay;xdkufonf? b0dwdrnf? wGH onf? rr\? "eap'H Opm\ jywfjcif;ud?k e Moavmauod
urMunfhawmhbl;avm? wdodkYajymNyD/
y@Ka&ma*g/ / ]]y@K p+aom+a&ma*g pmwd y@Ka&ma*g}}[k jyK?
yk'fukd a&S;aq;usrf;rsm; ]]0goihfem}}[k bmomjyefMu\? 0goihfemjzpfvQif
rsufvkH; vufonf; tom;a&mifrsm; 0gvmonf? xkda&m*gtwGuf eEGif;rIefY
1usyf 8yJom;ESihf 'defcsOf 7usyf 4yJom;ukd a&m eHeuftdyf&mxwkdif; cyf
rsm;rsm; aomufay;&onf? xkdYjyif eEGif;jyKwf&nf 15usyfom;ESihf EGm;axmywf
tppf 5usyfom;wdkYukd axmywf 5usyfom; usefonftxd csufNyD;aomufvQif
0goihfemudk tjrpfjywfaysmufuif;aponf? xkdYjyif eEGif;rIefY ZD;jzL zef;cg;
opfqdrfhoD;wdkYESifh uRJaxmywfwdkYudk a&SUenf;twkdif; csufaomufvQifvnf;
aysmufuif;onf/ (ykHjyaq;"mef-2 115)
tom;0ga&m*g aoG;tm;enf;a&m*g/ / P.T.S tbd"mef ]] jaundicetom;0ga&m*g}}[k qk\
d ? ,aeYacwf q&m0efrsm;u ]]ANAEMIA-teD;rD;,m;
a&m*g (aoG;tm;enf;a&m*g)}}[k qdkMu\? xkda&m*gonf tvGeftuRHarxkefrSD
0Jjcif; (vdiftaysmftyg;vkdufpm;vGef;jcif;) tvGeftuRHt&ufaomufjcif;
(tvGeftuRH rl;,pfaq;0g;rSD0Jjcif;) csOfaom tpm;tpmukd tpm;rsm;jcif;

0*f

"ry'bmom#Dum

81

jAm[PykPm; txxdkodkYjzpfvQif? eHxdkom;udk? utb,fodkY?


u&dodjyKrnfenf; wdodaYk r;Ny/D ,xmtMuiftjcif;t&m
tm;jzifh jyKvaomf? ar\? "eapa'gonf? e a[mwd? wxmxdk
tjcif;t&mtm;jzifh? u&dmrdtHh? wdodkYajymNyD/ aomxdk
ykPm;onf? a0ZmeHwdkY\? oEduH-txHokdY? *Em-oGm;? ]] wkarSwdYk
onf? tokua&m*xdo
k aYkd om a&m*gzk?Yd 0g-\twGu?f u-tb,f
okdYaom? aboZH aq;udk? ua&mxjyKukefoenf;}} wd-okdY? ykpdNyD/ emredygwf teufrJh/
tx? txdkykPm;tm;? awxdkaq;q&mwdkYonf? ,H 0g
wH 0g[kw[
f w
k f jim;jim;aom? 0g-awmfpmG avsmpf mG wpfpw
kH pf&maom?
kuwpm'opfacguftp&Sdonfudk? tmpduEdajymjyukef\/ aom
xdkykPm;onf? wHxdkopfacguftp&Sdonfudk? tm[&dwGmaqmif?
ykw
om;zkY ?d 0g-twGuf? aboZH ud?k ua&mwd\? wHxdak q;uko
rIu?kd ua&mEa0jyKpOfyif? txdo
k m;\? a&ma*ga&m*gonf?
Av0gtm;&So
d nf? 0gysi;f xefonf? ta[modNy?D tawudpb
m0H
rukoxku
d o
f nf\ tjzpfo?Ykd 0g-ukor&onf\ tjzpfo?Ykd Oyg*rd
aeYbuf ttdyfrsm;jcif; ajrnuftpm;rsm;jcif; (ESmacgif;yg;pyfxJ zkef0ifjcif;)
ponfaMumihf jzpfwwfonf[k aq;usrf;wkdY qkd\? xkda&m*gonf ylwdrkw
aq;ukd rDS0JvQif aysmufuif;onf/ (0d-3 299? r-1 391) ylwdrkwESihfpyf
tqkdtrsdK;rsdK;ukd r.|-2 275? r#D-2 297? tH.|-2 276? tH#D-2 263?
wd.|-309? rlv#D-219? 0dok'd#D-1 151wkdYvnf;aumif; ylwdrkwaq;
aMumihf a&m*gtrsdK;rsdK;aysmufuif;ykHukd e,rmvmaq;usrf; OwkabmZe
o*F[usrf; "mwk0dbm*'DyeD aboZrLomaq;usrf; p&uukxkH;usrf;
bm0yumoaq;usrf; teed'gef;usrf;wkdYvnf;aumif; Iyg/
tawudpbm0H/ / wdudpdwaAmwd awudapm? e+awudapm tawudapm(r#D-3 47)? wdupeH wdudpm? ewd+wdudpm ,mwd tawudapmukoEkdifjcif;r&Sdol? tawudp+bma0g tawudpbma0g/

82

"ry'bmom#Dum

,ru

a&mufNyD/ jAm[aPmonf? wxdkom;\? 'kAvbm0Htm;r&Sd


onf\tjzpfu?kd wGmod? {uHwpfa,mufaom? a0ZH ud?k yaumodac:Ny/D aomxdak q;q&monf? wHxdo
k m;ud?k MoavmauwGm0
Munf
h omvQi?f ]]trSmuHwd\
Yk ? 0g-wkrYd mS ? {uHwpfcak om? udpH jyKz,
G f
onf? twd &Sad o;\? tnHtjcm;aom? a0ZH ud?k yaumodwmG ac:?
wdudpmay[daq;ukapavm?}} wdodkYajym? wHxdkom;udk?
y[m,y,fpGefY ? edurdxGufoGm;NyD/ jAm[aPmonf? wxdk
om;\? r&Por,Haocsed u
f ?kd 0g-aocgeD;tcsed u
f ?kd wGm? ]]rom;ud?k 'ewm,Munfjh cif;tusK;d iSm? tm*wmvmolwYkd
onf? taEma*a[tdr\
f twGi;f ? omyaw,sH Opmud?k ydEd
jrifuek v
f rd rhf nf? A[dtdr\
f tjyifbuf? eHxdo
k m;ud?k u&dmrdjyKt?hH
0g-xm;tH?h }} wdodMYk u
H ? ykwH ud?k eD[&dwmG xkwaf qmif? A[dtmVdaEtdrfhtjyifbufqif0if? 0g-tdrfa&SU0&efwm? edyZmayod
k x
f m;
tdyaf pNy/D tdrrf Bu;D ay:xyfwiG f a&SUbuf okrYd [kwf ab;buf qufxw
aom taqmifukd qif0if[k ac:onf(jref"mef)/

wH 'd0oHxdak eY? b*0gonf? Av0ypLoora,tm;&Sad om


rd;k aomuftcg? 0g-vif;tm;Bu;D tcsed f ? r[mukPmormywad wm
r[mukPmormywfrS? (ow0grsm;tay: BuD;rm;aom oem;rI
Burd zf efrsm;pGmjzpfjcif;rS)? 0k|m,xawmfr
l ? ykAA ak 'ok a&S;bk&m;&Sif
r&Pumav/ /r&Pumavwd r&P tmoEumav(oH.|-181)/
r&PmoEumavwd {awe raZavmyormoH 'awd Oypm&0aoe
0g r&PmoEumv r&Pumvbm0H(rPd#D-2 85)/ or,ESihf umv
onf y&d,m,fjzpf&um; tzGihfukd Munfhay;onf/
r[mukPmormywdawm/ / bk&m;&Sifonf eHeuftcsdef uka# 1oef;
2odef;? ncsrf;tcsdef uka# 1oef; 2odef;tm;jzifh wpfaeYvQif r[mukPm
ormywfaygif; uka# 2oef; 4odef; 0ifpm;awmfrl&m eHeufydkif;wGif

0*f

"ry'bmom#Dum

83

wdYk ? uwm"dum&meHjyKtyfNy;D aom tvGet


f uJjyKtyfaom aumif;rI
d m wd uma&m? t"du+H uma&m t"duma&m? uawm+
&Su
d ek af om? u&D,w
t"duma&m a,[Dwd uwm"dum&m(okwrf [mbm-1 215? eDbm-3 14)?

OEuo
k vrlvmeHrsm;aom ukov
kd t
f ajccH&u
dS ek af om? a0ae,sAE0geHopm4yg;udk odxu
kd af om ow0g[laom aqGawmfrsKd ;awmfwYkd
ud?k 0g-uRwx
f u
kd af omow0g[laom aqGawmfrsKd ;awmfwu
Ykd ?dk 'ewH Munfah wmfrjl cif;tusK;d iSm? Ak'p uKembk&m;&Siw
f \
Ykd rsupf ad wmfjzif?h
0ifpm;awmfrltyfaom ukPmpsmefaZmukd ]]r[mukPmormywd}}[k ac:
onf/ (y#doH|-1 54? plVed.|-50)
0pew/ /y&'kau owd om"leH [',ureH ua&mwDwd ukPm?
u&+,k+tm? ,kudk tejyK eukd PjyK &\ t-ukd OjyK? udemwd 0g y&'kuH
[owd 0demaowDwd ukPm? ud+,k+tm? ,kudk te &-vm ud\ ukd
t-jyK &\ t-ukd OjyK? ud&wd 0g y&'kuH 0dudywd tyaewDwd ukPm?
ud&,
D wd 0g 'kuad wok z&P0aoe yom&D,wDwd ukPm? ud&+,k+tm?
,kudk tejyK eukdPjyK ud\ ukd t-jyK &\ t-ukd OjyK? uH okcH kEwDwd
ukPm? u+k"+,k+tm? ]]ukEPm}}[k qkdvkdvsuf Eukdacs? z&Pur0aoe ur*kP0aoe p r[wD ukPm r[mukPm? ormyZEd {wH
r[mumkPu
d mwd ormywd? t0kwu
rom"e? ]]ormyZw
d Amwd ormywd} }
[kvnf; jyKEkdifonf? r[mukPm p+om+ormywd pmwd r[mukPmormywd-oufa&muftyfaom r[mukPm/
a0ae,sAE0geH/ / 0daewAmwd a0ae,sm? 0d+eD+Ps? AEEDwd AEL
("mef#D-243)? AED,Ed odae[bma0emwd AEL(arm*f-7 2)? rrw0aoe
AZEd oHAZEDwd AEL(r#D-3 372? tH#D-3 25)? AELa,0 AE0g? a0ae,sm
p+aw+AE0g pmwd a0ae,sAE0g? trsKd ;tEG,pf yfoo
l nf AE0rnfouJo
h Ydk
opm4yg;ukd xdk;xGif; odjcif;tm;jzihf qufpyfaeMuaom ow0gwkdYvnf;
bk&m;&Sif\ aqGawmfrsdK;awmfrsm;yif rnf\/ (oD#Dopf-2 207?oDbm-3 292)
Ak'puKem/ / tan[d tom"m&PH Ak'geHa,0 puK'eEd Ak'puK tmo,mEko,PH `Ed,ya&my&d,wP?-'D#D-1 242/

84

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,ru

(bk&m;&SifwdkY\ rsufpdjzpfaom tmo,mEko,Pfawmf `Ed,ya&my&d,wPfawmfjzif)h ? avmuHowavmuud?k a0gavmauaEmMunfhawmfrlvsuf? 'oo[pu0gaVokwpfaomif;aom


pMum0VmwkYd ? PZmvHPfwnf;[laom uGe&f ufu?kd (tmo,mEko,Pfawmf `Ed,ya&my&d,wPfawmfwnf;[laom uGef
&ufu)kd ? yw&d jzeft
Y yk af wmfrNl y/D r|uk@vDonf? A[dtmVdaEtdrhf
tjyifbufqif0if? 0g-tdrfa&SU0&efwm? edyEmuma&ae0tdyfae
ol\ tjcif;t&mtm;jzifyh if? 0g-tdyaf eonfh yHpk jH zihyf if? wxk
d Pf
uGef&uf\? taEmtwGif;? ynm,dxifvmNyD/ owmonf? wH
xdrk |uk@vDu?dk 'domG ? wxkrd |uk@vD\? 0gud?k taEma*[mtdr\
f twGi;f rS? eD[&dwmG xkw
f ? wwxkt
d rd t
hf jyifbuf qif
0if? 0g-tdraf &SU0&efwm? edyZmydwbm0Htdyaf ptyfonf\tjzpfu?dk
wGm-odawmfr
l ? ]]r,SH \? {wtdro
f ?Ydk *wypa,e<uawmfrl
jcif;[laom taMumif;aMumifh? tawmtusKd;onf? twd Ek acg&dS
avoavm?}} wdok?Yd Oy"ma&aEmqifjcifawmfrv
l aomf? 'H
taMumif;ukd? t'ojrifawmfrlNyD? (u-enf;) t,H rmPa0g
vkvifonf? r,dig? pdwHukd? yoma'wGmMunfkdap? umvH
aojcif;uk?d 0gaocsed u
f ?dk uwGmjyK? wm0woa'0avmauwm0
womewfjynf? woa,mZedau,lZemok;H q,f&adS om? ueu0drmaea&TArd mef? edAw

d wdjzpfvrd rhf nf? tp&mo[y&d0ga&mewf
orD;wpfaxmiftjct
H &H&o
dS nf? b0dwdvdrrhf nf? jAm[aPmydonf
vnf;? wHxkrd |uk@vDu?dk psmaywGmrD;oN*K [
f ? a&m'aEmikv
d su?f
tmVm[aeocsKif;? 0dp&dwdvSnfhvnfvdrhfrnf/ a'0ykawm
ewfom;onf? wd*g0kwyrmPHokH;*g0kwftwdkif;t&Snf&Sdaom? o|dou#bm&mvuFm&y#dr@dwHvSnf;tpD;ajcmufq,fwdkYjzifh aqmif
xdu
k af om wefqmwdjYk zifh qif,iftyfaom? 0g-vSn;f tpD;ajcmufq,f
wkduf 0efyrmP&Sdaom wefqmwdkYjzifh qif,iftyfaom? tp&m-

0*f

"ry'bmom#Dum

85

o[y&d0g&HewforD;wpfaxmiftjct
H &H&adS om? twbm0Htw
abmuk?d 0gcEmuk,
d u
f ?dk MoavmauwGm-? ]]aue uaretb,f
aumif;rIaMumif?h r,monf? t,H od&o
d rwd usuo
f a&\ jynfph Hk
jcif;uk?d v'g Ek acg&tyfavoenf;?}} wdokMYd u
H ? MoavmauwGmvaomf? r,d? pdwyoma'epdwfukd Munfkdapjcif;aMumihf?
v'bm0H&tyfonf\tjzpfukd? wGm-? ]]t,H jAm[aPmonf?
"eap'ba,eOpm\ jywfpjJ cif;rS aMumufjcif;aMumif?h rrighz?Ykd 0gtwGuf? aboZHaq;ukd? (aq;ukorIukd)? tuwGmrl? 'ged?
tmVm[eHok?Yd *Em-? a&m'wdidak e\? eHxkyd P
k m ;uk?d 0dyu
m&ywH
azmufjyefjcif;okdY a&mufonfukd? 0g-atmif? u&dmrdtHh?}} wd
okdY MuH? ydw&dtazykPm;onf? a&m'aEikdaevaomf? 0g-pOf?
r|uk@vd0aPer|uk@vDtoGijf zif?h tm*Em-? tmVm[e
\? t0d'la&teD;? edyZdwGmvJavsmif;? a&m'dwdikdvdrfhrnf/
tx? eHxked wfom;uk?d jAm[aPmonf? ]]wGH onf? aumtb,f
olonf? todenf;}} wd-okdY? ykpdwd-ar;vdrfhrnf/ ]]t[HuRef
awmfonf? aw\? ykawmom;jzpfaom? r|uk@vDwnf;?}} wdokdY? tmpdudwdajymvdrfhrnf/ uk[tb,ff? edAawmjzpfonf?
todenf; wd-ar;vdrfhrnf/ wm0wob0aewm0wombkH?
(edAa wmonf? trSd \)? wd-odYk ajymvdrrhf nf/ ]]u urH tb,f
aumif;rIukd? uwGmjyK? (edAawm-onf? tod-enf;)}} wdokdY?
0kawar;tyfaomf? r,d? pdwyoma'epdwfukd Munfkdapjcif;
aMumif?h edAw
b
m0Hjzpf&onf\ tjzpfu?dk tmpdu
d wd-ajymvdrrhf nf/
pdwyoma'e/ / ]](1) pdwf\ Munfkdjcif; (2) pdwf\ MunfvifaMumif;
o'g (3) pdwfukd Munfkdapjcif;}}[k teuf 3 rsdK;&Sd&m aemuf ]]pdwH yoma'wGm rear0 yoma'od}}[k&Sdojzihf aemufqkH;teufom aumif;\?
]]yom'gyeH yoma'g? pdw
+yoma'g pdwy o
ma'g-pdwu
f dk Munfadk pjcif;}}
[kjyK/

86

"ry'bmom#Dum

,ru

jAm[aPmonf? ]]wkarSokoifwkdY? pdwHukd? yoma'wGmap?


oa*ewfjynf? edAa wm emrjzpforl nfonf? twd &Syd goavm}}
wd-okdY? rHukd? ykpdwd-vdrfhrnf/ tx? txkdykPm;tm;?
t[Honf? ]]{wumedrQtwkid ;f t&Sn&f u
dS ek af om? owmedt&m
wdw
Yk nf;? (&maygif;rsm;pGmwkw
Yd nf;)? (wd) 0g-odv
Yk nf;aumif;? ({wumedukeaf om?) o[medtaxmifww
Ydk nf;? (axmifaygif;rsm;pGm
wkw
Yd nf;)? (wd) 0g-aumif;? ({wumedukeaf om?) owo[med
tode;f wkw
Yd nf;? (ode;f aygif;rsm;pGmwkw
Yd nf;)? wd 0gaumif;? *Pem
ta&twGuu
f ?dk y&d pEd w
d Hk ykid ;f jzwfjcif;iSm? e oumrpGr;f Ekid ?f }} wdok?Yd 0wGmrdeaYf wmfr
l ? "rya'"ry'? *gxH-uk?d bmodmrda[m
rnf/ *gxmy&da,momae*gxmawmf\ tqHk;? pwk&moDwd,m84 vDaom? ygPo[meH-ow0gtaxmifw\
Ykd ? (axmifaygif;rsm;
pGmaom ow0gwkdY\)? (wpfenf;) pwk&moDwd,m ygPo[meH
&Spaf omif;av;axmifaom ow0gwk\
Yd ? "rmbdora,mopmav;yg;
w&m;wdkYukd xkd;xGif; odjcif;onf? 0g-r*fzdkvfukd &jcif;onf? "rmbdd rhf nf? r|uk@vD
ora,mwd r*zy#dvmabm?-"r#/D b0dwd-jzpfvr
onf? aomwmyaEmonf? b0dwd-rnf? t'dEy Ak a umt'dEy Ak u

rnfaom? jAm[aPmonf? wxmxkdYtwl? (aomwmyaEm-onf?


b0dwd-rnf?) wdokv
Yd Qi?f rH ukvykwH trsK;d aumif;om;
ukd? edm,rSD? r[m"rmbdora,mrsm;pGmaomolwkdY\ opm 4
yg;w&m;udk xk;d xGi;f odjcif;onf? b0dwd-rnf? wdod?Yk 'domG
? yke'd0aoaemufwpfaeY? uwo&D&y#dZ*aemjyKtyfNyD;aom
ukd,fawmfukd okwfoifjcif;&Sdawmfrlonf? 0g-udk,fvufokwfoifrIukd
jyKawmfNyD;onf? (ormaem-aomf?) r[mbduKoHCy&d0kawmrsm;pGm
aom &[ef;taygif;onf jc&H t
H yfonf? ([kwmG )? om0w ok?Yd yd@m,iSm? y0dow
d mG -? tEkyak Ae-jzih?f jAm[P\? a*['Gg&Htdrw
f cH g;

0*f

"ry'bmom#Dum

87

okdY? *awm<ua&mufawmfrlNyD/
wo caP? r|uk@vDonf? taEma*[mbdrkacgtdrf\
twGif;bufokdY a&S;Iaom rsufESm&Sdvsuf? 0g-tdrf\ twGif;bufodkY
rsufESmrlvsuf? edyaEmtdyfaeonf? a[mwd/ tx? owmonf?
txdrk |uk@vD\? 0g-onf? twaemrdru
d ?kd tyebm0Hjrif
jcif;r&So
d nf\ tjzpfu?dk wGm-? {uHwpfrsKd ;aom? &o a&mifjcnf
awmfukd? 0daZodvTwfawmfrlNyD?? rmPa0gvkvifonf? ]]{aom
ta&mifonf? u Mobmaom emrtb,fta&mifrnfoenf;?}}
wdodkYawG;? y&d0awwGmvnfap? 0g-vSnfh? edyaEm0
avsmif;vsuo
f m? owm&Hud?k 'domG -? ]]tEAmvydw&Huef;rdu
k af om
tazud?k edm,rS
D ? {0lyH odo
Yk abm&Sad om? Ak'-H od?Yk OyouFr-d
wGm-csOf;uyf? um,a0,sm0#duH udk,fjzifh jyKxdkufaom aMumifMh u
pdu
k o
f \
l tjzpfu?kd 0g-ud,
k x
f v
d ufa&muf 0wfBu;D 0wfi,fjyKru
I ?kd umwHk
0gjyKjcif;iSmvnf;aumif;? 'geHtvSLud?k 'gwHk 0gay;vSLjcif;iSmvnf;
aumif;? "rHudk? aomwHk 0gemjcif;iSmvnf;aumif;? emvwH (e+
tvwH)r&cJh? 'ged-? ar\? [wmydvufwdkYonfvnf;? te"dyaw,smtBu;D tuJ\tjzpf r&Sad wmhuek ?f (rpk;d ykid af wmhuek )f ? tnH
tjcm;aom? uwAHjyKtyf jyKEdkifaom aumif;rIonf? ewd?}} wd
odkY awG;? rear0pdwfudkom? yoma'odMunfkdapNyD/ owm
onf? ]]rr|uk@vDtm;? {wauerQtwkdif;t&Snf&Sd
aom? pdwy o
ma'ejzif?h tvHawmfavmufNy?D }} wdodMYk uaH wmfrl
? yumrdzJ<uawmfrNl y/D aomxdrk |uk@vDonf? wxm*awonf?
um,a0,sm0#du/H / Asm0&,wDwd Asm0a#m-aMumihfMupkdufol? 0d+
tm+0&(bwdteuf)+w? Asm0#+bma0g Asm0#duH? Asm0#+Ps? w\tukd jyK? ,ukd ujyK? uma,e+Asm0#duH um,Asm0#duH/ (r[mbm-2
613? eDbm-2 441)

88

"ry'bmom#Dum

,ru

puKyxHrsupf \
d vrf;aMumif;ud?k 0grsupf jd rifavmuf&mt&yfu?kd 0dZ[aEa,0pGeaYf omfom? 0g-pGev
Yf Qipf eG jYf cif;? yoEraemMunfadk om
aom pdwf&Sdonf? ([kwGm)? umvH-ukd? uwGm-jyK? okwyAka'g 0d,
tdyNf y;D onfjzpf Ed;k oluo
hJ ?Ykd 0gtdyaf oma,mufsm; Ed;k aomfvm;od?Yk
okawm+[kwGm+yAka'g okwyAka'g(yg&mbm-1 441)? okwawm+yAka'g
okwyAka'g-tdyfaysmfNyD;onfrS (tdyfaysmf&mrS) Ekd;vmol(rtlyg&med-2 117)?

a'0avmauwm0womewfjynf? woa,mZedau,lZemoH;k q,f


&Sad om? ueu0drmaea&TArd mef? ueaue+yuwH+0drmeH ueu0drmeH d jzpfNy/D
a&Tjzihf NyD;aom Adrmef(rtlyg&med-2 117)? edAw
jAm[aPmydonfvnf;? txdrk |uk@vD\? o&D&H ud,
k u
f ?kd
psmaywGm-? tmVm[ae-? a&m'ey&m,aPmtvGeaf &muftyf
aom ikad <u;jcif;&So
d nf? 0g-ikad <u;jcif;[laom vnf;avsmif;&m&So
d nf?
ta[mod? a'0oduH aeYwidk ;f aeYwikd ;f ? tmVm[eHod?Yk *Em? a&m'wdpuKyxH/ / puKa,0 yaxm ly'e ra*g Oyga,mwd puKyaxm(lygkHukdjrifjcif;\taMumif;jzpfaom puKyom')? puK a*gp&a,ma*g (yaxm) 0g puKyaxm-rsufpd\ (tmkHjzpfjcif;jcif;iSm xkdufaom)
vrf;?-'D#D-2 206/
a&m'ey&m,aPm/ / y&H+t,eH y&m,PH? y&+t,e? e-ukd PjyK
(eDbm-1 434)? ya&oH+tm,eEd y&m,PH? y&+tm,e(r"k-38)? a&m'eH+
y&m,PH ,mwd a&m'ey&m,aPm/
a'0odu/H / ]]a'0oduH-aeYwkdif;aeYwkdif;? (owrDteuf)? a'0oduHaeYwidk ;f aeYwidk ;f ? (Bu,
d m0daooeteuf)}}[k teuf 2rsKd ;ay;Mu\(oDbm-4
8)/ ]](1) 'd0ao 'd0ao y&dbkdwAH a'0oduH(oD#Dopf-2 302)? (2) 'd0ao 'd0ao 'gwAH a'0oduH(oD#Dopf-305)? (4) 'd0oH 'd0oH AsmaywGm y0wwDwd a'0oduH(Zm#D-7 398)? (5) 'd0aom p 'd0aom p 'd0omed? 'd0omeda,0 a'0oduH? (6) 'd0aook 0g y&d0wH a'0oduH(Zm#D-21 536)?
(7) 'd0ao 'd0ao a'0oduH? 0dpmteuf Pduypnf;(ygpda,m-9)}}[k 0dN*dK[f
7rsdK; awGU&\? (5-7)eHygwf 0dN*dK[f2rsdK;om oihfavsmf\/

0*f

"ry'bmom#Dum

89

\? (u-tb,foYkd ajymido
k enf;) ]]u[H {uykwu
aMomf...
wpfa,mufwnf;aom om;av;a& u[H {uykwu
a&}} wd-
okYd ajym idNk y/D a'0ykawmydewfom;onfvnf;? twaem\? orw
pnf;pdrfudk? MoavmauwGm-? ]]aronf? aue uaretb,f
aumif;rIaMumif?h v'g&tyfoenf;?}} wdod?Yk Oy"ma&aEmqifjcifv
aomf? ]]ow&d jrwfpmG bk&m;? raemyoma'epdwu
f dk Munfadk pjcif;
aMumih?f (v'gNy?D )}} wd-ok?Yd wGm-? ]]t,H jAm[aPmonf? rr
\? tzmokuumavruse;f rm&mtcg? aboZH ud?k tuma&wGm
rjyKaprl? 'ged-,cktcg? tmVm[eH-ok?Yd *Em-? a&m'wd-idak e\?
eHxdyk P
k m ;ud?k 0dyu
m&ywa r0azmufjyefjcif;odYk a&mufonfuo
kd m? 0ga&mufatmifom? umwHk jyKjcif;iSm? 0wdoif\
h ?}} wdodYk Mu
H ?
r|uk@vd0aPer|uk@vDtoGijf zif?h tm*Em-? tmVm[e
\? t0d'al &teD;? Am[mvufarmif;wdu
Yk ?kd y*,S ajrm uf? a&m'aEm
vsu?f t|modwnfNy/D jAm[aPmonf? wHxdek wfom;ud?k 'domG -?
]]wm0pGm? t[Honf? ykwa omaueom;jzpfaom 0rf;enf;ylaqG;
jcif;aMumif?h a&m'grd\? {o ({aom)vkvifonf? udrwH tb,f
tusK;d iSm? 0gtb,faMumif?h a&m'wdenf;? eHxdv
k v
k ifu?kd ykp
d mrdu[H {uykwu
/ / u[Hudk y'yl&Pedygwf,
l ay;cJo
h nf(eDwo
d w
k -
375-6? eDwdokwed-2 295)? [Hedygwf 0dom'(yifyef;jcif;)teufa[m[k
l-133? l#D-81 qkd\? xkdtvkd u[Hukd u+[H}}[k jzwf ]][H {uykwu[if;...wpfa,mufwnf;aom om;av;a& u-tb,frSmenf;}}[kay;(l*H1 411)? oDrl led a&S;rlwkdY [H[k&Sdjcif; [HedygwfykHpHjzpfjcif;aMumihf ]][H {uykwu}}[k &SdoihfaMumif;ukd l#Dedopf-1 295 qkd\? xkdtqkdonf ]][m [m
r|uk@vd? [m [m r|uk@vd(0drme.|-304)}}ESihf nDovkd &Sd\/ ]]{uykwu u[H-tb,frSmenf;}}[k ay;jcif;um; tzGihfrsm;ESihf rnDyg? qufOK;tHh2Burd q
f jdk cif;rSm 0rf;enf;ylaqG;aom tmar!dwt
f &mjzpfaomaMumihf jzpfonf?
arm*f-57okwf tmar!dwu
f dk orr[k ok;H EIe;f \? tmar!dwu
f dk 2Burd rf pS
tvkd&Sdoavmuf tBudrfrsm;pGm qkdEkdif\/ (arm*f-57okwf)

90

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,ru

tH?h }} wdodMYk u
H ? ykpa Emar;vdo
k nf? ([kwmG )? rH *gxHud?k
tm[qdNk y/D (u)? ]]tvuFawm ?ay? wk0}}Ed [laom? rH *gxHud?k
tm[qdNk y/D
tvuFawm r|uk@vD rmv"m&D [&dpEE
k a'g?
Am[m y*,S uEod 0eraZ u 'kuad wm wk0/H
(wk0-H oifonf?) tvuFawm- wefqmqiftyfonf? r|uk@vD-yef;yGifhyef;EG,fraESm ajymifacsmem;awmif;Sdonf? 0g-tylay;um
Sed ;f ckpd pfjzifh wku
d af q;tyf 0ufarG;jzifh yGwo
f w
k t
f yfaom em;awmif;
So
d nf? rmv"m&D-yef;uk;H ukad qmifonf? [&dpEE
k a'g-rsm;aom pEu;l
eDo
dS nf? 0g-rsm;aompEu;l 0gSo
d nf? ([kwmG -jzpf?) Am[m-vufarmif;
wku
Yd ?kd y*,-S ajrm ufcs
D ? uEo-d ikad e\? wk0-H oifonf? 0eraZ-awm
\ tv,f? (ocsK i;f tv,f) u-tb,faMumif?h 'kuad wm-vGepf mG
jzpfaom 'ku b
dS o
d enf; 0g-'kua &mufae&oenf; (wpfenf;) u
'kuad wm-b,f'u
k j zifh 'kuw
d jzpfae&oenf;
aom rmPa0gxdv
k v
k ifonf? ]]aom0Pra,m ?ay? ZD0w
d }}Ed
ZD0w
d [
H
l ? tm[ajymNy/D
aom0Pra,m yba&m OyaEm &xya&m rr?
w pu,*k H e 0dEm rd awe 'kaue Z[mrd ZD0w
d /H
rr-uReaf wmf\? 0g-uReaf wmfrh mS ? aom0Pra,m-aTtwdNy;D aom?
yba&m-NyKd ;Ny;d jyufjyufxu
G af om ta&mifadS om? &xya&mr|uk@vD/ / r|uk@vDwd o&D&ya'o tCHoewH rmvmvwm'a,m t'awGm r|muma&ae0 uwuk@avm? tx0g r|uk@vDwd
0dok'uk@avm? wmaywGm Zmwd[d*Fkvdum, rZdwGm a"m0dwGm olu&avmare rZdwuk@avm(0drme.|-304)/ ra|m okaumdaum oky&duruawm ok0Pu@
k avm t twd to 0g 0dZw
w
D d r|uk@vD? r|H
okaumdwH oky&duruwH ok0Pu@
k vH "ma&wDwd 0g r|uk@vD("r#D)/

0*f

"ry'bmom#Dum

91

&xm;ckid o
f nf? 0g-&xm;uk,
d x
f nfonf? OyaEm-jzpfay:ygNy?D wxk&d xm;ckid \
f ? 0g-xk&d xm;uk,
d x
f nf\? pu,*k -H bD;wpfpu
Hk ?dk e 0dEm rdr&ao;yg? awe 'kaue-xk'd u
k a Mumif?h ZD0w
d -H toufu?dk Z[mrdpGe&Yf ygawmhrnf/
tx? eHxdv
k v
k ifu?kd jAm[aPmonf? tm[? (u-enf;)
]]aom0Pr,H ?ay? y#dyg',mrd aw}}wd[l? tm[ajymNy/D
aom0Pr,H rPdr,H avm[dwur,H tx ly,
d r,H?
tmpdu ar b'rmP0 pu,*k H y#dyg',mrd aw/
b'rmP0-aumif;jrwfaomvkvif? aom0Pr,H-aTtwdNy;D aom
bD;wpfpu
Hk adk omfvnf;aumif;? rPdr,H-Eev
D mausmufrsu&f wem
twdNy;D aom bD;wpfpu
Hk adk omfvnf;aumif;? avm[dwur,H- ywjrm;
d r,HtwdNy;D aom bD;wpfpu
Hk adk omfvnf;aumif;? tx-okrYd [kw?f ly,
aiGtwdNy;D aom bD;wpfpu
Hk adk omfvnf;aumif;? ar-ightm;? tmpdu-
ajymygavm? aw-oifzh ?Ydk pu,*k -H bD;wpfpu
Hk ?dk y#dyg',mrd-oD;jcm;jzpf
rPdr,
,H/ / rPdr,Ed EeDvr,H('D#D-3 155? oH.#D-2 151)? rPdr,mwd eDvrPD[d uwm(ty.|-1 118)? eDvrPd=Eev
D rPd(axmr)?
EeDvEd ED0&yky0PmbH(MumndKyef;tqif;Sdaom) rPd EeDvrPd
(ty.|-2299)? ]]EeDvm}}[lonf r&rf;a&miftcHwGif teDa&mif tjym
a&mif oef;aeaom ausmufrsu&f wem wpfrsKd ;wnf;/(jref"mef) tjcm;aom
tzGihfrsm;ukd *gxmed, a&;xm;NyD/
avm[dwur,
ur,H / /avm[dwur,mwd y'kr&m*g'd&wrPdr,m
(0drme.|-152)/ avm[dwrd0 um,wDwd avm[dwaum y'kr&m*PdrSd
(axmr)/ ywjrm;rSefvQif teDa&mifjcnf; jzpf&um; avm[dwuukd ]]ywjrm;
eD}}[k ay;zG,rf vk?d jytyfcahJ om axmred"Ed iS hf ]]avm[dawm {0 avm[dwaum
rPd}}[laom (yg-5 4? 30)okwf umodumtzGifhukd I ]]avm[dwuF avm[dw*F}}wkdYum; ygXfysuf[k "mefedosopf rdeYf\/ r|uk@vDZmwu ]]avm[r,H-aMu;twdNyD;aom bD;wpfpkHukd}}[k ygXffSd\/

92

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,ru

apygth?H 0g-oD;oefv
Y yk af y;ygth?H (wpfenf;) y#dyg',mrd-&ygaptH?h 0g&atmif vkyaf y;ygtH/h
wHxdpk um;ud?k okwmG -? rmPa0gonf? ]]t,H jAm[aPm
onf? ykw
om;zd?Yk 0g-twGu?f aboZ-H ud?k tuwGm-rjyKr
l ? ykw-
ywdyl uHom;ESiw
hf al om? rHud?k 'domG ? a&m'aEmidv
k su?f ]]ok0Pm'dr,Ha&Ttp&So
d nfjzifh Ny;D aom? &xpuH &xm;bD;wpfpu
kH ?kd ua&mrd
vkyaf y;rnf?}} wdod?Yk 0'wdajym\? a[mwk&Syd gap? eHxdyk P
k m ;ud?k
ed*P

dS mrdESyd u
f yG q
f ;Hk rtH?h }} wd-ok?Yd pdaEwmG -? ]]aruReaf wmfzh ?Ykd
0g-twGu?f uD0r[EH tb,frQavmuf Bu;D aom? pu,*k H pufb;D
wpfpu
kH ?kd u&dodvkyaf y;rnfenf;}} wd-ok?Yd 0wGm-? ]],m0r[EH
tMuifrQavmuf Bu;D aompufb;D wpfpu
kH ?kd tmucFod tvd&k \
dS ? wm0
r[EH xdrk Qavmuf Bu;D aompufb;D wpfpu
kH ?kd u&dmrdvkyaf y;rnf?}}
wd-ok?Yd 0kawajymqdt
k yfaomf? ]] aruReaf wmft
h m;? pErd ol&ad ,[d
vaewdjYk zif?h tawmtvd&k \
dS ? artm;? awxdv
k aewdu
Yk ?kd a'[d
ay;ygavm?}} wd-odkYajym? ,mpaEmawmif;vdkonf? ([kwGm)?
tm[? (u) ]]aom rmPa0g ?ay? aombwD}}wd[l? tm[/
aom rmPa0g w yg0'd ]pEol&d,m Oba,w 'da&?
aom0Pra,m &axm rr awe pu,ka*e aombwD}wd/
aom rmPa0g-xkv
d v
k ifonf? w-xkyd P
k m ;tm;? yg0'd- ajymNy?D
(u-tb,foYdk ajymoenf;) {w-avmu? Oabm-2pif;ukeaf om?
pEo&l ,
d m-vaewdu
Yk ?dk (wpfenf;) Oba,-2pif;ukeaf om? pEo&l ,
d mwku
Yd ?dk (tmumao-aumif;uif?) 'da&-awGUjriftyfuek \
f ? rruReaf wmf\? aom0Pra,m-aTtwdNy;D aom? &axm (&xya&m)Oba,w/ / Oba,w 'da&wd Oabmyd {w pEol&d,m tmumao 'dEd? ,uma&m y'oEdua&m? Oba, {wmwd 0g y'0dbma*g?0drme.|-306/

0*f

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93

&xm;ckid o
f nf? 0g-&xm;uk,
d x
f nfonf? awe pu,ak *e-xkv
d ae
[laom bD;wpfpjHk zih?f aombwd-vSywifw
h ,f\? wd-okYd ajymNy/D
tx-? eHxdv
k v
k ifu?kd jAm[aPmonf? tm[? (u) ]]Amavm
acg wGH ?ay? pEo&l ad ,}}wd[l? tm[ajymNy/D
Amavm acg wGH tod rmP0 a,m wGH yw,ao tyw,
d ?H
rnmrd wk0H r&dod e [d wGH vpod pEo&l ad ,/
rmP0-vkvif a,m wG-H tMuifoifonf? tyw,
d -H rawmifw
h
xku
d af om t&muk?d yw,ao-awmifw
h bd\? (aom) wG-H xdo
k ifonf?
acg- pifppf? Amavm-rku
d o
f o
l nf? tod-jzpf\? wk0-H oifonf? r&dodf ? wG-H onf?
aovdrrhf nf[
l ? wdo'gacs? rnmrd-xifyg\? [d-rSe\
pEo&l ad ,- v aewdu
Yk ?kd e vpo-d &vdrrhf nfr[kw/f
tx? eHxdyk P
k m ;ud?k rmPa0g-onf? tm[-Ny?D (u)? ]]ynm,rmexif&mS ;&Sad om t&m0wK\? twm,tusK;d iSm? a&m'aEm
idv
k aomf? 0g-ido
k o
l nf? Amavmvlru
kd o
f nf? a[mwd u yejzpf
oavm O'g[kodrYk [kw?f tynm,rmexif&mS ;r&Sad om t&m
0wK\? twm,iSm? (a&m'aEm-aomf? 0g-aomf? Amavm-onf? a[mwd
u yeavm)}} wd-ok?Yd 0wGm-? ]]*rem*rerd ?ay? Amvswa&m}}wd
[l? (tm[)/
*rem*rer d 'd wd 0P " mwk Oba,w 0D x d , m/
ayawm umvuawm e 'dwd aumed" uEwH Amvswa&m/
0Dx,
d m-aeoGm;vrf; voGm;vrf;? Oba,w-v ae ESppf if;wkYd ?
0P"mwk-a&mifjcnf"mwfukdvnf;aumif;? *rem*rerd-vaewkdY\
aeYpOfaeYpOf 0ifomG ;jcif; xGuv
f mjcif;ukv
d nf;aumif;? 'dwd-awGUjrif
tyfyg\? ayawm-b0rS zJomG ;Ny;D aom? umvuawm-jyKtyfNy;D aom
Ob,w
Ob,w / / Ob,wmwd paE ol&ad ,pmwd 'Go
D yk d 0P"mwk 'dwDwd
a,maZwAH/ (0drme-| 307)

94

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,ru

aojcif;So
d u
l ?dk 0g-aoNy;D olu?dk e 'dwd-rawGUjriftyf rawGUjrifEidk ?f
"-ocsKi;f ? uEw-H ikad eolww
Ydk iG ?f aum-tb,foo
l nf? Amvswa&m-om rku
d yf goenf;
wHxdkpum;udk? okwGm-? jAm[aPm-onf? ]]{o ({aom)
vkvifonf? ,kwH oifah vsmaf ompum;ud?k 0'wdajym\?}} wdokdY? ovauwGmrSwfom;? ]]opH ?ay? umvuwmbdyw,d}}Ed
opH ?ay? umvuwmbdyw,[l? 0wGm-ajymNyD;?
opH acg 0a'od rmP0 t[ar0 uEwH Amvswa&m?
pEH 0d, 'g&aum k'H aywH umvuwmbdyw,/
rmP0-vkvif acg-pifppf? opH-trSefukd? 0a'od-ajymbd\?
uEw-H ikad eolww
Ykd iG ?f t[ar0-igonfom? Amvswa&m-om rku
d f
yg\? 'g&aum-uav;onf? k'H-(k'aEm)-ikdvsuf? pEH-vudk? (tbdyw,wd) 0d,- aS;IawmifhwouJhokdY? (wxm-xkdYtwl? t[H-onf?
k'H k'aEm-vsuf?) aywH-aom? umvuwH-ukd? tbdyw,-aS;I
awmifw
h rdygNy/D
wxdv
k v
k if\? uxm,pum;aMumif?h edamaum0rf;enf;
ylaqG;jcif;r&Sdonf? [kwGm? rmP0ukd? xkwcsD;rGrf;jcif;udk?
ua&maEmjyKvdkonf? ([kwGm)? rm *gxmwdkYudk? tbmod? (u)?
]]tm'dwH ?ay? rmP0g}}wd[l? tbmod&GwfqdkNyD/
tm'dwH 0w rH oEH CwodwH0 yg0uH?
0g&dem 0d, MoodH oAH edAmya, '&H/
Cwodw0H (Cwodw+H {0)-axmywfjzifh avmif;tyfonf jzpf
omvQif? oEH-jzpfaom? yg0uH-rD;ukd? 0g&dem-a&jzifh? MoodH (MoodaEm)-avmif;vsuf? oAH-tvkH;pkHaom? '&H-tylukd? (edAmy,wd)
0d,-Nird ;f apouJo
h ?Ydk (wxm- wl?) 0w-pifppf? tm'dw-H aomurD;onf

0*f

"ry'bmom#Dum

95

vGefpGmawmufavmiftyfonfjzpf? oEH-jzpfaom? rH-ighukd? (uxm0g&dem-pum;wnf;[laom a&jzifh?) MoodH MoodaEm-vsuf? oAHaom? '&H-0rf;enf;ylaqG;jcif;uk?d edAm ya, (edAm y,d)-Nird ;f apNy/D
tA[D 0w ar ovH aomuH [',ed
d w
d ?H
a,m ar aomuya&w ykwa omuH tygEk'/d
a,m (wHG)-tMuifoifonf? aomuya&w-aomuonf
vGepf mG a&muftyfaom? 0g-aomuonf vTr;f rk;d ESu
d pf uftyfaom? arig\? ykwa omuH- om;jzpfaom aomuuk?d tygEk'-d y,fmS ;Ny?D (aom
wG-H xko
d ifonf?) ar-\? [',edw
d -H pdwEf v
S ;Hk rSaD om? aomuHaomuwnf;[laom? ov-H ajimifu
h ?dk tA[d 0w-y,fEw
k Ef idk yf gayNyD
wum;/ tm+0[+Mo? Moukd jyK? qef;aMumihf ukd 'DCjyK/
oGm[H tALVoavmod oDwdblawmod edAKawm?
e aompmrd e a&m'grd w0 okwGme rmP0/
rP0-vkvif oGm[H (aom+t[H)-xdkigonf? w0-oif\?
(0peH-pum;uk?d ) okwmG e-Mum;&? tALVoavm- y,fEw
k t
f yfNy;D aom
aomuwnf;[laom ajimifh o
dS nf? 0g-aomuwnf;[laom ajimifu
h dk
y,fEw
k Nf y;D onf? to-d jzpf\? edAK awm- Nird ;f csr;f Ny;D olonf? (to)d ? e
aompmrd- 0rf;renf;awmhyg? e a&m'grd- rikdawmhyg/
tx? eHxdkvkvifudk? ]]wGHonf? aum emrtb,fol
rnfoenf;}} wd-okdY? ykpaEmar;vdkonf? ([kwGm)? ]]a'0wmEkod
?ay? r,}}Ed[l? tm[ar;NyD/
edAmya, / / o'gusrf;wkdYtqkdt& owrD0dbwfonf umv 3yg;
vkH; oufEkdif&um; edAmya,ukd ]]edAmy,d(0drme.|-307? ayw.|-Zm.|3 146)}}[k zGifhojzihf twdwfteuf {,smodouf? {jyK[kMuH/ (wpfenf;)
]]edAmy,d+'&H}}[kjzwf? ]]w'rdem'Ded(arm*f-1 47)}}okwfjzifh ukd {jyK (edkwd26? 7)? edAmy,d tZweDMoudk jyKxm;onf[k BuyH g/

96

"ry'bmom#Dum

,ru

a'0wmEkod *EaAm t'k oaum yk&Ed a 'g?


aum 0g wGH u 0g ykawm uxH Zmaerk wH r,H/
a'0wm-ewfonf? tod Ek-jzpfoavm *EaAm-*EAo
nf? (tod
Ek-avm) t'k-okrYd [kw?f yk&Ed a 'g-aS;b0 tvSLay;cJah om? oaumodMum;onf? (tod Ek)? wG-H onf? aum 0g tb,foo
l nf vnf;?
(tod-enf;?) u-\? ykawm 0g-om;onfvnf;? (tod- enf;)
r,H-wdo
Yk nf? wH-oifu
h ?dk Zmaerk-odrw
S &f yguket
f ehH nf;
tx-? txdyk P
k m ;tm;? rmPa0gonf? ]], ?ay? *awm}}
wd[l? tmpdud ajymNy/D
, uEod , a&m'od ykwH tmVm[ae o,H '[dwmG ?
oGm[H ukovH u&dwmG urH wd'omeH o[AswH *awm
ykw-H om;uk?d tmVm[ae-ocsKi;f ? o,H-ud,
k w
f idk ?f '[dwmG - rD;
oN*K [Nf y;D ? ,H-tMuifom;uk?d (O'
d -&nfreS ;f wrf;w?) uEo-d jrnf
wrf;\? (aom) p-xko
d m;onfvnfaumif;? ,H-uk?d (O'
d -?) a&m'wdik\
d ? (aom) p-aumif;? (t[H-uReaf wmfygwnf;?) oGm[H (aom +t[H)xku
d Reaf wmfonf? ukovH-aumif;aom? ur-H uHu?dk u&dwmG -? wd'omeH-wm0womewfw\
Ydk ? o[Asw-H taygif;tazmfw\
Ydk tjzpfo?Ydk
H dk wJ
G ]],H ykw-H ud?k tmVm[ae o,H
*awm-a&mufygNy/D ,HEiS fh ykwu
'[dwmG uEo?d (aom) p-onfvnf;aumif;? ,H ykw-H ud?k tmVm[ae o,H
'[dwmG a&m'od? (aom) p-aumif;? (t[H-wnf;?)}}[kvnf; ay;Ekid o
f nf/

tx-? eHxdv
k v
k ifu?kd jAm[aPmonf? ]]tyH 0g ?ay? a'0avmu}}Ed [l? tm[/
ty H 0g A[k H 0g em' o mr 'geH ''E oau t*ga&?
OaygoxurH 0g wm'doH aue uare *awmod a'0avmuH/
0dZmaerk/ / 0dZmaerlwd {w uGpd "mwGm'dem {,smr {rktma'aom?-l#D-202/

0*f

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97

oau-rdrOd pmjzpfaom? t*ga&-tdrf ? ''E-ay;vSLqJjzpfaom


om;\? ty-H tenf;i,faom? 'geH 0g- 'geudv
k nfaumif;? A[k-H rsm;pGm
aom? 'geH 0g-ukv
d nfaumif;? em'omr (e+t'omr)-rjrifz;l yguke?f
wm'do-H xku
d o
hJ Ykd Ityfaom? (tenf;trsm;jzpfaom)? OaygoxurH
0g-Oykou
f u
H v
dk nf;? (em'omr-uke?f ) aue uare-tb,faumif;rI
aMumifh? a'0avmuH-ewfjynfokdY? *awm-a&muf&onf? tod-jzpfyg
oenf;
rmPa0gvkvifonf? tm[? (u) ]]tmAm"daum[H ?ay? *awm}}
wd[l? tm[/
tmAm"daum[H 'kuad wm *dvmaem tmwk&layg rSd oau eda0oae?
Ak'H 0d*w&ZH 0dwP
d u
c t'u ok*wH taemrynH/
t[H-uRefawmfonf? tmAm"daum-tom;0ga&m*gtemSdonf?
'kuad wm-vGepf mG jzpfaom qif;&Jjcif;So
d nf? *dvmaem-yifyef;EGr;f vs
rTifysonf? tmwk&layg-'kua0'emonf vGefpGmESdufpuftyfaom
kycf EmSo
d nf? ([kwmG )? oau-rdrOd pmjzpfaom? eda0oae-tdrf ? trS-d
jzpf&yg\? 0d*w&ZH-uif;aom&m*tpSad om jrLSad wmfral om? 0dwP
d -
uc-vGeaf jrmuftyfNy;D aom ,k;H rSm;jcif;Sad wmfral om? 0g-,k;H rSm;jcif;ukd
vGeaf jrmufawmfrNl y;D aom? ok*wH-pum;ajcmufrsKd ; ajymqkd ;dk wGif usK;d Sd
[kwfrSef olemcHvkd remvkd[k xkdESpfcGef;om aumif;rGefpGmjzifh csdefcg
csiahf jrmf a[mrdeaYf wmfral om? taemrynH-r,kwaf vsmw
h Hk jynfph aHk om
ynmSdawmfrlaom? 0g-oAkwm PfynmSdawmfrlaom? Ak'H-ukd?
t'u- zl;vku
d &f ygNy/D
oGm[H rk'w
d raem yoEpad wm tv tu& wxm*w?
wm[H ukovH u&dwmG e urH wd'omeH o[AswH *awm/
oGm[H (aom+t[H)xkduRefawmfonf? rk'dwraem0rf;ajrmuf
aom pdwf&Sdonf? yoEpdawmMunfkdaom pdwf&Sdonf? ([kwGm)?

98

"ry'bmom#Dum

,ru

wxm*wjrwfpGmbk&m;tm;? tvvuftkyfcsDrkd; &Sdckd;rIukd? tu&jyKcyhJ gNy?D t[Honf? ukovHaom? wH urH xku


d u
H ?dk u&dwmG e
jyKc
hJ ? 0gjyKcjhJ cif;aMumif?h wd'omeHwm0womewfw\
Ydk ? o[AswH
taygif;tazmfw\
Ykd tjzpfo?Ykd *awma&mufNy/D
wo xdv
k v
k ifonf? uaxaEa,0ajymaepOfyif? jAm[P
\? ouvo&D&H tvH;k pHak om ud,
k o
f nf? (wpfu,
dk v
f ;Hk onf)? yDw,
d m
yDwdjzifh? y&dyl&djynhfNyD? aomxdkykPm;onf? wH yDwxdkyDwdudk? ya0a'aEmtjym;tm;jzifh odapvdkonf? 0g-ajymjyvkdonf? ([kwGm)?
]]tp&d,H ?ay? 0ZmrD}}wd[l? tm[/
tp&d,H 0w tA KwH 0w tvdur t,rD'daom 0dygaum?
t[rd rk'dwraem yoEpdawm taZ0 Ak'H o&PH 0Zmrd/
tp&,
d H 0w-vufazsmufcwfw;D tHch s;D xku
d yf gaypG? tAKwH 0wrjzpfpbl; xl;qef;ygaypG? tvu
d r-vuftyk cf srD \
I ? 'daomuJo
h Ydk Ityfaom? t,H 0dygaum-tusK;d onf? (a[mwd)? t[r-d
igonfvnf;? rk'w
d raem-onf? yoEpad wm-onf? ([kwmG )? taZ0,aeYomvQi?f Ak'-H ud?k o&PH-uk;d uG,v
f aJ vsmif; yke;f atmif; rScD &dk m
[l? 0Zmrd- PfjzifhodrSwf qnf;uyfygawmhtHh/
tx-? eHxdyk P
k m ;ud?k rmPa0g-onf? ]]taZ0 ?ay? wka|m}}wd
[l? tm[/
taZ0 Ak'H o&PH 0Zm[d "r oHC yoEpad wm?
wax0 odumy'ged y tc@zkvmed orm'd,k/
yoEpad wm-onf? ([kwmG -?) taZ0-vQi?f Ak'-H ukv
d nfaumif;?
"r-ukdvnfaumif;? oHC-ukdvnfaumif;? o&PH-[l? 0Zm[dPfjzifo
h rd w
S f qnf;uyfygavm? wax0-xkt
Yd wlyif? 0g-&wem3pkH
*kPu
f ,
dk rHk w
S f qnf;uyfouJo
h yYdk if? (yoEpad wm-ypKye w
f rvGef usK;d
2wefukd {uefyidk yf idk f ay;pGr;f Ekid \
f [k ,kMH unfaompdwf o
dS nf? [kwmG )?

0*f

"ry'bmom#Dum

99

tc@zkvmed-rysufrusdK; rnKd;raygufukefaom? y-5yg;ukefaom?


odumy'ged-odumyk'fwdkYukd? orm'd,k-aumif;pGm ,lygavm? 0gYdk a&SU,l ]]yoEpad wm
aqmufwnfygavm/ wax0ukd "r oHCw\
([kwmG )? taZ0-vQi?f Ak'-H uk?d o&PH-? 0Zm[d? wax0-vQi?f (yoEpad wm
[kwGm)? "r-aumif;? oHC-aumif;? o&PH-? (0Zm[d)? tc@zkvmed
y odumy'ged-wkdYukd? orm'd,k-avm}}[k wpfenf;ay;/

ygPmwdygwm 0d&rk cdyH avmau t'dEH y&d0Z,k?


trZayg rm p rkom bPm[d oaue 'ga&e p a[m[d wka|m/
cdy-H vsijf refpmG ? ygPmwdygwm-olt
Y oufukd owfjcif;rS? 0d&rkaSmifygavm? avmau-avmu? t'dE-H ray;tyfaom olOY pmuk?d 0grS? 0d&rk-aSmifygavm? trZayg-ao&nft&ufudk raomufoo
l nf?
(a[m[d-ygavm?) rkom p-rkom;ukv
d nf;? rm bPm[d-rajymygESi?hf
oaue-rdrOd pmjzpfaom? 'ga&e-r,m;jzif?h wka|m p-auseyfoo
l nf
vnf;? a[m[d-avm/
aomxdyk P
k m ;onf? ]]om"l}}wdaumif;ygNy[
D ?k or#pd w
d mG vuf
cH? rm *gxmwdu
Yk ?kd tbmod-Ny/D (u) ]]twumarmod ?ay? wka|m}}
wd[l? tbmod/
twumarmod ar ,u [dwumarmod a'0aw?
ua&mrd wk,HS 0peH wGo
H d tmp&da,m rr/
,u-td.k ..ewfom; (wG-H onf?) ar-\? twumarm-tusKd ;ukd
vkv
d m;olonf? tod-jzpf\? a'0aw-tk.d ..ewfom; (wG-H onf?) [dwumarm-pD;yGm;udk vkv
d m;olonf? tod-\? wk,-HS \? 0peH-ud?k ua&mrdjyKygtH?hH 0g-vku
d ef mygtH?h wH-G onf? rr-\? tmp&da,m-q&monf? tod\/
Oayrd o&PH Ak'H "rm yd tEkw& ?H
oHC e&a'0 *pmrd o&PH t[H/

100

"ry'bmom#Dum

,ru

(t[H-onf?) Ak'H-ukd? o&PH-[l? Oayrd-qnf;uyfygtHh? tEkw&-H rdrx


d uf vGejf rwfaom w&m;rSad om? "rm yd-ukv
d nfaumif;?
e&a'0-ok;H vlw\
Ykd rif;jzpfawmfral om jrwfpmG bk&k m;\? oHCudv
k nfaumif;? t[H-onf? o&PH-[l? *pmrd-qnf;uyfygtH/h
ygPmwdygwm 0d&rmrd cdyH avmau t'dEH y&d0Z,mrd?
trZayg aem p rkom bPmrd oaue 'ga&e p a[mrd wka|m/
cdy-H pGm? ygPmwdygwm-rS? 0d&rmrd-aSmifygtH?h avmau-? t'dE-H
uk?d 0g-rS? y&d0Z,mrd-aSmifygtH?h trZayg-onf? (a[mrd-ygtH?h ) rkom
p-ukv
d nf;? aem bPmrd-rajymawmhyg? oaue-aom? 'ga&e-jzih?f
wka|m p-onfvnf;? a[mrd-th/H
tx-? eHxdyk P
k m ;ud?k a'0ykawmonf? ]]jAm[PykPm ; aw
\? a*a[? A[Hk rsm;pGmaom? "eHOpmonf? tw?d owm&Hod?Yk
OyouFrw
d mG ? 'geHud?k a'[day;ygavm? "rH ud?k okPm[demyg
avm? yOH jyemud?k ykpm [dar;avQmufygavm?}} wd-ok?Yd 0wGm-?
waw0xdt
k &yfyif? tE&"m,duG,af ysmufNy/D
jAm[aPmydonfvnf;? a*[Hod?Yk *Em-jyefomG ;? jAm[P
ykaP;rud?k tmraEwmG ac:? ]]ba'&Sirf t[Honf? tZ,aeY?
orPH a*gwrH&[ef;a*gwrud?k edraEwmG yif
h ? yOH ud?k ykp
d mrd
tH?h oum&Haumif;pGmjyKtyfaom ylaZmfz,
G u
f ?kd ua&m[djyKavm?}}
wd-ok?Yd 0wGm-? 0d[m&Hod?Yk *Em-? owm&Hud?k ae0 tbd0ga'wGm&Srd cd;k rl? y#doEm&Hy#doEm&ud?k 0g-avmuGwyf sLiSm EIwq
f uf
pum;ajymMum;rIu?kd e uwGmrl? {urEH oifw
h ifah vsmufywf wpfck
aom t&yftzkYd ? 0g-oifw
h ifah vsmufywfpmG ? Xdawm&yfvsu?f ]]abm
{urE/H / a&SUenf; owrt
D euf 'kw,
d m0dbwf? aemufenf; Bu,
d m
0daooeteuf 'kw,
d m0dbwf? ]]{uo ya'ao('D.|-1 139)? {uraE
{uo taE? ,kwy a 'aowd tawm(0drwd-1 67)}}[laom tzGiu
fh dk Munf
h

0*f

"ry'bmom#Dum

101

a*gwr-t&Siaf *gwr tZwem,,aeYjzpfvwUH aom aumif;rIyw


D d
ygarmZtusKd ;iSm? bwH qGr;f ud?k bduK oaH Ce&[ef;taygif;ESi?hf o'?
tEo'g aum|mo(tzkdYtpk)teuf okdYr[kwf(tbd"mefrygaom) ya'o
teuf[k q&mwdYk rdeaYf wmfr\
l ? ]]tnrnH toHo|bma0e {wd *pww
D d
taEm(oH#-D 2 257)? {aum+taEm {uraEm}}[kjyK? ]]{urE-H a0; eD; avnm
jrihfarmuf&mESihf rsufESma&SUbuf aemufausmbuf[k 6csufravsmf roihf
awmfojzihf oihfavsmfaumif;jrwf wpfckaomt&yftzkdY}}[k tus,fay;/
(ygbm-1 503? oDbm-2 281? okwrf [mbm-1 269)
ygpda,m-213/ / xkd tEo'g orDya'oteuf (wpfenf;) aum#d
a'oteuf[k qk\
d ? xkt
d vkd ]]{urE-H wpfcak om teD;t&yf? 0g-wpfcak om
t&yftzkdY}}[kay;/
pvif;*H-1 76 / / xkd owrt
D eufay;rl {uo'g (tbd"mef ryg
aom) ,kwt
euf tEo'g t0ometeuf,
l ]]{urE-H tjypf 6yg;uif;
ojzihf oihfwihfaom bk&m;&SifESihf reD;vGef;aom tpGeftzsm;t&yf}}[k ay;\?
Bud,m0daooeteufay;rl tEo'g teufrJh,l ]]{urEH-tjypf6yg;uif;
ojzihf oihw
f ihaf vsmufywfpmG }}[k ay;\? xkt
d vkd ]]{aum {0 {uraEm(wAm0
0kwdur"m&nf;)}}[kjyK/
wpfenf;/ / ]],xm edoad Em {urEH edoad Em a[mwd? wxm(0d|-1
101)}}[laom tzGihfukd Munhf ]]{urEH-oifhwihfavsmufywf wpfckaom
t&yf wnfonf(xkid o
f nf)rnfavmufatmif}}[k ay;oihaf Mumif;ukd q&mwdYk
rdefYao;\? xkdtvkd ]]{urEH ({uraE)+Xdawm {uraEm}}[kjyK Xdwyk'f
tausMuH? aemuf edoD'd&SdvQif {urEH ({uraE)+edodaEm {uraEm}}[k
jyK edodEyk'ftausMuH? okdYr[kwf XmElypm&tm;jzihf &yfjcif;xkdifjcif;ukd,l/
wpfenf; / / {uukd ao|teufa[m,lum ]]{aum+taEm ,mwd
{urEH}}[kjyK ]]{urEH-aumif;jrwfavsmufywfaom tzkdY&Sdatmif? 0g-oifh
wihfavsmufywfpGm}}[k ay;? csJUygOK;rnf-Xdawmukd 0gusjzefYvQif ]]{urEH XmeH
ua&maEm(aumif;jrwfavsmufywfaom tzkdY&Sdaom wnfjcif;ukd jyKvsuf)}}
[k jzpf\? okdY 0gusjzefYvQif {urEHESihf XmeHonf t&wl\? xkdokdY t&wl
atmif {urEHukd A[kAD[dBuH&\/ (0gp-359)

102

"ry'bmom#Dum

,ru

t"d0gao[dvufcaH wmfryl g?}} wd-ok?Yd tm[-avQmufNy/D owm


onf? t"d0gaoodNy/D aomxdyk P
k m ;onf? owK\? t"d0goeH
vufcaH wmfrjl cif;ud?k 0d'w
d mG od? a0a*et[kejf zif?h (vsiv
f sijf refjref)?
tm*Emjyefvm? oaurdrOd pmjzpfaom? eda0oaetdrf ? yPDwH
rGejf rwfaom? cg'eD,H cJz,
G u
f v
kd nf;aumif;? abmZeD,pm;zG,u
f kd
vnf;aumif;? y#d,m'gayodpDpOfapNy/D owmonf? bduK oC
H y&d0ak wm&[ef;taygif; jc&H t
H yfonf? ([kwmG ?) wxdyk P
k m ;\?
a*[Hod?Yk *Em<uawmfr
l ? ynwmoaecif;xm;tyfaomae&m?
edo'D d xdik af wmfrNl y/D jAm[aPmonf? oupH dak opGm? y&d0o
d d jyKpv
k yk f
auR;Ny?D r[mZaemrsm;pGmaom vltaygif;onf? oEyd wdpka0;Ny/D
rdpm 'd|ad uerSm;aomt,l&o
dS o
l nf? wxm*awud?k edrEad wyift
h yf
aomf? a'G2pkuek af om? Zeum,mvltaygif;wdo
Yk nf? oEyd wEd ud&
pka0;MuowJ?h (utb,foMYkd u
H pka0;Muoenf;)? rdpm 'd|u
d mrSm;
aomt,l&o
dS w
l o
Ykd nf? 0g-bmomjcm;wdo
Yk nf? ]]tZ,aeY? orPH
a*gwrHud?k yOH ud?k ykpe m,ar;jcif;jzif?h 0da[Xd,rmeHnO;f qJtyf
onfu?kd (tnO;f qJc&H onfu)dk ? ydmr-jrifMu&awmhrnf?}} wd
odMYk u
H ? oEyd wEd ud&MuowJ?h orm'd|u
d mrSeaf om t,l&o
dS l
wdo
Yk nf? 0g-Ak'b
mom0ifwo
Ykd nf? ]]tZ? Ak'0 o
d ,Hbk&m;&Siw
f \
Ykd t&m
udv
k nf;aumif;? Ak'v
VD H bk&m;&Si\
f wifw
h ,fpr,af wmfryl u
kH v
kd nf;
aumif;? ydmrzl;jrifMu&awmhrnf?}} wd-ok?Yd oEyd wEd ud&pka0;MuowJ/h tx acgpnf;a0;Mu&m xdt
k cg? jAm[aPmonf?
uwbwupd H jyKtyfNy;D aom qGr;f bkO;f ay;jcif;udp& adS wmfral om? 0gqGr;f bkO;f ay;awmfrNl y;D aom? bw+bkeH+udpH bwudpH? bkeyk'facs?
Ak'0do,H / / bk&m;&SifwdkY\ t&m[lonf oAkwPfawmfpaom
bk&m;&Siw
f \
Ydk *kPaf wmfrsm;jzpfjcif;ESifh tpGr;f tmEkabmfwnf;/ A'k 0 o
d a,mwd
Ak'g eH 0doa,m? oAw
k Pm'DeH Ak'* P
k meH y0wd p tmEkbma0g p?-tH.
|-2 319/

0*f

"ry'bmom#Dum

103

uwH+bwudpH a,emwd uwbwudapm?-rtlyg&med-1 109? ygpda,md mG ? eDpmoaeedrahf omae&m? edoad Em


373/ wxm*wHod?Yk OyouFrw

xdik v
f su?f yO?H ykpd Ny?D (u)? ]]abm a*gwr wkrmS uHoifwt
Ykd m;? 'geH
ud?k t'wGmray;rl? ylZH ylaZmfru
I ?kd tuwGmrjyKr
l ? (wkrmS uH-wd\
Yk ?)
"rH ud?k tokwmG remrl? Oaygox0goHOykoo
f v
D jzifh aejcif;jzih?f 0gOykoaf pmifjh cif;jzih?f t0odwmG raerl? (rapmifo
h ;kH rl)? au0vHouf
ouf? raemyom'rawae0pdwu
f dk Munfadk pjcif;rQjziho
f m? 0g-aMumifh
om? oa*? edAw
m emrjzpfow
l rYkd nfonf? a[mEd &Syd gukeo
f avm}}
wd-ok?Yd (ykp)d / jAm[PykPm ; uomtb,faMumif?h rHud?k ykpo
d
ar;ae&oenf; aw\? ykaweom;jzpfaom? r|uk@vdemonf?
r,digbk&m;? reHud?k yoma'wGm-? twaem\? oa*? edAw
-
bma0gjzpfonf\tjzpfu?kd uxdawm eEkajymqdt
k yfNy;D r[kwaf vm?
wdodYk rdeaYf wmfrNl y?D abm a*gwr u'gtb,ftcg? (uxdawm
ajymtyfygoenf;)? wdodaYk r;Ny/D wGH onf? tZ? okomeH-od?Yk *Em?
uEaEmikad <u;jrnfwrf;aepOf? t0d'al &teD;? Am[m-wdu
Yk ?dk y*,-S
? uEEH idak <u;jrnfwrf;aeaom? {uHaom? rmP0Hud?k 'domG ?
]]tvuFawm r|uk@vD rmv"m&D [&dpEE
k a'g}}wdtvuFawm
?y? [&dpEE
k a'g[laom? 0g-tp&Sad om? 'D[
G d ykPm ;ESihf ewfom; 2
OK;om;jzpfuek af om? Zae[dvlwo
Ykd nf? uxdwuxHajymqdt
k yfaom
pum;ud?k yumaoaEmxif&mS ;jyawmfrv
l su?f oAH aom? r|uk@vd0wHK ud?k uaxoda[mawmfrNl y/D awae0xdak Mumifyh if? {wHr|
uk@vD0wKonf? Ak'b
modwH emrbk&m;&Sio
f nf a[mtyfaom 0wK
rnfonf? 0g-bk&m;a[m0wKrnfonf? ZmwHjzpfNy/D
p ye-qufOK;tH?h wHxdrk |uk@vD0wKu?kd uaxwGma[mawmf
rlNy;D ? ]]jAm[PykPm ; {uowH 0gwpf&monfaomfvnf;? er[kw?f
a'GowH 0gESp&f monfaomfvnf;? er[kw?f tx acgpifppfum;? r,d

104

"ry'bmom#Dum

,ru

? reHud?k yoma'wGm? oa*ewfjynf? edAw


m eHjzpfow
l \
Ykd ? *Pem
emrta&twGurf nfonf? ewd r&S?d }} wd ok?Yd tm[/ txrdeYf
awmfNy;D &m xdt
k cg? r[mZaemonf? edaArwdaum,Hrk mS ;oHo,
r&So
d nf? 0g-,Hrk mS ;oHo,uif;onf? e a[mwdrjzpf? txxkt
d cg?
txdkvltaygif;\? tedaArwdubm0H,HkrSm;oHo,&Sdonf\
tjzpfu?kd 0g,krH mS ;oHo,ruif;onf\tjzpfu?kd 0d'w
d mG odawmfr
l ?
owmonf? ]]r|uk@vda'0ykawmewfom;onf? 0drmaeeAdrmefEiS ?hf
o' {0twlomvQi?f tm*pwk vmapownf;?}} wd-ok?Yd t"d|mod
(pdwu
f )dk vGeu
f pJ mG wnfapawmfrNl y?D 0g-t"d|mefawmfrNl y?D aomxdrk |
uk@vDewfom;onf? wd*g0kwyrmaPae0oH;k *g0kwt
f wdik ;f t&Sn&f dS
onfomvQijf zpfaom? 'dAm b&Py#dr@daweewfwefqmjzifh wefqm
qiftyfaom? twbma0etwabmjzifh? (ukd,fjzihf)? tm*Em?
tedaArwdubm0H/ / ]]t+ed}}[k ywdao"2yk'yf gaomaMumihf a0rwdu
[laom yuwdy'k \
f teufay:atmif ay;&onf? ]]0d*wm+rwd 0drwd(r[med
.|-379)? 0dyl g+rwd 0drwd('D.|-245)? 0d0ad "e tmuma&e rnwd ,omwd
0drwd("mef#-D 170)? 0drwd+Zmwm ,mwd a0rwdaum(yg&mbm-4 105)?
0drwd,+H ed,ak wm a0rwdaum(ucFgbm-1 66)? e+a0rwdaum edaArwdaum(,krH mS ;oHo,&So
d rl [kw)f ? e+edaArwdaum tedaArwdaum(,krH mS ;jcif;
&So
d rl [kwo
f nfr[kw-f ,krH mS ;oHo,&So
d )l ? tedaArwdu+bma0g tedaArwdubma0g}}[kjyK/
t"d|mod/ / um&dwaf usonf[Mk u?H t"do'g t"duteuf? t"d|mod
t& 0duAk e 'd d t"d|med'2d rsKd ;wGif t"d|med'u
d dk ,lyg? 0Dxt
d m;jzihf y&dur0x
D Ed iS fh
'd0 "d tbdnmOf0x
D d 2rsKd ;wnf;? w&m;uk,
d t
f m;jzihf r[mBu,
d mP
or,w
k Ef iS fh Bu,
d mtbdnmOfwnf;/ pdwH t"d|mwDwd pdwH t"duH uwGm
Xmwd? pdwH ywd|maywDwd t"dyma,m(y#doH.|-2 167)/ tm0aZwGm
aPe t"d|mwd(y#doH-385? 387)/ tm0aZwGm aPe t"d|mwDwd
{0H y&durH uwGm tbdnmaPe t"d|mwd(y#do|H -2 265)? aPemwd
om0Zaee tbdnmaPe(y#d*H-372)/

0*f

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105

0drmeawmAdrmefr?S Mok,S oufqif;? owm&H-uk?d 0Ew


d mG -&Scd ;dk ?
{urEH ? 0g-pGm? t|mod&yfwnfNy/D tx? eHxdrk |uk@vDewf
om;ud?k owmonf? ]]wGH onf? rH orw pnf;pdru
f ?kd u urH
tb,faumif;rIu?kd uwGmjyKc
hJ ? y#dvbd&cJo
h enf;}} wdod?Yk
ykpaEmar;awmfrlvdkonf? ([kwGm)? ]]tbduaEe ?ay? ykn}}Ed
tbdua Ee ?ay? ykn[
H al om? *gxHud?k tm[Ny/D
tbdua Ee 0aPe ,m wHG wd|od a'0aw?
MobmaoED 'dom oAm Moo"D 0d, wm&um/
ykpm rd wH a'0 r[mEkbm0 rEkblawm udrumod ykn/H
a'0awtk.d ..ewfom; Moo"D wm&um 0d,aomufSL;Mu,fuhJ
okY d? 0gaomMumMu,fuo
hJ Y?dk tbdua EetvGeEf pS o
f uftyfaom? 0aPetqif;ta&mifjzif?h 0g-uk,
d af &mifu,
dk 0f gjzif?h (wpfenf;) tbdua EetvGeEf pS o
f ufz,
G f yk yf o
Hk Pmefjzihv
f nf;aumif;? 0aPe-ta&tqif;
ta&mift0gjzifv
h nf;aumif;? wrL wvuPteuf emouf? oAm
tvk;H pku
H ek af om? 'domt&yfwu
Ykd ?dk MobmaoED xGe;f vif;apvsu?f ,m
wGH tMuifoifonf? wd|od&yfwnf\? r[mEkbm0Bu;D aom wefc;dk &dS
aom? a'0tked wfom; (wH) wHxdo
k ifu
h ?dk ykpm rdar;awmfrt
l ?Hh rEkblawmvlwYkd jzpfonf? 0g-vltjzpfoYdk a&mufonf? (ormaemjzpfv
aomf?) u yknH tb,faumif;rIu?dk tumodjyKco
hJ enf;
a'0ykawmonf? ]]baE aronf? t,H orwd ud?k wkarSok
wdYk ? pdwH ud?k yoma'wGmapcJ
h ? 0g-aMumif?h v'g&tyfygNy?D }} wd
odaYk vQmufNy/D ]]awoifonf? r,d? pdw-H uk?d yaoma'wGm-? v'g
&tyfoavm}} wdodYk ar;awmfrNl y/D baE&m; tmrrSeyf g? wd
rEkblawm/ / rEkblawmwd rEkaok OyaEm rEkbm0H 0g
yawm?-wd.|-244-5? ayw.|-66/

106

"ry'bmom#Dum

,ru

odYk avQmufNy/D r[mZaemonf? a'0ykwH ud?k MoavmauwGm-?


]]abmtd.k ..rdwaf qGwYkd Ak'* P
k mbk&m;&Si\
f *kPaf wmfwo
Ykd nf? tp&-d
,m 0wvufazsmufcwfw;D tHch s;D xdu
k yf gayukepf ?G t'dEy Ak u
jAm[P emrt'dEy Ak u
ykPm ;rnfo\
l ? ykawmonf? tnHtjcm;aom?
udd wpfpw
kH pfcak om? yknH aumif;rIu?kd tuwGm-? ow&d ? pdw-H
uk?d yoma'wGm-? {0ly-H aom? orw ud?k y#dvbd&cJNh y?D }} wdod?Yk
wk| ESpo
f ufjcif;ud?k ya0a'odtjym;tm;jzifh odapNy?D 0g-ajymNy/D
tx? aeoHxdrk sm;pGmaom vlwt
Ykd m;? ]]ukovmukovuru&aPukov
kd u
f H tukov
kd u
f u
H kd jyKjcif;? raem0pdwo
f nfom?
ykA* aF rma&SUoGm;acgif;aqmifwnf;? raem0onfom? aoa|mtjrwf
qH;k wnf;/ [drSe\
f ? yoaEeMunfvifaom? raeepdwjf zif?h uwH
jyKtyfaom? urH aumif;rIonf? a'0avmuHewfjynfov
Ykd nf;aumif;?
rEkavmuHvlUjynfov
Ydk nf;aumif;? *pEH oGm;aom? yk*v
H yk*Kd vo
f ?Ykd
qm,m0t&dyu
f o
hJ ?Ykd e 0dZ[wdrpGe?Yf }} wdod?Yk 'H 0wKH 0wKu?kd
uaxwGmNy;D ? tEkoE tEkoaEu?kd 0g-tquftpyfu?kd Ca#wGm
pyfawmfr
l ? 0g-qufo,
G jf yawmfr
l ? ywd|mydwrwdu
-H wnfaptyfNy;D
aom ajrnuf&adS om? (ajrnufjzihf csyd yf w
d t
f yfaom)? omoeH-o0Pf
vTmud?k (taMumif;Mum;pmud)k ? &mZrk'g ,rif;\wHqyd jf zif?h v a Em
0d,cwfEydS o
f uJo
h ?Ykd "r&mZm-w&m;rif;jzpfawmfral om jrwfpmG bk&m;
onf? raemykA* rF m ?ay? y'Ed- raemykA* rF m ?ay? y'H [laom? rH *gxH*gxmuk?d tm[-a[mawmfrNl y/D
raemykA*Frm "rm raemao|m raemr,m?
reom ap yoaEe bmowd 0g ua&mwd 0g?
wawm eH okcraEGwd qm,m0 tEkyg,deD/
"rm-apwoducf Emw&m; oH;k yg;wko
Yd nf? raemykA* rF m-pdwo
f mvQif
a&SUoGm;acgif;aqmif &Sdukef\? raemao|m-pdwfomvQif tjrwfqkH;&Sd

0*f

"ry'bmom#Dum

107

uke\
f ? raemr,m-pdwaf Mumifh Ny;D pD;&uke\
f ? yoaEe-tebdZmtp&Sd
aom *kPw
f aYdk Mumifh Munfvifaom? reom-pdwjf zih?f ap bmowd 0gtu,frlvnf; ajymqkt
d ?hH ap ua&mwd 0g-tu,frlvnf; jyKvyk f
tH?h wawm-xko
d Ydk ajymqkd jyKvyk jf cif;aMumif?h eH-xkyd *k Kd vo
f ?Ydk okc-H csr;f om
onf? taEGw-d tpOfvu
dk \
f ? (udr0d -enf;) tEkyg,de-D tpOfvu
dk jf cif;
&Sdaom? qm,m0 (qm,m+0)-t&dyfuJhokdYwnf;/
ww-xkrd aemykA* rF m "rmtp&Sad om*gxm?t0daoaoe-txl;rS
uif;ojzif?h 0g-txl;rr omrntm;jzih?f oAr-d tvH;k pHv
k nf;jzpfaom?
pwkbrl u
d pdw-H bHak v;yg; jzpfaom pdwu
f ?dk raemwd-raem[l? udm yd
0kpw
-d tu,fum; qkt
d yfygay\? ye-okaYd omfvnf;? ro ya'raemykA* rF m "rm[laomyk'f ? ed,rD,rmeH-rSwo
f m;tyfaomf? 00wy,
D rmeH-toD;toD; ykid ;f jcm; xm;tyfaomf? y&d pdZ r meH-ykid ;f jzwf
tyfaomf? t|0d"-H &Spyf g;tjym;&Sad om? umrm0p&ukovpdw-H umrm
0p&ukov
dk pf w
d u
f ?dk vAw-d &tyf &Ekid \
f ? ye-qufOK;tH?h 0wK0aoer|uk@vD0wKEiS pfh yfojzih?f tm[&D,rmeH-aqmif,t
l yfaomf? wawmyd-xk&d pS yf g;tjym;&Sad om umrm0p&ukov
dk pf w
d rf v
S nf;? aomreo[*wH-aomreo[*kwfjzpfaom? Por,kwar0-P
or,w
k pf w
d u
f o
dk m? vAw-d &tyf &Ekid \
f ? ykA* rF mwd-um;? awe-xkd
pdwEf iS ?fh yXr*grdem-yxrjzpfavh&o
dS nf? 0g-y"mejzpfavh&o
dS nf? [kwmG jzpf? orEm*wm-jynhpf u
kH ek \
f ? "rmwd-um;? a0'em'a,m-a0'em
tp&So
d nfyif jzpfuek af om? wa,m-3yg;ukeaf om? cEm- cEmwkw
Yd nf;/
[d-rSe\
f ? {aw-apwoducf Em3yg;wko
Yd nf? Oym'yp,a|e-jzpfjcif;
\ taMumif;\tjzpf[al om teufaMumif?h {awoH-apwoducf Em
3yg;wk\
Yd ? aomreor,w
k r aem-aomreor,w
k pf w
d [
f al om?
ykA* aF rm-a&SUoGm;onf? 0g-y"mew&m;onf? (twd) ? wd-xkad Mumih?f
(xko
d Ydk pdw[
f al om a&SUoGm;&Su
d ek o
f nf\ tjzpfaMumif?h ) raemykA* rF mraemykA* rF mwkYd rnf\/ [d-csUJ OK;tH?h 0g-Oyrmaqmif xifatmifjyOK;tH?h

108

"ry'bmom#Dum

,ru

A[lo-k rsm;pGmukeaf om vlwo


Ydk nf? {uawm-wpfaygif;wnf;? [kwmG jzpf? r[mbduK oC
H -rsm;pGmaom &[ef;taygif;tm;? pD0&'gem'De-d ouFe;f vSLjcif;tp&Su
d ek af om? (yknmed) 0g-aumif;rIwu
Ydk adk omfvnf;
aumif;? OVm&ylZm"r0em'De-d jrwfaomylaZmfjcif; w&m;emjcif;tp&Sd
ukeaf om? (yknmed)0g-wku
Yd adk omfvnf;aumif;? rmvm*Eoum&u&Pm'De-d yef;eHo
Y mwkjYd zihf ylaZmfoum&ukd jyKjcif;tp&Su
d ek af om? (yknmed)
0g-wku
Yd adk omfvnf;aumif;? ua&maEo-k jyKuek v
f aomf? {awoH-
olww
Ydk iG ?f aum-tb,foo
l nf? {awoH-olw\
Ydk ? ykA* aF rm-a&SUoGm;
enf; 0g-acgif;aqmifenf; wd-ok?Yd 0kaw-ajymqkt
d yfaomf? 0gar;tyfaomf? awoH-xko
d w
l w
Ydk iG ?f a,m-tMuifoo
l nf? awoH-xko
d l
wk\
Yd ? ypa,m-taMumif;onf? 0g-taxmuftyHo
h nf? a[mwd-\? ,HtMuifoUl uk?d edm,-rS
D ? aw-xko
d w
l o
Ydk nf? wmed yknmed-xkad umif;rI
wku
Yd ?dk ua&mEd- jyKuek \
f ? awoH-xko
d w
l w
Ydk iG ?f wdam 0g-wdaomf
vnf;jzpfaom? zkam 0g-zkaomfvnf;jzpfaom? aom-xko
d Ul uk?d
awoH-wk\
Yd ? ykA* aF rmwd-a&SUoGm;[l? 0kpw
d ,xm-ajzqkt
d yfouJo
h ?Ydk
{0Hor'-H Oyrmetwkid ;f Ny;D pD;jcif;&Sad om? 'H-Oyar,su?dk a0'dwAH- odxu
dk \
f ? wd-okv
Yd Qi?f Oym'yp,a|e-aMumif?h {awoH-wk\
Yd ?
raem-[laom? ykA* aF rm-onf? (twd) ? wd-aMumif?h raemykA* rF m\/ [d-rSe?f aw-xkad pwoducf Em 3 yg;wko
Yd nf? rae-onf? tEkyZ a Eaomf? OyZw
d -kH iSm? e oaumEd- uke?f raem ye-pdwo
f nfum;? (wpfenf;)
ye-tzkw
Yd pfyg;um;? raem-onf? {uapo-k ukeaf om? apwodauokwko
Yd nf? tEkyZ a Eoyk -d ukeaf omfvnf;? OyZw
ad ,0-jzpfEidk o
f nfom/
ye-tzkw
Yd pfyg;um;? {0H-qkt
d yfNy;D aomenf;jzih?f t"dywd0aoe-t"d
ywd\ tpGr;f jzih?f 0g-rdrEd iS pfh yfaom w&m;wk\
Yd t&Sio
f cif\tjzpfjzih?f
{awoH-wk\
Yd ? raem-aom? aoa|m-onf? (twd) ? wd-aMumif?h (awwko
Yd nf?) raemao|m-wkYd rnf\/ [d-csUJ OK;tH?h 0g-Oyrmaqmif xif
atmifjyOK;tH?h *Pm'De-H *kP
d ;f tp&So
d nfw\
Ydk ? t"dywd-tBu;D tuJjzpf

0*f

"ry'bmom#Dum

109

aom? yk&ad om-a,musmf ;uk?d *Paoa|m(wd)-*kP


d ;f \ tjrwfq;kH [l
vnf;aumif;? aoPdaoa|mwd-toif;tyif;\ tjrwfq;kH [lvnf;
aumif;? 0kpw
d ,xm-qkt
d yfouJo
h ?Ydk wxm-wl? aword- wkx
Yd ufvnf;?
raem0-onfom? aoa|m-wnf;/ ye-um;? 0g-raem ao|m[laom
oH0aPwAy'k \
f two0H PemrSwpfyg; raem r,m[laom oH0aP
wAyk'f\ twoH0Pemukd qkdOK;tHh? ok0Pm'D[d-a&Ttp&Sdaom
taqmuftOK;wkjYd zih?f edym 'dwmed-jzpfaptyfuek af om? b@med-b@m
wdo
Yk nf? ok0Pr,m'Ded emr-ok0Pr,tp&So
d nfwYdk rnfonf? a[mEd
,xm-jzpfuek o
f uJo
h ?Ydk wxm-wl? {awyd-wko
Yd nfvnf;? reawmaMumif?h edyE w
m -jzpf&ukeo
f nf\tjzpfaMumif?h raemr,m emr-wkYd
rnf\/ yoaEemwd-um;? tebdZm'D[-d tebdZmtp&Su
d ek af om? *kaP[d-*kPw
f aYdk Mumif?h yoaEe-Munfvifaom? bmowd 0g ua&mwd
0gwd-um;? {0laye-okdYoabm&Sdaom? (tebdZmtp&SdonfwkdY
aMumifh Munfvifaeaom)? raee-jzih?f bmoaEm-aomf? pwkA"d -H aom?
0pDopk &dwar0-uko
d m? bmowd-\? ua&maEm-aomf? wd0"d -H aom?
um,okp&dwar0-uko
d m? ua&mwd-\? tbmoaEm-aomf? tua&maEm-aomf? tebdZm'D[-d wkaYd Mumif?h wm, yoErmeowm,-xkMd unf
vifaom pdw&f o
dS nf\ tjzpfaMumif?h wd0"d -H aom? raemokp&dw-H uk?d
yla&wd-jynfah p\? {0H-ok?Yd 0g-enf;jzih?f t-xkyd *k Kd v\
f (oEmef)?
'o-ukeaf om? ukovuryxm-wko
Yd nf? yg&dy&l - xuf0ef;usif jynfu
h ek f
onf\ tjzpfo?Ydk *p E-d uke\
f /
wawm eH okcraEGww
D -d um;? wawm wd0"d okp&dwawm-xkd 3
yg;tjym;&Sad om okpku
d af Mumif?h eH yk*v
-H xkyd *k Kd vo
f ?Ydk okc-H okconf?
taEGw-d tpOfvu
dk \
f ? "-]]wawm eH okcraEGw}d }[laom ygXf?
awblru
d rd- bH3k yg; jzpfonfvnf;jzpfaom? ukovH-uk?d t"dayw-H
tvk&d t
dS yf\? wom-xkad Mumif?h (xko
d Ydk bH3k yg;jzpfaom ukov
dk \
f tvkd

110

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,ru

&St
d yfonf\ tjzpfaMumif?h ) awblru
d okp&dwmEkbma0e-bH3k yg; jzpf
aom okpku
d \
f tmEkabmfaMumif?h ok*wdba0-ok*wdbkH ? edAw
-H jzpf
aom? yk*v
H 0g-okv
Yd nf;aumif;? 'k*w
,
d -H 'k*w
b
d kH ? okcgEkb0e|maeokcukd cHpm;&mt&yf? Xdw-H wnfaom? yk*v
H 0g-okv
Yd nf;aumif;? um,0wKurd- uk,
d [
f al omrS&D m&Sad om 0dyguokcvnf;aumif;? w&0wKurd- uk,
d rf w
S pfyg; pdw[
f al omrS&D m&Sad om 0dyguokcvnf;aumif;? tYk vkd ]]t0wK0wKurd-rDS&mr&Sdaom 0dyguokcvnf;aumif;? q&mwdt
d f vnf;jzpf pdwf
urd}}rvkd? |jyKI? wd-ok?Yd um,duapwodu-H uk,
vnf;jzpfaom? 0dyguokc-H tusKd ;jzpfaom okconf? tEk*pw-d tpOf
vku
d \
f ? e 0dZ[wd-rpGe?Yf wd tawm-teufu?dk a0'dwaAm-od
xku
d \
f / ,xm u-Oyrm tb,fuo
hJ eYdk nf; (wpfenf;) u-tb,f
onf? (tEk*pw)d ,xm-tpOfvu
dk o
f uJo
h eYdk nf; (wd-um; tar;
wnf;?) qm,m-t&dyo
f nf? tEkyg,deD 0-tpOfvu
dk o
f uJo
h w
Ydk nf;?
wd-um; tajzwnf;? [d-csUJ OK;tH?h qm,m emr-t&dyrf nfonf?
o&D&y#dA'g-uk,
d f pyfonf? (uk,
d Ef iS fh pyfonf)? ([kwmG -? 0g-aMumif?h )
o&Da&-uk,
d o
f nf? *paE-oGm;vaomf? *pw-d oGm;\? (o&Da&-onf?)
wd|aE-aomf? wd|wd-\? (o&Da&-onf?) edo'D aE-aomf? edo'D wd-\?
oaPSe-odraf rGUaom pum;jzih?f (ed0wm[d-jyefepfavm? wd 0g-
okaYd omfvnf;aumif;?) zkaoe-Murf;wrf;aompum;jzih?f ed0wm[djyefepfavm? wd 0g-aumif;? 0wGm 0g-ajymqk
d aomfvnf;aumif;?
aygaxwGm 0g-ykwcf wfaomfvnf;aumif;? ed0wmaywH-k jyefepfap
jcif;iSm? e oum ,xm-rwwfaumif;ouJo
h ?Ydk uom-enf; (qm,m,-\?) o&D&y#Ad 'wm -uk,
d f pyfaeonf\ tjzpfaMumifw
h nf;? 0guk,
d Ef iS fh pyfaeonf\ tjzpfaMumifw
h nf;? (wpfenf;) uom-aMumif?h
ed0wmaywHk-iSm? e oum-enf; (qm,m, o&D&A'wm ed0wmaywkH e
oum ,xm-ok}Yd }[kvnf;ay;? a&S;ed, ]]e oaumwd}}ukd ygXf&\
dS ? q&mwdYk
ESpfoufawmfrrl?-|jyKI/ {0ar0-omvQif? 'oEH-ukefaom? aroH

0*f

"ry'bmom#Dum

111

ukovuryxmeH-wk\
Yd ? tmpdPo
rmpdPu
o
k vrlvu
d -H avhusit
fh yf
aumif;pGm avhusit
fh yfaom ukov
dk v
f Qif t&if;cH&adS om? umrm0p&m'dab'H-umrm0p&tp&Sad om tjym;&Sad om? um,duapwodu-H uk,
d f
vnf;jzpf pdwf vnf;jzpfaom? okc-H tusKd ;jzpfaom okconf? *w*w|mae-a&muftyf a&muftyfaom t&yf?tEkyg,de-D tpOfvu
dk af om?
qm,m 0d,-t&dyo
f nfuo
hJ ?Ydk [kwmG ? e 0dZ[wd-rpGe?Yf wd-wGif
*gxmtzGit
hf Ny;D wnf;/
*gxmy&da,momae-? pwk&moDw,
d m-84vDaom? ygPo[meH-ow0gtaxmifw\
Ydk ? (wpfenf;) pwk&moDw,
d m ygPo[meH-8aomif; 4axmifaom ow0gwk\
Yd ? "rmbdora,m-opm 4
yg;w&m;wku
Yd dk xk;d xGi;f odjcif;onf? ta[mod-Ny?D r|uk@vD-rnf
aom? a'0ykawm-ewfom;onf? aomwmywdz av-aomwmywdz v
dk f ?
ywd|[d-wnfNy?D t'dEy Ak a um-t'dEy Ak u
rnfaom? jAm[aPm-onf?
wxm-xkt
Yd wlyifwnf;? aom-xkt
d 'dEy Ak u
ykPm ;onf? wm0 r[EH-
xkrd Qavmuf rsm;pGmaom? 0db0H-pnf;pdru
f ?dk Ak'o
moae-jrwfpmG bk&m;\
omoemawmf? 0dyu
&d -d txl;tm;jzihf jzefNY y?D 0g-vSL'gef;Ny?D wd-r|
uk@vD0wKtNy;D wnf;/
r|uk@vD0wKbmom#Dum NyD;\/
tEkyg,deD / / tEky,eH tEkyga,m-tpOfvu
dk jf cif;? tEk+y+ +P?
tEkyga,m+{wdmwd tEkyg,de?D twdt
euf ypn;f ? wDa Zmwu
eDypnf;? yOyom&ukd teufrJh MuHyg/
teyg,de/D / ]]teyg,deD}}[k rluJG&Sd\? ]]ty-zJcGm+t,eH-oGm;jcif;?
tyga,m-jcif;? tyga,m {wdm twDw
d tyg,de?D e+tyg,deD teyg,de-D
zJcGm oGm;jcif;+r&Sd}}[k o'w jzpfEkdifaomaMumifh oifhyg\/

3-wdaw&0wKbmom#Dum
taumpd rEd rHtp&Sad om? rH "ra'oeHud?k owmonf?
aZw0ae? 0d[&aEmaomf? 0grlpOf? wdaw&H ud?k tm&A?
uaxoda[mawmfrNl y/D
ud&csUJ OK;tH?h aom tm,om wdawa&mxkt
d &Siw
f
d
ax&fonf? b*0awm\? ydwpk m ykawmt&D;awmftrdwma'0D\
om;awmfonf? ta[modNyD? r[vuumavBuD;ol\tcg? 0gydwkpmykawm/ / yk'u
f dk ]]baxG;awmf\ om;onf}}[k teufay;
jcif;rSm o'gusrf;tqkdrsm; t|uxm#Dumusrf;tqkdrsm;ESihf rnDyg? csJUygOK;
rnf-o'genf;t& ]]ydwk+b*deD ydwkpm}}[kjyK ydwkaemif b*deDteuf q
ypnf;oufNyD;aom ydwkpmyk'fonf ]]crnf;awmf\ tpfr ESr (t&D;)}}[kom
teufxu
G \
f ? ]]baxG;awmf}}[laom teufrxGuyf g? xkad emif ]]ydwpk m ,+
ykawm ydwpk m ykawm}}[kqufvQif ]]crnf;awmf\ tpfr ESr\om; (t&D;\
om;)}}[kom teufxu
G \
f ? ]]baxG;awmf\om;}}[laom teufrxGuyf g/
arG;csif; 7a,muf/ / t|uxm#DumwdYk jrwfpmG bk&m;&Si\
f crnf;
awmfrSm arG;csif; 7a,muf&SdaMumif;ukd qkd\? xkd7 a,mufwkdYrSm (1) oka'g'e
(2) okaum'e (3) oaum'e (4) a"mawm'e (5) trdawm'e (6) trdwm
rif;orD; (7) ygvdwmrif;orD;wkdYwnf;? r[m0H-22um; yrdwmrif;orD;ukd
xnf
h qk\
d / xkw
d iG f oka'g"erif;\ om;awmfrsm;um; bk&m;&SiEf iS fh t&Sif
eEww
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f Ek'k g wkw
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trdawm'e\ om;awmfum; t&Sit
f meEmwnf;? trdwmrif;orD;\ om;awmf
um; wdax&fwnf;? oaum'e a"mawm'e ygvdwmwkdY\ om;awmf
orD;awmfrsm;um; rxif&Sm;yg/
taz\ tpfr ESrukd ]]t&D;}}[k ac:aomaMumihf crnf;awmfoak 'g'e
rif;Bu;D \ ESrawmfjzpfaom trdwmrif;orD;onf bk&m;&Si\
f t&D;awmf jzpf
onf? wdax&fum; xkt
d &D;awmftrdwma'0D\ om;aawmfjzpfaomaMumihf

0*f

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113

Bu;D &if&h mtcg? yAZw


d mG &[ef;jyKc
hJ ? Ak'g eHwk\
Yd ? OyEv
mboum&H
jzpfy:aom omrnvmbf aumif;pGmjyKtyfaomvmbfu?kd y&dbk a Em
ok;H aqmifvaomf? xlvo&Da&m0NzKd ;aomuk,
d &f o
dS nf? ([kwmG )? tmaum#dwypmaum#daw[dxku
kd zf w
G af vQmt
f yf tzefzefvn
S yhf wfxk
ku
d zf w
G af vQmt
f yfuek af om? pD0a&[dwdjYk zif?Y 0g-wdu
Yk ?kd ed0gaowGm0wf
k
H ? a,bka,sersm;aomtm;jzif?h 0d[m&raZausmif;\ tv,f?
0g-u? Oy|meomvm,Hqnf;uyf&m Z&yf? 0g-w&m;obifr@yf?
edo'D wdxdik af ewwf\/ wxm*wHuk?d 'ewm,zl;jrifjcif;tusK;d
iSm? tm*wmvmukeaf om? tm*EKubduL tm*EKu&[ef;wko
Yd nf?
wHxkw
d
d ax&fu?dk 'domG ? ]]{aumwpfyg;aom? r[maxa&mr[m
ax&fonf? 0g-q&mawmfBuD;onf? b0dwd-vdrfhrnf?}} wd-odkY?
onm,rSwfxifjcif;aMumifh? wxkdwdax&f\? oEduHokdY?
*Em-? 0wH0wfukd? tmykpEdyefavQmufukef\? yg'orm[em'Ded
]]rmwkpmykawm-t&D;awmftrdwma'0D\om;}}[kom ay;Ekdifonf? ]]baxG;
awmf\om;}}[k ray;Ekid yf g? qkt
d yfcahJ om pum;t& wdax&fonf jrwfpmG
bk&m;ESihf nDtudkwpf0rf;uJGawmfpyfonf/ (r.|-1 366? om&w-3 77?
oD#Dopf-1 60? ygpda,m-98)
tmaum#dwypmaum#daw[d/ / tmaum#dwypmaum#dwEd tmaum#dwa0 y&d0awwGm ykeyKeH tmaum#dw?-r.|-3 67/
Oy|meomvm,H/ / Oy*Em wd|Ed {wmwd Oy|meH? Oy|mear0+
omvm Oy|meomvm}}[kjyK? w&m;a[mzkYd <uawmfrv
l maom bk&m;&Sit
f m;
&[ef;awmfrsm; qnf;uyfjyKpjk cif;ukd jyK&mXmeukd ]]Oy|meomvm}}[k ac:\?
(wpfenf;) &[ef;awmfrsm;\ 0denf;qk;H jzwf&m w&m;a[m&m aqG;aEG;wkid yf if
&m kd;&mxkH;pHtm;jzihf pnf;a0;uyfa&mufwnf&Sd&mjzpfaom Z&yfESihf r@yfukd
Oy|meomvm[k ac:\(O'ge.|-91? ygpda,m-18)/ ]]abmZeomvm-qGr;f
pm;ausmif;(oH|-2 220)}}[kvnf; qk\
d ? xkt
d vkd ]]Oy|meomvm,H-qGr;f pm;
ausmif;}}[kay;/

114

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,ru

ajcukd ESyd af y;jcif;tp&So


d nfwu
Ydk ?dk tmykpE -d uke\
f / aomxkw
d
d
ax&fonf? wkP-DS qdw?f ta[mod-Ny/D tx? eHxkdwdax&fukd?
{aumwpfyg;aom? '[&bduK &[ef;i,fonf? ]]wkarSt&Sib
f &k m;
wko
Yd nf? uwd0mb,fE0S g&Su
d ek o
f enf;}} wd-ok?Yd ykpw
d mG ? 0gaomf? ]]0H0gonf? ewd-r&Sdao;? 0g-r&ao;? r,HwkdYonf? r[vuumav-? yAZw
d m&[ef;jyKcu
hJ ek Nf y?D }} wd-ok?dY 0kawajymtyf
aomf? ]]'kAdeDwcJ,Of;ojzifh qkH;rtyfaom? tm0kaom r[vu
igh&Sif &[ef;Bu;D twaem\? yrmPHtwkid ;f t&Snu
f ?dk e Zmemod
rod? {waurQtwkdif;t&Snf&Sdukefaom? r[maxa&wkdYukd? 0gq&mawmfBuD;wdkYudk? 'doGm-? omrDpdurrwrdkdaorIrQukdvnf;? e
ua&modrjyK? 0awuk?d tmykp,
d rmaeyefavQmuftyfaomf? wkP?DS
a[modjzpf\? awoif\? 0goifhrSm? ukuKprwrd 0de,ukuKprQ
onfvnf;? (tyf rtyf pOf;pm;jcif;rQonfvnf;?) ewd?}} wdokYd
ukuKprwH/ / ukuKponf ]](1) eD0&PukuKp (2) 0de,ukuKp
(3) toH,wukuKp}}[l 3rsdK;&Sd\? xkdwGif eD0&PukuKp[lonf eD0&P
w&m;wGif yg0ifaom ukuKpapwodufwnf;? 0de,ukuKp[lonf tyfav
ovm; rtyfavovm;[k 0denf;t&m pOf;pm;MuHpnfrIwnf;? 0de,
ukuKpum; ykxkZOf aou &[EmwkdY\oEmef jzpfEkdifonf? r[mukokdvf
r[mBu,
d mpdwK yg 'fudk xku
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o
l nf
bk&m;0wfwuf y&dowftpnf;ta0;ponf ukd,fEIwfudk rapmihfpnf;bJ
vufvyI af jcvIyrf I pum;ajymrI cRo
J vdy[
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rsm;aomtm;jzihf arm[jy|mef;aom tukokdvfpdwKym'fukd &\? ae&m
0de,ukuKpukd ,lyg/ (tbd.|-1 414? oN*K[fbm-128? y'D-132)
0dN*dK[f/ / ukpdwH+uwH ukuwH-qufqkyfzG,f jyKtyfaompdwf? jyKtyf
NyD;aom 'kpkduf rjyKtyfrdaom okpkdufukd rkcs&\? xkd'kpkduf okpkdufukd
tmkHjyKjzpfaom ukuKpESihf ,SOfaompdwfukd um&Plypm&tm;jzihf &onf?
ukuw+bma0g ukuKpH-ukuwrnfaompdwf\ jzpfaMumif;jzpf&m(tbd.
|-2 299? tH.#D-1 78)? (wpfenf;) ukuwar0 ukuKpH-pufqkyftyfaom

0*f

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115

ajym? tp&H vufazsmufu?dk y[&dwD;Ny/D aomxkw


d
d ax&fonf?
cw,
d rmeHrif;rsK;d jzpfaom rmefu?kd ZaewGmjzpfap? ]]wkarSt&Sif
bk&m;wko
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l ? oEu
d H ok?Yd tm*wm<uvmMu
oenf;}} wd-ok?Yd ykpw
d mG -? ]]owK\? oEu
d ?H (tm*wmukeNf y?D )}}
wd-od?Yk 0kawtyfaomf? ]]rHuk?d yeteufr?hJ ]{aomolonf? aum
tb,foel nf;?} wdod?Yk ovauxrSwx
f ifuek o
f enf; a0gt&Sif
bk&m;wd\
Yk ? rlvar0t&if;uko
d m? qdE
d mrdjzwfypfrnf?}} wd-od?Yk
0wGm-? k'aEmikv
d su?f 'kuD pdwq
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aom pdw&f o
dS nf? (pdwaf umif;onf)? ([kwmG )? owK-\? oEu
d -H ok?Yd
t*rmodoGm;Ny/D tx? eHxkw
d
d ax&fu?dk owmonf? ]]wd
wd wGH onf? utb,faMumif?h 'ku-D onf? 'kra em-onf? tkrkacgrsuEf mS rsu&f nf&o
dS nf? ([kwmG )? a&m'rmaemikv
d su?f tm*awmvmonf? tod Ekenf;}} wd-ok?Yd ykp-d Ny/D awyd bduL xkt
d m*E Ku&[ef;wdo
Yk nfvnf;? ]]{o({aom)&[ef;Bu;D onf?*Em-? udd
wpfpw
kH pfcak om? tmavmVHarTaESmufjcif;uk?d (uke;f wku
d rf u
I )dk ? ua&,s
jyK&m\?}} wdokaYd wG;? awae0xkw
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aumpwd oauFmpwd e ygyZd*kpemuma&emwd ukuKapm? ukpdawe 0g
tmuma&e aumpwd 0dvdcwd e udavoovDcemuma&emwd ukuKapm?
ukp+t? uka'Gabmfuv
k m? ua'Gabmfvm? ukuK p+bma0g ukuK p?H ukuK p
+Ps?-y'D-130/ 0de,ukuKpukd&atmif }}eD0&PywdlyuH(tbd.|-1
414)}}[laom tzGit
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aom omrn)teufudk a[mvQif eykv
H id ?f yrmPteuf tyuteufwu
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H id f wdv
id w
f nf;/ (oD#o
D pf-1 232? oDbm#D-1 354 oDv
rwuHtzGifh)

116

"ry'bmom#Dum

,ru

? owm&H-ukd? 0EdwGm-? {urEH? edoD'okxdkifukefNyD/ aomxkd


wdax&fonf? 0gukd? owm&monf? ykpdawmar;tyfonf?
(ormaem-aomf?) ]]baE ar bduLwkdYonf? rHukd? taumoEd
qJuek \
f ? 0g-aigufirf;uke\
f ?}} wd-ok?Yd tm[-avQmufNy/D ]]wGH ye
onfum;? u[Htb,ft&yf? edoad Emaeonf? todenf;}} wd
odkYar;awmfrlNyD/ baE 0d[m&raZ? Oy|meomvm,H?
(edodaEm-onf? trSdyg\?) wdodkY avQmufNyD/ awoifonf?
ar bduLwkdYukd? tm*pEmvmaeonfwkdYukd? 'd|mjriftyfukef
oavm wdodYk ar;awmfrNl y/D baE tmr-rSeyf g? 'd|mjriftyf
ygukeNf y?D wdodYk avQmufNy/D awoifonf? O|m,x? ypK*r eH
c&D;OK;BuKd qjkd cif;uk?d uwH ujyKtyfoavm wdodYk ar;awmfrNl y/D
baE e uwHrjyKtyfyg? wdodaYk vQmufNy/D y&dum &*[PH
y&du& mukd vSr;f ,ljcif;uk?d tmykpw
d H (u)yefajymtyfoavm wd
Ny/D baE emykpw
d H (e+tmykpw
d )H ryefajymtyfyg? wdNy/D 0wH 0g
tm0godu&[ef;i,fwdkY jyKtyfaom usihf0wfukdvnf;aumif;? ygeD,H
0gaomufa&ukv
d nf;aumif;? tmykpw
d H (u)avm wdNy/D baE
emykpdwH-yg? wdNyD/ tmoeHae&mukd? eD[&dwGmxkwfaqmif?
tbd0ga'wGm&Scd ;dk ? yg'orm[eHajcukd qkyef ,fjcif;uk?d uwH (u)
avm wdNy/D baE e uwH-yg? wdNy/D wdwd r[vubduLeHBuD;onf\tjzpfudk ,lwwfukefaom &[ef;wkdYzkdY? 0g-BuD;&ifh
aom &[ef;wdkY\tay:? oAHaom? {wH 0wH0wfukd? umwAH
jyKxkduf\? {wH 0wHukd? tua&maEerjyKaom &[ef;onf? 0d[m&raZausmif;\ tv,f? edo'D w
d Hk aejcif;iSm? e 0wdroif?h wa00
oif\om? a'gaomtjypfwnf;? {aw bduL&[ef;wkdYukd? crmay[donf;cHapavm? 0guefawmhawmif;yefavm? wdodkY rdefY
awmfrNl y/D baE {aw&[ef;wko
Yd nf? rHuk?d taumook qJcu
hJ ek Nf y?D
0g-aigufirf;cJu
h ek Nf y?D t[Honf? {aw&[ef;wku
Yd ?dk e crmayrd

0*f

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117

onf;rcHapEkid yf g? 0gruefawmh rawmif;yefEidk yf g? wdavQmufNy/D


wdwd {0Hok?Yd rm u&drjyKEiS ?hf wa00-om? a'gaom-wnf;?
aexk&d [ef;wku
Yd ?dk crmay[d-avm? wdrdeNYf y/D baE e crmayrd-yg?
wd-Ny/D tx? owmonf? 0g-ud?k ]]baE {o ({aom)wd
ax&fonf? 'kAa pmcJ,Of;ojzifh ajymqkt
d yfaompum;&S\
d ? 0g-cJ,Of;
ojzifh ajymqdt
k yf\? (ajym&cuf\?)}} 'ku+H 0apm {woEd d 'kAa pm(tbd.|1 94)? 'kaue+0pdwaAmwd 'kAapm(0d.|-2 197)? wd-ok?Yd bduL [d
wdo
Yk nf? 0kawavQmuftyfaomf? ]]bdua 0wdYk {o ({aom)wd
onf? 'gae0om? 'kAa pmonf? er[kwaf o;? ykaAyd a&S;vnf;?
'kAa pma,0onfom?}} wd-ok?Yd 0wGmrdeaYf wmfrv
l aomf? ]]baE wm0
a&S;OK;pGm? 'ged-? twdax&f\? 'kAp bma0gcJ,Of;ojzifh
ajymqkt
d yfaom pum;&So
d nf\tjzpfu?dk tarS[d wko
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odtyfygNy/D {o ({aom)wdax&fonf? twDawa&S;? u
bmud?k tumodjyKcyhJ goenf;}} wd-ok?Yd 0kaw-ar;avQmuftyfaomf?
]]bdua 0-wkYd awe [dxko
d jYdk zpfvQi?f okPmxem;axmifMuavm?}}
wd-ok?Yd 0wGm-? twDwH ud?k tm[&daqmif awmfrNl y/D
twDaw? Am&mPod,H Am&mPoDjynf? Am&mPod&an
Am&mPoDrif;onf? &ZH ud?k (r[mZaee-rsm;pGmaomvltaygif;ud?k )
uma&aEjyKapvaomf? a'0davm emra'0dvrnfaom? wmyaom
&aohonf? t|rmao&Spv
f wdyYk wfv;kH ? [dr0aE[dr0Em? 0odwmG
ae? avmPrdvao0ewm,qm; tcsOfwdkYudk rSD0Jjcif;tusKd;iSm?
avmPrdvao0ewm,/ / avmPrdvao0ewm,mwd avmP
trdv
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d wDwd avmPH? vd["mwk Pypa,m?
vd avm? om'd,wd tm'd,wDwd avmPH? om'"mwk Pypa,m?
om' avm? oA&aook udav'wd wdEd,wd OEd,wDwd 0g avmPH?
udav'd"mwk OEd,ae Pypa,m? udav'd avm? oA&oH vkemwd
qdEw
w
D d avmPH? vk aq'ae ,k?-"r#/D

118

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,ru

pwma&m rmaoav;vwdyYk wfv;kH ? e*&Hud?k Oyedm,rS


D ? 0odw-k
umarmaejcif;iSm tvd&k o
dS nf? (aevko
d nf)? ([kwmG )? [dr0Eawm
[dr0EmrS? tm*Emvm? e*&'Gga&NrKd UwHcg;? 'g&auuav;wdu
Yk ?kd
'domG -? ykp-d Ny?D (u)? ]]rH e*&HNrKd Uod?Yk orwy AZw
d ma&mufvm
aom &aoh&[ef;wdo
Yk nf? uwtb,ft&yf? 0oEd aeukeo
f enf;
0g-wnf;cdu
k ek o
f enf;}} wd-ar;Ny/D baE ukru
m&omvm,Htd;k
xde;f onf\ tvkyf kH ? (0oEd aeuke\
f ? 0g-wnf;cdu
k ek \
f ?) wdodYk
avQmufuek Nf y/D wmyaomonf? ukru
m&omvHod?Yk *Em? 'Gga&
wHcg;? XwGm&yf? ]]b*0td;k xde;f onf (b*KE,
G zf mG ; td;k vkyo
f m;)
awoift
h m;? oap t*ktu,f 0efrav;tH?h ({0H owd)? {u&w
wpfnOfyh wfv;Hk ? 0g-wpfnOfrh Q? omvm,Htvkyf kH ? 0ao,smraevdk
yguke\
f ?}} wd-od?Yk tm[-Ny/D ukru
ma&monf? ]]r,SH \? 0g-rSm?
&w nOft
h cg? omvm,H? udpH jyKz,
G o
f nf? ewd yg? omvmtvkyf
ko
H nf? r[wDus,yf g\? baE ,xmokcH csr;f omonft
h m;avsmpf mG ?
0oxaeyguke?f }} wdodYk avQmuf? omvHud?k ed,sma'odtyf
ESi;f Ny/D wo xdak '0dv &aohonf? y0dow
d mG 0if? edoad Exdik af e
vaomf? tya&mydtjcm; vnf;jzpfaom? em&a'g emrem&'rnfaom?
wmyaomonf? [dr0EawmrS? tm*Em? ukru
m&Hud?k {u&w-d
0goHwpfnOfyh wfv;kH aejcif;ud?k 0g-wpfnOfrh Q wnf;cdck iG u
hf ?kd ,mpd
awmif;Ny/D ukru
ma&monf? ]]yXrHa&S;OK;pGm? tm*awmvmaom
&aohonf? rdem&aohEiS ?hf o'? {uawmwpfaygif;wnf;? 0odw-k
umarmaejcif;iSm tvd&k o
dS nf? ba0,s 0gjzpfrv
l nf; jzpf&m\? aem
em&a'g wmyaom/ / rEkmeH em&H O'uH a'wDwd em&a'g? e&meH
[dwokcH a'wDwd 0g em&a'g? tm'd'aD Cm? wayg t twDw
d wmyaom?
okcpk m &PwH tm'd'aD Cm? way tukovygy"ar odaemwd qdEw
w
D d 0g
wmyaom?-"r#D/

0*f

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119

(ba0,s) 0grjzpfrv
l nf; rjzpf&m? twmeHrdru
d ,
kd u
f ?kd y&darmapmrd
xuf0ef;usif vGwaf jrmufaptH?h }} wd-ok?Yd pdaEwmG -? ]]baE yXrH
pGm? Oy*awmuyfa&mufaom &aohonf? oap a&mapwdtu,f
ESpo
f uft?hH 0g-auseyft?hH ({0H owd)? wxd&k aoh\? kp,
d m
tBuKd ut
f m;jzif?h 0g-oabmwlncD sujf zif?h 0oxaeyguke?f }} wd-ok?Yd
tm[/ aomxdek m&'&aohonf? wHxdak '0dv&aoho?Ykd OyouFrw
d mG ? ]]tmp&d,q&m awt&Si\
f ? 0g-rSm? oap t*ktH?h ({0H owd
aomf)? r,wynfah wmfwo
Ykd nfvnf;? {wtvkyf kH ? {u&w
ywfv;Hk ? 0grQ? 0ao,smraevdyk guke\
f ?}} wd-ok?Yd ,mpd-awmif;qkNd y/D
]]omvmonf? r[wDus,yf g\? {uraEoifw
h ifah vsmufywf wpfck
aom t&yf? y0dow
d mG 0if? 0om[daeygavm?}} wd-ok?Yd 0kaw
tyfaomf? y0dow
d mG ? yka&w&Hrdrx
d uf oma&S;OK;pGm? y0d|
0ifaeaom? a'0dva'0dv&aoh\? ty&bma*aemuftzdkY?
(aemufzuf)? edo'D d xdik af eNy/D Oabmyd2yg;vH;k wdo
Yk nfvnf;? om&PD,uxHtqufrjywf jzpfapxdu
k af om pum;ud?k 0g-rjywfrjywf
trSw&f xku
d af ompum;ud?k uaxwGmajymqdNk y;D ? edyZo
k tdyu
f ek Nf y/D
em&a'gonf? o,eumavtdy&f mtcg? a'0dv\? edyZe|metdy&f mt&yfuv
kd nf;aumif;? 'Gg&wHcg;udv
k nf;aumif;?
ovauwmG rSwo
f m;? edyZd tdyNf y/D ye-okaYd omfvnf;? aom a'0davmxdak '0dv&aohonf? edyZrmaemtdyv
f aomf? twaem\? edyZe|maetdy&f mt&yf? tedyZw
d mG rtdyfrl? 'Gg&raZwHcg;\
tv,f? wd&,
d H uefv
Y ef?Y edyZd tdyNf y/D em&a'gonf? &w nOfh ?
edur aEmxGuv
f aomf? wxdak '0dv&aoh\? Z#mokqHuspw
f Ykd ?
turdeif;rdNyD/ ]]aum-onf? rHudk? turdeif;oenf;?}} wd podkY
vnf;? 0kawar;tyfaomf? ]]tmp&d,q&m t[Hwynfah wmfygwnf;?}}
wd-ok?Yd tm[/ ul#Z#dvaumufuspaf om&aoh t&nawmawmrS?

120

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,ru

tm*Em? rr\? Z#mokqHuspw


f Ykd ? turodeif;bd\? wd
odYk ajymNy/D ]]tmp&d, wkrmS uHoifw\
Ykd ? "t&yf? edyEbm0H
tdyu
f ek o
f nf\tjzpfu?kd e Zmemrdrodyg? arwynfah wmftm;? crx
onf;cHyguke?f (cGiv
fh w
T yf guke)f ?}} wd-ok?Yd 0wGm-? wxdak '0dv
&aohonf? uEEa 0jrnfwrf;aepOfyif? A[dtjyifo?Ykd edur d xGuNf y?D
wa&mtjcm;aom a'0dv&aohonf? ]]t,Hem&'&aohonf?
y0doaEmyd0ifaomfvnf;? rHud?k tuar,seif;&m\?}} wdodYk
Mu
H ? y&d0awwmG ajymif;jyefvn
S
hf ? yg'|maeajcxm;&mt&yf? oDoH
OK;acgif;ud?k uwGm? edyZ/d em&a'gydonfvnf;? y0doaEmaomf?
]]t[Honf? yXrHyd a&S;OK;pGmvnf;? tmp&da,q&m? ty&Z jypfrmS ;
cJNh y?D 'ged? txd&k aoh\? yg'yaeajcaxmufab;jzif?h 0gajc&if;bufjzif?h y0do
d mrd0ift?hH }} wd-ok?Yd pdaEwmG ? tm*paEm
vmvaomf? *D0g,vnfyif;? turd eif;rdNy/D ]]{aomeif;olonf?
aumtb,foel nf;}} wd podv
Yk nf;? 0kawtyfaomf? ]]tmp&d, t[Hwnf;?}} wd 0wGm? ]]ul#Z#dv-aoh yXrHpGm? rr\?
Z#mokwdYk ? turw
d mG eif;? 'ged? *D0g,? turodeif;\?
wHoifu
h ?kd tbdoydmrdused q
f t
J ?hH }} wd-ok?Yd 0kawajymtyfaomf?
]]tmp&d, r,SH wynfah wmf\? 0g-rSm? a'gaomtjypfonf? ewd r&Syd g?
t[Honf? wkrmS uHwd\
Yk ? {0Hod?Yk edyEbm0Htdyu
f ek o
f nf\tjzpfu?kd
e Zmemrdrod? ]yXrrd pGmvnf;? aronf? ty&'H jypfrmS ;tyfNy?D 'ged
? yg'yaejzif?h y0do
d mrdtH?h } wdodYk Mu
H ? y0da|m0ifonf?
trSd \? artm;? crxuke?f }} wd tm[/ ul#Z#dv wHoifu
h ?kd
tbdoydmrdtH?h wdodYk ajymNy/D tmp&d, {0Hod?Yk rm u&dw
rjyKygukeEf iS ?hf wd-okYd ajymNy/D aomxdak '0dv&aohonf? w
xdek m&'&aoh\? 0peHpum;ud?k tem'd,w
d mG rem,lr
l ? ]]o[&HoD
?ay? ow"m}}wd[l? wHxdkem&'&aohudk? tbdoyd {0usdefqJ
onfom/

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o[&HoD owawaZm ol&ad ,m wr0daem'aem?


ygawm',aE ol&ad , rk'g aw zvwk ow"m/
ol&ad ,maeonf? o[&HoD axmifaygif;rsm;pGmaom a&mif
jcnf&\
dS ? owawaZm&maygif;rsm;pGmaom wefc;dk &S\
d ? wr0daem'aem
trku
d af rSmifudk y,fazsmufEidk \
f ? ygawmeHeufapmapm? ol&ad ,
aeonf? O',aEtxuf jzpfvaomf? 0gxGuv
f aomf? awoif\?
rk'g OK;xdyo
f nf? ow"mckepfpw
d f ckepfjzm? zvwkuGyJ gapownf;/
em&a'gonf? ]]tmp&d, r,SH \? 0g-rSm? a'gaomtjypfonf?
ewd yg? wdod?Yk rronf? 0'Ea0ajympOfyif? wkarSwko
Yd nf?
tbdoyxused q
f u
J ek \
f ? ,tMuifo\
l ? 0g-rSm? a'gaomonf?
twd \? wxdo
k \
l ? rk'g OK;xdyo
f nf? zvwkuGyJ gapownf;? eda'gotjypfr&So
d \
l ? (rk'g onf?) rm (zvwk)ruGyJ gapESi?fh }} wd
od?Yk 0wGm? ]]o[&HoD ?ay? ow"m}}wd[l? tbdoydused q
f NJ y/D
ye-qufOK;tH?h aomxdek m&'&aohonf? r[mEkbma0gBu;D
aom tmEkabmf&o
dS nf? ([kwmG )? twDaw? pwmvDo av;q,f
vnf;aumif;? tem*awtem*wf? pwmvDo -av;q,fvnf;aumif;?
wdod?Yk toDwu
d ay&Spq
f ,faom urmwdu
Yk ?kd tEk&wdatmuf
arh trSw&f Edik \
f / womaMumif?h ]]utb,fo\
l ? Oy&dtay:?
tbdoaygused pf monf? ywdwd Ek acgusvrd rf nfenf;?}} wdod?Yk
Oy"ma&aEmqifjcifvaomf? tmp&d,\? (Oy&d-? tbdoaygonf? ywdwdvdrrhf nf?)}} wd-ok?Yd wGm? wo xdak '0Dv&aoh?
tEkurH pdw\
f wkev
f yI af Mumif; ukPmuk?d 0g-tpOfoem;jcif;ud?k yg
&mbm-2 498twkid ;f ay;onf? ]]tEkur-H avsmpf mG wkev
f yI w
f wfaomukPm
uk(d r[mbm-1 498? oDbm-3 289?)}}[kvnf; o'wa y;Ekid o
f nf/ y#dp

pG
J ? 'Ad avewefc;kd \tpGr;f jzif?h tkP*k r eHtkPw
f ufjcif;ud?k
(tkPw
f ufciG u
fh )dk ? ed0ga&wdwm;jrpf\/

122

"ry'bmom#Dum

,ru

em*&mNrKd UolNrKd Uom;wdo


Yk nf? tkaPtkPo
f nf? tEk*p a E
rwufvaomf? &mZ'Gg&Hrif;\ eef;awmfwcH g;od?Yk *Em? ]]a'0t&Sif
rif;jrwf w,doifonf? &ZH rif;tjzpfu?kd uma&aEjyKapvaomf?
tkaPmonf? e O|[wdrwuf? aemuReaf wmfrsK;d wdzYk ?Ydk 0g-twGu?f
tkPH ud?k O|may[dwufapygavm?}} wd-ok?Yd uEo
k a<u;aMumf
ukeNf y?D 0g-awmif;qdu
k ek Nf y/D &mZmonf? twaem\? um,urm'Ded
um,uHtp&So
d nfwu
Ykd ?kd MoavmauaEmMunfv
h aomf? udd wpfpkH
wpfcak om? t,kwH roifah vsmaf om tjyKtrlu?kd t'domG rjrifr
l ?
]]um&PHtaMumif;onf? u Ek acgtb,foeYkd nf;?}} wd-ok?Yd pdaEwGmpOf;pm;qifjcifvaomf? ]]yAZw
d meH&aoh&[ef;wd\
Yk ? 0d0ga'ejiif;
cHjk cif;aMumif?h 0g-onf? b0dwAH jzpf&m\?}} wdod?Yk y&douFrmaem
,Hrk mS ;onf? 0g-oHo,jzpfonf? ([kwmG -?) ]]upd todeYk nf; ro
e*a&? yAZw
d m&aoh&[ef;wdo
Yk nf? twd &Su
d ek o
f avm}} wdok?Yd ykp/d ]]a'0jrwf [da,smraeYu? om,Hnaecsr;f tcg? ukru
m&omvm,Htd;k xde;f onf\ tvkyf Hk ? tm*wma&mufvmaom &aoh
wdo
Yk nf? twd uke\
f ?}} wd-ok?Yd 0kawoHawmfOK;wiftyfaomf? wHcPan0xdck Pyif? &mZmonf? "m&d,rmem[daqmifjytyfuek af om?
k ;kd xde;f onf\ tvkyf o
kH ?Ykd *Em? em&'HOum[drD;SL;wdjYk zif?h wwxdt
em&'H-uk?d 0Ew
d mG ? {urEH ? edoad Emxdik v
f su?f tm[ar;avQmufNy?D
Oum[d "m&d,rmem[d/ / wrLwvuPteuf,l txuf
ay;onf? Oum[d uHteuf,l ]]Oum[d-wkdYukd? "m&d,rmem[d-xGef;nd
apukev
f su}f }[kvnf; ay;Mu\? xkt
d vkd "m&d,rmem[donf "&"mwfaemif
ya,mZuAsmyga& Pmydp(arm*f-5 16)okwfjzihf um&dwfPdypnf;ouf?
PftEkAefacs " tm0k'd jyK ,k0Pmerd,ik0if oa&(arm*f-5 136) okwjf zihf
ukd ,if(,jyK) rmeypn;f ouf Ny;D aom a[wkuwKyk w
f nf;/
wpfenf;/ / ]]Oum[d "m&d,rmem[DDwd 'Dydum[d "m&d,rmem[d
'@'Dydumok ZmavwGm "m&d,rmemok(tH#D-2 291)}}tzGihftvkd bm0-

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123

(uenf;) ]]urEm ?ay? ykpad wm}}wd[l? (tm[)/


urEm ey0wEd ZrK'yD em&'?
aue avmaum warmblawm wH ar tum[d ykpad wm/
em&'em&' ZrK'yD ZrL'dy\
f ? urEm vkyif ef;wko
Yd nf? ey0wEd
rjzpfawmhuek ?f auetb,faMumif?h avmaumurmavmuonf?
warmblawmtarSmifjzpf jzpf&ygoenf; ar'umawmfonf?
ykpad wmavQmufxm;tyfaom? (wGH t&Sib
f &k m;onf?) ar'umawmf
tm;? tm0kwdenf;ponfjzifh arudk 2cgay;onf? wHxkdtaMumif;ukd?
tum[drdeMYf um;ygavm/
em&a'gonf? oAH aom? wH y0w xdjk zpfyu
kH ?kd tmpduw
d mG
ajymjy? rdem um&aPetaMumif;aMumif?h t[Hud?k rdem
a'0Dv&aohonf? tbdoydawmused q
f t
J yfNy?D tx? t[Honf?
]]r,S-H \? 0g-rSm? a'gaom-onf? ew?d ,-\? 0g-rSm? a'gaom-onf?
tw?d wa0xdo
k \
l om? Oy&dtay:? tbdoaygused q
f jJ cif;onf?
(used pf monf)? ywwkusapownf;?}} wd-ok?Yd 0wGm-? tbdoy
used cf NhJ y/D p ye-qufOK;tH?h tbdoydwmG Ny;D ? ]]u\? Oy&d?
tbdoaygonf? ywdwd Ek acgusvrd rhf nfenf;?}} wd-ok?Yd Oy"ma&aEmaomf? ]]ol&,
d *k r ea0vm,aexGucf sed f ? tmp&d,\?
rk'g onf? ow"mckepfpw
d f ckepfjzm? zvdwduGv
J rd rhf nf?}} wd
od?Yk 'domG ? {wo a'0dv&aoh? tEkurH ud?k y#dp ? tkP
tm;? 0g-\? O*reHwufjcif;ud?k (wufciG u
hf )dk ? e a'rdray;? ]]tkP
O*EKH e a'x(r.|-3 61)}}0gus ]]O*EKH}}ukd Munhf O*reH pwkwDteuf
,lum ]]tkP-udk? O*reH-wufjcif;iSm? e a'rd}}[k wpfenf;ay;/ wd

odkY ajymNyD/ baE&m; uxH yetb,fodkYvQif? txdka'0dv


vuP(owrD)teuf wwd,moufum ]]Oum[d-wkdYukd? "m&d,rmem[daqmifjytyfukefvaomf? 0g-aqmifjytyfukefvsuf}}[k ay;/

124

"ry'bmom#Dum

,ru

&aoh\? tE&ma,mtE&m,fonf? e ba0,srjzpf&moenf; wd


odaYk r;Ny/D rHud?k oap crmay,stu,fonf;cHaptH?h 0gtu,f
uefawmhawmif;yeft?hH ({0H owdaomf?) (tE&ma,monf?) e
ba0,srjzpf&m? wdodYk ajymNy/D ]]awe [dxdo
k Ykd jzpfvQi?f crmay[donf;cHapavm? 0guefawmhawmif;yefavm?}} wd-ok?Yd 0kawtyf
aomf? r[m&mZrif;Bu;D {aomem&'&aohonf? rHud?k Z#mok p
wdYk vnf;aumif;? *D0g, pvnf;aumif;? turd eif;Ny?D t[Honf?
{wH ul#Z#dvH aumufuspaf om &aohu?kd e crmayrdonf;rcHap
Edik ?f 0gruefawmh rawmif;yefEikd ?f wdodYk ajymNy/D baE crmay[d-avm? {0H-od?Yk rm u&dw rjyKygukeEf iS ?hf wdodYk avQmufNy/D e
crmayrdEkid ?f wdodjYk yefajymNy/D ]]awt&Sib
f &k m;\? rk'g OK;xdyf
onf? ow"mjzm? zvdwdvdrrhf nf?}} wdok?Yd 0kawyd ajymqkt
d yf
ygaomfvnf;? e crmaywda,0onf;rcHaponfom? 0gruefawmh
rawmif;yefonfom/ tx? eHxkad '0dv&aohu?dk &mZmonf? ]]wGH
onf? twaem\? kp,
d mtvkjd zif?h e crmayodonf;cHapvdrhf
rnf r[kw?f 0guefawmh awmif;yefvrd rhf nfr[kw?f }} wdokYd ajym?
[wyg'ukp*d 0D gokvufajc0rf;Adu
k v
f nfyif;wkYd ? 0gwdu
Yk ?kd *g[maywGmukid af p? em&'\? yg'rlavajc&if;? Moermayodatmuf
okYd Gwaf pNy?D 0g-OK;wdu
k af pNy/D em&a'gydonfvnf;? ]]tmp&d,-q&m
Oa|[dxavm? awt&Sit
fh m;? crmrdonf;cHyg\? 0g-cGiv
hf w
G yf g\?}}
wd-ok?Yd 0wGm-? ]]r[m&mZrif;Bu;D t,Ha'0dv&aohonf?
,xmraeepdwt
f m; avsmaf omtm;jzif?h (pdw&f if;trSet
f m;jzih)f ? e
crmaywdonf;cHaponf r[kw?f 0guefawmh awmif;yefonfr[kw?f
e*&\? t0d'al &? {aumwpfcak om? oa&mtkid o
f nf? tw?d
wwxkt
d idk f ? eHxkad '0dv&aohu?dk oDaoOK;acgif;? rwu
d myd@H
ajrpdik cf u
J ?dk uwGm? 0gwif? *vyrmaPvnfrsKd twdik ;f t&Snf
&Sad om? O'au? Xygay[dwnfapavm? 0g- xm;avm?}} wd tm[/

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125

&mZmonf? wxmxkad jymonft


h wkid ;f ? uma&odjyKapNy/D em&a'g
onf? a'0dvH uk?d tmraEwmG ac:? ]]tmp&d, r,mwynfah wmf
onf? ',
d mwefc;dk uk?d 0d|m,vTwt
f yfaomf? ol&,
d oEmay
aea&mifonf? O|[aEay:xGuv
f mvaomf? O'au? edrZk w
d mG iky
f ?
tanetjcm;aom? Xmaeet&yfjzif?h Ow&w
d mG ul;? *ap,smod
oGm;avm?}} wd-ok?Yd tm[? ol&,
d &Ho[
D d aea&mifjcnfwjYdk zif?h oHz|k rawm0xdtyfumrQonf? (ormaem0-aomfom?) wxkad '0dv
&aoh\? rwu
d myda@majrpkid cf o
J nf? ow"mjzm? zvduGNJ y?D aom
xkad '0dv&aohonf? edrZk w
d mG iky
f ? tanetjcm;aom? Xmaee
t&yfjzif?h yvm,dajy;Ny?D wdtwdw0f wKtNy;D wnf;/
owmonf? rH "ra'oeHuk?d tm[&dwmG aqmifawmfrNl y;D ?
]]bdua0wkYd w'gxkt
d cg? &mZmonf? tmeaEmtmeEmonf?
ta[modcJNh y?D a'0davmonf? wdamwdonf? (ta[mod)?
em&a'gonf? t[ar0igbk&m;onfom? (ta[mod)? wd {0Hod?Yk
w'gydvnf;? {o ({aom)a'0dvonf? 'kAa pma,0cJ,Of;ojzifh
ajymqkt
d yfaom pum;&So
d nfom?}} wd-ok?Yd 0wGm-? wdaw&H uk?d
tmraEwmG ac:awmfr
l ? ]]wdwd ]tokauexdrk nfoo
l nf?
t[Huk?d tuKa|mqJa&;tyfNy?D tokaueonf? (t[Huk?d ) y[a#mykwcf wftyfNy?D tokaueonf? (t[Huk?d ) ZdawmatmiftyfNy?D
0g-tEdik ,
f zl ;l Ny?D tokaumonf? ar\? b@HOpmuk?d t[modck;d
aqmifz;l Ny?D } wdok?Yd pdaE E BupH nfaom? bduK aem emr&[ef;
rnfo\
l ? a0&H emr&efrnfonf? e 0lyorwd rNird ;f at;Ekid ?f bduK aem
emr-onf? t[H ?ay? t[mod-Ny?D wd-ok?Yd pdaEE
vaomf? a0&H emr e
0lyorwd}}[kvnf; ay;/ yetEG,um;? {0Hok?Yd tEkye,SEa 0

&efNiKd ;rzGUJ aomol\om? (a0&H emrrnfonf)? Oyorwd Nird ;f at;Ekid f


\?}} wd-ok?Yd 0wGmrdeaYf wmfrNl y;D ? rm *gxmwku
Yd ?dk tbmoda[m
awmfrNl y?D (u)? ]]taumpd ?ay? awolyorw}D } wd[l? (tbmod)/

126

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,ru

taumpd rH t0"d rH tZded rH t[mod ar?


a, p wH Oye,SEd a0&H awoH e orw/d
rHighu?dk taumpd qJa&;zl;Ny?D rHuk?d t0"dnO;f qJyw
k cf wfz;l Ny?D
rHuk?d tZded atmifz;l Ny?D 0gtEkid u
f sizfh ;l Ny?D ar\? (oEuH Opmuk?d )
t[modcd;k aqmifz;l Ny?D (wdokY d awG;?) a,tMuify*k Kd vw
f Ydk
onf? wHxkad um"uk?d 0gxk&d efNiKd ;uk?d Oye,SEd zJUG uke\
f ? awoH
xkyd *k Kd vw
f \
Ydk ? a0&H&efonf? e orwd rNird ;f at;Ekid /f
taumpd rH t0"d rH tZded rH t[mod ar?
a, p wH Ekye,SEd a0&H awolyorw/d
rH-uk?d taumpd- Ny?D rH-ud?k t0"d-Ny?D rH-ud?k tZde-d Ny?D ar-\? (oEu-H
uk)d t[mod-Ny?D (wd?) a,wko
Yd nf? wHuk?d Ekye,SEd (e+Oy
e,SE)d rzJUG uke?f awoHwkYd ? (OyEH jzpfaom?) a0&Honf? Oyorwd Nird ;f
at;Ekid \
f ? (wpfenf;) awokwdYk ? (OyEH aom)? a0&Honf? Oyorwd
\/ a&SUenf; ]]awoH+Oyorwd aemufenf; ]]awok+Oyorwd}}[kjzwf/
ww-xk*d gxmwkYd ? taumpDw
-d um;? taumod-qJa&;Ny?D t0"Dwd-um;? y[&d-ykwcf wfNy?D tZdew
D -d um;? ul#oudM owm&aPe 0gaumufuspaf om oufaoukd oGi;f csjcif;tm;jzihaf omfvnf;aumif;?
0g'y#0d ga'e 0g-rdr0d g'\ qefu
Y sib
f uf0g'tm;jzihaf omfvnf;aumif;?
0g-rdrad jymqkt
d yfaom pum;ukd qefu
Y sib
f ufajymqkjd cif;tm;jzihaf omf
ul#ouMd owm&aPe/ / ula#m+oud ul#oud? Mowm&D,aw Mowm&PH-usa&mufapjcif;?-oGi;f csjcif;? ul#ouda em-aumufuspaf om oufao
ukd+Mowm&PH ul#oudMowm&PH/
0g'y#d0ga'e/ / 0Zawwd 0ga'g-ajymqkdtyfaompum;? y#dyaum+
0ga'g y#d0ga'g? 0g'+y#d0ga'g 0g'y#0d ga'g-rdrad jymqkt
d yfaom pum;\+
qefu
Y sib
f uf pum;wnf;? (qefu
Y sib
f uf ajymqkjd cif;)?

0*f

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127

vnf;aumif;? u&Pkw& ,
d u&aPe 0g-rdrjd yKtyfaomtrIxuf vGef
uJpmG jyKtyfaomtrItm;jzihaf omfvnf;aumif;? um&Pkw& ,
d u&aPe 0g-rdrjd yKtyfaom taMumif;xuf vGeu
f aJ om taMumif;ukd
jyKjcif;tm;jzihaf omfvnf;aumif;? taZod-atmifz;l Ny?D 0g-Ekid zf ;l Ny?D t[mod arwd-um;? rr-ig\? oEu-H Opmjzpfaom? ywm'Do-k oydwt
f p&Sd
aom 0wKww
Ydk iG ?f udad '0-wpfpw
kH pfcak om 0wKuydk if? t0[&d-ck;d
aqmifz;l Ny/D t[modum; [&+? tmtm'Dok [&m(arm*f-6 21)
okwf uGp"d mwkow
k Bf u;D jzihf &ukd tmjyK ovm Ny;D onf/ a, p wEd-
um;? a,aupd-trSwrf &Sd <uif;rJOh Hk tvH;k pHu
k ek af om? a'0g 0g-ewf
wko
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d u&PH
vnf; enf;wl/

128

"ry'bmom#Dum

,ru

,m-owduif;ojzih?f (owdrxm;ojzih?f ) treodum&0aoe 0g-ESv;kH


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d nf\ tpGr;f tm;jzihaf omfvnf;aumif;?
a,-tMuify*k Kd vw
f o
Ydk nf? taumom'd0wKu-H taumotp&Sad om
rS&D mtaMumif;&Sad om? wH aum"H-xkad um"uk?d 0g-xk&d efNiKd ;uk?d e Oye,SEd pyf? w,myd-oifonfvnf;? yk&rd ba0-a&S;jzpfaom b0? aumpd-wpfpw
kH pfa,mufaom? eda'gaom-tjypfr&So
d o
l nf? 0g-uk?d tuKa|mqJa&;tyfz;l onf? b0dwd-jzpfvrd rhf nf? y[a#m-ykwcf wftyfz;l onf?
b0dwd-rnf? ul#ou- aumufuspaf om oufaouk?d (rw&m; ouf
aouk)d ? Mowma&wGm-oGi;f cs? Zdawm-atmiftyfz;l onf? b0wdrnf? aw-oifonf? yo,S-vTr;f rk;d ? upd-wpfpkH wpfa,muf\? ud-d
wpfpw
kH pfcak om Opmonf? 0g-uk?d tpdE -H vk,t
l yfz;l onf? b0dwdrnf/ wom-aMumif?h eda'gaom-tjypfr&So
d o
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o
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f Ydk ? OyE-H jzpfonf? (ormeH)yd-jzpfygaomfvnf;? (wpfenf;)
OyEyH -d jzpfonfvnf;jzpfaom? a0&H-&efonf? rdem tEkye,Saee-
rzJUG jcif;aMumif?h 0lyorwd pyf? ed&Ed a em-avmifpmr&Sad om? Zmwa0a'grD;onf? 0lyorwd 0d,-Nird ;f at;ouJo
h ?Ydk (wxm-wl?) 0lyorw-d Nird ;f
at;&\? wd- wGif *gxmzGihf tNy;D tqH;k wnf;/
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dk t
f p&So
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Ydk ?Ydk
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r[mZe-rsm;pGmaom vltaygif;\? omwdum-tusdK;ESihf wuG
jzpfonf? 0g-tusKd ;&So
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f l

0*f

"ry'bmom#Dum

129

pGm ajymqkt
d yfaom pum;&So
d o
l nfom? Zmawm-jzpfNy?D wd-wd
aw&0wK tNy;D wnf;/ wdax&fonf aemiftcg oH-2 87 vmaom
wdokwfawmfukd em,l&ojzihf &[EmjzpfoGm;onf/-ax&.|-1 132/

wdaw&0wKbmom#DumNy;D \/

4-umV,udeD0wKbmom#Dum
e [d a0a&em
a0a&emwd rH "ra'oeH owm aZw0ae 0d[&aEm
vaomf? 0gpOf? tnw&Hwpfa,mufaom? 0dw jrKH aomrde;f rud?k
(tjrKH rud)k ? tm&A uaxod/
ud&csUJ OK;tH?h {aumwpfa,mufaom? uk#Kru
d ykawmol<u,f
\ om;onf? ydw&dtazonf? umvuawjyKtyfNy;D aom aojcif;
&Sv
d aomf? 0gaoNy;D vaomf? acaw pv,fvnf;aumif;? Ca& p
tdrf vnf;aumif;? oAurmedtvk;H pkaH om tvkyw
f u
Ykd ?kd twem0ud,
k w
f ikd o
f mvQi?f ua&maEmjyKvsu?f rmw&Htrdu?kd y#dZ*d jyKpv
k yk f
auR;Ny/D txxdt
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k <l u,fom;\? rmwmtaronf?
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rm 0a'xrajymygukeEf iS ?hf t[HuReaf wmfonf? ,m0ZD0H toufq;Hk
onfw
h idk af tmif? wkarSwdu
Yk ?kd y#dZ*
d mrdjyKpv
k yk af uR;ygrnf? wdajymNy/D wmwighom; acaw pv,fvnf;aumif;? Ca& ptdrf
vnf;aumif;? udpH jyKzG,f upd u?kd wGar0oifonfom? ua&modjyK
ae&\? awexdak Mumif?h r,SH \? pdwo
ck H emrpdw\
f csr;f omjcif;
rnfonf? e a[mwdrjzpf? tmaemrdaqmifay;tH?h wd-ajymNy/D
aomxdo
k <l u,f\om;onf? ykeyKeH txyfxyf? y#duyd w
d mG y,fjrpf?
wkPDS qdwq
f w
d ?f ta[modNy/D omxdt
k aronf? {uHwpfcak om?
ukvH trsK;d tdro
f ?Ykd *EKumrmoGm;jcif;iSm tvd&k o
dS nf? ([kwmG )? a*[m

130

"ry'bmom#Dum

,ru

tdrrf ?S edur d xGuNf y/D tx? eHxdt


k arud?k ykawmom;onf? ]]uw&H
ukvH tb,ftrsK;d od?Yk (tb,ftrd o
f )Ykd ? *pxoGm;ukerf nfenf;}} wdok?Yd ykpw
d mG ar;? ]]tokuukvH emrxdrk nfaom trsK;d od?Yk 0g-xkrd nf
aom tdro
f ?Ydk (*pmruket
f ?hH )}} wd? 0kawtyfaomf? wwxdt
k rsK;d od?Yk
(xdt
k rd o
f )Ykd ? *reHoGm;jcif;ud?k y#daoa"wGmwm;jrpf? twaemrdrd
onf? tbdpk w
d H tvGeEf pS o
f uftyfaom? ukvH trsK;d ud?k tmpdud ajym
Ny/D omxdt
k aronf? wwxdt
k rsK;d od?Yk (xkt
d rd o
f )Ydk ? *Em? ukrm&duH
ud?k 0ga&wGmawmif;&rf;? 'd0oHaeYu?kd 00waywGmqk;H jzwfowfrw
S f
? wHxdt
k rsdK;orD;ud?k (a*[H-od?Yk ) tmaewGmaqmif? wxdo
k m;
\? Ca&tdrf ? tumodjyKNy?D 0g-xm;Ny?D omxdt
k rsKd ;orD;onf? 0m
tjrKH ronf? ta[modNy/D tx? eHxdo
k m;ud?k rmwmonf? ]]ykw
ighom; wGH onf? twaem\? kp,
d mtvdq
k Ejzif?h ukrm&duH ud?k tmPmayodtawmif;ckid ;f cJNh y?D 'ged? omxdt
k rsKd ;orD;onf? 0m
tNrKH ronf? ZmwmjzpfNy?D tykwu
H om; orD;r&Sad om? ukvH p emr
trsK;d rnfonfvnf;? 0dewdysupf ;D wwf\? ya0PDtpOftquf
D d (quf
onf? (aqGpOfrsdK;qufonf)? ya0Pwd yAEm *pwd y0www
quf jzpfwwfaomaMumihf) ya0PD? y+a0P++?-yg&mbm-1 531/
0m/ / 0mo'g ukd,f0efr,lEkdifaom (om;orD;tzwfrwifaom)
rdef;r(tNrKHr)ukd a[m\? xkdokdYaom rdef;rNrKH\ 0rf; ukd,f0efum; wnf\?
okdYaomf oaEom;\ tukokdvfuHaMumihf avESihf ykd;zsufojzihf rdef;rNrKH0rf;
wnfaomoaEom; ysuf&onf/(0d.|-2 64)/
0dN*dK[/f / a0g ykawm+apsm ea|m {wdmwd 0m? 0+ps? ed*[dwf
vm jyK?-"r#D? {#D/ (wpfenf;) 0ewd ,mpwd ykwEd 0m? 0e+ps? eukd
ed*[dwfjyK? (wpfenf;) 0"wd ykwH zvH 0g [ewDwd 0m? [e+Ps? [eukd
0"jyK "sukd psjyK ed*[dwfvm?-oD#Dopf-1 395/ (wpfenf;) odae[0aoe
yk&doH AEwDwd 0m/ AE+,? Aukd 0jyK eukd jyK "sukd psjyK-axmr?
"mwGw? yg&mbm-3 371//

0*f

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131

e C#D,wdqufpyfru
I dk rjyKEikd ?f (rqufpyfEidk )f ? awexdak Mumif?h aw
oihzf ?Ykd 0g-twGu?f tnHtjcm;aom? ukrm&duH ud?k tmaerdaqmif
ay;rnf? wd-odYk ajymNy?D awexdo
k m;onf? ]]trtar tvH
awmfNy?D }} wd-ok?Yd 0kpr memydajymtyfygaomfvnf;? ykeyKeH xyf? uaxodajymNy?D 0dwD jrKH aom rde;f ronf? wH uxHxdpk um;ud?k okwmG
Mum;? ]]ykwm emrom;orD;wdrYk nfonf? rmwmydwel H rdbwd\
Yk ? 0peH
pum;ud?k twdur w
d kH ausmv
f eG jf cif;iSm? 0g-vGeq
f efjcif;iSm? e oaumEd
rpGr;f Edik u
f ek ?f 'ged? tnHaom? 0dZm,de om;orD;arG;zGm;Edik af om?
w ud?k tmaewGmaqmif? rHud?k 'godabma*euRerf tjzpfjzihf
toH;k jyKjcif;jzif?h 0g-uRerf vkd ok;H EIe;f qufqjH cif;rsdK;jzih?f bk
d wdtoH;k
jyKqufqv
H rd rhf nf? t[Honf? o,ar0ud,
k w
f ikd o
f mvQi?f {uHaom?
ukrm&duH ud?k ,ELe tmae,sH tu,f aqmif,al y;&ygrlum; aumif;
avpG?}} wdod?Yk pdaEwmG ? {uHaom? ukvH od?Yk *Em? wxkd
a,musmf ;\? twm,tusK;d iSm? ukrm&duH ud?k 0ga&wGmawmif;&rf;?
]]trtrd u emrtb,frnfaom? {wHpum;ud?k 0a'odajymqdk
bdoenf;?}} wdajym? aw[dxdktrsdK;wdkYonf? y#dudwmy,fjrpf
tyfonf? (ormem)? ]]t[HuRerf onf? 0mtjrKrH wnf;? tykwu
H
aom? ukvH emrrnfonf? 0dewdysufpD;wwf\? wkrSmuHwdkY\?
"Dwm yeorD;onfum;? ykwH 0gom;udak omfvnf;aumif;? "Dw&H 0g
orD;udak omfvnf;aumif;? vbdwmG &? 0g-aomf uk#Kru
d ol<u,f
C#D,wd / / ]]C#d,wd C#D,wd}}[k 2rsdK;awGU&\? ]]e C#d,wd e
orZwd('D#D-49)? e C#D,wd {umA'H a[mwd(0drwd-1 277)}}[laom
tzGirfh sm;t& 2rsKd ;vk;H uwKyk cf sn;f jzpf\? C#[laom emrfy'k af emif u&"mwf
\teuf ,ypn;f ouf? (wpfenf;) C#"mwfaemif pk&m'dP,ypn;f ouf?
uGpd "mwkjzihf t-ukd jyK[k Mu/H (wpfenf;) C#+,+aw? vm awukd
wdjyefNyD;aom uruwKkyfMuH ]]ya0PD-onf? e C#D,wd-tvkdtvkd
rqufpyfEidk }f }[kay;/ (ab'? ab'bm-294? oarmbm-1 76? oarmbm2 501)

132

"ry'bmom#Dum

,ru

\? omrdeD t&Sio
f cifronf? b0dwdvdrrhf nf? r,SH uRerf \? omrduviftm;? eHxdt
k rsKd ;orD;ud?k a'xay;yguke?f }} wdod?Yk ,mpdwGmawmif;&rf;? or#pd m aywGmvufcaH p? tmaewGmaqmif?
omrduvif\? Ca&tdrf ? tumodjyKNy?D 0g-xm;Ny/D
txxdt
k cg? tmxdt
k jrKH r\? {wHtMuo
H nf? ta[modNy?D (u)? ]]t,Holronf? ykwH 0gudak omfvnf;aumif;? "Dw&H
0gaumif;? oap vbdwdtu,f&tH?h ({0Howd-aomf)? t,ar0trsdK;orD;onfom? uk#Kr
Opm\? 0g-tdr\
f ? omrdeD t&Sif
ocifronf? b0dwdvdrrhf nf/ ,xmtMuiftjcif;t&mtm;jzifh
jyKvaomf? ,xm-jzih?f (ua&maE-jyKvaomf?)}}[kvnf; vuPyk'f oD;jcm;
xnfhay;Ekdifonf/ 'g&uHuav;ud?k e vbwdr&? wax0xdt
k jcif;
t&mtm;jziho
f m? (xkt
d wkid ;f om)? eHxdo
k wk;d orD;ud?k umwHk jyKjcif;iSm?
0wdoif\
h ?}} wdtBujH zpfNy/D txxdt
k cg? eHxdo
k wk;d orD;ud?k
omxdt
k jrKH ronf? tm[ajymNy?D (u)? ]]trtrd (nDrav;)? ,'g
uk#Kr
/ / Zae[d aum#D,wd y0wD,
wDwd uk#Kr?H ajc4acsmif;ow0g
v,f tdrf r,m; uRepf aom ouf&dS oufrOhJ pmukd &\? uk#+A? uk#ukd
OrkufjyK(arm*f-7 122)? "r#D-13 uk#+Or}}[k qkd\? axmr xkdteufrsm;
tjyif ]]tdraf erdom;pk aqGrsKd ; tquftEG,f uk#KrN *Kd [}f }[laom teufa[m
aMumif;ukd qk\
d /
qufOK;tHh-a&SU ]]uk#Krdu}}[k &SdcJh ]]uk#Kr}}[k &Sdjcif;rSm
a&SUaemufrnDyg? 0d-1 107-8? Zm.|-467ponfwkdY ]]uk#Kr}}[kcsnf;
&S\
d ? ]]t,H ykwH vbdwmG r a*[ &m b0dwd(ayw.|30)}}vnf; uk#Kr
\ teufjzpfaom ]]a*[}}[k &S\
d ? xkad Mumihf ]]uk#Kr-
}}[k &Sdjcif;om ykdaumif;\? ]]a*[}}[k &SdykHukd axmuf ]]uk#Krtdr\
f }}[k teufay;oihaf Mumif;vnf; xif&mS ;\? uk#Kru
d ukd ]]uk#Kra r0
uk#Kru
d }H }[k oGww
'dw
Mf uv
H Qiu
f m; o'gcsi;f xyfwrl usaomfvnf; teufcsi;f
xyfwlusEkdifonf? okaYd omf ]]uk#Kr
}}[k &So
d avmufum; r&Si;f yg/

0*f

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133

tMuiftcg? aw\? ukp,


d H 0rf;? *aAmud,
k 0f efonf? ywd|mwd
wnf\? tx? artm;? tma&map,smodajymavm?}} wd (tm[)/
omxdt
k rsdK;orD;onf? ]]om"l}}wdaumif;ygNy[
D ?k y#dP
k w
d mG a&S;Iem;
axmif? 0g-0efcu
H wday;? *aAuk,
d 0f efonf? ywd|ad wwnfv
aomf? wmxdt
k jrKH rtm;? tma&mapodajymNy/D yequfOK;tH?h om
xdt
k jrKH ronf? w&dmtjcm;aom owd;k orD;i,ftm;? o,ar0
ud,
k w
f ikd o
f mvQi?f edpH tNr?J ,m*kbwH ,m*k(qefjyKw)f xrif;ud?k a'wday;\? tx? tmxdo
k wd;k orD;tm;? tm[ma&ae0tpmtm
[m&ESio
hf m? o' twl? *AygweaboZH ud,
k 0f efusaMumif;aq;ud?k
(uk,
d 0f efusaq;uk)d ? *aAm ywwd {awemwd *AygweH(om&w-2274)?
*Aygwe+wH+aboZm wd *AygweaboZ?H t'godNy?D *aAmud,
k 0f ef
onf? ywdusNy/D 'kw,
d rd 2Burd af jrmufvnf;? *aAonf? ywd|ad w
aomf? tma&mapodNy?D w&mtjcm;aomtjrKH ronf? 'kw,
d rd vnf;?
wax0xdt
Yk wlyif? ygawodusapNy?D tx? eHxdo
k wk;d orD;ud?k y#d0dudwad ,mtdref ;D csi;f rde;f rwdo
Yk nf? ]]upd enf; aw\? oywD
,m*kbw/H / ,mwDwd ,m*k ay,sm(,m+*k?-arm*f-7 37?) ,myeH
*pwd rm,mwd ,m*k(ygpda,m-71)? ,l,aw rd,
D awwd ,m*k(,k+*k?uy'Kr? "mef#D-465)? tma&m*sH ,Zwd ua&mwDwd ,m*k(,Z+Pk?-*VKef49)? ,m*k p+bwH p ,m*kbw/H
y#d0dudwda,m/ / y#d0dauwd omrEC&0godau(0d.|-3
88)? y#drck H twaem a*[H 0doEd y0doED y#d0
d umwd 0kaw tmoEa*[0godum *a[wAm(ygpda,m-69)/ ]]y#d0dum+wda,m y#d0dudwda ,m}}[k quf/
oywD/ / ormaem+ywd {wdmwd oywD? orme+ywd+?
orme yum'Dok 0g(arm*f-3 83)okwjf zihf ormeukd ojyK wa'Gabmfvm?
(arm*f.ed-1 503? upf.bm-2 70)/ tqdkudk Munfh ]]oywD}][k &Sd&
rnf? ]]oywd}} [k r&Sd&/

134

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wlaomvif&adS om rde;f ronf? 0g-r,m;NyKd io


f nf? tE&m,HtE&m,f
ud?k ua&mwdjyKoavm}} wdod?Yk ykpo
k ar;ukeNf y/D omxdo
k wk;d
orD;onf? wrwH xdt
k aMumif;ud?k tma&mapwGmajymMum;? ]]tEAmavtk.d ..Pftjrifuef;onfh trdkufr ([J h...evydef;wkH;r)
uomaMumif?h {0Hod?Yk tumodenf; t,HtNrKH ronf? w0
oif\? &d,ba,epd;k rk;d ydik q
f idk o
f \
l tjzpfrS aMumufjcif;aMumif?h
*Aukd,f0ef\? ygweaboZHusaMumif;aq;udk? a,maZwGm
azmfpyf? a'wday;\? awexdak Mumif?h aw\? *aAmonf? ywwd
us\? ykewpfzef? {0Hod?Yk rm tuwrjyKuek Ef iS ?hf }} wd-ok?Yd 0kwm
tyfonf? (ormemaomf?) wwd,0ga&wwd,tBurd f ? e uaxod
rajymawmh/ tx? omxdt
k NrKH ronf? w&dmtjcm;aom owk;d
orD;\? O'&HAdu
k u
f ?kd 'domG ? ]]uomaMumif?h r,SH tm;? *A\?
ywd|w
d bm0Hwnfonf\tjzpfu?kd e uaxodrajym oenf;}} wdok?Yd 0wGm? ]]wGH onf? rHud?k tmaewGmaqmif? 0awmG vSnhf
pm;? a'G 0ga&2Burd w
f w
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tyfaomf? ]]'ged,cktcg? e|mysupf ;D onf? trSd jzpf\?}} wd-ok?Yd
pdaEwmG ? wmxdo
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MoavmauED Munfv
h su?f *aAonf? y&dPaw&ifv
h aomf? MoumoHtcGiu
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d 0f efusaq;ud?k a,maZwGm
? t'goday;Ny?D *aAmonf? y&dPwwm&ifo
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tuw/ / u&+Mo+w? "mwftp t-vm uGpd "mwkow
k Bf u;D jzihf
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0*f

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135

udk pdk;&drf&jcif;odkY)? ZD0daw+oHoa,m ZD0dwoHoa,m?-Ak'0H.|-196/


ygykPd a&mufNy/D omxdo
k wk;d orD;onf? ]]w,monf? emodwmzsuf
qD;tyfonf? trSd jzpf\? wGar0oifonfom? rHud?k tmaewGm?
wGar0onfom? wa,myd 0ga&3Burd w
f w
Ykd ikd w
f ikd v
f nf;? 'g&au
uav;wdu
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f ;D cJNh y?D 'ged? t[rd
onfvnf;? emrdysupf ;D &awmhrnf? 'ged? awmb0rS? pkwm
pkawonf? 0g-aoonf? (ormemaomf?) ,ued D bDv;l ronf? [kwmG ?
w0\? 'g&auwdu
Yk ?kd cg'dwkH cJpm;jcif;iSm? orwmpGr;f Edik o
f rl onf?
[kwmG ? edAa w,sH jzpf&ygapom;?}} wd-ok?Yd yweH qkawmif;jcif;ud?k
y|aywGmjzpfap? umvHaojcif;ud?k uwGm-? woa ,0 a*a[
xdktdrfyif? rZm&DaMumifronf? [kwGm? edAwd jzpfNyD/ w&rd
[kwGm edAw/d / jzpfjcif;Bud,mwpfckwnf;ukdyif ]][kwGm edAwd}}[k cJG
qkad om tab'ab'lypm&(ruJaG omfvnf; cJq
G adk omenf;)tm;jzihf txuf
ay;cJhonf? tvkd edAwdonf edykA 0wK(0wk)"mwf 0dbwfjzihf NyD;aom
tmcsmwfyk'fwnf;/
wpfenf;/ / [kwGm vuPteuf [dwfteufMuH ]]rZm&D-\?
edAw
Ed iS fh [dwt
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f nf? enf; [kwmG \ uwm;onf
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d m\ uwm;um; ]]edAw
}d }wnf;?
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mavpaom okwf
&if;jzihf roufbJ ]]wke wGmewGm 0g}}[laom a,m*0dbm*jziho
f uf? edAw
v
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[k jyK&aom abma[mudwyf 'k w
f nf;/
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jzpfjcif;ukd ,l? ]]rZm&D-onf? [kwGm-y#doaE\tpGrf;jzihf jzpf? edAwdy0wd\tpGrf;jzifh jzpfNyD}}[kay;/
wpfenf;/ / y#doaE\tpGrf;jzihf jzpfjcif;om ykdjzpfoifhaMumif;udk

136

"ry'bmom#Dum

,ru

tjcm;aom tNrKrH udv


k nf;? omrdaumvifonf? *a[wGmqGu
J ikd
f ?
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jzwfjcif;ud?k uawmjyKtyfNy?D }} wdodaYk jym? uy&ZPKum'D[d
wHawmif 'l;tp&SdonfwdkYjzifh? okaygxdwHaumif;pGm axmif;xktyf
onfrnf avmufatmif? aygaxodaxmif;xkNy/D omxdt
k NrKH ronf?
awae0 tmAma"exdt
k emaMumifyh if? umvH-uk?d uwGm-? waw0
xdktdrfyif? ukuK#DMuufronf? [kwGm? edAwmjzpfNyD/
ukuK #D onf? e pd&a0rMumjrifrh yD if? t@medOwdu
Yk ?kd 0dZm,daygufzmG ;Ny?D (ONy)D ? rZm&DaMumifronf? tm*Em? wmed t@med
xdOk wdu
Yk ?kd cg'dcJpm;Ny/D 'kw,
d rd 2Burd af jrmufvnf;aumif;? wwd,rd
3Budrfajrmufvnf;aumif;? cg'da,0cJpm;onfom/ ukuK#Donf?
pdaEod MuNH y?D (u)? ]]wa,m 0ga&oH;k Burd w
f w
Ykd ikd w
f ikd ?f rr\? t@med
OwdkYudk? cg'dwGmcJpm;NyD;? 'ged? rrdighudkvnf;? cg'dwkumrm
cJpm;jcif;iSm tvdk&Sdonf? todjzpf\?}} wd-okdY MuHNyD/ ]]awm
b0rS? pkwmonf? (ormemaomf?) oykwu
H om;orD;ESihf wuG
jzpfaom? wHxdak Mumifrud?k cg'dwkH iSm? 0g-cJpm;cGiu
hf ?kd vab,sH &&yg
apom;?}} wd-ok?Yd ywe-H uk?d uwGm-? wawmxdMk uufrb0rS? pkwm
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odapjcif;iSm y#doaEtcgjzpfjcif;wpfrsdK;wnf;ukdyif ]][kwGm edAwd}}[k Bud,m
2rsdK;jzihf qkdonf? wpfyk'fwnf;qdkvQif jzpfygvsuf tvGeftm;jzifh qdktyfaom
Ou|enf;wnf;? tvkd ]]rZm&D-onf? [kwGm-y#doaE\tpGrf;jzihf jzpf?
edAwd-jzpfNyD}}[kay;/ (ab'bm 390? oD#Dopf-2 9)
'Dyde/D / 'dywDwd 'Dyd 'DydeD? 'Dy+?-l-418? lbm-2 585/ tvkd
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(wpfenf;) a'G 0Pm {wDwd 'DyH? 'Gd++y? 'DyH 'dG0PH (t0ga&mif teuf

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edAwd? w&mtjcm;aom aMumifronf? rd*Dorifronf? [kwGm


edAw
/d wmxdo
k rifr\? 0dZmwumavarG;zGm;Ny;D &mtcg? 'Dyed D
opfronf? tm*Em? wa,m 0ga&3Burd w
f w
Ykd ikd w
f ikd ?f ykwa uom;
i,fwu
Ykd ?kd cg'dcJpm;Ny/D rd*D onf? r&PumavaocgeD;tcg? ]]t,H
usm;opfronf? wduwHK3Budrfwkdifwkdif? ar\? ykwauwdkYudk?
cg'dwmG ? 'ged? rrd udv
k nf;? cg'dwdvdrrhf nf? 'ged? awm
b0rS? pkwmonf? (ormem)? oykwu
H aom? {wHusm;opfrud?k
cg'dwHk-iSm? 0g-udk? vab,sHapom;?}} wd yweH uwGm? awm
orifrb0rS? pkwm (ormem)? ,ued D bDv;l ronf? [kwmG edAw
/d
'DydeDydusm;opfronfvnf;? wax0xdkYtwlyif? wawmxdkusm;
opfrb0rS? pkwm (ormem)? om0w,
d H om0wNd rKd U? ukv"DwmtrsK;d
orD;onf? [kwGm edAwd/ omxdktrsKd;orD;onf? 0k'dywmBuD;jyif;
jcif;odYk a&mufonf? (ormemaomf?) 'Gg&*grauNrKd UwHcg;teD;&Gmi,f?
'Gg&*garmwd 'Gg& orDy*garm?-eDa,m-142/ ywdukvHvifhtdrfodkY?
t*rmodvdu
k o
f mG ;Ny?D p-qufOK;tH?h ty&bma*aemuftzdYk ? ykwH
om;udk? 0dZm,darG;zGm;NyD/ ,udeDydbDvl;ronfvnf;? wmxdk
trsKd;orD;\? yd,o[m,dum0aPecspftyfaom oli,fcsif;r\
toGijf zif?h tm*Em-? ]]ar\? o[m,dumoli,fcsi;f ronf? uk[
tb,frmS enf;}} wdodaYk r;? ]]taEm*aAtdrcf ef;xJ? 0dZmwmuav;arG;ae\?}} wdod?Yk 0kawtyfaomf? ykwH om;ud?k 0dZmwm
Ek acgzGm;avoavm? O'g[kodkYr[kwf? "Dw&HorD;udk? (0dZmwm Ek
acgavm?) wd-odkY ar;? eHxdu
k av;ud?k aemuf ]]'g&uH yED
0d,}}[k &Sdojzihf ]]eH-xkdoli,fcsif;rukd}}[k ray;ESihf/ ydmrdMunft
h ?hH
wdodaYk jym? *AH tdycf ef;od?Yk y0dow
d mG 0if? 'g&uHuav;ud?k
a&miftm;jzihf ta&mif2rsdK;&Sdaom) prH tm twDwd 'DydeD? 'Dy++eD?0dokwf#D-531/ aemuf2enf;tvkd 'DyDaemif eDypnf;ouf/

138

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,ru

yED 0d,Munfo
h uJo
h ?Ykd *a[wGm,l? cg'dwmG cJpm;? *wmoGm;Ny?D
ykewpfzef? 'kw,
d 0ga&yd'kw,
d Burd f vnf;? wax0xdt
Yk wlyif? cg'd
Ny?D wwd,0ga&wwd,Burd f ? w&mtjcm;aom trsK;d orD;onf?
*kbm&mav;aom uk,
d 0f ef&o
dS nf? 0g-ud,
k af v;vuf0ef&o
dS nf? [kwmG ?
omrduH vifu?kd tmraEwmG ac:? ]]omrdt&Sif ro Xmae
t&yf? {umwpfaumifaom? ,ued D onf? rr\? a'G2a,mufuek f
aom? ykawwdu
Yk ?kd cg'dwmG *wm? 'ged? rr\? ukva*[HtrsK;d
tdro
f ?Ykd *Em? 0dZm,dmrdarG;zGm;awmhrnf?}} wdodYk ajym? ukva*[Hod?Yk *Em? 0dZm,darG;zGm;Ny/D
w'gxkt
d cg? om ,ued D xdb
k v
D ;l ronf? O'u0g&Ha&\tvSnfh
oY?dk 0g-a&cyftvSno
hf ?Ykd O'u+0ga&m O'u0ga&m?-rtlyg&med-3 449?
*wma&mufonf? a[mwd\/ [dcsUJ ? a00Pa00Pf
ewfrif;zk?dY 0g-twGu?f ,ued ad ,mbDv;l rwdo
Yk nf? 0ga&etvSnt
fh m;
jzif?h taemww'[awmte0wwftikd rf ?S oDoy&r&m,OK;acgif;
tqifq
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f ? 0g-cyf&uke\
f /
wmxdb
k v
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Yk nf? pwkrmopa,eyd4vvGe&f mtcgaomfvnf;
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tcgaomfvnf;aumif;? (5vvGerf aS omfvnf;aumif;)? rkpE d vGwu
f ek f
\/ ty&mtjcm;ukeaf om? ,ued ad ,mwdo
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aom uk,
d &f u
dS ek o
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d u,rd touf\ ukejf cif;odv
Yk nf;?
taemww'[awm/ / yAwula#[d y#dpEwm pEdrol&d,meH oEmay[d MowwH OPSH O'uH {w ewDw
d taemwawm(ty.|-2 201)? ol&d,&Hoo
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'a[m pmwd taemww'a[m-at;jraoma&&Sdaomtkdif/

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139

ygykPEd a&mufuek \
f / om yexdb
k v
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f Qiv
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G cf si;f ? a0a*et[kejf zif?h wH C&Hxdk tdro
f ?Ykd
*Em? ]]ar\? o[m,dumonf? uk[ tb,frmS enf;}} wd? ykpd
ar;Ny/D uk[ tb,f? 0g-rSm? eHxdt
k rsK;d orD;ud?k ydodawGUvdrhf
rnfenf;? ro Xmaet&yf? wmxdt
k rsKd ;orD;\? ZmwZmw'g&auarG;wdik ;f arG;wdik ;f aom uav;wdu
Yk ?kd ,ued D onf? tm*Em? cg'wd\? womaMumif?h ukva*[HtrsK;d tdro
f ?Ykd *wmoGm;Ny?D
wdodYkajymNy/D omxdb
k v
D ;l ronf? ]],w 0g ww 0g[kw[
f w
k f
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d wdvGwv
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dS nf? ([kwmG )? e*&mbdrck D NrKd UodaYk &S;Ivsu?f yuEd
ajy;oGm;Ny/D w&mydtjcm;aom trsKd ;orD;onfvnf;? emr*[P'd0aoemrnf,&l maeY? eH 'g&uHxdu
k av;ud?k ESmaywGma&csK;d ap?
emrHemrnfu?kd uwGmjyK? (rSn
hf )? ]]omrdt&Sif 'ged? ouC&H
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eufrS?) erkpdwd}}[k ay;/

140

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,ru

Ow&dwGmwuf? ykwudk? xnHEdkY&nfudk? yg,rmemaomuf


apvsu?f 0gwdu
k v
f su?f Xdwmwnfaeonf? (ormemjzpfvaomf?)
,ued ud?k tm*pE vmaeonfu?kd 'domG jrif? omedwmG aumif;
pGm od? 0grSwrf
d ? ]]omrdt&Sif a0a*et[kejf zif?h {[dvmavm?
t,Hvmaeaom rdef;ronf? om ,udeDxdkbDvl;ryifwnf;?
a0a*ejzif?h {[davm? t,Honf? om ,ued D wnf;?}} wdod?Yk
Opmo'H us,af vmifaom toHu?kd uwGm? ,m0-tMuifrQavmuf?
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k if\? tm*reHvmjcif;onf? (a[mwd-vwHY ?) (wm0-xkd
f nf;r[kwf yr0D b
d wfvnf; r[kwf
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h ikd af tmif?) ormofy'k v
ojzihf ]],m0 tm*reH-vmonfw
h idk af tmif}}[k ray;&/ oPmwHk &yfwnf
jcif;iSm? 0g-apmifjh cif;iSm? toaumED rpGr;f Edik v
f aomf? ed0awwmG jyef
vSn
hf ? taEm0d[m&mbdrck D ausmif;wdu
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k rsKd ;orD;onf?
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Yk m;? {o
({aom)om;ud?k 'daEmay;vSLtyfygNy?D ar\? ykw
tm;? ZD0w
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okreewfrnfoo
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wHk 0ifjcif;iSm? 0g0ifciG u
hf ?kd em'god (e+t'god)ray;/ owmonf?
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tmeEm *poGm;acs? wH ,ued xdb
k v
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avm?}} wd tm[/ axa&mt&Sit
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0*f

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141

onf? tm*pwd vmae\?}} wd? tm[avQmufNy/D owmonf?


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awmfr
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k v
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d mwdyE tem*wfBu,
d mwdyEtm;jzihf 2rsKd ;
&S&d m tem*wfBu,
d mwdyEwnf;? xkad Mumihf Bu,
d mwdyaEwaD w umvmwdywdo
w
k f ]]umvmwdywd} }[laom a,m*0dbm*jzihf tem*wfBu,
d mwdyE
umvmwdywd0dbwfouf/ (0daAm-218? upm-25? upmbm-39)

142

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,ru

Ekid jf cif;[laom oabmonf? oeEaem-a&S; jzpfaom oabmwnf;?


0g-a&S;a[mif;xH;k pHwnf;/
ww-xkd *gxm? e [d a0a&emwd ({w)-e [d a0a&e [laom
ygXf? (*lVw
-H vQdKU0Suaf om teufu?dk ) [d (O'&w
d mG 'ard)-xkw
f
f nf/ acVjyOK;th/H ]][d-Oyrmaqmif xifatmif jytH}h }[kvnf; ay;Ekid o
odCmF Pdum'D[-d wHawG; ESyt
f p&Su
d ek af om? tokp[
D -d rpifrMu,f &GH
pzG,fwkdYjzihf? rudwH-,SOfpyfaeaom? 0g-vl;vJaeaom? XmeH-t&yf
uk?d awa[0 tokp[
D -d xkrd pifrMu,f &GpH zG,w
f jYdk zifyh if? a"m0Em-aq;
aMumukev
f aomf? 0g-aq;aMumolwo
Ydk nf? ok'-H pifMu,fonfu?dk ed*E -H
teHrY &So
d nfu?dk umwH-k jyKjcif;iSm? e oaumEd ,xm-rpGr;f Ekid u
f ek o
f uJh
ok?Yd tx acg-pifppfum;? wH XmeH-xkt
d &yfonf? rwm,-twkid ;f t&Snf
xuf? bda,smaom-vGepf mG ? (wpfenf;) bda,smaom rwm,-twkid ;f
xuftvGe?f tok'w
&a0-txl;ojzihf rpifMu,fonfvnf;aumif;?
bda,smaom rwm,/ / yk'Ef iS pfh yf tqkt
d rsKd ;rsKd ;&S&d m t|uxm#Dum
tqkdrsm;ukd jyNyD;rS o'gusrf;tqkd jyygrnf/
oH.|-3 140/ / usr;f tvkd rwmaemif w'wor'gefteuf pwkwD
ouf tm,jyK? ]]bda,smaom-vGefuJaom? rwm,-twkdif;t&SnftvkdYiSm}}
[k ay;/
O'ge.|-329/ / usr;f tvkd rwmaemif 0dbwtyg'gefteuf yrD
ouf? ]]rwm,-twkdif;t&Snfxuf? bda,smaom-vGefpGm}}[kay;/
oD.|-321/ / usr;f tvkd 0daooeteuf wwd,mouf? ]]bda,smaom-vGefuJaom? rwm,-twkdif;t&Snftm;jzihf}}[k ay;/
0dok'd#D-1 284/ / usrf;tvkd rwmaemif omrDteuf q|Douf?
]]rwm,-twkdif;t&Snf\? bda,smaom-txuf}}[kay;/
aqmif oH,w
k -f O-oD 0do'k #f D av;vD tzGifhrSD;/
iSm-xuf-jzihf-\ pOfwkdif;od ay;bdteufwnf;/

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143

0g-omrpifMu,fonfvnf;aumif;? 'k*E w
&-txl;ojzihf raumif;
aom teH&Y o
dS nfvnf;aumif;? 0g-om raumif;aomteH&Y o
dS nfvnf;
aumif;? a[mwd ,xm-jzpfouJo
h /Ydk {0ar0-twlyif? taumoEH-
qJa&;olu?dk ypaumoaEm-jyef qJa&;vwfaomfvnf;aumif;? 0gjyefqJa&;olonfvnf;aumif;? y[&EH- ykwcf wfou
l ?dk ywdy[
&aEmjyef ykwcf wfvwfaomfvnf;aumif;? 0g-jyefykwcf wfoo
l nfvnf;
aumif;? a0a&e-aemuf&efjzif?h a0&H-a&SU&efu?dk 0lyoarwH-k Nird ;f apjcif;iSm?
e oaumwd-rpGr;f Ekid ?f tx acg-pifppfum;? bda,sm bda,sm-vGepf mG
vGefpGm? 0g-tvGefYtvGef? a0&ar0-&efukdom? ua&mwd-jyK\? wdo'gusr;f tqk/d / eda'o-111 ]]bda,sm+aom+rwm,}}[kc
GJ ]]aomxkdacG;onf? rwm,-twkdif;t&Snfxuf? bda,sm-vGefpGm}}[kvnf;aumif;
]]rwm,-xuf? aom-xko
d o
l nf? bda,sm-vGe\
f }}[kvnf;aumif; teufay;&
aMumif;udk qk\
d ? tqku
d dk q&mjrwfrsm; ESpo
f ufawmfrrlMuyg/(upfbm-1
351? lbm-1 428? arm*fed-1 219)/
wpfenf;/ / ]]bda,sm+aomrwm,}}[kcJG 0dbwsEy#dlyuedygwfyk'f
,lum ]]bda,sm aomrwm,-rsm;pGm twkdif;xuftvGef}}[k *!vma'Pd
ed,a[mif; qkdaMumif;ukd qkd\(Am*H-2 454)/
arm*f-2 25/ / xkd bda,smaomrwm,onf twdo,w0dbwsE
y#dyl uedygwork'g,[k qk
d ]]bda,smaomrwm,-vGeaf om twkid ;f t&Snf
jzihf}}[k ay;\(arm*fed-1 219? arm*fyHed-1 187? Am*H-2 452)?
eDwo
d w
k - 125/ / xkd eykv
H id f rwaemif 0dbwtyg'gefteuf pwkwD
ouf tm,jyKonf[k qk\
d ? okaYd omf wdv
id f rwmo'gom yrmPteufudk
a[m eykv
H if rwo'gu yrmPteufudk ra[mEkid af omaMumihf eDwt
d qku
d dk
q&mtrsm; ESpfoufawmfrrlyg/
aqmif bda,smwpfyk'f aomwpfyk'f zGihfxkwfeda'om/
eykHou yk'frw rdefY[eDwdrSm/
tbd"mefawG taxGaxG rdeaYf vwdo
m/
ed'f-eDwdjy xkd0g' y,fMuax&frsm;pGm/

144

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,ru

ok?Yd 0g-qdt
k yfNy;D aomenf;jzih?f a0&med emr-&efwrYdk nfonf? a0a&e&efwrYkH o
l jzih?f udod d umav-wpfpw
kH pfcak omtcg? 0g-b,ftcgrS?
e orE-d rNird ;f at;Ekid u
f ek ?f tx acg-pifppfum;? 0kEad ,0-wk;d yGm;ukef
onfom/ ye-tzkw
Yd pfyg;um;? acVm'De-d wHawG;tp&Su
d ek af om? wmed
tokpeD -d xkrd pifrMu,f &GpH zG,w
f o
Ydk nf? 0g-wku
Yd ?dk 0dyo
aEe-txl;ojzihf
Munfvifaom? O'aue-a&jzif?h a"m0d,rmemed-aq;aMumtyfuek v
f
aomf? eEd ,xm-aysmufuek o
f uJo
h ?Ydk wH XmeH-xkt
d &yfonf? ok'-H
pifMu,fonf? ok*EH- aumif;aom teH&Y o
dS nf? a[mwd ,xm-jzpfouJh
ok?Yd {0ar0-twlyif? ta0a&e-&efwrYkH rlojzih?f cEda rawm'aueonf;cHjcif;arwmwnf;[laoma&jzih?f a,medaom-oifah omtaMumif;
tm;jzih?f reoduma&e-ESv;kH oGi;f jcif;jzih?f ypa0uaPe-w&m;oabm
ukd qifjcifjcif;jzih?f a0&med-&efwo
Ydk nf? 0lyorEd- Nird ;f at;uke\
f ? y#dyr Ed- Nird ;f at;uke\
f ? tbm0H-r&S jd cif;ok?Yd *p E-d a&mufuek \
f / {o
"arm oeEaemwd-um;? ta0a&e-&efwrYkH rlojzih?f a0lyoreocFgawm-&efw\
Ydk Nird ;f at;jcif;[k qkt
d yfaom? {o ({aom)-oabm
onf? ayg&mPaum-a&S;vlBu;D wk\
Yd Opmjzpfaom? "arm-oabmwnf;?
oaAo-H tvH;k pHu
k ek af om? Ak'y apuAk'c P
D mo0geH-bk&m; yapuAk'g
&[Emwk\
Yd ? *wra*g-oGm;tyfaom vrf;wnf;? wd-wGif *gxm
tzGihf tNy;D wnf;/
*gxmy&da,momae-? ,ude -D bDv;l ronf? aomwmywdz avzkv
d f ? ywd|[d-wnfNy?D orwy &dom,yd-a&mufvmaom y&dowf\
vnf;? 0g-twGuv
f nf;? "ra'oem-onf? omwdu
m-onf? ta[mod/
owmonf? wH w xdrk ed ;f rud?k ]]{wdmbDv;l rtm;? w0
oif\? ykwH om;ud?k a'[day;vdu
k af vm?}} wd? tm[rdeaYf wmfrNl y/D
baEjrwfpGmbk&m; bm,mrdaMumufyg\? wdodkYavQmufNyD/
]]rm bm,draMumufEiS ?hf awoif\? 0g-oifrh mS ? {wHbDv;l rud?k

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145

edm,rSD? y&dyaEmab;&efonf? ewdr&Sdawmh?}} wd tm[/


omxdrk ed ;f ronf? wmxkb
d v
D ;l rtm;? ykwH ud?k t'goday;Ny/D om
xdb
k v
D ;l ronf? wHxdo
k m;ud?k pkrw
d mG pkw
f ? tmvda*FwmG ayGUzuf?
ykezef? rmwka,0tartm;om? 'wGmay;? a&m'dwkH idjk cif;iSm?
tm&bdtm;xkwNf y/D txxdt
k cg? eHxdb
k v
D ;l rud?k owmonf?
]]{wHikjd cif;onf? utb,faMumifeh nf;}} wd ykp/d baE t[H
onf? ykaAa&S;? ,xm 0g wxm 0g[kw[
f w
k jf im;jim;aom tjcif;
t&mtm;jzif?h ZD0u
d H toufarG;rIu?kd uayEDy d jyKygaomfvnf;? ukpyd &l H
0rf;jynfah tmif? emvwH (e+tvw)H r&cJyh g? 'ged? uxHtb,foYkd
vQi?f 0gtb,fenf;jzif?h ZD0
d mrdtouf&iS Ef ikd af wmhtehH nf; wd
odaYk vQmufNy/D tx? eHxdb
k v
D ;l rud?k owmonf? ]]rm pdE,
d
rMupH nfEiS ?hf 0g-rpd;k &drEf iS }hf } wdod?Yk ormaowGmoufom&m&ap
? (ajzodr
hf )? wH w xdrk ed ;f rud?k ]]rHbDv;l rud?k aewGmtdro
f Ydk
ac:aqmif? twaemrdr\
d ? a*a[tdrf ? ed0gomaywGmaeap?
t*,m*kbaw[d tOK;tzsm;jzpfaom ,m*k xrif;wdjYk zif?h 0g-rGejf rwf
aom ,m*k xrif;wdjYk zifh y#dZ*g[djyKpv
k yk af uR;avm?}} wd tm[
rdeaYf wmfrNl y?D / omxdt
k rsKd ;orD;onf? wHxdb
k v
D ;l rud?k aewGmtdro
f Ykd
ac:aqmif? yd|0d aH oacgifavQmuf0g;? 0g-acgiftyk 0f g;? ywd|maywGmwnfaeap? 0g-xm;? t*,m*kbaw[d wdjYk zif?h y#dZ*d jyK
pkvyk af uR;Ny?D wmxdb
k v
D ;l rtm;? 0D[yd [&Pumavpyg;axmif;
&mtcg? rkova*eusnaf yGUzsm;jzif?h rk'H OK;xdyu
f ?kd y[&EH 0d,ku
d f
ouJo
h ?Ykd Oy|modxif&Ny/D omxdb
k v
D ;l ronf? o[m,duH oli,fcsi;f
rud?k tmraEwmG ac:? ]]ro Xmaet&yf? 0odwkH aejcif;iSm?
pkrdwGm/ / pkAd"mwf pkr"mwfonf 0'eoHa,ma*(cHwGif;udk ,SOfjcif;ikHjcif; pkwfjcif; rIwfjcif; udkufjcif; vsufjcif;)ukd a[m&um; ]]prdwGm-erf;
}}[k ray;oifhaMumif;ukd "mwGw qkd\/

146

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,ru

e oaumrdrpGr;f Edik yf g? tnwtjcm;t&yf? rHighu?kd ywd|may[d


wnfapavm? 0gxm;avm? wd 0wGm? rkovomvm,armif;wif;
ukyv
f nf;aumif;? 0g-armif;wJvnf;aumif;? O'upm#d,H a&avSmift;kd
Bu;D vnf;aumif;? (a&tk;d p&nf;vnf;aumif;)? O'aezdck aemufwnf&dS
&m rD;zkv
d nf;aumif;? edAa umaowHpufNrw
d af &us&m t&yf(ajrmif;)
O'ae/ / O'eo'g zkcd aemufteufudk a[m\? aemuf ]]" okecg
edyZE}d }ukd Munf
h zkcd aemuf acG;tdy
f r&? zkcd aemuf&&Sd m rD;zkd om tdyo
f nf?
xkad Mumihf ]]Oy&d "D,aw xmvsm'duH toEd d O'e-H txuf xrif;tk;d ponfudk
aqmif&m zkdcaemuf? O+"m+,k?-"mef#D-455/}}[kjyKNyD;aemuf rD;zkdukd&atmif
]]O'eH+{w twDwd O'eH-zkdcaemuf&Sd&mt&yf-rD;zkd-pm;zkd}}[k qufyg? okdYr[kwf
XmEsLypm&tm;jzihf zkdcaemuf\wnf&m rD;zkdukd ,lyg/
edAa umao/ / ]]edAH wk q'aum#d,H("mef-217)}}t& edAo'gonf wH
pufNrw
d (f trk;d pGe;f )ukd a[m\? ]]edaoawm tAwd 0am'uH taeem
wd edAH? ed+tA *wdteuf+t?-"mef#D-217/}}[kjyK? wHpufNrdwf (trkd;pGef;)
onf xGuf0ifolwdkY OK;acgif;ESihf xdrd wkdufrdwwfojzihf qJa&;tyfaomaMumihf
]]uko,
d wd taumod,wDwd aumaom(pvif; *H-1 316)}}[kjyK? xkad emif
]]edAH p+wH+aumaom pmwd edAa umaom}}[k qufwyGJ g/ (wpfenf;) aumo
o'g teufrJh,l ]]edAH {0 edAaumaom? (wAm00kwdur"m&nf;)}}[kMuH?
aemuf ]]'g&um tokp ua&mEd}}[k qkdojzihf wHpufNrdwfa&us&mt&yf
(ajrmif;)ukd ,l&rnf? xkad Mumihf ]]edAa umo+'H edAa umao y0wH 0g
ed A a umoH - wH p uf N rd w f a &? ed A a umo+P? ed A a umo+ywe|meH
edAa umoH-wHpufNrw
d af &us&mt&yf? ywe|meyk'af usonf}}[k qufMu/H ucFg
r[m#D-2 242 edaAm'uywe|meHtzGifhI/
wpfenf;/ / edAaumoH+{w twDwd edAaumoH-wHpufNrdwfa&wnf&Sd
&mt&yf}}[kMu?H (wpfenf;) aumoo'g tdrt
f eufa[m,l ]]edA
+'H
edaA y0wH 0g edAH-wHpufNrdwfa&? edA+P? aumaom 0d,mwd aumoH-tdrf
ESihfwlaom wnfae&mXme(ajrmif;)? edA+aumoH edAaumoH-wHpufNrdwf
a&\ wnfae&mXme}}[kMuH/

0*f

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147

vnf;aumif;? ouFm&ula#trIdufyHkvnf;aumif;? *gr'Gga& p&Gm\


wHcg;vnf;aumif;? wdod?Yk {awok Xmaeokt&yfwYkd ? ywd|mydwmwnfaeaptyfonf? 0g-xm;tyfonf? (ormem)ydaomfvnf;?
"armif;wif;ukyf ? 0g-armif;wJ? artm;? rkoaveusnaf yGU
jzif?h oDoH OK;acgif;uk?d bdEE H 0d,cGo
J uJo
h ?Ydk Oy|mwdxif&\? "
a&avSmift;kd Bu;D ? 'g&umwko
Yd nf? Opad |m'uHpGeyYf pfaxG;teftyf
aom a&ud?k 0g-vkwaf q;a&uk?d Mowma&Ed ouf0ifapuke\
f ? 0g-us
a&mufapuke\
f "rD;zkd ? okecgacG;wko
Yd nf? edyZEd tdyu
f ek \
f ?
"-wHpufNrw
d af &us&mt&yf(ajrmif;)? 'g&umwko
Yd nf? tokp tnpf
taus;ud?k ua&mEd jyKuek \
f ? (pGeUf uke\
f )? "trIu
d yf Hk ? up0&H
trIu
d u
f ?dk qaEd pGeu
Yf ek \
f ? " &GmwHcg;? *gr'g&um&Gmom;
uav;wko
Yd nf? vua,m*H ypfrw
S f avhusiu
fh pm;jcif;uk?d 0gvuf
wnfph rf;jcif;ud?k ua&mEd uke\
f ? wdokaYd jym? (taMumif;jy)?
oAmedukeaf om? wmedxkt
d &yfwu
Ykd ?dk y#duyd d y,fNy/D tx? eHxkd
bDv;l ruk?d A[d*gar&Gmt
h jyif? 0d0ad wmumaovlwrYkd S uif;qdw&f m
t&yf? ywd|maywGmwnfaeap? wwxdt
k &yf? 0g-od?Yk wm
xkb
d v
D ;l rzk?Yd 0g-twGu?f t*,m*kbwm'Ded tOK;tzsm;jzpfaom ,m*k
xrif;tp&So
d nfwu
Ydk ?dk 0g-rGejf rwfaom ,m*k xrif;tp&So
d nfwu
Ykd ?dk
[&dwmG ydaYk qmif? y#dZ*d jyKpv
k yk af uR;Ny/D om ,ued D xkb
d v
D ;l ronf?
{0Hok?Yd pdaEod pOf;pm;Ny?D (uenf;) ]]'ged? artm;? 0g-\? t,H
o[m,dumoli,fcsif;ronf? A[lyum&mrsm;aomaus;Zl;&S\
d ?
[E,ck? t[Honf? udd wpfpw
Hk pfcak om? y#d*P
k H aus;Zl;twku
YH ?dk
0g-aus;Zl;qyfjcif;uk?d ua&mrdjyKt?hH }} wd-MuNH y/D omxkb
d v
D ;l ronf?
]]ro oH0pa&ESpf ? okAK |u
d maumif;aom rk;d &Gmjcif;onf? 0g
d m? ormoEuypn;f ouf?rd;k aumif;onf? 0eH 0k|?d orm+0k|d ok0|k u
h &yf? oH
oDbm-1 573/ b0dwdvdrrhf nf? xv|maeuke;f jrift

148

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,ru

aumufpyg;uk?d ua&m[djyKavm? 0gpdu


k yf sK;d avm? ro oH0pa&?
'kAK |u
d mrk;d r&Gmjcif;onf? 0g-raumif;aom rd;k &Gmjcif;onf? (rd;k acgifjcif;
onf)? b0dwdvdrrhf nf? edE| maea,0csKid 0hf rS ;f aom t&yfom?
oHud?k ua&m[davm? } wdod?Yk o[m,dum,oli,fcsi;f rtm;?
tma&mapwdajym\/ aooZae[d<uif;aomvlwo
Ykd nf? uwoH
jyKtyf (pdu
k yf sdK;tyf)aom aumufpyg;onf? twdO'aue 0gvGeu
f aJ om
a&&So
d nf\tjzpfaMumifv
h nf;aumif;? (tvGeaf &rsm;jcif;aMumifv
h nf;
aumif;)? taem'aue 0ga&r&So
d nf\ tjzpfaMumifv
h nf;aumif;?
ewdysupf ;D \? wmxdt
k rsK;d orD;\? 0g-onf? (uwoHonf?)
twd0,
d tvGet
f uJomvQi?f orZw
d jynfph \
kH ? (atmifjrif\)/ tx
? eHxdt
k rsK;d orD;ud?k aooZem<uif;aom vlwo
Ykd nf? ]]trtrd
w,moifonf? uwoHonf? tapm'auevGeu
f aJ om a&&Sd
onf\ tjzpfaMumif?h (tvGeaf &rsm;jcif; aMumif)h ? ae0 (ewd)rysuf
pD;? tEk'auea&r&So
d nf\tjzpfaMumif?h e ewdrysupf ;D ? okAK |-d
'kAK|dbm0Haumif;pGm rdk;&Gmjcif;&Sdonf\tjzpf rdk;&Gmjcif;r&Sdonf\
tjzpfu?kd 0g-rd;k aumif;jcif; rd;k acgifjcif;ud?k wGmod ? urH tvkyu
f ?kd
ua&modjyK\? {wHodYk jyKEikd jf cif;onf? u Ek acgbmaMumifeh nf;}}
wd? ykpo
k ar;ukeNf y/D ]]trSmuHuRerf wdt
Yk m;? 0gwd\
Yk ? o[m,dum
jzpfaom? ,ued D onf? okAK |'d Ak K |b
d m0Hud?k tmpduw
d ajymjy\? r,H
uRerf wdo
Yk nf? wmxdb
k v
D ;l r\? 0paeepum;aMumif?h xavok
ukef;jrifht&yfwdkYvnf;aumif;? edaEokcsKdifh0Srf;aom t&yfwdkY
vnf;aumif;? omedaumufpyg;wdu
Yk ?kd ua&mrjyKyguke\
f ? 0gpdu
k f
ysK;d yguke\
f ? awexdak Mumif?h aemwd\
Yk ? 0g-onf? (uwoHonf?)
'kAK |u
d m/ / vk;H vk;H rk;d r&Gmjcif;ukd ]]e+0k|d t0k|u
d m}}[kjyK? &Gmoihaf omtcg
r&Gmjcif;ukd ]]'k|K 'k|m taombem+0k|d t0k|dum}}[kjyK?-om&w-1 172?
yg&mbm-1 306? oDbm-1 573/

0*f

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149

orZw
d jynfph \
Hk ? 0g-atmifjrif\/ edA'H tNrrJ jywf? trSmuHwd\
Yk ?
a*[awmtdrrf ?S ,m*kbwm'Ded ,m*k xrif;tp&So
d nfwu
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150

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152

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154

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0*f

"ry'bmom#Dum

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156

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&efjzpfjcif;uk)d ? rm (tuw)rjyKMuESi?hf }} wdtm'Ded odt
Yk p&Sad om
pum;awmfwu
Ykd ?kd 0wGmrdeaYf wmfrNl y;D ? ]]bdua 0 {aw b@euv[0d*[
0d0g'g emrrdrw
d b
Ykd ufwiG w
f ikd yf ifjcif; cdu
k &f efjzpfjcif; qefu
Y sif
buf,jl cif; qefu
Y sib
f uf ajymqdjk cif;wdYk rnfonf? tewum&um
tusK;d rJu
h kd jyKwwfuek \
f / [drSe\
f ? uv[Hcku
d &f efu?dk edm,rS
D ?
(taMumif;jyK)? v#Kuu
d m-ADv;kH iSurf jzpfaom? oukPu
d mydiSurf
uav;onfvnf;? [wed m*HBu;D rm;aomqifu?kd ZD0w
d u,H touf\
ukejf cif;ok?Yd ygayoda&mufapcJzh ;l Ny?D }} wdok?Yd v#Kuu
d ZmwuHv#K
uduZmwfawmfu?dk uaxwGmNy;D ? ]]bdua 0wkYd or*gnDw
G o
f w
l Ydk
onf? a[mxjzpfMuavm? rm 0d0'xqefu
Y sib
f uf rajymqkMd uESi/hf
tww
D d tmoeeE&u
d m-ae&m2ckw\
Ydk tMum;jzpfaom ae&m&Sad omxkid jf cif;?
Bud,m0daooeteuf wwd,mouf(r[mbm-2 744)/
b@euv[0d*[
0d0g'g/ / b@Ed y&dbmoEd {awemwd b@eH?
0dk'pdwH('D#D-3 87? r#D-3 240)? uvD,wd y&drD,wd taee ol&bma0gwd
uva[m? uv+ [?-arm*f-7 223? uvH [ewDwd uva[m-olwpfyg;\
rmefukd ESdrfeif;zsufqD;;wwfaom &efjzpfrI? uv+[e+uGd?-O'ge.|-309?
|jyK-85)? 0dlyH 0dk'H 0g *[PH 0d*a[m(om&w-1 113)? 0dlyH *PSmwd
awemwd 0d*a [m-azmufjyefpmG ,laMumif; a'gorlpw
d K ym 'f? 0d'k H 0'wd {awemwd 0d0ga'g-qefYusifbuf ajymqdkaMumif; a'gorlpdwKym'f('D#D-2 99? tH#D3 293)? 0dka'g+0ga'g 0d0ga'g(uy'Kr? 0drwd-2 208)/ b@eH p+uva[m
p+0d*a[m p+0d0ga'g p b@euv[0d*[0d0g'g/

0*f

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157

[drSe\
f ? 0d0g'Hqefu
Y sib
f ufajymqkjd cif;uk?d edm,? taeuowo[mtode;f ru rsm;pGmukeaf om? (odeaf ygif;rsm;pGmukeaf om)?
0umydik;H wko
Yd nfvnf;? ZD0w
d u,H ok?Yd ywma&mufz;l ukeNf y?D }} wd
ok?Yd 0uZmwuH0uZmwfawmfu?dk uaxod-Ny/D {0rd okYd a[m
awmfryl gaomfvnf;? awokxk&d [ef;wko
Yd nf? b*0awm\? 0peH
pum;awmfu?dk tem'd,aEok rem,luek v
f aomf? "r0g'demtrSew
f &m;
udk ajymavh&adS om? ("r0g'Djzpfaom)? wxm*w\? 0da[oHyifyef;
awmfrljcif;ukd? tedpaEetvkdr&Sdaom? tnwa&ewpfyg;aom
&[ef;onf? (wpfenf;) ]]tnwa&e-aom? "r0g'dem-onf? wxm*w\? 0da[oH-ud?k tedpa Ee-vaomf? 0g-tvdrk &So
d nf\ tjzpfaMumif}h }[k wpf
enf;ay;? ]]baE&m; "romrdw&m;\ t&Sijf zpfawmfral om? b*0g

jrwfpmG bk&m;onf? tm*arwk(a[majymqk;H rrIu)dk &yfqikd ;f awmfryl g?


baE b*0gonf? taygkaum(t"dukP;f Nird ;f at;zk)Yd tm;xkwf
jcif;&Sad wmfrrlonf? (aMumifMh urJo
h nf)? 'd|"rock 0d[m&Hrsuaf rSmufb0
csr;f ompGmaeaMumif;ormywfu?dk tEk,ak wmtzefzeftm;xkwf
awmfro
l nf? 0g-cHpm;awmfro
l nf? ([kwmG )? 0d[&wkaeawmfryl g? r,ar0wynfah wmfwo
Ydk nfom? awe b@aeexkrd rd w
d b
Ykd ufwiG f wkid f
yifjcif;jzifv
h nf;aumif;? awe uva[exkcd u
dk &f efjzpfjcif;jzifv
h nf;
aumif;? awe 0d*a [exkq
d efu
Y sib
f ufudk ,ljcif;jzifv
h nf;aumif;? awe
0d0ga'exkq
d efu
Y sib
f ufudk ajymqkjd cif;jzifv
h nf;aumif;? ynm,dmr
xif&mS ;yguket
f ?hH 0g-vlocd yH guket
f ?hH }} wdok?Yd 0kawavQmuftyfaomf?
twDwH uk?d tm[&daqmifawmfrNl y?D (utb,foYkd aqmifawmfrl
oenf;)
bdua 0 blwykAH a&S;jzpfz;l aom taMumif;um;? (wpfenf;)
blwykA-H a&S;jzpfz;l aom 0wKaMumif;uk?d (bmodmrd-a[mawmfrl
rnf?) Am&mPod,H NrKd U? jA['awm emrjA['wfrnfaom? umod&mZmumodrif;onf? ta[mod&Scd NhJ y/D jA['awejA['wfrif;onf?

158

"ry'bmom#Dum

,ru

'DCw
D
d 'DCw
D rd nfaom? aumov&anmaumovrif;\? &ZH
Edik if u
H ?dk tpEd w
d mG vk,
l ? 0g-jcif;aMumih?f tnmwua0aoerxif&mS ;
ol\toGijf zif?h 0oEae&aom? ydwak emcrnf;awmf\? 0g-ud?k
rm&dwbm0H ap0aoaptyfonf\tjzpfuv
dk nf;aumif;? 0gowftyf
onf\ tjzpfuv
dk nf;aumif;? 'DCm0kurk ma&e'DCm0krif;om;onf?
twaemtm;? ZD0ad wtoufu?dk 'daEay;tyfaomf? wawmxkt
d cgrS?
y|m,p? awoHxkjd A['wfrif;ESihf 'DCm0krif;om;wk\
Yd ? or*bm0H
pnDw
G u
f ek o
f nf\tjzpfuv
dk nf;aumif;? uaxwGm? ]]bdua 0wkYd
tm'dE' @meHudik ,
f t
l yfaom wkwv
f ufeuf&u
dS ek af om? tm'dEo
wmeHukid ,
f t
l yfaom wkwrf w
S pfyg; "m;paom tjcm;vufeuf&u
dS ek af om?
awoH &mZleH xkrd if;wk\
Yd aomfrv
S nf;? ydo'gtausMu?H {0lyH aom?
cEad om&pH onf;cHjcif; aumif;aomtrI arGUavsmo
f \
l tjzpfonf?
b0dwd emrjzpfEidk cf Jhao;\/ bdua0wkdY ,H (a,) wkarStMuif
oifwkdYonf? {0HokdY? oGmcgawaumif;pGma[mawmfrt
l yfaom? "r0dea,w&m;tm;jzifh qk;H roif&h m omoemawmf? yAZw
d m&[ef;jyK
cJu
h ek o
f nf? ormemukev
f su?f crm ponf;cHuek o
f nfvnf;aumif;?
aom&wm paumif;aomtrI arGUavsmu
f ek o
f nfonfvnf;aumif;?
ba0,smxjzpfukef&m\? wH-um; teufrJhedygwf? (aw wkarSxko
d ifwo
Ydk nf?) "omoemawmf? aomabx acgwifw
h ,fuek f
&mtHah vm (wifw
h ,fp&m&SMd u\avm)?}} wdok?Yd Mo0'dwmG ydqk;H r
,H aomabx / / ,Hudk vd*0F yd vmo 0pe0dyvmo aomabx
{,smx0dbwf ,smudkacsonf[k ,l ay;cJhonf? ,Hukd ,'dteuf,l
]]bdua 0 wkarS {0H oGmcgaw "r0ed a, yAZw
d m ormem crm paumif;?
aom&wm p-aumif;? ,H (,'d) ba0,smx-tu,f jzpfuek t
f ?hH ({0H oaEo-k
ukev
f aomf?) "-? aomabx acg-wifw
h ,fuek &f mtHah vm}}[k wpfenf;ay;/
]],H(,'d)-tu,f? wkarS ?ay? aom&wm ba0,smx-jzpfygukerf u
l m;? "? aomabx acg-wifw
h ,fuek &f m\}}[kvnf; ay;Mu\/

0*f

"ry'bmom#Dum

159

awmfr
l vnf;? 0g-aomfvnf;? awxk&d [ef;wku
Yd ?dk ora*nDw
G o
f w
l Ydk
uk?d (nDw
G o
f rl sm;jzpfatmif) umwkH iSm? ae0 toud rpGr;f Ekid cf /hJ aom
xkjd rwfpmG bk&m;onf? wm, tmudP0 [
d m&wm,xko
d Ykd a&m>yrf;aom
ae&jcif;&So
d nf\tjzpfaMumif?h (xko
d Ydk a&ma&maESmaESm ae&jcif;aMumih)f
OuPad wmNi;D aiGUawmfro
l nf? [kwmG -? ]]t[Honf? 'ged? tmudaPma&m>yrf;onf? ([kwmG )? 'kuH qif;&JpmG ? 0d[&mrdae&\? ar
p bduL &[ef;wko
Yd nfvnf;? rr\? 0peHuk?d e ua&mEd rjyKusihf
uke?f 0grvdu
k ef muke/f t[Honf? {uaum0wpfyg;wnf;omvQi?f
*PrSmtaygif;tazmfrS? 0lyua|muif;qdwf&mokdY a&mufonf?
([kwmG )? ,ELe 0d[a&,sH tu,f ae&ygrlum; aumif;avpG?}} wdok?Yd pdaEwmG -? aumor,
d H aumorND rKd U? yd@m,iSm? p&dwmG vSnhf
vnfawmfrNl y;D ? bduK oC
H H &[ef;taygif;uk?d teyavmauwGm
ryefajymrl? {uaum0omvQi?f twaemrdr\
d ? ywp0D &Huk?d tm'g,? AmvuavmPu*grHAmvuavmPu&Gmok?Yd *Em? ww
xk&d mG ? b*kaw&b*kax&ftm;? {upm&du0wH wpfyg;wnf; vSnhf
vnf&jcif;&Sad om usi0hf wfu?dk 0g-wpfyg;wnf; usix
fh u
dk af om 0wfu?dk
wpfenf;/ / ,Hudk Bu,
d my&mroe wHut
dk euf&dS aomabx {x
0dbwf,
l ]]bdua 0 wkarS-wdo
Yk nf ?ay? aom&wm-aumif;? ,H ba0,smxtMuifjzpfuek &f m\? wH-xko
d jYdk zpfjcif;onf? "-? aomabx acg-wifw
h ,f
&m\avm? (wifhw,fp&m&Sd\avm)}}[k ay;/
wpfenf;/ / ,H wH2yk'fukd wwd,mteuf yxrm0dbwfMuH ]],HtMuifonf;cHjcif; aumif;aomtrI arGUavsmfol\tjzpfjzifh? wkarS? crmaumif;? aom&wm-aumif;? ba0,smx-uke\
f ? wH-xko
d nf;cHjcif; aumif;
aomtrI arGUavsmo
f \
l tjzpfjzif?h "-? aomabx-wifw
h ,fapukeaf vm?
acg teufrJh?}}[kay;/(0d.|-3 248? ygpda,m-338? r[mbmyged-2 58/
{upm&du0wH/ / p&PH pma&m? pma&m+{w twDwd pm&duH?
{uH+pm&duH {upm&duH? {upm&duH+p+0wH pmwd {upm&du0wH(plbm-

160

"ry'bmom#Dum

,ru

uaxwGm? ygpDe0Hord*'ga,om;aumifwu
Ydk kd ab;rJah y;&mjzpfaom
ta&SU0g;awm? wdPH 3yg;ukeaf om? ukvykwm eHtrsK;d aumif;om;
wkt
Yd m;? omr*d,
medoo
H H nDw
G o
f w
l \
Ykd tjzpf\ tusK;d uk?d 0g-nDw
G f
jcif;\ tusKd ;ud?k uaxwGm? a,etMuift&yf? ygvdav,suH
ygvdav,su&Gmonf? (yvvJ&mG onf)? tw?d wHxkyd gvdav,su&Gmok?Yd
0g-? a&SUenf; om&w-3 360? aemufenf; 0drwd-2 209/ t0o&d
a&mufawmfrlNyD/ wMw-xkdokdYa&mufawmfrlNyD;&mtcg? b*0gonf?
319)?(wpfenf;) p&dwAEd pm&duH? p&+Ps? ,ukd ujyK? {aue+pm&duH
{upm&duH? a&S;enf;twkdif; qufwGJyg(ygpda,m-485)/
ygvdav,suH / / yXrmteuf 'kw,
d mouf(0drwd-209)? oH.|-2
280 ygvdav,suNrKd U[k qk\
d ? xkt
d vkd yXrm0dbwfwnf;/ ygpda,m-403
|#DaemufokdY rvkdufbJ ]]ygvdav,suH-yvvJawmtkyfaeaom qifajymif
okdY}}[k ay;&ef zGihf\/
wMw ok'/H / ok'HteufrJh? wonf (1) vGefcJhNyD;aom j'yfukd pJG&aom
yuE0do, w (2) wkdufkdufpJGp&m&Sdaom yod'0do, w (3) jzpfcJhNyD;aom
Bu,
d mukd pJ&G aom tEkbw
l 0do, w-[k 3rsKd ;&S\
d ? wMw tEkbw
l 0do,
w-,l a&SU0gus ]]t0o&d}}[laom Bu,
d mukd pJo
G nf/(tvuFmbm217)
wpfenf;/ / 0d-3 499 ]]wMw ok'H b*0g ygvdav,sau 0d[&wd
&udw
0eoa@ b'omvrlav}}[k &S
d 0d.|-3 434 ygvdav,sauukd
]]ygvdav,suH Oyedm,}}[k zGi\
hf ? 0d.|twkid ;f ]]ygvdav,suH Oyedm,}}[k &S\
d ? a0,H r[med-2 283 w-ukd yod'0 o
d ,,lum wMwukd
ygvdav,sauESifh wJ
G ]]wMw ygvdav,sau-xkyd gvdav,su&Gm}}[k ay;\?
vnf; w-ukd yod'0 o
d , Mwypn;f ukd uHteufa[m ,lum ]]wMw ygvdav,suH-xkdygvdav,su&Gmukd}}[k wpfenf;ay;/
wpfenf;/ / 0d.|-3 434 wMwukd rnfokdYrQ rzGihfyg? r[mbm-2
621vnf; wMwukd teufray;yg? xkt
d vkd wMwukd 0gausmynmo-0gus
tpysKd ;&m 0gus\ tOK;tptjzpfudk xGe;f jyaom edygwfrQom (teufr)hJ [k
MuH/ (0dok'd#D-2 37)

0*f

"ry'bmom#Dum

161

ygvdav,suH ygvdav,su&Gmuk?d Oyedm,rS


D ? &uw
d 0eoa@
&uw
d awmtkyf ? b'omvrlavEkysKd aumif;rGeaf om tifMuif;yif\
teD;atmuf? ygvdav,saueygvdav,surnfaom? [wdem
qifonf? Oy|d,rmaemjyKpv
k yk af uR;tyfonf? ([kwmG )? Oy|d,rmaemjyKpv
k yk af uR;tyfaomf? (tjyKpck &H if;)? 0g-jyKpv
k yk af uR;tyfonf\ tjzpfaMumih}f }
[kvnf; ay;? zmokuH csr;f ompGm? 0m0goHrd;k vywfv;kH aeawmfrjl cif;

jzif?h 0g-0gqkad wmfrjl cif;jzih?f 0odaeawmfrNl y/D


aumor0d godaemaumorND rKd U aeukeaf om? Oygoumydwko
Yd nf
vnf;? 0d[m&H-od?Yk *Em? owm&Huk?d tyEmrjrifuek v
f aomf? ]]baE
wdYk owmonf? uk[ tb,frmS enf;}} wdok?Yd ykpw
d mG vaomf?
ygvdav,su0eo@Hygvdav,su&Gm\ teD;jzpfaom &udw
awmtkyo
f ?Ydk *awm<uoGm;awmfrNl y?D }} wdodYk ajymukeNf y/D ]]u
um&Pmtb,ftaMumif;aMumif?h (*awm<uoGm;awmfro
l enf;)}}
wdodaYk r;ukeNf y/D ]]tarSwku
Yd ?dk ora*nDw
G o
f w
l u
Ydk ?dk umwk-H
iSm? 0g,rdBuKd ;pm;awmfrNl y?D ye-okaYd omfvnf;? r,Hwko
Yd nf? or*g
nDw
G o
f w
l o
Ydk nf? e t[krmS rjzpfcu
hJ ek ?f }} wd-xkad Mumih?f (*awmNy?D ) wdodaYk jymukeNf y/D wdwpfv;Hk tausMu?H ]]baEwkYd wkarS
t&Sib
f &k m;wdo
Yk nf? owK\? oEad utxHawmf? yAZw
d mG &Si&f [ef;
jyK? woxkdjrwfpGmbk&m;onf? omr*nDGwfolwdkY\tjzpfukd?
ua&maEjyKawmfrv
l aomf? or*gnDw
G o
f w
l o
Ydk nf? em[k0w (e+
t[k0w) urjzpfcu
hJ ek o
f avm}} wdodaYk r;ukeNf y/D ]]tm0kaom
&udw0eoa@ / / ygvdav,suawm t0d'la& &udw0eoa@m
emr twd? -oH.|-2 280? om&w-3 360/
b'omvrlav/ / b'omavmwd ye wawaum remayg v|daum
(EkysdKaom) omvkaum? b*0g wH *grH Oyedm, 0eoa@ yPomvm, orDay wo kur al v 0d[mod?-oH.|-2 280? om&w-3 360/

162

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,ru

'g,umwkYd {0Htwdik ;f rSe\


f ?}} wdodaYk jymukeNf y/D rEkm
wko
Yd nf? ]]ar&[ef;wdo
Yk nf? owK\? oEad u-? yAZw
d mG -?
wo xkjd rwfpmG bk&m;onf? omr* uk?d ua&maEyd jyKawmfryl gaomf
vnf;? or*gwdo
Yk nf? e Zmwmrjzpfuek ?f r,Hwko
Yd nf? ar&[ef;
wku
Yd ?dk edm,? owm&Huk?d '|KH zl;jrifjcif;iSm? 0gzl;jrifciG u
hf ?kd e
vbdrmS r&awmhuek ?f aroH&[ef;wkt
Yd m;? tmoeHae&muk?d ae0
'mrray;ukeaf wmht?hH (ray;bJaeMupk)Yd ? tbd0g'em'Ded &Scd ;dk jcif;tp
&So
d nfwu
Ydk ?dk e u&dmrrjyKuek af wmht?hH (rjyKbJ aeMupk)Yd ?}} wd
okYd wdik yf if? wawmxkt
d cgrS? y|m,p? awoHxk&d [ef;wdzYk ?Ydk 0gwk\
Yd tay:? omrDprd wrd tkt
d aorQuv
dk nf;? e u&ok rjyKawmh
uke/f awxk&d [ef;wko
Yd nf? tyg[m&wm,enf;aom tpmtm[m&
&Su
d ek o
f nf\tjzpfaMumif?h okrmemydeaf jcmufuek v
f aomf? uwdyga[ae0tenf;i,faom &ufjzifo
h mvQi?f OZkum-ajzmifrh eS u
f ek o
f nf?
0g-wnfu
h ek o
f nf? [kwmG ? tnrnHtcsi;f csi;f ? tp,H tjypfu?dk 0gtmywfu?kd a'aowGma'oemajym? crmaywGmonf;cHapNy;D ? 0guefawmhawmif;yefNy;D ? ]]OygoumwkYd r,Hwdo
Yk nf? or*gwko
Yd nf?
Zmwmjzpfuek Nf y?D wkarSyd wko
Yd nfvnf;? aemwk\
Yd ? (Oy&d-tay:?)
yk&rd o'doma&S;jzpfaom OygoumwdEYk iS hf wluek o
f nf? 0g-a&S;wke;f u
ESifh wluek o
f nf? a[mxjzpfMuavm?}} wd-ok?Yd tm[Hok ajymukeNf y/D
]]baEwkYd a0gt&Sib
f &k m;wko
Yd nf? owmuk?d crmydawm yeonf;cH
aptyfNyaD vm 0guefawmhawmif;yeftyfNyaD vm}} wdodaYk r;
ukeNf y/D ]]tm0kaom'g,umwkYd e crmydawmonf;rcHaptyfao;yg?
0gruefawmh rawmif;yeftyfao;yg?}} wd-odaYk jymukeNf y/D ]]awe
[dxdo
k jYkd zpfvQi?f owm&Huk?d crmayxonf;cHapukeaf vm? 0guef
awmh awmif;yefuek af vm? owKtm;? 0g-ud?k crmydwumavonf;cH
aptyfNy;D &mtcg? 0g-uefawmhawmif;yeftyfNy;D &mtcg? r,rd wynfh
awmfwo
Ydk nfvnf;? wkrmS uHt&Sib
f &k m;wk\
Yd ? (Oy&d-tay:?) yk&rd -

0*f

"ry'bmom#Dum

163

o'doma&S;jzpfaom OygoumwdEYk iS hf wluek o


f nf? 0g-a&S;wke;f uESihf
wluek o
f nf? b0dmrjzpfyguket
f ?hH }} wdodaYk vQmufuek Nf y/D aw
xk&d [ef;wko
Yd nf? taEm0bma0e0gwGi;f \tjzpfaMumif?h owK\?
oEu
d H od?Yk *EKH iSm? t0do[Emr&J0u
hH ek o
f nf? ([kwmG )? 'kaueqif;&J
ojzif?h wH taEm0Hxk0d gwGi;f uk?d 0Dwed marokH ukev
f eG af pukeNf y/D
owm yeonfum;? awe [wed mxkq
d ifonf? Oy|d,rmaemjyKpk
vkyaf uR;tyfonf? ([kwmG )? okcH csr;f ompGm? 0odaeawmfr&l Ny/D [d
rSe\
f ? aomyd [wed ma*gxkq
d ifBu;D onfvnf;? 0g-xkq
d ifajymifonf
vnf;? *PHqiftaygif;uk?d y[m,y,fpeG
Yf ? zmok0[
d m&wma,0
csr;f ompGmaejcif;tusK;d iSmomvQi?f wH 0eo@Hxkad wmtkyo
f ?Ydk yg0dod
0ifcNhJ y/D
,xm[tb,foYkd rdeaYf wmfro
l enf; ]]t[H ?ay? 0d[a&,s}}Ed-
t[H ?ay? 0d[a&,s[
H
l ? (tm[-Ny/D ) (]],xm[}}teufay;ykH 4rsdK;ukd
D d qifx;D Bu;D wkEYd iS v
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[wed [
D d qifrBu;D wkEYd iS v
hf nf;aumif;? [wu
d vab[dqifaygufwYdk
ESiv
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hf nf;aumif;? (EkpYd q
Ykd if
i,fwEYdk iS v
hf nf;aumif;)? tmudaPma&m>yrf;onf? ([kwmG )? 0d[&mrd
ae&\? qdE* g edjzwftyfaom tzsm;(tGeUf )&Su
d ek af om? wdPmed ap0
jrufwu
Ykd v
dk nf;? cg'grdcJpm;&\? arigonf? 0g-\? Moba*gb*H
atmufocYdk sK;d tyf atmufocYdk sK;d tyfaom? (csK;d cstyf csK;d cstyfaom)?
omcgb* pcsK;d cstyfaom opfcufuv
dk nf;? 0g-opfcufusKd ;udv
k nf;?
cg'EdcJpm;Muukef\? tm0dvmedaemufusKukefaom? ygeD,med p
aomufa&wku
Yd v
dk nf;? yd0grdaomuf&\? Mo*g[ma&qdyrf ?S OwP
d

pwufvmonfvnf;jzpfaom? t arxkid g\? um,Huk,


d u
f ?kd
[wed ad ,mqifrwko
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H Ead ,myGww
f u
dk u
f ek v
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f su?f *p Ed uke\
f ? t[Honf? {aum0wpfaumifwnf;

164

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,ru

omvQi?f *PrSmqiftaygif;rS? 0lyua|mzJcmG onf? ([kwmG )? ,ELe


0d[a&,sH tu,fae&ygrlum;aumif;avpG/
tx acgxkrd aS emuf? aom [wed ma*gonf? ,lxmqiftyk rf ?S
tyur zJcmG ? a,etMuift&yf? ygvdav,suH ygvdav,su
&Gmonfvnf;aumif;? &udw0eo@H&udwawmtkyfonfvnf;
aumif;? b'omvrlvHEkysdKaumif;rGefaom tifMuif;yif\ teD;
atmufonfvnf;aumif;? (tw)d ? a&SU]]a,e ygvdav,suH tw}d }uJo
h Ydk
]]ygvdav,suH &uw
d 0eo@H b'omvrlv}H } 3yk'v
f ;Hk 0,f yXrmteuf
'kw,
d mwnf;? a,etMuift&yf? b*0gonf? (twd \)? awe

(ygvdav,su&Gm &uw
d awmtkyf tifMuif;yif\ teD;atmuff jrwf
pGmbk&m;&d&S m) xkt
d &yf? 0g-ok?Yd OyouFrd oGm;\? OyouFrw
d mG oGm;
NyD;? (wpfenf;) OyouFrd-oGm;NyD? OyouFrdwGm-a&muf&mt&yfrS
wpfqifh omeD;uyfaomt&yfoYkd oGm;Ny;D ? ye-teufr?hJ b*0EH uk?d
0Ew
d mG ? MoavmauaEmMunfv
h aomf? tnHtjcm;aom? udd wpfpHk
wpfcu
k ?dk t'domG rjrifr
l ? b'omvrlvH EkysdKaumif;rGeaf om tifMuif;
yif\ teD;atmufu?dk yga'ae0ajcjzifo
h mvQi?f y[&aEmykwcf wf
vsu?f wapwmG n
d ? aom@m,ESmarmif;jzif?h omcHopfcufu?dk
*a[wGm-udik
f ? orZd wHjrufvn
S ;f Ny/D wawmxkt
d cgrS? y|m,p?
aom@m,ESmarmif;jzif?h C#Htk;d uk?d *a[wGmudik
f ? ygeD,H aomuf
a&ukv
d nf;aumif;? y&dabmZeD,H ok;H a&ukv
d nf;aumif;? Oy|maywd
teD; wnfap\? 0g-teD; xm;\? OaPSm'auea&aEG;jzif?h taw
a,e...awEkyouFr/d / txufwiG f a,e owrt
D eufay;cJo
h nf?
[dwt
f euf,
l ]]a,e-tMuiftaMumif;aMumif?h a'0rEka[d-wdo
Yk nf? OyouFrdwaAm-oGm;xkduf\? awe-xdktaMumif;aMumifh? OyouFrd-NyD}}[k wpf
enf;ay;/ OyouFrd a&SUenf;tvkd tZweD0b
d wf ypKye t
f eufwnf;? aemuf
enf;tvku
d m; twdwt
f eufwnf;? (0d.|-1 100? om&w-1 339? yg&mbm 1- 496)/

0*f

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165

tvko
d nf? owd&Sv
d aomf? OaPSm'uHuk?d y#d,ma'wdpD&if\? 0gusKd \/ uxHtb,foYdk pD&ifoenf; [aweESmarmif;jzif?h u|med
xif;wku
Yd ?dk CHow
d mG yGww
f u
dk
f ? t* rD;uk?d orma'wdaumif;pGm jzpf
ap\? 0g-arT;\? wwxkrd ;D ? 'gled xif;wku
Yd ?dk yuyd aEmxnfv
h su?f
t* uk?d ZmavwGmawmufap? wwxdrk ;D ? ygomaPausmufw;Hk
wku
Yd ?dk yuyd w
d mG xnf
h ? ypdwmG rD;zkw
f ? 'gk'@aueopfom;acsmif;
jzif?h y0awGmvdrahf p? 0gvSrd
hf ? y&d pdEm ,ykid ;f jcm;tyfaom? ck'u
aom@dum,i,faom ausmufa&uef? (ausmufa&uefi,f )?
cdywdypfcs\? wawmxkrd S aemuf? [w-H ESmarmif;uk?d Mowma&wGm(a&tkid if ,fo)Ydk oufa&mufap? 0g-cs? O'u\? wwbm0Hyl
onf\tjzpfu?dk ZmedwmG ? *Em-? owm&H-uk?d 0Ewd &Scd ;dk \? owm
onf? ]]ygvdav,suu awoifonf? O'uHud?k wmydwH ylaptyf
NyaD vm (usKd tyfNyaD vm)}} wdok?Yd 0wGm-ar;awmfr
l ? wwxkd
ausmufa&uefi,fo?Ykd *Em<uawmfr
l ? ESm,wda&csK;d awmfr\
l / tx
xkrd aS emuf? txkjd rwfpmG bk&m;tm;? emem0d"medtxl;xl;aom
tjym;&Su
d ek af om?(trsKd ;rsKd ;tjym;jym;ukeaf om)? zvmedopfo;D wku
Yd ?dk
tm[&dwmG aqmif,
l ? a'wduyfvLS \/ ye-onfomruao;? ,'g
tMuiftcg? owmonf? *grHok?Yd yd@m,iSm? y0dowd\? w'g
xkt
d cg? owK\? ywp0D &Huk?d tm'g,? ukarOK;uif;? ywd|aywGmwnfap? 0gxm;? owm&mESi?hf o'a ,0twlomvQi?f
*pwd \/ owmonf? *grlypm&H&Gm\Oypmok?Yd 0g-&GmteD;tyg;od?Yk
ywGma&muf? 0gvaomf? ]]ygvdav,suu awmt&yfr?S
y|m,? w,moifonf? *EKH vdu
k jf cif;iSm? e oumrwwfaumif;?
ck'u
aom@dum,/ / ]]odvmaygu&PD aom@D("mef-609)}}[laom
*gxmt& aom@Do'g ausmufa&uefteufa[m? xkad emif oGw uypn;f
ouf? ]]aom@Da,0 aom@dum? ck'um+aom@dum ck'uaom@dum}}
[kjyK/

166

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,ru

ar\? ywp0D &Huk?d tm[&aqmif,cl ahJ vm?}} wdok?Yd tm[&maywGmaqmif,al p? *grH-ok?Yd yd@m,-iSm? yg0dod rlNy/D aomydxdk
ygvdav,suqifonfvnf;? owK\? ,m0 edur em&GmrSxu
G v
f m
awmfr&l mtcsed w
f ikd af tmif? waw0xd&k mG \ Oypmyif? XwGm&yf?
tm*reumav<uvmawmfr&l mtcg? ypK*r eHc&D;OK;BuKd qjkd cif;ud?k
uwGm? yk&rd ea,ae0a&S;jzpfaom enf;jzifo
h mvQi?f 0g-toGm;
wke;f u enf;twkid ;f omvQi?f ywp0D &Hud?k *a[wGm,l? 0oe|mae
ae&mt&yf? Mowma&wGma&mufap? 0g-cs? 0wH 0wfu?kd 'awGmjrifap? (vkyjf y)? omcg,opfcufjzif?h ADZwd,yfcwf\? &w
nOft
h cg? 0gVrd*y&dyEe0d g&PwH &J&ifah omom;aumifw\
Ykd ab;&efukd
wm;jrpfjcif;tusK;d iSm? r[EH Bu;D pGmaom? '@Hwkwu
f ?kd aom@m,
ESmarmif;jzif?h *a[wGmudik
f ? ]]owm&Hud?k &u
d mrdapmifah &Smuft?hH }}
wdodMYk u
H ? ,m0 tkP*k r emtkPw
f uf&mumvwdik af tmif?
0eo@awmtky\
f ? tE& Ea&etMum;tMum;jzif?h 0g-? 0dp&wd
vSnv
hf nf\/ wawmxdt
k cgrS? y|m,a,0pomvQi?f aom 0eoa@monf? ygvdav,su&uw
d 0eoa@m emrygvdav,suqif
onf apmifah &Smuftyfaom awmtkyrf nfonf? Zmawm ud&jzpfco
hJ wJ/h
tkaPonf? O*awwufvaomf? rkacg'u'geHrsuEf mS opfa& uyf
vSLjcif;ud?k tm' uwGmtpjyK? awae0 Oyga,exdek nf;vrf;jzifyh if?
oA0wmedtvH;k pHak om 0wfwu
Ykd ?kd ua&mwdjyK\/
tx? {aumwpfaumifaom? rua#marsmufonf? wH [w
ud?k O|m,x? ork|m,aumif;pGmx? 'd0ao 'd0aoaeYwikd ;f
aeYwikd ;f ? wxm*wzk?Yd 0g-\tay:? tmbdormpm&duH xl;uJ
jrihfjrwfaom tusihf jzpfaom (yg0ifaom) 0wfBuD; 0wfi,fudk?
tmbdormpm&du/H / tbd0o
d ad |m Owarm+ormpma&m tbdormpma&m? tbdormpma&+b0H tmbdormpm&du-H xl;uJjrihjf rwfaom tusifh

0*f

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ua&mEH jyKaeonfu?kd 'domG jrif? ]]t[rd onfvnf;? udad '0wpfpkH


wpfco
k mvQijf zpfaom aumif;rIu?dk u&dmrdtH?h }} wdodMYk u
H ?
u
d H ysm;aumif ysm;Or&Sd
0dp&aEmvSnv
hf nfvaomf? {u'd0oH? edru
Yk ?kd 0gysm;tHu
k ?kd
aom? '@ur"Hk opfuikd ;f i,f pGaJ eaom ysm;vydu
'domG ? '@uHopfuikd ;f i,fu?kd bw
d mG csK;d ? '@auae0opfuikd ;f
i,fEiS o
hf m? o' wuG? r"ky#vHysm;ovufu?kd owK\? oEu
d -H ok?Yd
tm[&dwGmaqmif? u'vdywHiSufaysm&Gufudk? qdEdwGmjzwf?
wwxdik u
S af ysm&Guaf y:? XaywGmwnfap? 0g-xm;? t'god
uyfvLS Ny/D owmonf? *PSd cH,al wmfrNl y/D rua#marsmufonf?
]]y&dabm*HbkO;f ay;awmfjcif;ud?k u&dwd Ek acgjyKawmfrrl nfavm?
e u&dwd (Ek acg)jyKawmfrrlrnfavm?}} wdodEYk v
S ;Hk oGi;f ?
MoavmauaEmMunfv
h aomf? *a[wGmudik
f ? edoEd H xdik af wmfral e
onfu?kd 'domG ? ]]u Ek acgtb,faMumifeh nf;?}} wd-ok?Yd pdaEwmG pOf;pm;? '@aum#d,H opfuikd ;f zsm;? 0g-ud?k *a[wGmudik
f ? y&d0awwGmvnfap? 0gvSnfhywf? Oy"ma&aEmpl;prf;vaomf?
t@umedysm;Owdu
Yk ?kd 'domG -? wmedxdyk sm;Owdu
Yk ?kd oPdu-H jznf;jznf;?
tyaewGmz,f&mS ;? ykewpfzef? t'godNy/D owmonf? y&dabm*H
bkO;f ay;awmfrjl cif;ud?k tumodNy/D aomxdak rsmufonf? wk|rmeaom
ESpo
f ufaompdw&f o
dS nf? ([kwmG -)? wH wH omcHxdx
k o
kd pfuikd ;f ud?k
*a[wGmudik
f ? epaEm0uvsuo
f mvQi?f t|modwnfaeNy/D tx
jzpfaom (yg0ifaom) usi0fh wf(tH#-D 3 142)? (wpfenf;) tbdormpma&m0
tbdormpm&du-H xl;uJjrihjf rwfaomusi0fh wf? (wpfenf;)tbdormpm&H tm&A
ynwH tmbdormpm&duH-xl;uJjrihfjrwfaomr*fzkdvfoDvukd taMumif;jyK
ynwftyfaom usihf0wf(0dok'd-1 12? 0dok'd#D-1 32?om&w-3 240)/
edruduH / / ewd {w rudu
mwd edrudu?H rudu
moa'e apw rudu
@urd omrnawm *[dwEd 0'Ed? -om&w-1 436/

168

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,ru

xdt
k cg? txdak rsmuf\? 0g-onf? *[dwomcgydqGu
J ikd t
f yfaom
opfuikd ;f onfvnf;aumif;? tuEo
mcgydeif;tyfaom opfuikd ;f onf
vnf;aumif;? bdZo
k usK;d ukeNf y/D aomxdak rsmufonf? {uo wpfck
aom? cgPkrwauopfiw
k x
f yd f ? ywdwmG us? ed0|d *awmwnf
aom uk,
d &f o
dS nf? 0g-pl;0iftyfaom ud,
k &f o
dS nf? (uk,
d x
f J opfiw
k pf ;l
0ifomG ;onf)? ([kwmG )? ow&d jrwfpmG bk&m;? yoaEaeae0Munfdk
onfomjzpfaom? pdawepdwjf zif?h umvH-ud?k uwGm-? wm0wob0aebHk ? woa,mZedau-aom? ueu0drmae-? edAw
d Ny?D tp&mo[y&d0ga&mewforD;wpfaxmif tjct
H &H&adS om? ru#a'0ykawm
emrarsmufewfom;rnfonf? ta[modjzpfNy/D wwxd&k uw
d awm
tkyf ? [wed ma*eqifajymifonf? Oy|d,rmejyKpv
k yk af uR;tyf
aom? wxm*w\? 0oebma0gaeawmfro
l nf\ tjzpfonf?
ouvZrK'aD ytvH;k pHak om ZrL'dyf ? ygua#mxif&mS ;onf? ta[mod-Ny/D om0wed *&awmNrKd UrS? temxyd@ad umtemxydPo
f al X;
onfvnf;aumif;? 0domcg-0domcgrnfaom? r[mOygodum pOygod
umrBuD;vnf;aumif;? wd{0rm'DedodkYtp&Sdukefaom? r[mukvmedBu;D us,rf sm;jym;aom trsK;d wdo
Yk nf? 0g-Bu;D us,rf sm;jym;aom
tdraf xmifpw
k o
Ykd nf? tmeEaw&tm;? ]]baE aemwynfah wmf
wdu
Yk ?dk 0g-wkt
Yd m;? owm&Hud?k 'axzl;jrifapygukeaf vm? 0gyifh
aqmif jyawmfryl gukeaf vm?}} wdod?Yk omoeHowif;pum;ud?k y[dPok ydu
Yk ek Nf y/D 'dom0godaemt&yf 4rsuEf mS wdYk aeukeaf om? (xkx
d dk
t&yfwYdk aeukeaf om)? yowmig;&mukeaf om? bduL ydwdo
Yk nfvnf;?
yoaEaeae0 pdawe/ / wrLwvuPteuf wwd,mouf
(ax&.|-2 108)/ "r#D ]]yoaEaeae0aom? pdawejzifh? (vudawmrSwo
f m;tyfaom?) aom rua#m-xkad rsmufonf}}[k wrL wvuPteuf
ay;ykHwpfrsdK;ukd qkd\? xkdYjyif ukdPf;teuf [dwfteuf[kvnf; qkd\/

0*f

"ry'bmom#Dum

169

0k|0mrk;d vywfv;Hk aeNy;D ukeo


f nf? 0g0guRwNf y;D ukeo
f nf? ([kwmG )?
tmeEaw&H od?Yk OyouFrw
d mG ? ]]tm0kaom tmeEigY&iS t
f meEm
aemwynfah wmfwo
Ykd nf? b*0awm\? orKcgrsuaf rSmufawmf? 0grS? "rD w&m;&Sad om? uxmpum;awmfu?kd pd&kwmMum;emtyfNy;D
aom w&m;pum;\ Mumjrifah om umv&S dygNy?D 0g-Mum;emtyfNy;D
Mumjrihaf om umv&Syd gNy?D tm0kaom tmeE-Em om"kawmif;yefyg\?
r,Hwdo
Yk nf? b*0awm\? orKcg? "r aom? uxHud?k o0em,
Mum;emjcif;iSm? vab,smr&vdyk guke\
f ?}} wd-ok?Yd ,mpok awmif;
yefuek Nf y?D axa&mt&Sit
f meEmax&fonf? ]]aw bduL wdu
Yk ?kd tm'g,ac:,l? wwxd&k uw
d awmtkyo
f ?Ykd *Em? awrmoH3vywf
vH;k ? {u0d[m&daemwpfyg;wnf; aeawmfral om? wxm*w-\?
oEu
d -H ok?Yd {wau[drQtwdik ;f t&Sn&f u
dS ek af om? bduL [dwdEYk iS ?hf
o'? OyouFrw
d kH iSm? 0g-onf? t,kwH roif?h }} wd-ok?Yd pdaEwmG -?
aw bduL wku
Yd ?kd A[dtjyifbuf? XaywGmxm;? {uaum0wpfyg;
wnf;omvQi?f ([kwmG )? owm&Hod?Yk OyouFrd Ny/D ygvdav,saum
ygvdav,suqifonf? wHxdt
k &Sit
f meEmax&fu?kd 'domG ? '@Hwkwf
ud?k tm'g,udik
f ? yuEd ajy;oGm;Ny/D owmonf? MoavmauwGm? ]]ygvdav,suu tay[dz,favm? tay[dz,favm? rm ed0g&,drwm;ESi?hf {aom&[ef;onf? Ak'K y|maumjrwfpmG bk&m;\
tvkyt
f auR;wnf;?}} wd tm[/ aomxdyk gvdav,suqifonf?
waw0xdt
k &yfyif? '@Hud?k qawGmpGe
Yf ? ywp0D &y#d*[
PHpd&kwm/ / ]]ol,dwmwd okwm? pd&H+okwm, {wdmwd pd&kwm}}[kjyK? tvkd okw[laom ormofy'k w
f pfpw
d o
f nf {wdm[laom
tnyk'Ef iS fh t&wlaomaMumihf Am[d&wA[kA[
D o
d rmof bdEm "du&P A[kA[
D o
d rmofwnf;? (wpfenf;) ]]o0eH okw?H pd&+H okwH {wdmwd pd&kwmMumjrifph mG aom Mum;em&jcif;&Syd gNy}D }[kjyK/ tvkd tAm[d&wA[kA[
D o
d rmof
wkvsm"du&PA[kAD[dormofwnf;/ (eDwdokw-208)

170

"ry'bmom#Dum

,ru

oydwo
f uFe;f ukd vSr;f ,ljcif;ud?k tmykpd yefajymNy?D axa&monf? em'god
(e+t'god)ray;? ema*gqifajymifonf? ]]O*[w
d 0awmoif,t
l yfNy;D
aom usi0hf wf&o
dS nf? oap b0dwdtH?h ({0H owd)? owK\? edo'D eygomPzvauxdik af wmfr&l m ausmufzsm? twaem\? y&dum &Hy&du& mtok;H taqmifu?kd e Xaywdxm;vdrrhf nfr[kw?f }} wd
pdaEo/d axa&monf? ywp0D &H-uk?d blr,
d H ajr? Xayodxm;Ny/D [d
rSe?f 0worEm 0wftusiEhf iS hf jynfph u
kH ek af om wynfw
h o
Ykd nf? *leH
q&mwd\
Yk ? tmoae 0gae&mvnf;aumif;? o,ae 0gtdy&f mvnf;
aumif;? twaem\? y&dum &Hud?k e XayEd rxm;uke/f
axa&monf? owm&Hud?k 0god?Yk OyouFrw
d mG -? 0Ew
d mG -?
{urEH? edoD'dNyD/ owmonf? ]]tmeE-Em {aum0wpfyg;
wnf;om? ([kwmG )? tm*awmvmonf? todjzpfoavm}} wd?
ykpw
d mG ? 0g-vaomf? yoaw[d&Su
d ek af om? bduL [d-wkEYd iS ?fh o'?
tm*wbm0Hvmonf\tjzpfu?kd okwmG -? ]]{awxd&k [ef;wdo
Yk nf?
u[H yetb,f&yfenf;}} wd-ok?Yd 0wGm-ar;awmfr
l ? ]]wkrmS uH
&Siaf wmfb&k m;wd\
Yk ? pdwH pdwaf wmfu?kd tZmeaEmrodonf? ([kwmG )
A[d-? XaywGm-? tm*awmonf? trSd jzpf\?}} wd-ok?Yd 0kaw
avQmuftyfaomf? ]]aexd&k [ef;wdu
Yk ?kd yaumom[dac:acsavm?}} wd
tm[/ axa&m? wxmxdrk ed aYf wmfro
l nft
h wdik ;f ? tumod-Ny/D aw
bduL wdo
Yk nf? tm*Em-? owm&H-uk?d 0Ew
d mG -? {urEH ? edo'D o
k
xdik u
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0*f

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rlukefvsufvnf;aumif;? edoD'aE[d pxdkifawmfrlukefvsufvnf;


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uwHjyKawmfrt
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onfvnf;aumif;? rkacg'um'd'g,aumydrsuEf mS opfa&tp&So
d nfukd
uyfvLS olonfvnf;aumif;? e+ta[mod ranr&Sb
d ;l [k xifyg\?}}
wd? 0kawavQmuftyfaomf? ]]bdua 0wdYk ygvdav,su[wed m
onf? rr\? oAupd m edtvH;k pHak omjyKz,
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f u
Ykd ?kd uwmedjyKtyfuek Nf y/D
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?ay? ema*g}}wd[luek af om? wdam3yk'u
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172

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,ru

&Sad om? 0g-0D&,


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0*f

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p&wd) 0-vSnv
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{u-wpfyg;wnf;\? p&dw-H usiMfh uo
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174

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160? 0drme.|-112? ax&.|-1 457/ wkrmS uHwd\


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qifajymifu?kd owmonf? ]]ygvdav,suu rr\? 'H yeoGm;


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kd f
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jcif;iSm? vbaEm&vaomf? awae0 ed,marexdek nf;jzifyh if? ,m0ZD0H toufxufq;kH ? y#dZa*,sjyKpv
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"r#D ay;ap\/

176

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,ru

ewforD;wpfaxmifw\
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d ek af om?
0g-aumorND rKd Uaeukeaf om? bduL wdo
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0*f

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177

trsm;rS uif;qdwo
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awmfr
l ? aoemoeHtdy&f mae&mud?k 'gayoday;apawmfrNl y/D tan
ukeaf om? bduL wdo
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uke\
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0d+0dZd ykxbma0+w("mef#D-353)/

178

"ry'bmom#Dum

jzpfuek af om? rmwmydwel H rdbwd\


Yk ? Mo0g'HtqH;k trud?k okwmG Mum;
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"ry'bmom#Dum

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180

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"ry'bmom#Dum

183

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"ry'bmom#Dum

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Yk dk cgxkwzf suq
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Yd dk cgxkwzf suq
f ;D wwfaom Pf[al om taMumif;&Sad om
orm'geapwem? aomomedu+"kw* aomomedu"kw*-okomef ae
avh&adS om &[ef;\ udavomwku
Yd dk cgxkwzf suq
f ;D wwfaom Pf[al om
taMumif;&Sdaom orm'geapwem/

186

"ry'bmom#Dum

,ru

'DyH qDr;D ud?k ZmavwGmawmufap? 0gxGe;f


d ? ykw" w
D a&mom;
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Yk ?kd tm'g,ac:? *Em? {uraEwpfcak om t&yftzdYk ?
edv,
D rmemyke;f atmif;vsu?f rZrd ,mar? ax&Hud?k tm*pEH <u
vmonfu?kd 'domG -? *Em-? 0Ew
d mG -? ]]baE ta,smt&Sio
f nf?
ro Xmaet&yf? 0d[&wd aemaeygoavm}} wd-ok?Yd tm[ar;Ny/D ]]OygodauOygodumr tmrtdr;f ?}} wdodYk ajymNy/D ]]baE
&m; okomaeokomef? 0d[&aE[d emraeolwrYkd nfonf? 0wH 0wfu?kd
O*Pw
dS kH oif,jl cif;iSm? 0wdoif\
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onf? ]] r,Hwdo
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d mrusiu
hf ek t
f ehH nf;?}} wdod?Yk
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aeavh&adS om &[ef;wdrYk nfonf? okomae? 0oebma0gaeonf
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Ykd m;vnf;aumif;?
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aumif;? uaxwHk ajymjcif;iSm? 0wd\?}} wd (tm[)/ axa&m
onf? ]]u um&Pmtb,ftaMumif;aMumifeh nf;}} wd-ar;Ny/D
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dS ek af om? apm&mcd;k olwo
Ykd nf? 0g-wku
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"eomrdau[dOpm&Siw
f o
Ydk nf? y'gEky'Ha&SUajc&modYk tpOfvu
kd af om
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kd t
f yfuek o
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opf-2 35? 'D#D-2 5? 0drwd-1 102)/ (wpfenf;) ]]Ek}}[kwnf? aem Moudkacs?
avmy wMwmuma&m po'gjzihf xdak us&m O-vm(Amvm-35? ed'-D 27)/

0*f

"ry'bmom#Dum

187

ajy;uke\
f ? tx? rEkmwdo
Yk nf? aomomedumeHwdYk ? (wpfenf;)
aomomedumeH-wk\
Yd ? (Oy&d-?) y&dyEH ab;&efu?kd ua&mEd jyKwwf
ukef\? {awoHokomefapmifhpolwdkYtm;? uxdaw yeajym
xm;tyfaomfum;? ye-tzkdYwpfyg;um;}}[kvnf; ay;Ekdifonf? ]r,HwdYk
onf? r b'E
t&Si\
f ? {wuH emr rQtwdik ;f t&Snf
&So
d nfrnfaom? umvH-tcgywfv;kH ? {wokomef? 0oebm0H
aeonf\tjzpfu?kd Zmemrodyguke\
f ? {aomt&Sio
f nf? tapma&mcd;k olr[kw?f } wdod?Yk Oy'0H uyfESyd pf ufwwfaom ab;&ef
tE&m,fu?kd ed0ga&Ed umuG,w
f m;qD;ay;uke\
f / womxdak Mumif?h
{awoHokomefapmifph olwt
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umwAH jyKxu
kd yf gao;oenf;}} wdodaYk r;Ny/D ]]baE okomae
? 0oaEeaeaom? ta,se emrt&Sirf nfonf? rpro
H wdvyd|awv*kVm'Ded ig; tom; ESr;f rken
Yf uf qD xef;vsut
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tyfaom 0D&,
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aumif;aom tvdq
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oaAok tvH;k pHak omvlwo
Ykd nf? okawok tdyaf ysmu
f ek v
f aomf? 0d[m&awmausmif;rS? tm*EAH vmxdu
k \
f ? ypLoumavrd;k aomufcsed f ?
(rkd;vif;csdef)? oaAoktvHk;pHkaomvlwdkYonf? tEk|dawoka,0
rxukeaf o;rDom? 0d[m&Hod?Yk *EAH jyefxu
kd \
f / baE ta,smonf?
ro Xmaet&yf? {0Hod?Yk 0d[&aEmaeawmfrv
l su?f yAZw
d udpH &[ef;udpu
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oap ou
d wdtu,f pGr;f Edik t
f ?hH rwo&D&H olaoaumifu?kd 0gkyu
f vmyfu?kd tmaewGmaqmif? oap qaEd tu,f pGeu
Yf ek t
f ?hH

188

"ry'bmom#Dum

,ru

({0H owd)? t[Honf? urvul#m*g&H-urvmjzifh vTr;f NcKH tyfaom


txGw&f adS om wvm;od?Yk 0g-avmifwu
kd o
f ?Ykd tma&maywGmwufa&muf
ap? 0gwif? *Ermvm'D[d eHo
Y m yef;tp&So
d nfwjYkd zif?h oum&H
ylaZmfoum&ud?k uwGm? o&D&udpH uk,
d f jyKxu
dk af om udpu
?dk 0grD;oN*K[frIudk? uwAEd udpH? o&Da&+udpH o&D&udpH?-rtlyged-3 11/
u&dmrdjyKygtH/h (yAZw
d udp-H uk?d rwu-H ok?Yd ygaywk-H iSm?) aem ap
ou
d wdtu,frpGr;f Edik t
f ?hH ({0H owd)? pdwuHxif;yHo
k ?Ykd tma&maywGm? t* rD;ud?k ZmavwGmawmufap? 0gdUI ? ouFek m
wHp;l 0g;jzif?h (wkwcf Rejf zih)f ? tmudwmG qGcJ sw
d
f ? A[dtjyifbuf?
cdyw
d mG ypfcs? z&okemykqed jf zif?h aumawGmayguf? c@mc@duH
tydik ;f i,f tydik ;f Bu;D jzpfatmif? (tykid ;f ykid ;f jywfatmif)? qdEw
d mG jzwf?
t*rd dS rD;? yuyd w
d mG ypfxnf
h ? psmaymrdavmifaptH?h 0gdUI tH?h }}
wd tm[/ tx? eHxdu
k mvDu?kd axa&monf? ]]ba't&Sirf
om"kaumif;ygNy?D {uHwpfcak om? lyg&rPH lygku
H ?kd 'domG yejrif
um;? 0gjrifvQiu
f m;? r,SH tm;? uax,smodajymavm?}} wd
tm[/ omxdu
k mvDonf? ]]om"l}}wdaumif;ygNy[
D
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H wday;Ny/D axa&mr[mumVax&fonf?
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orP"rH &[ef;w&m;ud?k ua&mwdjyK\/ plVumVawa&m yeonf
um;? O|m,x? ork|m,aumif;pGmx? C&m0goHtdrf ae&jcif;
ud?k 0g-tdrf aejcif;iSm? pdaEwd MupH nfae\? ykw' g&Hom; orD; r,m;ud?k
tEk&wdtzefzeftrSw&f ae\/ ]]ar\? bmwdaumaemifawmf
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c@mc@du/H / r[aEm+ca@m tca@m? eo'g 0kdteufa[m?
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Bud,m0daooeteuf 'kwd,mouf/(om&w-2 122? yg&mbm-2 516)

0*f

"ry'bmom#Dum

189

wdod?Yk pdaEwd Bu\


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f ?kd tumodjyKNy/D wareHxdk
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l o
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190

"ry'bmom#Dum

,ru

tyfcgptcsed f ? r,SH tm;? tma&map,smodajymygavm?}} wd-ok?Yd


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0*f

"ry'bmom#Dum

191

OyZw
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192

"ry'bmom#Dum

,ru

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wxdpk Vl umV\? 0peHpum;ud?k tokPEad ,m 0d,rMum;ukef
ouJo
h ?Ykd ]]wGH oifonf? ubmud?k ua&maEmjyKvsu?f 0dp&odvSnhf
vnfaeoenf; w0oihzf ?Ykd 0g-twGu?f tmoemedwdu
Yk ?kd ynmaywHk
cif;jcif;iSm? e 0wd uroifo
h nfr[kwaf vm wGH onf? uHtb,f
olUud?k tmykpw
d mG yefajym? yAZad wm&Si&f [ef;jyKco
hJ enf; aue
tb,faMumih?f yAZad wm&Si&f [ef;jyKco
hJ nf? todjzpfoenf; uom

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193

tb,fah Mumif?h "tdro


f ?Ykd tm*awmvmonf? todenf;}}
wdod?Yk 0wGm? ed0goeygkyeHoif;ydik f ud,
k f u
kH ?kd tpEd w
d mG vk,l
? aowumedjzLaomt0wfwu
Ykd ?kd ed0gaowGm0wfap? oDao p
OK;acgif;vnf;? rmvmpkrK#uHyef;acGudk? 0g-yef;ukH;acgif;aygif;udk?
XaywGmxm;? (aygif;ay;)? ]]*poGm;avm? owm&HjrwfpmG bk&m;ud?k
tmae[dyifah qmifacsavm? r,Hwdo
Yk nf? tmoemedwdu
Yk ?kd ynmaymrcif;xm;uket
f ?hH }} wdodaYk jym? y[dPo
k apvTwu
f ek Nf y/D
pd&H Mumjrifph mG ? bduK bma0&[ef;tjzpf? e XwGmrwnfr
l ? t0daum00gr&Sad o;onfom? 0g-0gr&ao;onfom? ([kwmG )? OyAZ w
d wmvlxu
G cf o
hJ nf\ tjzpfaMumif?h vZw
d kH &Sujf cif;iSm? e Zmemwdrod?
womxdaYk Mumif?h aomxdpk Vl umVonf? awe tmuayexdv
k Ul toGif
jzif?h ed&moauFm0pd;k &GUH jcif;uif; &Jwif;onfom? ([kwmG ) ? *Em?
owm&Huk?d 0Ew
d mG ? Ak'y r ck H bk&m;trSL;&Sad om? bduK oC
H H &[ef;
taygif;ud?k tm'g,yifah qmif? tm*awmvmNy/D yetzkw
Yd pfyg;
um;? (plVumVjzpfyrHk w
S pfyg; r[mumVax&f\jzpfyu
Hk dk qkOd K;tH)h ? bduK oHC\? bwupd m 0omaeqGr;f bkO;f ay;jcif;udp\
tqH;k ? r[mumV\? b&d,ma,mr,m;wdo
Yk nf? ]]rm[dolrwdo
Yk nf?
twaemrdr\
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Yk ? omrduH ud?k *PS
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pdaEwmG ? yke'd0aoaemufwpfaeY? owm&Hud?k edrE,o
k yifu
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ye-qufOK;tH?h w'gxdt
k cg? tmoeynmyewH ae&mcif;jcif;tusK;d iSm?
tanm(r[mumVax&fr)S tjcm;aom? bduK onf? t*rmod<uoGm;
NyD/ ]]xkdokdYyihf&m r[mumVax&fukd,fwkdif <uygoavm}}[k ar;zG,f&Sd
]]tanm bduK t*rmod}}[k qk&d um; yeukd 0gusm&rteufay;onf/ ]]w'g
ye-xkdtcgum;}}[k tvG,fay;Ekdif\/

wmxdrk [mumVax&f\ r,m;wdo


Yk nf? wo caPxdck P?
MoumoHtcGiu
hf ?dk tvbdwmG r&rl? Ak'y r ck H aom? bduK oC
H H ud?k

194

"ry'bmom#Dum

,ru

edo'D gaywGmxdik af p? bduH qGr;f ud?k t'Hok uyfvLS ukeNf yD? yequfOK;
tH?h plVumV\? b&d,ma,mwdo
Yk nf? a'G2a,mufww
Ykd nf;? rZrd umV\? (b&d,ma,mwdo
Yk nf)? pwam4a,mufww
Ykd nf;?
r[mumV ye\um;? (b&d,ma,m)wdo
Yk nf? t|8a,mufwYkd
wnf;/ bwupd H qGr;f bkO;f ay;jcif;udpu
?kd umwkumrmjyKjcif;iSmtvd&k dS
ukeaf om? bduL yd&[ef;wdo
Yk nfvnf;? edo'D w
d mG xdik
f ? bwupd H ud?k
tuHok jyKuek Nf y?D A[dtjyifo?Ykd *E KumrmoGm;jcif;iSm tvd&k u
dS ek af om?
bduL ydwdo
Yk nfvnf;? O|m,x? t*rHok oGm;MuukeNf y/D owm ye
onfum;? edo'D w
d mG ? bwupd H ud?k u&djyKawmfrNl y/D wxdjk rwf
pGmbk&m;\? bwupd y &da,momae? wm wad ,mxdrk ed ;f rwdo
Yk nf?
]]baE r[mumaVmonf? trSmuHwdu
Yk ?dk 0g-tm;? tEkarm'eHtzefzef
0rf;ajrmufapjcif;ud?k 0g-0rf;ajrmufz,
G w
f &m;pum; a[mMum;jcif;ud?k
uwGmjyKNy;D ? tm*p
d wd<uvmygvdrrhf nf? wkarSt&Sib
f &k m;wdYk
onf? yk&awma&SU? 0ga&SUu? *px<uawmfryl guke?f }} wd? 0'ok
avQmufuek Nf y/D owmonf? ]]om"l}}wdaumif;Ny[
D ?k 0wGmrdeaYf wmfr
l ?
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a&mufvaomf? bduLwdkYonf? OZm,ok raumif;onfhoabmjzihf
awG;awmBupH nfuek Nf y?D 0g-uJ&h UJ ukeNf y?D (u)? ]]owm&monf? u emr
tb,frnfaom? {wHtrIu?kd uwHjyKawmfrt
l yfoenf; wGm
OZm,o/k / t0+aps+OH? t0ukd Mo\0dy&dwf OjyK? t|uxm #Dum
zGirfh sm;t& t0ukd t0rne(ta"mbm*)-txifao;jcif;teuf aps"mwf
Moavmue(Munfh jI cif;)teuf,
l ]]OZm,o-k atmufwef;pm;[k todtrSwf
jyK Munhf u
I ek Nf y}D }[kvnf;aumif; t0ukd vmruteufa[m aps"mwfudk
pdEe teufa[m,l ]]OZm,o-k t,kwo
f abm EIwjf zihrf ajymbJ awG;awm
MuHpnfukefNyD}}[kvnf;aumif; q&mwkdY ay;awmfrl\? ae&m r[mumV
ax&fwpfyg;wnf;csefxm;cJhjcif;ukd raumif;xifjcif;jzpf&um; aemufteufukd
,lay;vku
d o
f nf/ (0d.|-1 256? om&w-3 24? yg&mbm-2 521)

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195

odawmfr
l ? uwH Ek acgjyKawmfrt
l yfavoavm O'g[kodrYk [kw?f
tZmedwmG rodr
l ? (uwH Ek acgavm)? [da,smraeYu? plVumV
\? 0gonf? yk&awm? 0gu? *wwmoGm;onf\ tjzpfaMumif?h
yAZE & ma,m&[ef;tjzpf\ tE&m,fonf? ZmawmjzpfcNhJ y?D tZ
,aeY? tntjcm;&[ef;\? 0gonf? yk&awm? 0gu? *wwm
aMumif?h tE&ma,mtE&m,fonf? ema[modrjzpfcJh/ 'ged?
r[mumVHudk? XaywGmcsefxm;? tm*awm<uawmfrNl y?D bduK
onf? oDv0goDv&S\
d ? tmpm&oraEmtusiEhf iS hf jynfph \
kH ? w
xd&k [ef;\? yAZE & m,Hud?k u&dwd Ek acgjyKvrd rhf nfavm?}} wdok?Yd (OZm,o-k ukeNf y/D ) owmonf? awoHxd&k [ef;wd\
Yk ? 0peHud?k
okwmG ? ed0ww
d mG jyefvn
S
hf ? Xdawm&yfawmfrv
l su?f ]]bdua 0 u
tb,fpum;ud?k uaxxajymaeMuoenf;}} wd? ykpd Ny/D aw
xd&k [ef;wdo
Yk nf? wrwH xdt
k aMumif;ud?k tma&mapokH avQmufuek Nf y/D
]]bdua 0 wkarSwdo
Yk nf? plVumVH 0d,plVumvudu
k o
hJ ?Ykd r[mumVH
ud?k ovaux u yerSwx
f ifMuoavm}} wd-ar;awmfrNl y/D ]]baE
tmrrSeyf g? [drSe\
f ? wxdpk Vl umV\? yZmywda,mr,m;wdYk
onf? a'G2a,mufww
Ykd nf;? rr[mumV\? (yZmywda,m
wdo
Yk nf?) t|8a,mufwyYkd gwnf;/ baE&m; t|[d&Spaf ,mufaom
r,m;wdo
Yk nf? y&duyd w
d mG 0kid ;f ? *[dawmzrf;,ltyfonf? (ormaem
aomf?) u-ud?k u&dwdjyKEidk v
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owmonf? ]]bdua 0wdk {0Hod?Yk rm t0pkw rajymqdMk uESi?hf plVumaVmonf? O|m,x? ork|m,aumif;pGmx? okbm&rPA[kavmrsm;aom okb[laom tmk&H o
dS nf? 0g-tmHw
k u
Ykd kd wihw
f ,f
onf[k rsm;pGmIonf? ([kwmG )? 0d[&wdae\? yygawacsmufurf;yg;?
Xdawmwnfaom? 'kAv
kuo
'daomtm;r&Sad om opfyifEiS hf wl\/
r,SH \? ykawmom;jzpfaom? r[mumaVm yeonfum;? tokbmEkyDtokbudk tzefzefaI vh&o
dS nf? ([kwmG )? 0d[&wd\? Ce-

196

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,ru

aovyAawm 0d,wpfceJ ufaom ausmufawmifuo


hJ ?Ydk tpavm
vIy&f mS ;jcif;r&S?d }} wd-ok?Yd 0wGmNy;D ? owm-onf? rm *gxm-wku
Yd ?dk
tbmod-a[mawmfrNl y/D (u-enf;) ]]okbmEky ?ay? yAw}}Ed- [l?
(tbmod-Ny/D )
okbmEky 0d[&EH NEad ,ok toH0w
k ?H
abmZerSd pmrwHk ukow
D H [De0D&,
d ?H
wH a0 yo[wd rma&m 0gawm ku0H 'kAv
/H
okbmEky-wifw
h ,faom tmku
H dk tzefzef Ionfjzpf?
0d[&E-H aexaom? NEad ,ok-puKpom; ajcmufyg;aom aNEw
Ydk ?
k -H apmifph nf;jcif;rSx
d aom? 0g-rapmifph nf;xaom?
0g-wku
Yd ?dk toH0w
abmZerd-S abmZOf? 0g-abmZOfurdk w
S f t&yf&yfaomypn;f ? trwHk
p-SmrS;D cH,l ok;H aqmifjcif;[laom twkid ;f tSnu
f v
dk nf; rodxaom?
0g-qifjcifay;pGejYf cif;[laom twkid ;f tSnu
f v
dk nf; rodxaom? 0g"ru
d abmZOf t"ru
d abmZOf[al om twkid ;f tSnu
f v
dk nf; rodx
aom? ukow
D -H pufqyk t
f yfpmG t&m&m qkwef pfxaom? (wpfenf;)
ukow
D -H ysi;f &donft
h wGuf qJa&;tyfxaom? [De0D&,
d -H ,kwaf vsmh
aom 0D&,
d Sx
d aom? 0g-0D&,
d rdx
S aom? wH-xkyd *k Kd vu
f ?kd a0-pifppf?
rma&m-udavomrm&fonf? yo[wd-vTr;f rk;d Ekid \
f ? (udr0d -enf;) 0gawm-tm;Bu;D aomavonf? 'kAv
-H tm;rSad om? ku-H urf;em;opfyif
uk?d yo[wd 0-vTr;f rk;kd Ekid o
f uJo
h w
Ydk nf;/
tokbmEky 0d[&EH NEad ,ok oko0H w
k ?H
abmZerSd p rwHk o'H tm&'0&D ,
d ?H
wH a0 eyo[wd rma&m 0gawm aovH0 yAw/H
tokbmEky-tokbq,fyg; wpfyg;yg;ukd Ionfjzpf? 0gwpyu 0PoPme ckEpS 0f ukd tokbtm;jzifh Ionfjzpf? 0d[&E-H
aom? NEad ,ok-wdYk ? oko0H w
k -H aumif;pGm apmifph nf;tyfaom 'Gg&

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197

Sx
d aom? 0g-aumif;pGmapmifph nf;xaom? abmZerS-d ? rwHk p-Sm
rS;D cH,o
l ;Hk aqmifjcif;[laom twkid ;f tSnu
f v
dk nf; odxaom? 0g-qif
jcifay;pGejYf cif;[laom twkid ;f tSnu
f v
dk nf; odxaom? 0g-"ru
d abm
ZOf t"ru
d abmZOf[al om twkid ;f tSnu
f v
dk nf; odxaom? o'-H
uHu\
H tusKd ;udk ,kMH unfaom avmuDo'g &wem3yg;\ *kPaf wmf
wku
Yd dk ,kMH unfaom avmukw& mo'gSx
d aom? tm&'0&D ,
d -H tm;xkwf
tyfaom 0D&,
d Sx
d aom? wH-xkyd *k Kd vu
f ?dk a0-pifppf? rma&m-onf? eyo[wd-rvTr;f rk;d Ekid ?f (udr0d - enf;) 0gawm-tm;rSad omavonf?
0g-avjynfavnif;onf? aovH-ausmuftwdNy;D aom? yAw-H awmif
uk?d eyo[wd 0- rvTr;f rk;d Ekid o
f uJo
h w
Ydk nf;/
ww-xk*d gxmwkYd ? okbmEky 0d[& E Ed y'-okbmEky
h ,faom tmHu
k ?dk
0d[& E[
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f ? wd tawm pyf? okb-H wifw
tEkyEH- tzefzef Iwwfonf jzpf?0d[& EH Bud,m0daooepyf?
|m&raP-|mHk ? rmeoH-pdwu
f ?dk 0daZwmG -vTw
f ? 0d[& E-H
aeaom? wHpyf? wd tawm-um;teuf/ [d-csUJ OK;tH?h a,m
yk*a vm-tMuify*k Kd vo
f nf? edrw
d * g [H-taygif;jzpfaom uk,
d o
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edrw
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aMumif;[dwf taygif;jzpfaom uk,
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d u
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f pdwu
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odaMumif;yHkoPmef? ed+rd'(ar"-vsifpGm odjcif;teuf)+w? (wpfenf;) edrdemwd omemwd {awemwd edrdwH-odrSwfaMumif;jzpfaom yHkoPmef? ed+
rd+w? edrdw+*ga[m edrdw*ga[m-ukd,foPmefedrdwfukd ,ljcif;=avmb
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wDwd tEkAse -H tzefzefuad vomwku
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0d+t (tK)=Aswd-xif&Sm;jcif;teufa[m+um&dwfaus+,k? tEkAse

198

"ry'bmom#Dum

,ru

pum;ajymESihf &,farmMunh[
f ef zefzefuad v xif&mS ;ap&dyf tEkpyd f
,ljcif;ukd?) *PSaEm-,lvaomf? ecg-vufonf; ajconf;wkdYonf?
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h ,fygayuke\
f ? 0g-vSygayuke\
f ? wd-ok?Yd *PSmwd,l\? t*Fv
k ad ,m-vufacsmif;wko
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Yd nf? aombem wd *PSmwd? OK-l aygifwo
Ydk nf? aombem
wd *PSmwd? u#d-cg;onf? aombem wd *PSmwd? O'&H-&ifonf?
aombeH-\? wd *PSmwd? xem-om;jrwfwo
Ydk nf? aombem wd
*PSmwd? *D0g-vnfyif;onf? aombem-\? wd *PSmwd? Mo|mEIwcf rf;wko
Yd nf? aombem wd *PSmwd? 'Em- oGm;wko
Yd nf? aombem
wd *PSmwd? rkc-H rsuEf mS onf? aombeH wd *PSmwd? emomESmacgif;onf? aombem wd *PSmwd? tuDed-rsufvHk;wkdYonf?
aombem wd *PSmwd? uPm-em;&Guw
f o
Ydk nf? aombem wd
*PSmwd? brkum-rsucf ;kH wko
Yd nf? aombem wd *PSmwd? evm#Hezl;onf? aombeH wd *PSmwd? auom-qHyifwo
Ydk nf? aombem
wd *PSmwd? auom-qHyifwo
Ydk nfvnf;aumif;? avmrm-tarG;wkYd
onfvnf;aumif;? ecg-wko
Yd nfvnf;aumif;? 'Em-wko
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f ? wd *PSmwd?
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okabm-wifw
h ,f\? oPmeH-yHo
k Pmefonf? okb-H \? wd *PSmwd?
t,H-yk*Kd vo
f nf? okbmEkyD emr-okbukd tzefzef Iwwfol
rnf\/ {0H-ok?Yd 0g-qkt
d yfNy;D aom tjym;tm;jzih?f okbmEkyokbukd tzefzefIwwfonf jzpf? 0d[& EH-aeaom? wH (yk*vH)-xkd
p&Sd
yk*Kd vu
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ukeaf om? qok- 6 yg;ukeaf om? `Ead ,ok-a`Ew
Ydk ? toH0w
k Ed- um;?
puK'gG &m'De-d puK'gG &tp&Sad om 'Gg&wku
Yd ?dk t&uE-H rapmifah &Smufaom?
+*ga[m tEkkAse*ga[m/

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y&da,oerwm-&SmrS;D jcif; twkid ;f t&Snv


f nf;aumif;? y#d*[
PrwmcH,jl cif; twkid ;f t&Snv
f nf;aumif;? y&dabm*rwm-oH;k pJjG cif; twkid ;f
t&Snv
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ukd? tZmeeawm-rodjcif;aMumifh? abmZerSd-abmZOf? 0g-abmZOf
ukrd w
S f t&yf&yfaom ypn;f ? trwHk p-&SmrS;D cH,l oH;k aqmifjcif;
[laom twkdif;t&Snfukd rodolvnf; jzpfxaom/ wH bduHK pyf/
tyd p-onfomruao;? ypa0uPrwm-qifjcifjcif;\twkid ;f t&Snf
y&da,oerwm/ / 0denf;awmfEiS fh avsmn
f pD mG ukv'loe taeoe
rdpm ZD0rjzpfatmif &Smjcif;onf y&da,oerwmrnf\/ y&da,oae+rwm
y&da,oerwm/
y#d*[
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4yg;ukd tvSLcHaumif;yg\? okdYaomf (1) 'g,umonf rsm;pGm vSL'gef;Ekdif
aomfvnf; o'gw&m;u enf;enf; vSLvk\
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h enf;enf; tvSLcH
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o'gw&m;vnf;aumif; jzpfapumrl rdrdtoHk;vkdoavmufom tvSLcHjcif;
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P
rwmwnf;/ (tH.|-1 58? oH.|-3 68)
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qifjcifjcif;onf y&dabm*rwmrnf\? xkt
d usKd ;onf yd@ygwypa0uPm
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jcif;onf oHk;aqmifjcif;\yif tusdK;\tjzpfaMumifh y&dabm*yrmP rnf
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hf m;\/
ypa0uPrwm/ / ]]abmZOfudk oH;k aqmif&m ypa0uPmqifjcif
oH;k aqmifjcif;onfyif ypa0uPrwm rnf\}}[k qkv
d [
dk efwo
l nf? y&dabm*

200

"ry'bmom#Dum

,ru

vnf;aumif;? 0dZerwm-pGeMYf uaJ y;urf; vSL'gef;jcif; twdik ;f t&Snf


vnf;aumif;? wd-ok?Yd rdmyd rwm,-twkid ;f t&Snu
f v
dk nf;?
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f dk rodxaom?
'H abmZeH-abmZOfonf? "rdu
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wnf;? 'H (abmZeH)-onf? t"rdu
-H w&m;ojzihf &tyfaomabmZOf
r[kw?f wdy-d okv
Yd nf;? tZmeEH- rodxaom/ umrpEA smyg'0d[-
om0dwu0odwm,-umrpE[
al om umr0dwuf Asmyg'0dwuf 0d[
om0dwufw\
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al om umr
0dwuf Asmyg'0dwuf 0d[o
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d Ydk vku
d o
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aMumif?h ukow
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wnf;}}[k cJGyg/
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hf efaomqGr;f ukd ax&tm;
vSLjcif; rZdryk*dKvfESihf wefaomqGrf;ukd rZdryk*dKvftm; vSLjcif; e0 (oDwif;
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d [
dk ef wlonf? rwm2rsKd ;twGuf tzGiu
hf dk &Sm rawGUao;yg/
jytyfNy;D aom rwmwku
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l dk ]]trwnL}}[k ac:\/
ukow
D H/ / rdpm0dwuA[kvwm, umrAsmyg'0d[om0dwuocFgaw[d ukpad w[d ygy"ar[d odawm oraEm ,kawmwd ukoaD wm-puf
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w&m;wkdYESihf pyf,SOfol? uk+odw? ukpdwH 0g oD'wd ormy#dywdawm t0oD'wDwd ukoaD wm-pufqyk zf ,
G jf zpfatmif aumif;pGmusit
hf yf tusif h j rwf r S
qkwef pfo?l uk+o'+t? o'ukd oD'jyK 'ukd w-jyK?-wd.|-101/
y#doH.|-22/ / [De0D&,
d wm ukpad we tmuma&e oD'wDwd ukoaD 'g?
ukoDa'g {0 ukoDawm-pufqkyfzG,ftjcif;t&mjzihf qkyfepfol/

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201

r&Sad om? pwlo-k 4yg;ukeaf om? &d,myaxok-&d,mykxw


f Ydk ? 0D&,
d H pyf? yo[wDw-d
u&P&[dw-H 0D&,
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um;? tbdb0wd-vTr;f rk;d \? taZmw&wd-vTr;f rk;d \? 0gawm ku0H
'kAv
Ed- um;? Av00gawm-tm;&Sad omavonf? 0g-tm;Bu;D aom av
onf? 'kAv
-H tm;r&Sad om? 0g-tm;enf;aom? qdEy y gaw-jywfaom
urf;yg;? 0g-urf;yg;jywf? ZmwH-aygufaom? 'kAv
-H tm;r&Sad om? 0gtm;enf;aom? ku-H opfyifu?dk (yo[wd) 0d,-vTr;f rk;d ouJo
h /Ydk [d-csUJ
OK;tH?h aom 0gawm-xkt
d m;Bu;D aomavonf? w 'kAv
ku
xkt
d m;r&Sad om opfyif\? ykyz vyv0g'Deyd -d tyGihf toD; tGet
Yf p
&So
d nfwu
Ydk v
dk nf;? ygawwd ,xm-usapouJo
h /Ydk ck'u
omcg-i,faom
opfcufwu
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dk nf;? 0g-opfuidk ;f i,fwu
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ok?Yd r[momcgyd-Bu;D aomopfcufwu
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bwd ,xm-ok?Yd orlv-H tjrpfEiS w
hf uG? 0g-tjrpfEiS w
hf uGjzpfaom? a&SU
enf; Oyma#wGm Bu,
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S nf;? Oyma#wGm-txuf
aooepyf?-|jyK/ wH kuyH -d xko

okYd wufap? 0g-Ekw


f ? O'Hr v
l -H txuf tjrpf&o
dS nfuv
dk nf;aumif;?
ta"momcH-atmuf tcuf&o
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,xm-oGm;ouJo
h /Ydk {0ar0-UtwlomvQi?f {0ly-H oko
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aom? yk*v
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eDwd"mwk-96/ / 0D&ad ,em"d*EA
tw tvmbawm ukpad wemuma&e oD'wDwd ukoaD wm? tx 0g o,rd ukpdawemuma&e oD'wd
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arm*f-7 84/ / uko,
D wd taumoD,wDwd ukoaD wm-0D&,
d enf; ojzihf
qJa&;tyfo?l uko+w? vm/

202

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,ru

aom avonf? 'kAv


ku
-tm;r&Sad om opfyif\? ykyz vyv0g'dygweH-tyGihf toD; tGeYf tp&So
d nfwu
Ydk dk usapjcif;uk?d (ua&mwd)
0d,-jyKouJo
h ?Ydk ({0H-wl?) ck'g Ekc'k u
mywdt
myZeyH -d i,fuek f xkaYd tmuf
i,fuek af om tmywfwo
Ydk Ydk a&mufjcif;ukv
d nf;? ua&mwd-jyK\/ ck'u
omcgbe-H i,faomtcufwu
Ydk dk csKd ;jcif;uk?d (ua&mwd) 0d,-uJo
h ?Ydk ({0H)
ed*,
d m'dtmywdt
myZerd- ed*d,
ygpdwt
f p&Sad om tmywfwo
Ydk Ykd
a&mufjcif;ukv
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wku
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myZerd- 13yg;aom oHCm'daooftmywfwo
Ydk Ydk a&mufjcif;ukd
vnf;? ua&mwd-\? Oyma#wGm-txufoYdk wufap? 0g-Ekw
f ? O'H-
rlvuH-txuf tjrpf&o
dS nfuv
dk nf;aumif;? a[|momcH-atmuf
tudik ;f tcuf&o
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(ua&mwd) 0d,-ok?Yd ({0H) yg&mZdumywdt
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a&mufjcif;ukv
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*d[b
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tyfNy;D onft
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-H yk*Kdvu
f ?dk udavorma&m-udav
orm&fonf? twaem-rdr\
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d f
ap\? wd t,H-onfum;? tawm-teufwnf;/
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okbtmHw
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uma&-pufqyk zf ,
G u
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wku
Yd ?dk tokbawm-rwifw
h ,fuek o
f nf\tjzpftm;jzih?f yEH- Ix
aom? avmar-arG;nif;wku
Yd ?dk tokbawm yEH? eac-ajconf; vuf
tokbawm yEH / / 2yk'fukd tm'dtE'Dyuenf; rd*y'0venf;

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203

onf;wku
Yd ?dk tokbawm yEH? 'aE-oGm;wku
Yd ?dk tokbawm yEH?
wpH-ta&uk?d tokbawm yEH? 0PH- qHtp&So
d nfw\
Ydk tqif;uk?d
tokbawm yEH-aom? oPmeH-qHtp&SdonfwkdY\ yHkoPmefukd?
tokbawm yEH- aom/ `Ead ,olw-d um;? qok-puKpom; 6yg;
ukeaf om? `Ead ,ok-a`Ew
Ydk / oko0H w
k Ed- um;? edrw
d m 'd*g [&[dw-H
taygif;jzpfaom yHo
k Pmeferd w
d f tp&So
d nfudk ,ljcif;rS uif;aom?
yd[w
d 'Gg&H-ydwt
f yfaom puKpaom 'Gg& 6 yg; wHcg; 6 ayguf&x
dS aom?
0g-'Gg& 6 yg; wHcg;6 aygufudk ydwx
f aom? trww
k my#dauayetwkid ;f t&Snrf odo\
l tjzpfudk y,fjcif;tm;jzih?f abmZerS-d abmZOf?
0g-abmZOfurdk w
S f t&yf&yfaom ypn;f ? rwHk p-twkid ;f t&Snu
f dk
odov
l nf;jzpfxaom/ o'E-d um;? ur ap0-uHuv
dk nf;aumif;?
zvp-uH\tusKd ;ukv
d nf;aumif;? o'[evuPm,-,HMk unfjcif;
trSwt
f om;&Sad om? avmudum,-avmu xif&mS ;aom? o'g,
ap0-ESiv
fh nf;aumif;? wDo-k bk&m; w&m; t&d,moHCmtm;jzihf 3yg;
ukeaf om? 0wLok-0wKwYdk ? 0g-wnf&mtmHw
k Ydk ? ta0pyom'ocFgwm,-Pfjzifh ouf0if Munfjdk cif;[k qkt
d yfaom? avmukw& o'g, p-avmukw& o'gESiv
fh nf;aumif;? orEm*wH-jynfph x
kH aom/
tm&'0&D ,
d Ed- um;? y*[w
d 0D&,
d -H cs;D ajrm uftyfaom 0D&,
d &Sad om?
y&dyP
k 0 &D ,
d -H jynfph akH om 0D&,
d &Sad om? wH a0wd-um;? {0ly-H okYd
oabm&Sad om? wH yk*v
-H xkyd *k Kd vu
f ?dk 'kAv
0gawm-tm;r&Sad om av
onf? oPdu-H jznf;jznf;? y[&aEm-wku
d cf wfvaomf? {u*e-H wpfcJ
eufaom? aovH-ausmuftwdNy;D aom? (yAw-H awmifu?dk ) pmavwH-k
vIy&f mS ;apjcif;iSm? e oaumwd ,xm-rpGr;f Ekid o
f uJo
h ?Ydk wxm-xkt
Yd wl?
tA Ea&-uk,
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f iG ;f ? OyZr maemyd-jzpfygaomfvnf;? 0g-jzpfonfvnf;
t& ]]auao tokbawm yEH}}[k tp jyxm;ojzihfvnf;aumif;
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f nf;aumif; ]]avmar}}
paom tv,fy'k w
f Ydk ]]tokbawm yEH} }[k vku
d
f ay;&onf/

204

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jzpfaom? 'kAvudavorma&m-tm;r&Sdaom udavorm&fonf?


eyo[wd-rvTr;f rk;d Ekid ?f acgabwHk 0g-acsmufcsm;apjcif;iSmvnf;aumif;?
pmavwH0k g-vIy&f mS ;apjcif;iSmvnf;aumif;? e oaumwd-rpGr;f Ekid ?f wd
tawm-um; teuf/
w-xkrd [mumVax&f\? wmyd yk&mP'kw,
d u
d ma,m-xkad &S;
jzpfaom 2a,mufajrmuftazmfrwko
Yd nfvnf;? 0g-ZeD;a[mif;wko
Yd nf
vnf;? yk&m+b0g yk&mPm? 'kw,
d m {0 'kw,
d u
d m? yk&mPm p+om+ 'kw-d
,dum pmwd yk&mP'kwd,dum?-yg&mbm-2 228/ ax&H-r[mumV
ax&fu?dk y&d0ga&wGm-0kid ;f &H? ]] wGH onf? uHud?k tmykpw
d mG yefajym?
yAZad wm&Si&f [ef;jyKco
hJ enf; 'ged-,cktcg? *d[-D vl0wfaMumif
onf? b0dod-jzpfrnfavm e b0dod-rjzpfrnfavm wdtm'De-d okt
Yd p&Sad om pum;wku
Yd ?dk 0wGm-ajym? umom0H-zef&nfq;dk
ouFe;f uk?d eD[&dwu
k mrm-z,f&mS ;jcif;iSm tvk&d u
dS ek o
f nf? ta[ok-H
jzpfuek Nf y?D axa&m-r[mumVax&fonf? wmoH-xkZd eD;a[mif;wk\
Yd ?
tmum&H-tjcif;t&muk?d ovauwmG -aumif;pGm rSwo
f m;? 0g-Munhf
I? tmoem-ae&mrS? 0k|m,-x? 'd,
m-wefc;kd jzih?f Oyww
d mG -ysH
wuf? ul#m*g&uPdu
-H pkvpfreG ;f cRef txGw&f adS omtdr\
f txGwf
uk?d 'd"G m-2jzm? bdEw
d mG -cJ
G ? tmumaoe-aumif;uifjzih?f tm*Em-<u
vm? ow&-d jrwfpmG bk&m;onf? *gxm-*gxmwku
Yd ?dk y&da,momayaEa,0-Ny;D qk;H apawmfral omfom? 0g-rlpOfyif? owK-jrwfpmG bk&m;\? ok0P0P-H a&T\tqif;ESiw
fh al om tqif;&Sad wmfral om? o&D&-H uk,
d f
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Ydk ?dk 0Ed- OK;cku
d f
&Scd ;dk Ny/D
*gxmy&da,momae-? orwbduL-a&mufvmaom &[ef;wkdY
onf? aomwmywdzvm'Dok-aomwmywdzkdvf tp&SdaomzkdvfwkdY?
ywd|[o-k wnfuek Nf y?D wd-r[mumVaw&0wK tNy;D wnf;/
r[mumVaw&0wKbmom#Dum Ny;D \/

7- a'0'w0wKbmom#Dum
teduo
ma0gwdtp&Sad om? rH "ra'oeH owm aZw0ae?
0d[&aEm-pOf? &mZ*a[&mZN*Kd [Nf rKd U? a'0'w\? umom0vmbHzef&nfjzifh qk;d tyfaomt0wfukd &jcif;ud?k tm&A uaxod/
[dcsUJ OK;tH?h {uo wpfcak om? ora,tcg? a'G2yg;ukeaf om?
t*om0umt*om0uwdo
Yk nf? (tjrwfq;kH wynfw
h o
Ykd nf?) yoaw
yoawig;&mig;&mukeaf om? twaem twaemrdr\
d rdr\
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ta>ct&Hwu
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d mG yefavQmuf?
0Ew
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k rf ?S &mZ*[H&mZN*Kd [Nf rKd U
ok?Yd t*rHok <uukeNf y/D &mZ*[0godaem&mZN*Kd [Nf rKd U aeolwo
Ykd nf?
(&mZN*Kd [Nf rKd Uol NrKd Uom;wko
Yd nf)? a'Gyd 2a,mufwo
Ykd nfvnf;aumif;?
wa,myd3a,mufwo
Ykd nfvnf;aumif;? A[lyd rsm;pGmaom vlwo
Ykd nf
vnf;aumif;? {uawmwpfaygif;wnf;? [kwmG ? tm*E Ku'geH{nfo
h nf
&[ef;awmfwt
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{u'd0oHwpfaeY? tm,om om&dyak wmt&Sio
f m&dyMk wmonf? tEkarm'eHtzefzef 0rf;ajrmufaMumif;pum;ud?k 0g-0rf;ajrmufz,
G w
f &m;
pum;ud?k ua&maEmjyKawmfrv
l aomf? ]]OygoumumwdYk {aumwpf
a,mufaomolonf? o,Hud,
k w
f ikd ?f 'geHtvSLud?k a'wday;vSL\?
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(rwdu
k w
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l nf? edAw
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&\? y&d0g&or'H ta>c&Hw\
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aem (vbwd)r&/ {aumonf? o,Hud,
k w
f ikd ?f e a'wdray;vSL?
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onf? edAw
e Ad w
| mae? y&d0g&or'H ud?k vbwd\? abm*or'H

206

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,ru

ud?k aem (vbwd)r&/ {aumonf? o,rd uk,


d w
f ikd v
f nf;? e a'wd
ray;vSL? y&rd udv
k nf;? e orm'aywd-ap? aomonf? edAw
e Ad w
-
|mae-? uu
d rwrd ytH;k &nfrQuakd omfvnf;? 0g-qefyek ;f &nfrQuakd omf
vnf;? ukpyd &k H Adu
k jf ynfah tmif? e vbwdr&? temaxmtm;ud;k p&m
r&So
d nf? edyp a ,mtaxmuftyHrh &So
d nf? a[mwd/ {aumonf?
o,rd vnf;? a'wd\? y&rd udv
k nf;? orm'aywdap\? aomonf?
edAw
e Ad w
| mae-? twbm0oawydtwabmt&maomfvnf;
aumif;? 0g&maygif;rsm;pGmaom b0aomfvnf;aumif;? twbm0o[aydtwabmtaxmifaomfvnf;aumif;? 0gaxmifaygif;
rsm;pGmaom b0aomfvnf;aumif;? twbm0owo[aydtw
abmtode;f aomfvnf;aumif;? 0gode;f aygif;rsm;pGmaom b0aomf
vnf;aumif;? abm*or'H ap0udv
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k nf;
aumif;? vbwd\?}} wd {0Hod?Yk "rH w&m;ud?k a'aooda[mawmf
rlNy/D
{aumwpfa,mufaom? y@dwyk&ad omynm&Sad om a,musmf ;
onf? wH "rH xdw
k &m;ud?k okwmG Mum;em&? ]]"ra'oemw&m;a'o
k yf gay
emawmfonf? tp&,
d m 0w abmvufazsmufcwfw;D tHch s;D xdu
pGwum;? (tHMh op&maumif;vdu
k w
f maemf)? "ra'oemonf? tAKwm
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k w
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l yfNy?D r,m
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Yk ?kd edym 'uHabm/ / ]]abm}}onf wpfpw
Hk pfa,mufudk ac:aom yk*v
mvyer[kw?f
tHMh oxl;qef;aom oabmukd azmfjyaom "rmvyewnf;? eDwo
d w
k e -d 1 239
"rmvyeukd ]]abm-tk.d ..oabm tp&,
d m 0w-vufazsmufcwfw;D tHch s;D
xdkufygaypGwum;}}[k ay;\/ (eDwdokw-100? eDwdy'-228? yg&mbm-1
391? ygpdwfbm-1 353)

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207

Ny;D apwwfaom? urH aumif;rIu?kd umwHk jyKjcif;iSm? 0wdoif\


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ar;Ny/D {uaptcsKUd aomvlwo


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&jcif;iSm? 0wdoih\
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212

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Yd ?dk emodwm

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wkt
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xkq
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f o
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qifowfrq
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qk;d tyfaom? 0w-H t0wfu?kd y&d'[dwd-0wfo


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r&Sdol r[kwf zef&nf &Sdol-[lvkd/ (|-jyK)

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215

y&d'[dwDw-d um;? ed0goeygkyetw&P0aoe-0wfjcif; Hjk cif;


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0ifaom)? y&rwop+yaum y&rwopyaum? y&rwopyau+b0H
y&rwopyuu
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Yf w
T t
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ypKyef0wfaeolyifjzpfjcif;ESihf ]]ed0gaowd ap0 ygkywd p(Zm.|-2 182)?
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y&dbkdwd(ax&.|-2 366)}}[laom tzGihftvkdum; tem*wfteuf
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dk m &\(|jyK)? Zm|-2 182um; ]]uwm;teuf tyg'gefteuf}}[k qkd\? uwm;
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l ]]'roape-ESi?fh tayawm-uif;jzpfaom? (ty-uif;+
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216

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pwl[-d 4yg;ukeaf om? ra*[-d r*fwjYdk zih?f 0Euoma0g-axG;teftyf


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217

orm[dawm-xm;tyfaompdw&f adS om? ok|ad wm-aumif;pGmwnfaom?


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218

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igwk\
Yd ? owmjrwfpmG bk&m;onf? awmurmrS? uyowo[m"dumeHurmwpfoed ;f tvGe&f u
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l omvQi?f ]]{o ({aom)

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219

akF &mbk&m;tavmif;wnf;? tem*awaemiftcg?


&aohonf? Ak'u
uyowo[m"dumeHurmwpfoed ;f tvGe&f u
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l yfNy?D 0gAsm'dwaf y;awmfrt
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od?Yk Asmuawm rdeMYf um;awmfrt
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vnf;aumif;? okraemokrebk&m;vnf;aumif;? a&0awma&0w
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Ak'uFka&m/ /Ak'uFka&mwd okwmEkAk'yapuAk'ocFgwmeH wdPH Ak'geH
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Mum;awmfrltyfNyD}}[kvnf; ay;Muao;\(r[mAk-1 CH)/

220

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arord Ak'g eHbk&m;&Siw


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tnDtrQo;Hk q,faom? 0g-oH;k q,fww
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yg&rDawmfwu
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221

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ay;Mu\/ (NrdKUeD*Hopf-402)

222

"ry'bmom#Dum

,ru

Munfhjcif;wdkYudk? 0g-Munfhjcif;BuD;wdkYudk? 0davmauwGmMunfhINyD;?


wawmxdw
k o
k w
d mewfjynfr?S pkawmpkawonf? (ormaemaomf?)
ous&mZukavomuD0ifrif;rsK;d ? y#doE y#doaEu?kd *a[wGm,l
awmfr
l ? 'ormopa,eq,fvvGe&f mtcg? rmwkupk ad wmr,f
awmf\ 0rf;rS? 0dZm,dzGm;awmfrlNyD/ aomVo0umav16ESpf
&S&d mtcg? wwxdo
k muD0ifrif;rsK;d ? r[morw,
d mBu;D pGmaom pnf;
pdrjf zif?h y&d[&d,rmaemtNro
J ;Hk aqmifcpH m;aptyfonf? 0g-Bu;D yGm;ap
tyf arG;jrLapmihaf &Smuftyfonf? ([kwmG )? tEkua retpOftm;jzif?h
bj'a,mAeH aumif;aom t&G,\
f tjzpfo?Ykd 0g-aumif;aom 16ESpf
t&G,o
f ?Ydk ywGma&muf? 0g-aomf? wdPH 3rsKd ;ukeaf om? OwleH Owk
wdt
Yk m;? tEkp0 ad uokavsmufywfuek af om? wDok 3aqmifuek af om?
ygoma'okjymom'fwYkd ? a'0avmuod& 0d,ewfjynf\ toa&udk
uJo
h ?Ykd &Zo&d rif;tjzpf\ toa&ud?k tEkb0aEmcHpm;pOf? O,smeuDVm,O,smOf upm;jcif;iSm? *reora,oGm;&mtcg? tEkua re
tpOftm;jzif?h ZdPA sm"drwocFgawoltkd olem olao[k qkt
d yf
ukeaf om? wa,m3a,mufuek af om? a'0'lawewfwrefwu
Ykd ?kd 'domG
jrif&? omwoHa0a*gvGepf mG jzpfaom xdwv
f efjY cif;&So
d nf?0g-vGepf mG
jzpfaom xdwv
f efaY Mumif;oa[mwy
Pf&o
dS nf? ([kwmG )? ed0ww
d mG
jyefvn
S
hf ? pwkw0 ga&pwkwt
Burd f ? yAZw
d H &aoh&[ef;ud?k 'domG
? ]]yAZm &aoh&[ef;tjzpfonf? om"kaumif;\?}} wdod?Yk yAZm ,
&aoh&[ef;tjzpf? kp tvdq
k Eu?kd Oyma'wGmjzpfapNy;D ? O,smeH
O,smOfodkY? *Em? wwxdkO,smOf? 'd0oHaeYtcsdefudk? acaywGm
y&d[&d,rmaem/ / y&d+[&+,+rme? um&dwaf us? y&da&S;&Sad om [&
"mwfonf edpa bm*(tNro
J ;Hk aqmifjcif;)teufudk a[monf(0do'k #d -D 1 93?
"mwGw)/ ]]y&d[&Ed aygaoEd. ..aygoeaw 0eH(BuD;yGm;apjcif;)? b&PH
(arG;jrLjcif;) 0g(oD#Dopf-115)? y&d[&d,rmaemwd &ud,rmaem(eDa,m)}}
[laom tzGiu
hf dk Munf
h aemufenf;ay;onf/

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ukeaf pNy;D ? r*Fvaygu&PDwaD &r*Fvma&uef\ urf;pyf? edoad Em


xdik af eonf? (ormaemjzpfpOf?) uyua0oHqwmonf\toGiu
f ?kd
*a[wGm,l? tm*awevmaom? 0duare0doMuKH rnfaom?
a'0ykaweewfom;onf? tvuFwy#d,awmwefqmqifjcif;jzihf jyif
qifjc,fotyfonf? (tvSjyiftyfonf)? ([kwmG )? &m[kvukrm&
&m[kvmowdo
Yk m;\? ZmwomoeHzGm;jrif\[laom owif;pum;uk?d
0g-zGm;jrifaMumif; owif;pum;ud?k okwmG Mum;&? ykwo
ad e[
om;jzpfaom cspjf cif;\? Av0bm0Htm;&So
d nf\tjzpfu?kd (tm;Bu;D
aMumif;uk)d ? wGm? ]],m0tMuifrQavmuf? 'H AEeH taESmif
tzGUJ onf? e 0wdrwd;k yGm;ao;? wm0a'0xdrk wd;k yGm;ao;rDomvQi?f
eHxdt
k aESmiftzGUJ ud?k qdE
d mrdjzwft?hH }} wd pdaEwmG ? om,Hnae
csr;f tcg? e*&HNrKd Uod?Yk y0doaEm0ifvaomf?
edAK wm Ele om rmwm edAK awm Ele aom ydwm?
edAK wm Ele om em&D ,m,H 'daom ywd/
(,m rmwk,mtMuifrcd if\? 'daomarmifawmfuo
hJ Ydk
Ityfaom? t,H ykawmom;aumif;&wemonf? twd &S\
d ?) om
rmwmxko
d m;aumif; rdcifonf? edAK wm Eleaomucyford ;f ylrvdr;f
ojzifh at;Nird ;f ayvdrw
hf um;? (, ydwak emtMuifzcif\? 'daomaom? t,H ykawmonf? twd \?) aom ydwmxko
d m;aumif;
zcifonf? edAK awm Elewum;? (,m em&d,mtMuiftrsK;d orD;\?
'daomaom? t,H ywdMuifbufvifonf? twd \?) om em&D
xkt
d rsK;d orD;onf? edAK wm Elewum;/
0duare/ / 0dH oAH+urH ,mwd 0duarm-tvkH;pkHaom
trIupd & adS om ewfom;? 0g-trIcyford ;f jyKprG ;f Ekid af om Adou
k mewfom;(arm*f
ed-1 304)/
edAKwm ?ay? ywd/ / txufyg teufum; ynm&St
d rsm; ESpo
f uftyfaom

224

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,ru

teufwnf;? bdEo
wo
d ra0wenf;t& ,mukd ]],m rmwk,m ,
ydwak em}}[k jyif ay;&onf? ]]om rmwm aom ydwm}} wk\
Yd oreu
f dk ]]'do ykw}} om em&D\ orefukd ]]'d ywdaem}}[k ygVdvkd xnhfEkdif
onf? txuf usu&f vG,u
f al p&ef jrefrmeuftm;jziho
f m xnfah y;cJo
h nf/
pwkwy g' ]],m,H 'daom ykawm ywd}}[k qkv
d v
dk suf qef;apmifv
h dk
aomaMumifh ykawmukd acsxm;onf/ (rPd'yD ? ausmef *D -H 175)
eDa,m
,m/ / xkd ]](,m rmwm-onf? 'do-H aom? ykw-H uk?d vbrmem&\?) om rmwm-onf? edAK wm Ele}}[k wpfenf;ay;\? 'kw,
d yg' ]]a,m
ydwm 'doH ykwH vbrmaem}}[k xnh
f aemuf2yg'um; txufenf;
twkid ;f ay;\/
ausmfeD*H-174? 175
175/ / xdk rPd'yD ukd Munh
f 4enf;ay;\? yxrenf;
ay;ykHrSm txuftwkdif;yif? 'kwd,enf; t,Hukd yuwduwm; ykawmukd
0duwduwm;,l ]](abmwda,m-tk.d ..oli,fcsi;f rwkYd ) 'daom-aom? t,Ha,musmf ;onf? 0g-od'w
r if;om;onf? (,m rmwk,m-\?) ykawmonf? (a[mwd)? ('do-aom? r-a,musmf ;\? 0g-od'w
r if;
om;\?) om rmwm edAK wm Ele}}[k ay;\/
wwd,enf;/ / rmwmukd 0daooe omudk 0daoos,
l ]](abmwda,m-wkYd ) 'daom-aom? t,H-od'w
r if;om;onf? (,m-tMuifred ;f r
\? 0g-tMuifrzd ,
k m;\?) ykawm-onf? a[mwd? ('do-aom? rod'w
rif;om;\?) rmwm-tarjzpfaom? om-xkrd ed ;f ronf? 0g-xkrd zd ,
k m;
onf? edAKwm Ele}}[k ay;\/ 'kwd,enf;xuf t,HtpJG ,mtpJGom
xl;\/
pwkwe nf;/ / wEenf; tm0kwed nf;t& ywdudk a&SU2yg'vnf; ,l
]]'daom-aom? ywd-wpfavmuvkH;\ tBuD;trSL;jzpfaom? t,H-
a,musfm;jrwfonf? ,m-tMuifrdcif\? 0g-tMuifrdef;r\? 0g-tMuifrd
zk,m;\? ykawm-onf? a[mwd? ('do ywdaem-wpfavmuvk;H \ tBu;D
trSL; jzpf a om? r-a,musf m ;jrwf \ ? om rmwm-xk d t aronf ?
(wpfenf;) rmwm-aom? om-xkrd ed ;f ronf? 0g-xkrd zd ,
k m;onf? edAK wm Ele}}[k
ay;\/

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wdod?Yk udoma*gwrd,m emrudoma*gwrDrnfaom? ydwpk m "Dwm,-t&D;awmf\ orD;awmfonf? bmodwH &Gwq


f t
kd yfaom? rH
*gxHud?k okwmG Mum;&? ]]t[HigYu?kd rm,udoma*gwrDonf?
edAK wy'HedAK wyk'u
f ?kd om0dawmMum;aptyfNy?D }} wdodYk awG;?
(aus;Zl;wif)? rkwm [m&Hykvo
J ,
G u
f ?kd (ykvu
J ;Hk uk)d ? Morkw
d mG cRw
f ?
wmxdu
k o
d ma*gwrDz?Ykd 0g-txHo?Ydk ayaowGmykaYd p? (wpfenf;)
wm-tm;? ayaowGm-ay;yk
Yd ? a&SUenf; ydo"mwf ayoe(apckdif;jcif;)
teuf? aemufenf; 'ge(ay;jcif;)teuf? twaemrdr\
d ? b0eHeef;awmfo?Ykd
y0dow
d mG 0if? od&o
d ,aeusuo
f a&&Sad om tdy&f m? edoad Emxdik f
vsu?f eda'gy*wmeHtdyaf ysmjf cif;odYk a&mufaeukeaf om? em#udweD H
uacsonfrwd\
Yk ? 0dyu
m&Hazmufjyefaom tjcif;t&mud?k 'domG jrif&
? edAEd [
'a,mNi;D aiGUaompdwEf v
S ;kH &So
d nf? ([kwmG )? qEH qEtrwf
ud?k O|maywGmxap? 0g-EI;d ? u@uHu@ujrif;ud?k urwd ,mwDwd
ua@m? oa&m? (ur+!?-arm*f-7 58)? oDCZ0wm ua@m 0d,mwd u@k @u
aum?-NrdKUeD*Hopf-402/ tm[&maywGmaqmif,al p? wHxdu

jrif;awmfo?Ykd tmk,S wufa&muf? 0g-pD;? qEo[ma,mqE[l


aom tazmf&o
dS nf? ([kwmG -?) 'oo[pu0gVa'0wm[dwpf
aomif;aom pMu0Vmaeukeaf om ewfjA[mwdo
Yk nf? y&d0ak wmjc&H H
tyfonf? ([kwmG )? r[mbdeu
d r eHjrwfaom awmxGuaf wmfrjl cif;ud?k
0g-jzih?f edur w
d mG xGuaf wmfr
l ? taemrme'DwaD &taemrmjrpfurf;?
yAZw
d mG &[ef;jyKawmfr
l ? tEkua retpOftm;jzif?h &mZ*[H-ok?Yd *Em
ydwpk m "Dwm,/ / udoma*gwrD 3OK;&S&d m udoma*gwrDum; bk&m;
&SiEf iS fh wpf0rf;uJaG rmifErS awmfpyfow
l nf;? ydwpk m o'g ]]ba'G;}}[laom teuf
ukd ra[myg? ]]t&D;}}[laomteufuo
dk m a[m\? NrKd UeD*o
H pf-406vnf; ]]t&D;
awmf\orD;}}[kyif ay;\? jrwfpGmbk&m;rSm ]]trdwmrif;orD;ESihf ygvdwm
rif;orD;}}[k t&D;awmf2a,muf &S\
d ? xkw
d iG f trdwmrif;orD;rSm wdaw&0wK ygaom ]]wdax&f}}[laom om;awmfwpfyg;om &S&d um; udoma*gwrD
onf ygvdwmrif;orD;\ orD;awmfjzpfz,
G &f \
dS / ydwpk m o'g ba'G;teufa[m
r[kwfaMumif;ukd ESm-112 tus,fa&;cJhNyD/

226

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,ru

<uawmfr
l ? wwxd&k mZN*Kd [Nf rKd U? yd@m,iSm? p&dwmG ? y@0yAwyAma&y@0awmif0rS ;f ? edoad Emxdik af eawmfro
l nf? (ormaem
aomf?) r*"&nmr*"jynf&iS f Adro
d m&rif;onf? &aZewdik ;f Edik if jH zif?h
edrE,
d rmaemzdwrf eftyfaomf? wHxdk wdik ;f Edik if u
H ?kd y#duyd w
d mG y,fjrpf
? oAw
k H oA\
l tjzpfo?Ykd ywGma&mufawmfr
l ? 0g-vaomf?
twaem\? 0dZw
d H wdik ;f Edik if o
H ?Ykd tm*rewm,<uvmjcif;tusK;d iSm?
awexdrk *"jynf&iS f Adro
d m&rif;onf? *[dwy#danm,ltyfNy;D aom
y#dnmOf&o
dS nf? (0efcu
H wdudk ,lxm;Ny;D onf)? ([kwmG )? tmVm&tm
Vm&&aohov
Ykd nf;aumif;? O'uO'u&aohov
Ykd nf;aumif;? OyouFr-d
wGm? awoHxd&k aohw\
Ykd ? oEad utxH? t"d*w0daooH&tyf
aom w&m;xl;ud?k (wwd,mkyp smef pwkwm kyp smef[al om w&m;xl;ud)k ?
tevuF&w
d mG -(awmfNyD tusKd ;r&S[
d )k tzefzef y,fjrpfjcif;ukd jyK?
qAmed6ESpw
f yYkd wfv;kH ? r[my"meHjrwfaom ur|mef;tm;xkwrf I
ud?k y'[dwmG tm;xkwNf y;D ? 0domcykPr'd0aouqkefvjynfhaeY?
ygawm0eHeufapmapmyif? okZmwm,-okZmwmonf? 'dEy g,oH
uyfvLS tyfaom EdC
Yk emud?k y&dbk w
d mG bkO;f ay;Ny;D ? ae&&m,ae
&&mrnfaom? e'd,mjrpf? ok0Pygwa&Tcu
G u
f ?kd y0ga[wGmarsm
tevuF&w
d mG / / ]]tEk+tvH+u&dwmG }} [kjzwf? tEkonf ykeyKeteuf
tvHonf 0g&P(y,fjrpfjcif;)teufukd a[m\? (wpfenf;) ]]e+tvH+
u&dwmG }}[kjzwf? ]]tvH+e+u&dwmG tevuF&w
d mG }}[k t,kwo
rmof0Nd *Kd [jf yK?
tvHo'g ,kwt
eufudk a[m\? ]]tevuF&w
d mG -oihaf vsm\
f [k pdwf rjyK
(ESvkH;roGif;)rl? 0g-ESpfoufzG,f&m tESpfom&[k r,lqrl}}[kay;/ tevuF&dwGmwd ]]tvH rdem tvH rdem}}wd ykeyKeH tvuF&dwGm(r|-2
d mG wd tEk tEk tvHuwGm ykeyKeH ]]rmed e udd ya,mZe}}Ed
78)? tevuF&w
d mG wd tvEd tuwGm? ]]{wH wyu}}Ed 0g
uwGm(r#D-2 129)/ tevuF&w
]]om&blw}}Ed 0g {0H t*a[wGm(okwed.|-1 100? ty.|-1208)/
m,/ / ewd+ {vm ,wmwd aevH-&TUH Geaf rSmn
f i ;f paom tjypfr&Sd
ae&&m,

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227

ap? 0garQm? ae&&m,aom? e'd,m\? wDa&urf;em;? r[m0eoa@Bu;D pGmaomawmtkyf ? (tifMuif;awmtkyBf u;D )? ememormyw[
D d trsK;d rsK;d aom psmeformywfwjYkd zif?h 'd0obm*HaeYtzdu
Yk ?kd
0Dwed marwGmukev
f eG af pNy;D ? om,ESora,naecsr;f tcg? aomwad ,ea0'rEmefukd &Gwzf wfwwfaom ykPm ;onf? 'dEH vSLtyfaom?
aoma&? aevH+ZvH ,wmwd ae&&m-&TUH Geaf rSmn
f i ;f paom tjypfr&Sad om
a&&Sdaomjrpf? ]]aevZvm}}[k qkdvkdvsuf vukd &jyK ed*[dwfvm ed*[dwfukd
jyK? (wpfenf;) eDvH+ZvH ,wmwd ae&&m-pdrf;kdaom a&&Sdaomjrpf?
]]eDvZvm}}[k qkdvkdvsuf eD\ ukd {jyK vukd &jyK ed*[dwfvm ed*[dwfukd
jyK/ (O'ge.|-25? om&w-3 132)
aomwad ,e/ / ^o i]y Xzo/Ite(yg.5-2 84)okwf\ tzGifhjzpfaom
umodum0kwEd iS hf wwGaAm"deD axmred"w
d t
Ydk vkd aomw,
d onf a0'usr;f udk
oiftaH vhvmaom ykPm ;teufa[m yk'f "mwf ypn;f pdppfz,
G rf vdo
k nfh
tedyEyg#dy'dukVDyk'fwnf;? (wpfenf;) ]]qEH+tZ,aEwd aomwd,m}}[k
jyK? qEo(f qE)+COf(,)? qEof (qE)udk aomwjyK/
pdEm#D? eD*Hopf/ / okw+ tZ,aEwd aomw,
d m(pdEm #D? "mefeo
d pf408)? okwo
d cFgawm a0a'g {awoH twd wH 0g tZ,aE oZm,Ed 0g
wEd aomwd,m (NrdKUeD*Hopf-144?407)? okwd+,? wrm'd*kdPf;jzpfaom
aMumifh okwu
d kd aomwjyK/
"mef#D-408/ / okw+H tZ,aEwd aomw,
d m? okw+ Pdu? uudk ,
jyK? (wpfenf;) qE+H tZ,aEwd aomw,
d m? qE+P? ,'EkyyEm edygwem odZEo
d w
k jf zifh qEukd aomw,
d jyK/
0k'djzihf &Sd&yk/H / ]]okw+ Pdu}}[k cJGvQif oH,kwfaESmif;&m 0k'g'do&
0g oHa,m*E oaP p okwu
f 0k't
d jyKudk wm;jrpfaomaMumifh ]]okw,
d }}
[k &So
d if\
h ? odaYk omf ]]aee ed'|d H tedpH (aee-ey#dao"jzif?h ed'|d -H Tejf ytyfaom
tpDt&ifonf? tedp-H rjr)J }}[laom y&dbmomt& ]]toHa,m*E}}[k ejrpfaom tpDt&if rNraJ omaMumifh oH,*k af ESmif;aomfvnf; 0k'jd yK ]]aomw-d
,}}[k &S&d onf/

228

"ry'bmom#Dum

,ru

wdPH oref;jruf&pS q
f yk u
f ?kd (oref;jrufx;Hk 8xk;H uk)d ? *a[wGm,lawmf
rl? umaVeumVrnfaom? em*&maZee*g;rif;onf? tbdwK w*kaPmcs;D rGr;f tyfaom *kP&f o
dS nf? ([kwmG )? aAm"dr@HaAm"dr@dKio
f ?Ykd
teuftrsdK;rsdK;/ / ]]aomwda ,m emr wdP[m&aum(Ak'0 .H |-337?
ty.|-184 )}}ukd Munh
f ]]aomwda ,e-aomwd,
rnfaom jrufxrf; (jruf
&dwf)ykPm;onf? 0g-aomwd,rnfaom jrufxrf;a,musfm;onf}}[kvnf;
ay;Mu\/ (NrdKUeD*Hopf-408)
aomw,
d / / yudPu
0*f vuk@ub'd,
aw&0wKEiS fh Ak'0 .H |-337?
ty.|-1 84? ZdvH#D-274wdkY ]]aomwd,}}[k &Sd\? ygXfukd trSef,lvkdrl
]]okEa&m+tawm ,mwd aomwd? okE&+tw? tqkH; vm?-ed'D-36/
aomw (aumif;usdK;&Sdaom pum;ukd)+um,Ed ux,EDwd aomwd,m?
aomw+d au+t? u-ukd ,jyK?-uy'Kr/}}[k MuH/
ok',
d / /ykPm;onf ykPm;rsdK;jzpfaom jAm[PykPm; rif;rsdK;jzpfaom
cwd,ykPm; ukefonfrsdK;jzpfaom a0ykPm; olqif;&JrsdK;jzpfaom ok'
ykPm;[k 4rsdK;&Sd\? xkdwGif ok'ykPm;ukd ,l pmoifom;wkdY Pfwdk;yGm;jcif;
iSm ]]ok'da,e-jrufxrf;olqif;&JykPm;onf? 0g-ok'd,tEG,fjzpfaom jruf
xrf;ykPm;onf}}[kvnf; ay;Mu\/ (NrdKUeD*Hopf-408)
ygXfrSef/ / ]]aomwd,
aomwd,
(icsr;f om) ok',
d (ipif) ok',
d }}[k
ygXf 4rsdK;&Sd\? jytyfcJhaom tqkdrsm;ESihf ]]yXru&m wa'Gabmfjzifh vdkonf}}
[laom "mef#Ded-2 5? eD*Hopf-144tqdkrsm;ukd axmufvQif yXru&mjzifh
]]aomw,
d }}om oifo
h nf/
wdP/H / awaZwd {awemwd wdP?H wdZ+P? Zudk acs?-arm*f-7 67?
wdP,
d aw a*gPm'D[d t'D,aw cg'd,awwd wdP?H wdP+k t?-eDwd "mwkwdPrk|dEd uko263/ wdP[k omrefqkdaomfvnf; oref;jrufukd,l/ wd
wdPrk|( eDa,m)/ aomwda ,e 'dEu
o
k wdPrk|d *[PH(xly0Ho? r[m0Ho)/
aomwd,'GdaZmyeDwukowdPrk|da,m(aAm"d0Ho)/
aAm"dr@H / / aAm"d 0kpw
d t&[wr*PH oAw
k nmP? om
r@wd xmr*wwm, yoD'wd {wmwd aAm"dra@m(oD#Dopf-1 240)?

0*f

"ry'bmom#Dum

229

0g-oAw
k Pf\ Munfvif&m aAm"dyifo?Ykd tmk,S <ua&mufawmf
rl? wdPmedoref;jrufwu
Ykd ?kd oE&w
d mG jzefcY if;? ]],m0tMuifrQ
avmuf? arig\? pdwH onf? tEkyg'g,wPSm 'd|w
d jYkd zifh wpfpw
Hk pfck
aom ocFww&m;udk rpG,
J rl
l ? tmoa0[dtmoa0gw&m;wdrYk ?S e
0drpk
d wdrvGwaf jrmufEikd af o;? wm0xdt
k moa0gw&m;wdrYk S rvGwf
ao;orQ? rH yvu xuf0ufwifyviu
f ?kd e bdE
d mrdrzsuf
awmht?hH }} wdod?Yk y#dnH y#dnmOfu?dk 0g-t"d|mefru
I ?kd uwGmjyKawmfrl
? yk&wmbdrak cgta&SUt&yfoYkd a&S;IrsuEf mS &So
d nf? ([kwmG )? edo'D dwGmxkid
f ? ol&ad ,aeonf? tew*rF ad wa,0r0ifao;rDyif? rm&AvHrm&frif;\ ppfwyfu?dk 0d"rdwmG zsuq
f ;D ? yXr,maryXr,mrf
? ykaAe0d goPHykaAe0d goPfov
Ydk nf;aumif;? (a&S; aecJzh ;l aom
aAm"Dwd PH? wH {w r@H yoEH ZmwEd aAm"dra@m(0drwd-1 45)?
aAm"Dwd ynm? om {w r@m yoEm Zmwmwd aAm"dra@m(om&w-1
218)/
tmk,S/ / tmk,Smwd Oy*r? k["mwk Oy*rae? e [d b*0g
aAm"dkuH O'H k[wd? wrkyouFrerwar0/-"r#D/
tmoa0[d/ / tmoa0[dukd tyg'gef 0drkpdwdukd uwKkyf,l
ay;cJhonf? tmoa0[dukd t0kwuwm; 0drkpdwdukd urkyf,l ]]tmoa0[d-wkdYonf? tEkyg'g,-tmkHjyKaomtm;jzihf r,lrl? pdwH-ukd? e 0drkpdwd-rvTwt
f yfvw}YH }[kvnf; wpfenf;ay;Ekid o
f nf/ (om&w-1 447? 0drwd1 94? yg&mbm-2 135)
yvu/ / y&d orEawm tuFeH tmoeH yvauFm? y&d+tud+t?
&ukd vjyK va'Gabmfvm(oD#Dopf-1 241)? (wpfenf;) &d &udk vjyK ukd
,jyK vsukd vjyK va'Gabmf(l-29)? ed'D-24?29 ukd ,jyK if;,ukd
0*vao[d aw(arm*f-1 49)okwfjzihf ykAkyfvjyK\/ (wpfenf;) yveH
a&m*[oeH yv?H yvH ua&mwd {awemwd yvauFm? yv+u&+uG?d ed*
[dwfvm? (wpfenf;) tvkwormofwnf;?-rPd'Dy? NrdKUeD*Hopf-146/

230

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,ru

cEmtpOfukd odwwfaomPfokdYvnf;aumif;)? rZdr,marrZdr


,mrf? pkwyl ygwPHpkwyl ygwPfov
Ydk nf;aumif;? (ow0gwk\
Yd
pkwyd #doaEudk odwwfaomPfov
Ydk nf;aumif;)? ywGma&mufawmf
rl? yprd ,mrm0omaeyprd ,mrf\ tqk;H tcsed f ? (tkPrf wufrD
rkyg 'f? yp,+tmuma&m yp,mtcsed f )? yp,muma&y#dpo
uma&m-t0dZm paom taMumif;w&m;\ aus;Zl;jyKyHk tjcif;t&m?-oarmbm2 16/ PHPfu?dk Mowma&wGmouf0ifap? tkP*
k r ae

tkPw
f uf&mtcg? 'oAvpwka0om&Zm'doA*P
k y#dr@dwH 'o
AvPfawmf pwka0om&ZPfawmftp&Sad om tvk;H pkaH om *kPf
awmfwjYdk zifh wefqmqiftyfaom? oAw
k nmPHoAw
k Pfawmf
uk?d y#d0Zd w
d mG xk;d xGi;f odawmfr
l ? (&awmfr
l )? owowm[H7owm
[ywfv;Hk ? 0g7&uf7vDywfv;Hk ? (49&ufwyYdk wfv;Hk )? aAm"dra@aAm"d
r@dKif ? 0Dwed marwGmukev
f eG af pawmfrNl y;D ? t|ar&Spcf ak jrmuf
jzpfaom? owma[owm[? tZygvedaj*m"rlavtZygvanmif
yif\ teD;atmuf? edoad Emxdik af eawmfrpl Of? "r*r&D wmypa0uaPeopm 4yg;w&m;awmf\ eufeo
J nf\tjzpfudk qifjcifawmfrjl cif;
aMumif?h taygkuw
H w&m;a[m&ef aMumifMh ur&So
d nf\tjzpfo?Ydk
tmyZrmaema&mufawmfro
l nf?([kwmG )? 'oo[pu0gVr[mjA[y&d0ga&ewpfaomif;aompMu0Vm aeukeaf om r[mjA[mtjcH
t&H&adS om? o[rwjd A[Kemo[rwjd A[monf? tm,mpdw"ra'oaemkad opGm awmif;yeftyfaom w&m;a'oemawmf&o
dS nf? (w&m;
a[m&ef dak opGmawmif;yeftyfonf)? ([kwmG )? tm,mpdwm+"ra'oem
{awemwd tm,mpd"ra'oaem?-0do'k d #D-1 386/ Ak'p
uKemAk'p uKjzif?h
avmuHowavmuuk?d (ow0gtaygif;ud)k ? a0gavmauwGmMunfh
awmfrl? jA[Kaemo[rwdjA[m\? taZoeHwkdufwGef;jcif;ukd?
t"d0gaowGmvufcaH wmfr
l ? ]]t[Honf? utb,foUl tm;?
yXrHa&S;OK;pGm? "rH ud?k a'ao,sH Ek acga[m&ygtHeh nf;?}} wdok?Yd

0*f

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231

MoavmauaEmMunfah wmfrv
l aomf? tmVmk'umeHtmVm&&aoh
O'u&aohw\
Ydk ? umvuwbm0HjyKtyfNy;D aom aojcif;&Su
d ek o
f nf\
tjzpfu?kd wGm? y0*,
d meHy0*jD zpfuek af om? (5a,muftyk pf k
jzpfuek af om)? bduL eH&aohw\
Ydk ? A[lyum&wHrsm;aomaus;Zl;&Su
d ek f
onf\tjzpfu?dk tEk&dwmG trSw&f awmfr
l ? tmoemae&mrS?
O|m,xawmfr
l ? umody&k H umodwikd ;f \ NrKd Uawmf Am&PoDo?Ydk
*paEm<uawmfrpl Of? tE&mra*vrf;c&D; tMum;? OyaueOyu
wu'eG ;f ESi?hf o' wl? raEwmG ES;D aESmajymqkNd y;D ? tmomVyd P
k r 'd0ao
0gqdv
k jynfah eY? odywaeodywernfaom? rd*'ga,rd*'g0kef
awm? (om;aumifwt
Ydk m; ab;rJah y;&mawm)? y0*,
d meHy0*D
&aohw\
Ydk ? 0oe|meHae&mt&yfo?Ykd ywGma&mufawmfr
l ? awxkyd
0*&D aohwu
Ydk ?kd teEkp0 ad ueravsmufywfaom? ork'gpma&eac:a0:
ajymqkjd cif;jzif?h ork'gp&aEac:a0:ajymqko
d nfwu
Ydk ?dk onmaywGm
odem;vnfap? tnmwaum@nyrak ctnmwaum@ntrSL;&Sd
ukeaf om? t|m&ojA[aum#da,m18uka#aom jA[mwku
Yd ?dk trwygeHtNrKd uaf zsm&f nfu?dk (r*fzv
dk w
f &m;uk)d ? yga,aEmaomufapawmf
rlvsu?f (&apawmfrv
l su)f ? "rpuH "rpMumw&m;awmfu?dk y0awwmG
jzpfapawmfr
l ? 0ga[mawmfr
l ? y0ww
d 0&"rpaumjzpfapawmfrl
tyfNy;D aom jrwfaom "rpMum&So
d nf? 0g-jrwfaom "rpMumukd jzpfap
awmfrNl y;D (a[mawmfrNl y;D )onf? ([kwmG )? yu0gqkv
d qkwyf u\?
yr,
d H ig;&ufajrmufaeY? oaAyd tvk;H pkv
H nf;jzpfuek af om? aw bduL
xdyk 0*&D [ef;wku
Yd ?dk t&[awt&[wzv
dk f ? ywd|maywGmwnfap
awmfrNl y;D ? wH 'd0oar0xkad eYyif? ,oukvykw
,otrsK;d
om;\? Oyed,orw(wd[dwfy#doaEpaom r*fzdkvf&jcif;\)
tm;Bu;D aom rS&D mtaMumif;\ jynfph jHk cif;uk?d Oyed,orwEd d wda[wkuy#doEt
d m'duH r*zvm"d*r Av0um&PH/-om&w-1 293/ 'domG
jrifawmfr
l ? wHxk,
d otrsK;d aumif;om;uk?d &wb
d ma*nOft
h zkYd ?

232

"ry'bmom#Dum

,ru

edAEd w
d mG Ni;D aiGU? a*[Htdru
f ?dk y[m,y,fpeG
Yf ? eduE H xGuv
f monf
uk?d 'domG ? ]],o,o {[dvmavm?}} wdok?Yd yaumodwmG ac:
awmfr
l ? woa ,0 &wb
d ma*xkn
d Oft
h zkYd yif? aomwmywzd vHok?Yd
ygaywGma&mufap? yke'd0aoaemufwpfaeY? t&[wH ok?Yd ygaywGma&mufapawmfrNl y;D ? tya&ydtjcm;vnf;jzpfuek af om? w
xk,
d otrsK;d om;\? o[m,auoli,fcsi;f jzpfuek af om? pwkyPmo
54a,mufaom? Zaevlwu
Ydk ?dk {[dbu
d K yAZm ,{[dbu
d K &[ef;tjzpf
jzif?h yAmaZwGm&[ef;jyKap? t&[wH ok?Yd ygayoda&mufapawmfrNl y/D
{0Hokv
Yd Qi?f avmau? {uo|d,m61yg;aom? t&[aEok
&[Emwko
Yd nf? Zmawokjzpfuek v
f aomf? 0k|0amrk;d vywfv;Hk ae
awmfrNl y;D onf? 0g0guRwNf y;D onf? ([kwmG )? y0ga&wGmy0g&PmjyK
awmfrNl y;D ? 0g-vaomf? ]]bdua 0 pm&duH uk?d 0g-tm;jzif?h p&xvnfh
vnfMuavm?}} wdokrYd ed aYf wmfr
l ? o|dajcmufq,faom? bduL
l ? o,H
wku
Yd ?dk 'domokt&yfrsuEf mS wko
Yd ?Ydk ayaowGmapvTwaf wmfr
ud,
k af wmfwidk ?f Oka0vH Oka0vawmok?Yd *paEm<uawmfrlvaomf?
Ok0a0vH/ / Oko'g r[E\ y&d,m,fwnf;? a0vo'gonf ]]jrpfurf;}}
[laom teufudk a[m\? ]] Ok (r[wD)+a0vm Oka0vm-Bu;D pGmaomjrpfurf;
(oJpkoJykHBuD;jzpfaeurf;rsdK;)? Oka0vmawmt&yfvnf; oJpkoJykHBuD;jzpf
aeaom urf;ESiw
fh al omaMumihf ]]Oka0vm}}[k trnf&onf? xkad Mumihf ]]Oka0vm 0d,mwd Oka0vm-Bu;D pGmjrpfurf;ESiw
fh al om rsm;pGmaom oJtpk}}[k
qufjyK/
wpfenf;/ / Oko'g oJukda[m\? a0vmum; tykdif;tjcm;teufukd
a[m\? ]]a0vm,+twduarm a0vm? (twdurukdacs)? a0vm,+tm[#m+Ok Oka0vm-pnf;urf;ukd ausmv
f eG jf cif;aMumihf xrf;aqmiftyfaom
oJtpk}}[kjyK? a0vmESihf Okudk a&SUaemufjyef/ (0d.|-3 234?om&w-3 132?
ygpda,m-185? r[mbm-1 6)/
wpfenf;/ / Okukd r[Eteuf a0vmukd wD&teuf,
l ]]a0vm 0d,mwd

0*f

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tE&mra*? uygodu0eoa@0gyif&adS om awmtkyf ? 0g-0gyif


awmtkyf ? wo3usw
d af om? Zaevljzpfuek af om? b'0*,
d ukrma&b'0*o
D wd;k om;wku
Yd ?dk 0daeodqk;H rawmfrNl y/D awokxkb
d '0*n
D D
aemif3usw
d w
f w
Ydk iG ?f oAyprd aumtvk;H pkaH omolw\
Ydk aemufq;Hk jzpf
aom yk*Kd vo
f nf? aomwmyaEmonf? (ta[mod)? oAKwa rmtvk;H pkH
aomolwx
Ydk uf tjrwfq;Hk jzpfaom yk*Kd vo
f nf? tem*grDtem*grfonf?
f m;jzihf ]]yprd Owr}}[k qko
d nf? toufBu;D i,ftm;jzihf
ta[modNy/D *kPt
H nf;jzpfuek af om? aw
qko
d nfr[kw?f -r[mbm-2 164/ oaAyd tvk;H pkv
xkdrif;om;wdkYukd? {[dbduKbma0ae0{[dbduK&[ef;tjzpfjzifhyif?
yAmaZwGmapNy;D ? 'domokwdo
Yk ?Ykd ayaowGm? o,Hwkid ?f Oka0vH
od?Yk *Em? tKmed-tcGEJ iS w
hf uG 4ckw\
Ykd jynfah Mumif;jzpfuek af om? 0g3ckcjJG zpfuek af om? yg#d[m&d,o[medwefc;kd jym#d[mtaxmifwu
Ykd ?kd
(wpfenf;) tKmed yg#d[m&d,o[med3axmihf 5&maom wefc;dk
jym#d[mwku
Yd ?dk 'awGmjyawmfr
l ? Oka0vuyg'a,mOka0v
uytp&Su
d ek af om? o[Z#dvy&d0ga&wpfaxmifaom &aoh
a0vm? ]]Ok (r[ED) +a0vm Oka0vm-oJaomifurf;ESihf wlaom oJyBHk u;D }}[k
jyK/ (0drwd-2 83) /
b'0*,
d ukrma&
ma&/ / b'geH+0a*g b'0a*g? b'0a*+b0g b'0*d,m-kyftqif;ESihf pdwftm;jzihf aumif;jrwfaom rif;om;wkdY\ tkyfpk
tygt0ifjzpfaom rif;om;wdkY(r[mbm-1 74)/
wpfenf;/ / b'H ly pdw {awoH twDwd b'um-kyftqif;
aumif; pdwfaumif;&Sdukefaom rif;om;rsm;? 0*+AEeH 0a*g-tkyfpkzJGUjcif;?
AEeyk'faacs? 0a*e p&EDwd 0*d,m-tkyfpkzJGUjcif;jzihf vSnfhvnfukefaom rif;
om;rsm;? b'um p+aw+0*d,m pmwd b'0*d,m-kyftqif;aumif; pdwf
aumif;&Sd tkyfpkzJGUvsuf vSnfhvnfaexkdifukefaom rif;om;rsm;? ]]b'u0*d,}}[k qkdvkdvsuf uukdacs(ygpda,m-210)? b'0*d,m p+aw+ukrm&m
pmwd b'0*d,ukrm&m/

234

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,ru

tjct
H &H&u
dS ek af om? awbmwduZ#dav3yg;aom nDaemif&aohwu
Ydk ?dk
0daewGmqk;H rawmfrNl y;D ? {[dbu
d K bma0ae0jzifyh if? yAmaZwGmap?
*,moDao*,moDoausmufzsm? edo'D gaywGmxdik af p? tm'dw-
y&d,m,a'oem,tm'dwy &d,m,a'oemawmfjzif?h (&m*paom rD;
avmiftyfaom cEmESipfh yfaom w&m;a'oemawmfjzih)f ? t&[aw
? ywd|maywGmwnfapawmfr
l ? awe-xdb
k &k m;&Sio
f nf? t&[Eo[ae&[Emwpfaxmifonf? y&d0ak wmjc&H t
H yfonf? ([kwmG )?
]]Adro
d m&&anmAdro
d m&rif;tm;? 'dEH ay;tyfaom? y#dnH y#dnmOfu?kd
0g0efcu
H wdu?kd armapmrdvGwaf jrmufaptH?h }} wdodMYk uaH wmf
rl? &mZ*[e*lypma&&mZN*Kd [Nf rKd U\ Oypm? 0g-&mZN*Kd [Nf rKd U\ teD;
ywf0ef;usif ? v|d0Ek,smeHxef;awmO,smOfo?Ykd *Em<uawmfrv
l aomf?
]]owmonf? tm*awm ud&<uvmawmfrlowJh?}} wdodkY? okwGm
Mum;&? 'Gg'oe[kaw[dwpfoed ;f ESpaf omif;ukeaf om? jAm[P*[ywdau[dykPm ; ol<u,fwEYkd iS ?hf o' twl? tm*wa&mufvm
aom? &anmAdro
m&rif;tm;? r"k&uxHcsKNd red af om w&m;pum;awmf
ud?k uaxaEma[mawmfrv
l su?f &mZmeHAdro
d m&rif;ud?k {um'o[d
e[kaw[dwpfoed ;f wpfaomif;aom ykPm ;ol<u,fwEYkd iS ?hf o' wuG?
*,moDao
o/ / *Z+oDoH *,moDo-H qif\OK;uif;? *Z+oDo? Z
udk ,jyK ,\ t-ukd tm'DCjyK? *,moDoH 0d,mwd *,moDaom-qifOK;
uif;ESiw
fh al om ausmufzsm? tvkd ausmufzsmukd &\(oH.|-3 6? om&w3 208)? O'ge.|-67um; ]]*Z+oDoH *,moDo?H *,moDoH 0d,mwd
*,moDo-H qifOK;uif;ESiw
fh al om awmifxw
G ?f *,moDoH {w twDw
d *,moDaom-qifOK;uif;ESiw
hf al om txGw&f adS omawmif}}[k jyK qifOK;uif;ESihf
wlaom txGw&f adS omawmifudk *,moDo[k qko
d nf? ,if;awmifwpfae&m
qif;OK;uif;ESiw
hf al om ausmufzsmwpfc0k ,f bk&m;&Sif w&m;a[mawmfro
l nf?
xkdausmufzsmonf &[ef;wpfaxmifqefYonf/ (oH.|-3 6? O'ge.|-67?
om&w-3 208? oH#D 280? oD#Dopf-2 413)

0*f

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235

aomwmywzd av? ywd|maywGm? {ue[kwH wpfaomif;aom


ykPm ;ol<u,fu?kd o&aPoko&P*kw
H Ykd ? ywd|maywGmap? yke'd0aoaemufaeY? a'0&maZeewfw\
Ykd rif;jzpfaom? oaueodMum;
rif;onf? rmP0u0PH vkvifysdK\toGiu
f ?kd (vli,ftoGiu
f )dk ? *a[wGm,l? tbdwK w*kaPmcs;D rGr;f tyfaom*kP&f adS wmfro
l nf? ([kwmG )?
&mZ*[e*&Hod?Yk y0dow
d mG 0ifawmfr
l ? &mZeda0oaerif;eef;awmf?
uwbwuad pmjyKtyfNy;D aom qGr;f bke;f ay;jcif;udp& adS wmfro
l nf?
([kwmG )? a0VK0em&mrHa0VK0efausmif;wdu
k u
f ?kd y#d*a [wGmvufcaH wmf
rl? waw0xdak 0VK0efausmif;wdu
k f yif? 0goHaeawmfrjl cif;ud?k uayodjyKawmfrNl y/D wwxdak 0VK0ef ausmif;wdu
k f ? eHxdjk rwfpmG bk&m;od?Yk
om&dyw
k a rm*vm emwdo
Yk nf? OyouFro
k ukeNf y/D
wMw]]om&dyw
k a rm*vm em OyouFro
}k }[laom xdpk um;&yf?
t,Hqdt
k yfvwHU um;? tEkyAk u
d xmtpOftwdik ;f a[mtyfaom
pum;wnf;? [dcsUJ ? Aka'onf? tEkya Ea,0yGiahf wmfrrlao;rDyif? &mZ*[awm&mZN*Kd [Nf rKd UrS? t0d'al &teD;? Oywd*garmOywd&Gm
vnf;aumif;? aumvdw*garmaumvdw&Gmvnf;aumif;? wdod?Yk
a'G-2&Gmukeaf om? jAm[P*grmykPm ;&Gmwdo
Yk nf? ta[oHk &Su
d ek Nf y/D
awokxdyk P
k m ;&Gmwdw
Yk iG ?f Oywd*garOywd&Gm? om&d,m emr
om&Drnfaom? jAm[P,
d mykaP;r? *Aud,
k 0f ef\? ywd|w
d 'd0aoa,0wnf&maeYyif? aumvdw*garaumvdw&Gm? arm*vd,m emrarm*vrD nfaom? jAm[P,
d mydvnf;? *aAmonf? ywd|modwnfNy/D a'Gyd 2rsKd ;vnf;jzpfuek af om? wmed ukvmedxdk trsK;d wdYk
onf? owrm7qufajrmufaom? ,m0 ukvy&d0mtrsK;d wd\
Yk tpOf
tqufwikd af tmif? (wpfenf;) ,m0 owrm ukvy&d0m-aqG 7 quf
rsKd ;7qufwidk af tmif? tmA'y#dA'o[m,umae0p oHa,mZOfzUJG
tmA'y#dA'o[m,umed/ / tmA'gwd tm'dawm A'g(r[med.|-

236

"ry'bmom#Dum

,ru

wwf jyefoHa,mZOfzUJG wwfaom oli,fcsi;f wk\


Yd tjzpf&u
dS ek o
f nf
om? 0g-tjyeftvSef oHa,mZOfw,
G w
f mwwfaom oli,fcsi;f wk\
Yd
tjzpf&u
dS ek o
f nfom? ta[oHk ud&jzpfuek Nf yw
D ?hJ 'G Ed r d 2a,mufvnf;
jzpfuek af om? wmoHxdyk ak P;rwdt
Yk m;? {u'd0oar0wpfaeYwnf;
yif? *Ay&d[m&Huk,
d 0f efudk apmihaf &Smufru
I ?dk 0g-ud,
k 0f ef\ tapmifh
ta&Smufu?kd t'Hok ay;ukeNf y/D Oabmyd2a,mufvnf;jzpfuek af om?
wmxdyk ak P;rwdo
Yk nf? 'ormopa,eq,fvvGe&f mtcg? ykaw
om;wdu
Yk ?kd 0dZm,ok zGm;jrifuek Nf y/D emr*[P'd0aoemrnf,&l maeY?
(emrnfrn
S &hf maeY)? om&d,mom&Drnfaom? jAm[P,
d m\? ykw

om;\? 0g-onf? Oywd*grauOywd&Gm? aZ|ukvtBu;D
tuJjzpfaomtrsK;d \? (aqGBu;D rsKd ;Bu;D \)? ykww
m om;\tjzpfaMumif?h
OywdamwdOywd[laom? emrH-trnfu?kd u&ok ukeNf y?D w&tjcm;aom arm*vDykaP;rom;\? 0g-onf? aumvdw*gar
90)}}[laom tzGit
hf & tmOom&onf tm'dteuf y#dA' y#dum; ykeBu,
d m
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237

aumvdw&Gm? aZ|ukv\? ykww


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238

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awmif jrwfaom yGJobifrnfonf? 0g-awmifxdyfyGJobifonf?


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239

t&monf? (Munhpf &monf)? u twd tb,frmS &St


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240

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avmuaeMunf&h jcif;? oma&mtESpo


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241

wwd\
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242

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0*f

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243

{0HodkY? awokxdkOywdaumvdwwdkYonf? uwduHudk?


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wGi?f t,H&[ef;onf? tnwa&mwpfyg;tygt0ifwnf;? t[H
onf? rH bduK H ud?k 0god?Yk OyouFrw
d mG ? ]tm0kaomigh&iS f wGH
onf? uHtb,foUl ud?k O'
d &nfreS ;f ? yAZad wm&[ef;tjzpfoYkd
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hJ nf? todjzpfygoenf; awoif\?

244

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,ru

owmq&monf? aum 0gtb,foyl genf; wGH onf? u 0g


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tx? txdk Oywdy&dAZkd \
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jzpf? tnw&Hwpfckaom? MoumoHt&yfodkY? *p EH<uaeaom?
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OynmwH r*H / / a&SUenf;tvkd ]]Oynmawm ra*g}}[k qkdvkdvsuf
ykHvdifrS eykHvdifaom jyefaeaom vd*F0dyvmo vdifteuf yxrmwnf;?
aemufenf;tvkd OynmwHonf uH r*Honf tEyp,Ewnf;/ ygpda,m214-5 a&SUenf;ukd ]]r*H-tNrdKufedAmefvrf;udk? OynmwH-uyfodtyf\}}
[kvnf;aumif; aemufenf;ukd ]]OynmwH-r*fzv
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0*f

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245

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d u
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wd-okYd ajymNy;D )? aemufrSm ]]ykpd}}[k &Sdojzihf ae&m wdtaus
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y&du&mtokH;taqmifwpfrsdK; jzpfonf('D.|-1 42)? ]]yDXwd 0dor'kuH
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yDXuH pmwd y&dAmZuyDXuH-y&dAkdZfwkdY\ y&du&mtokH;taqmifjzpfaom
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pmwd y&dAmZuyDXuH-y&dAdKZfwkdY\ Opmjzpfaom xkdifckHi,f}}[k MuH/

246

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yAZad wmcJo
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od?Yk ykpd Ny/D axa&monf? pdaEod Ny?D (u)? ]]ar y&dAm Zum emr
y&dAZkd w
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wnf;? ]]r-oltm;}}[kvnf; ay;Mu\? or'gefiJhaomyk'fr&Sdojzifh
D wHeufeo
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jytH?h }} wd-BuNH y/D twaem\? e0ubm0H&[ef;opf\ tjzpfu?kd 0goDwif;i,f\ tjzpfu?kd 'aaEmjyvko


d nf? ([kwmG )? tm[rdeNYf y?D
(u)? ]]tm0kaom t[Honf? ea0g&[ef;opfygwnf;? 0g-oDwif;
i,fygwnf;? tpd&yAZad wm&[ef;tjzpfoYkd uyfa&mufNy;D aom ig\
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enf;jzifv
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avQmufNy/D

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247

tyH 0g A[kH 0g bmok twaH ,0 ar jAL[d?


tawae0 ar tawm u um[od Ase H A[k/H
tyH 0gtenf;ukad omfvnf;aumif;? A[kH 0gtrsm;ukad omfvnf;
aumif;? bmoka[mygavm? arwynfah wmftm;? twaH ,0
teuft"dyg ,fuo
dk m? jAL[da[mygavm? artm;? tawae0teuf
t"dym ,fjzifo
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onf? 0gpum;vk;H onf? ubmud?k um[odjyKvrd rhf nfenf;? (wpfenf;)
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(tykdif;tjcm;)teufwnf;/

248

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aomxkdOywdy&dAdkZfonf? aomwmyaEmonf? [kwGm? Oy&d0daoaotxufr*fzv


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onf? b0dwd&Sv
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f m;? ax&H
ud?k tm[ar;avQmufNy?D (u)? ]]baE Oy&dtxuf? "ra'oeHud?k
rm 0,dw rwd;k yGm;ygapukeEf iS ?hf {wuar0rQavmufom? a[mwk
&Sdygap? trSmuHwynfhawmfwdkY\? owmq&mbk&m;onf? uk[
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Ny/D ]]tm0kaom a0VK0aea0VK0efausmif;wdu
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wdo
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3Burd ?f y'uP
d H tdt
k aoud?k uwGm? ax&Hud?k Oa,smaZwGmap
vTw
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f m&mrfoYkd a&S;Iv
l su?f t*rmodoGm;Ny/D
tx acg? aumvdwy&dAm Zaumonf? wHxkOd ywdud?k 'l&awm0ta0;yif? 0g-uyif? tm*pEH vmaeonfu?kd 'domG ? ]]tZ,aeY?
r,SH \? o[m,u\? rkc0aPmrsuEf mS \tqif;onf? tn'd0aook 0d,tjcm;aom aeYwYkd uJo
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b0dwdjzpfvrd rhf nf?}} wdodrYk w
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f if? trwm"d*rHtNrKd uf
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war0 *gxHxk*d gxmudyk if? tbmod&Gwjf yNy/D *gxmy&da,momae
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ar;Ny?D (u)? ]]orrdwaf qG trSmuHwd\
Yk ? owmonf? uk[ ? 0owd
ud&aeawmfro
l wJeh nf;}} wd-ar;NyD / ]]orrdwaf qG a0VK0ae?
(0owd) ud&owJ?h {0Hod?Yk aemigwd\
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tZdawa&eonf? uxdwH rdet
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y#doH*H-349/ / xkd ]]ykqpf 2zuf vuf2zuf ezl;}}wkdYukd ]]yywd|dw}}[k qk\
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(pum;) pdwf}}[k yPmr(&dSckd;jcif;)t*Fg 8rsdK;ukd qkd\/

250

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[dvQi?f tm,mrvmoGm;Mupd?Yk owm&Hud?k ydmrzl;acsMupd?Yk }}


wd-ajymNy/D p-qufOK;tH?h aemuf wom&Sad omaMumihf pukd um&P
teuf,
l ]]p (,om)-tMuifaMumih}f }[k wpfenf;Mu?H {o({aom) om&dykwa wa&m emrom&dyw
k a x&frnfonf? o'gydtcgcyford ;f vnf;?
tmp&d,ylZaum0q&mudk ylaZmfwwfonfom? womaMumif?h o[m,Hud?k {0Hod?Yk tm[Ny?D (u)? ]]or tarS[d wdo
Yk nf? t"d*wHodtyf
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jzpfuek af om? Zemwdo
Yk nf? o,\? oEu
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ukeNf y/D
oa,monf? awxdOk ywdaumvdwwdu
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omvQi?f (jrifjrifcsi;f )? ]]wmwmtarmifwYkd a0goifwo
Ykd nf? aumpd
wpfpw
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aMumif;vrf;udk a[mjyEdik o
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? OyaEmyGiahf wmfryl gNy?D "armw&m;awmfonf? avmau? OyaEm
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oifwo
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]]wkarSwdo
Yk nf? *pxoGm;Muyg? t[Honf? e ou
d mrdrpGr;f Ekid f
yg? (rvku
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aMumifyh genf;}} wdodYk ar;ukeNf y/D ]]t[Honf? r[mZersm;
pGmaom vltaygif;\? tmp&da,monf? [kwmG jzpf? 0g-tjzpfjzih?f
0dp&vSnv
hf nfaexkid cf NhJ y?D 0dp&Eq&mtjzpfjzifh vSnv
hf nfaexkid f
aom? ar\? taE0godu0gaomteD;aewynft
h jzpfjzifh aejcif;onf?
pm#d,ma&avSmift;kd Bu;D \? O'ebm0ywd 0d,a&iifyek ;f tjzpfoYkd
a&mufjcif;uJo
h ?Ykd O'uH tEd {awemwd O'e?H O'u+tpd+,k?-Zm.|441? O'e+bma0g O'ebma0g? O'ebm0H+ywd O'ebmywd/

a[mwd\? t[Honf? taE0godu0goHteD;aewynf\


h tjzpfjzifh
aejcif;jzif?h 0odwHk aejcif;iSm? e ou
d mrdrpGr;f Edik yf g?}} wdodYk
ajymNy/D ]]tmp&d, {0Hod?Yk rm u&dw rjyKygukeEf iS ?hf }} wdodYk ajym
ukeNf y/D ]]wmwmtarmifwYkd a[mwk&Syd gap? wkarSwdo
Yk nf? *px
oGm;Muyg? t[Honf? e ou
d mrd?}} wdodYk ajymNy/D ]]tmp&d,
avmau? Ak'
\? OyEu
mvawmyGiahf wmfr&l mtcgrS? y|m,
? r[mZaemonf? *Ermvm'd[awmeHo
Y m yef;ponf&w
dS Ykd vuf
&So
d nf? ([kwmG )? *Em? war0xdjk rwfpmG bk&m;udo
k m? ylaZwd
ylaZmfvrd rhf nf? r,rd wdo
Yk nfvnf;? waw0xdjk rwfpmG bk&m;xHoo
Ykd m?
*rdmroGm;Muawmhrnf? wkarSwdo
Yk nf? utb,fo?Ykd u&dx
jyKuek v
f rd rhf nfenf;}} wdodaYk jymukeNf y/D ]]wmwmtarmifwYkd
ro avmauavmu? 'EmvlNyed ;f vltwdo
Yk nf? A[l u Ek acg
rsm;ukeo
f avm O'g[kodrYk [kw?f y@dwmynm&So
d w
l o
Ykd nf? (A[l u
Ek acgavm)?}} wdodaYk r;Ny/D ]]tmp&d, 'Emwdo
Yk nf? A[lrsm;
yguke\
f ? y@dwm p emrynm&So
d w
l rYkd nfonfum;? uwdy,m {0
tenf;i,fwdkYonfom? a[mEdukef\?}} wdodkY ajymukefNyD/
]]wmwmwdYk awe [dxko
d jYdk zpfvQi?f y@dwmwdo
Yk nf? y@dw
ynm&Sdaom? orP a*gwr&[ef;a*gwr\? oEduHodkY?

252

"ry'bmom#Dum

,ru

*rdEd oGm;ukev
f rd rhf nf? 'Emwdo
Yk nf? 'EynmEkaYH om? rr\?
oEu
d H od?Yk tm*rdEd vmMuvdrrhf nf? wkarS-wko
Yd nf? *px-oGm;
Muavm? t[Honf? e *rdmrdrvdu
k Ef ikd ?f }} wdodaYk jymNy/D aw
xdOk ywd aumvdwwdo
Yk nf? ]]tmp&d, wkarSwdo
Yk nf? ynm,dxxif&mS ;ukev
f rd rhf nf? (aemifrS &Si;f oGm;ukev
f rd rhf nf?)}} wd
odaYk jym? yuro
k zJomG ;ukeNf y/D awokxdOk ywd aumvdwwdo
Yk nf?
*paEok oGm;ukev
f aomf? o,\? y&domy&dowfonf? bdZd
uGNJ y?D wo caPxdck P? tm&marmtm&mrfonf? wkapmtcsn;f
ES;D onf? ta[modNy/D aomxdo
k d n
;f y&dAZkd o
f nf? wkpH tcsn;f ES;D aom?
tm&mrHud?k 'domG ? OPSH ylaom? avm[dwH aoG;ud?k qaodpGeNYf y?D 0g
tefNy/D aw[dxkOd ywd aumvdwwdEYk iS ?hf o' wl? *paEok oGm;
ukeaf om? yo-k ig;vDuek af om? y&dAm Zuoawokyd y&dAZkd t
f &mwdYk
wGiv
f nf;? (wpfenf;) yok y&dAm Zuoawokyd ig;&maomy&dAZkd w
f Ykd
wGiv
f nf;? taw,sowmedtcGt
J m;jzifh oH;k vDuek af om y&dAZkd t
f &m
wdo
Yk nf? 0g-250 aom y&dAZdk w
f o
Ykd nf? o,-tvkiYd mS ? (wpfenf;)
o,\? (oEu
d -H txHo)Ykd ? ed0wo
k jyefvn
S u
hf ek Nf y/D tx acg?
awxdOk ywd aumvdwwdo
Yk nf? twaem\? taE0godau[d
teD;aewynfh jzpfuek af om? tawa,s[-d tcGt
J m;jzifh oH;k vDuek f
aom? 0g-ESpfckcGJjzpfukefaom? y&dAmZuoaw[dy&dAdkZft&mwdkYESifh?
(wpfenf;) tawa,s[d y&dAm Zuoaw[d250aom y&dAZdk w
f EYkd iS ?hf
o' wl? a0VK0eHod?Yk t*rHok oGm;ukeNf y/D
owmjrwfpmG bk&m;onf? pwky&doraZ4yg;aom y&dowf\
tv,f? edoad Emxkid af wmfrv
l su?f "rH ud?k a'aoaEmaepOf? aw
xdOk ywd aumvdwwdu
Yk ?kd 'l&awm0ta0;yif? 0guyif? 'domG ?
bduL wdu
Yk ?kd tmraEod rdeaYf wmfrNl y?D (u)? ]]bdua 0 aumvdawm p
aumvdwvnf;aumif;? Oywdam pOywdvnf;aumif;? (wdod)Yk ? a'G2a,mufuek af om? {aw o[m,umoli,fcsi;f wdo
Yk nf?

0*f

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253

tm*pEd vmaeuke\
f ? {wHoli,fcsi;f tpko
H nf? (oli,fcsi;f
2a,mufonf)? ar\? t*H jrwfaom? b',*k H aumif;aomtpHjk zpf
aom? om0u,k*H om0utpHo
k nf? b0dwdvdrrhf nf?}} wd-okYd
rdeaYf wmfrNl y/D awxdOk ywd aumvdwwdo
Yk nf? owm&Hud?k 0Ew
d mG
? {urEH ? edo'D o
k xkid u
f ek Nf y?D p ye-qufOK;tH?h edo'D w
d mG xkid Nf y;D ?
b*0EH ud?k {wHpum;ud?k ta0gpHk avQmufuek Nf y?D (u)? ]]baE r,H
wdo
Yk nf? b*0awm\? oEad utxHawmf? yAZH &Sit
f jzpfu?kd vab,smr&vdyk guke\
f ? Oyor'H jrifjh rwfaom &[ef;tjzpfu?kd vab,smr
uke\
f ?}} wd-Ny/D ]]bdua 0gwkYd {xvmMuavm? (oifwt
Ykd vk&d adS om
&Si&f [ef;tjzpfukd vufcMH uavm)? wd-od?Yk b*0gonf? ta0gp
rdeaYf wmfrNl y/D "armud?k oGmumawmaumif;pGm a[mawmfrt
l yfNy?D orm
aumif;pGm? 'ku
awblru0#f'u
k \
? tEu&d ,
d m,tqH;k udk jyKjcif;
p& jA[iSm? jA[p&d,H (txufr*f3yg;[laom) jrwfaomtusiu
hf ?kd p&
p&d,Ed Oy&dr*w,ocFgwH jA[p&d,H or"d*p?-om&w-3 182/ p&x
usiMhf uavmh?}} wdodv
Yk nf;? b*0gonf? ta0gpNy/D oaAyd tvH;k pHk
ukeaf om y&dAZkd w
f o
Ykd nfvnf;? 'rd ,ywp0D &"&mwefc;kd aMumifh jzpf
aom oydwo
f uFe;f udk aqmifuek af om? o|d0duaw&m 0d,0gawmf
ajcmufq,f&adS om ax&fwu
Ykd o
hJ ?Ykd ta[oHk ukeNf y/D
tx? aeoHxdOk ywd aumvdwwd\
Yk ? y&dom,y&dowf\?
{x bdua 0gwd/ / ]]{x bdua 0gwd}} wdo'gonf {[dbu
d K &[ef;
tjzpfukd &aMumif;pum;\ NyD;qkH;rIukd jyaomo'gwnf;? ]]{x bdua 0g}} [k
rdefYawmfNyD;onfESihf wpfNydKifeuf {[dbduK&Sif&[ef;tjzpfNyD;qkH;onf[k qkdvkd
onf? ]]oGmumawm}}paom pum;rsm;um; ]]{x}}[k ac:jcif;\ tusKd ;ukjd y
aom pum;wnf;? ]]ta0gp}}ukd ]]oGmumawm}}paom aemuf0gusvnf; ,lay;
&onf(0Zd&-405? om&w-3 182)/ 0drwd-2 92 ]]orm 'ku tEud&d,m,}}[laom pum;qkH;rS {[d bduKjzpfonf[laom aupd0g'ukd jy
ao;\/

254

"ry'bmom#Dum

,ru

p&dw0aoepdu
k \
f tpGr;f jzif?h owmonf? "ra'oeHud?k 0aod
wd;k yGm;apawmfrNl y/D (jznhaf [mawmfrNl y)D ? a'Gukeaf om? t*om0au
t*om0uwdu
Yk ?kd XaywGmcsex
f m;? t0aoom<uif;aom y&dowf
wdo
Yk nf? t&[wH od?Yk ygykPo
k a&mufuek Nf y?D ye-quf? t*om0umeH
wd\
Yk ? Oy&dr*w,
udpH txufr*f 3yg;taygif;\udpo
nf? e ed|mod
rNyD;/ u um&Pmtb,ftaMumif;aMumifhenf; om0uyg&rdPom0uyg&rDPf\? 0g-onf? r[Ewm,Bu;D us,o
f nf\
tjzpfaMumifw
h nf;? (r&ifu
h suaf o;onf\ tjzpfaMumifw
h nf;)/
txxdrk aS emuf? tm,om r[marm*vm aemt&Sirf [m
arm*vm efonf? yAZw
d 'd0oawm&[ef;jzpf&maeYr?S owar7&uf
ajrmufjzpfaom? 'd0aoaeY? r*"&a|r*"wdik ;f ? uv0gv*gruH
uv0gv&Gmi,fu?kd Oyedm,rS
D ? 0d[&aEmaeawmfrpl Of? xderda'xde rd'o
nf? MouraEoufa&mufvaomf? owm&monf? oHa0Zdawmxdwv
f efaY ptyfonf? ([kwmG -?) xderd'H ud?k 0daema'wGmy,f
azsmuf? wxm*awejrwfpmG bk&m;onf? 'dEH ay;awmfrt
l yfaom?
om0uyg&rdP/ / 'gepaom yg&rDwkdY\ jynhfpkHjcif;aMumihf jzpf
ay:vmaom 0dZm3yg; tbdnmOf6yg; y#dord'g 4yg;paom Pfukd
]]om0uyg&rDPf}}[k ac:onf? ]]yg&H y&d,EH (tqkH;tydkif;tjcm; txGwf
txdyfokdY) rdaemwDwd(a&mufwwfaaomaMumihf) yg&rD? yg&+rD+PD? yg&rD
{0+PH yg&rdPH? om0umeH+yg&rdPH om0uyg&rdPH-om0uwk\
Yd
tqk;H tydik ;f tjcm;txGwt
f xdyo
f Ydk a&mufaomPf('D#-D 3 68? oH#-D 2 476)?
(wpfenf;) om0umeH+yg&rda,m om0uyg&rda,m? om0uyg&rD[+d edyE +H
PH om0uyg&rdPH-om0uwk\
Yd yg&rDwaYkd Mumihf jzpfaomPf(oDbmom0uyg&rdP
2 12)}}[kjyK/ om0uyg&rd
PEd om0umeH 'gem'dyg&dyl&d,m edyEH 0dZmw,qVmbdnpwky#dor'd g'dab'H PH('D#-D 1 136)? om0uyg&rdP
PEd
t*om0au[d y#dvbdwAH oAar0 avmud,avmukw&PH(om&w1 352? tH#D-3 216)/

0*f

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255

"mwkur|meH"mwfur|mef;ud?k okPaEm0em,lpOfyif? Oy&dr*w,


udpH txufr*f 3yg;taygif;\ udpu
?kd ed|maywGmNy;D ap? om0uyg&rdP\? rwuH txGwt
f xdyo
f ?Ykd yawma&mufawmfrNl y/D
om&dyw
k a wa&mydonfvnf;? yAZw
d 'd0oawmrS? t'rmoHwpfv
xuf0uf 15&ufu?kd twdur w
d mG vGe
f ? owm&mESi?hf o'? war0
&mZ*[Hxd&k mZN*Kd [Nf rKd Uudyk if? Oyedm,? olu&cwavaP0uf
wl;tyfaom vdP
k *f l ? (0ufw;l vkP
d f )? 0d[&aEmaeawmfrpl Of? twaem\? bm*dae,swljzpfaom? 'DCecy&dAm Zu'DCecy&dAZkd f
tm;? a0'emy&d*[
okwa E-a0'emy&d*[
okwe u
f ?kd (a0'emodr;f qnf;
aMumif;okwe u
f )kd ? a'od,rmaea[mawmfrt
l yfaomf? okwm Ekoma&eokwaf wmfoYkd tpOfvu
kd o
f jzif?h PHPfu?kd ayaowGmap
vTw
f ? y&olwpfyg;zd?Yk 0g-twGu?f 0dwbwH cl;xm;tyfaom
xrif;ud?k y&dbk a Em 0d,pm;oluo
hJ ?Ykd om0uyg&rdP\? rwuH
od?Yk yawmNy/D papm'emOK;tH?h tm,omt&Sio
f m&dyw
k & monf? r[myanm eEkBuD;us,faom ynm&Sdonfr[kwfygavm tx-xkdodkY
jzpfygvsu?f uom-aMumif?h r[marm*vm eawmt&Sirf [marm*vm ef
atmuf? pd&wa&evGepf mG Mumjrifrh ?S om0uyg&rdPHod?Yk ygykPd
a&muf&oenf; wdum;tar;wnf;? y&durr[Ewm,y&du\
H
"mwkur|meH/ / "mwk,m+y0wH+urH "mwkurH-"mwf tmkHjyK
jzpfaom bm0emtvky?f (wpfenf;) "mwlw+d y0w+H ur-H "mwf[k tmkjH yK
jzpfaom bm0emtvkyf? "mwkurar0+XmeH "mwkur|meH-aemufaemuf
bm0em\ taMumif;jzpfaom "mwf[t
k mkjH yKjzpfaom a&S;a&S;bm0emtvky?f
(wpfenf;) "mwkur+XmeH "mwkur|meH-"mwf[ktmkHjyKjzpfaom bm
0emtvkyf\ wnf&mtaMumif;jzpfaom "mwfur|mef;tmkH/ (0Zd&-149
tokbur|meHtzGifhrSD;)/ (wpfenf;) "mwlok+ur|meH "mwkur|meH-"mwf
wdkY (tmkHjyKjzpfaom) a,m*D\ okc0daoowdkY\ taMumif;/ (oH#D-2
520? 0dok'd#D-1 312 tokbur|meHtzGifhrSD;)

256

"ry'bmom#Dum

,ru

Bu;D us,o
f nf\tjzpfaMumih?f 0g-tzefzefjyKtyfaom Pfupd \
Bu;D
us,o
f nf(rjynfph aHk o;onf)\ tjzpfaMumif?h (r[marm*vm eawm
atmuf? pd&wa&erS? om0uyg&rdPHod?Yk ygykPd a&mufNy?D wdum; tajzwnf;/) [dOyrmaqmif xifatmifjyOK;tH?h 'k*w
rEkm
qif;&Jaom vlwo
Ykd nf? ,w uwpd wpfpw
kH pfcak om t&yfo?Ykd (wpfae
&m&mok)Yd ? *EKumrmoGm;vdu
k ek o
f nf? (ormemukev
f aomf?) cdya r0
vsijf refpmG omvQi?f edur Ed ,xmxGuo
f mG ;Edik u
f ek o
f uJo
h ?Ykd &mZleH ye
rif;wdt
Yk m;um;? [w0d g[euyem'qif,mOfwu
Ykd kd jyifqif&jcif;tp
&Sad om? r[EH rsm;pGmaom? y&durH y&duu
H ?dk (tzefzefjyKtyfaom udpu
?kd )
v'KH &jcif;iSm? 0wd ,xmoifo
h uJo
h ?Ykd {0H or'H odrYk cRwrf ,Gi;f
Ny;D pD;jcif;&Sad om? 0g-ykt
H vm; Ipm;tyfaom? 'HOyar,su?kd
a0'dwAH odxu
kd \
f /
yequfOK;tH?h wH'0d oan0xdak eYom? owmonf? 0rmeupm,m,t&dy\
f wk;d yGm;&mtcg? 0g-wd;k yGm;aom t&dy&f &dS mtcg?
(naecsr;f tcg)? a0VK0ae? om0uoEyd gwHom0utpnf;ta0;
yGu
J ?kd uwGm-jyKawmfr
l ? 'GEd H 2yg;ukeaf om? ax&meHax&fwt
Ykd m;? t*om0u|meHt*om0u&mxl;ud?k 'wGmay;awmfr
l ? ygwdarmuH Mo
0g'ygwdarmufu?kd O'o
d d &Gwjf yawmfrNl y/D bduL wdo
Yk nf? OZm,ok ukeNf y?D
(u)? ]]owmonf? rkacgavmuaeersuEf mS udk Munfjh cif;jzif?h 0g-rsuf
0rmeupm,
,// / 0rmeupm,m
,mwd ypmbwEd tawm(om&w-1
171? 0drwd-1 34)/ 0rmeupm,m
,mwd qm,m, 0rmeora, om,ES
ora,wd 0kwH a[mwd(om&w-1 186)/ tzGihftvkd ]]qm,m,+0
rmeaum 0rmeupm,m-t&dy\
f wk;d yGm;&mtcg}}[kjyK? ]]qm,m0rmeu}}
[k qkdvkdvsuf a&SUaemufjyef? rtlyg&med-1 435? yg&m-bm-1 302wkdY
]]0rmeum+qm,m {wmwd 0rmeupm,m-wk;d yGm;aom t&dy&f &dS mtcg}}[k
jyK\/

0*f

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257

ESmvku
d jf cif;jzif?h bduH awmif;wtyfaom &mxl;ud?k a'wday;awmfr\
l ?
t*om0u|meHud?k ''aEe emray;olrnfonf? yXrHpGm? yAZw
d meH
&[ef;tjzpfoYdk uyfa&mufcu
hJ ek af om? 0g&[ef;jyKcu
hJ ek af om? y0*,
d meH
y0*&D [ef;wdt
Yk m;? 'gwHk iSm? 0wdoif\
h ? {awy0*&D [ef;wdu
Yk ?kd
taemavmauaEerMunfv
h aomf? 0g-rMunfo
h o
l nf? ,oaw&yrkcgeH,oax&ftrSL;&Su
d ek af om? yyPmobduL eH55yg;aom &[ef;
wdt
Yk m;? 'gwH-k iSm? 0wd-\? {aw55yg;aom &[ef;wdu
Yk ?kd taemavmauaEeaomf? 0g-onf? b'0*,
d meHb'0*rD nfuek af om? woZemeHoH;k q,faom &[ef;wdt
Yk m;? ('gwHk 0wd)? {awb'0*&D [ef;
wdu
Yk ?kd taemavmauaEeaomf? 0g-onf? Oka0vuyg'DeH Oka0v
uytp&Su
d ek af om? awbmwdumeH3yg;aomnDaemifwt
Ykd m;? ('gwHk
0wd)? ye-odaYk omfvnf;? {waurQtwdik ;f t&Sn&f u
dS ek af om? {aw
r[maxa&r[max&fwu
Ykd ?kd y[m,y,f? oAypmtvH;k pHak om
ax&fw\
Ykd aemuf? yAZw
d meH&[ef;tjzpfoYkd uyfa&mufaom om&d
ykMwm arm*vm efwt
Ykd m;? t*om0u|meHud?k ''aEeay;vaomf? 0gay;awmfral om jrwfpmG bk&m;onf? rkcH rsuEf mS ud?k MoavmauwGm
Munf
h ? 'dEH ay;tyfNy?D }} wd-uJ&h UJ ukeNf y/D owmonf? ]]bdua 0wdYk
utb,fpum;ud?k uaxxajymaeukeo
f enf;}} wd ykpw
d mG ? ]]'H
emrrnfaom pum;ud?k (uaxrajymaeMuyg\?)}} wd-ok?Yd 0kaw
avQmuftyfaomf? ]]bdua 0wkYd t[Honf? rkc-H uk?d MoavmauwGm? bdu-H uk?d e a'rday; onfr[kw?f yet[kwu
f m;? {awoHom&d
ykMwm arm*vm efwt
Ykd m;? twem twemrdrd rdro
d nf? yww
d yww
d ar0awmifw
h tyfchJ awmifw
h tyfcahJ om &mxl;udo
k m? a'rday;\/
bduH/ / bdudwAm ,mpdwAmwd bdum? (wpfenf;) bduLeH+t,H
bdum-&[ef;wkdY\Opmjzpfaom {w'*f&mxl;? bduK+P+tm?-oD#Dopf-2
270/-[kMuH/

258

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,ru

[drSe\
f ? tnmwaum@anmtnmwaum@nonf? {uo wpf
oD;aom? oaaumuf? e00ga&9Burd w
f w
Ykd ikd w
f ikd ?f t*o'geH
tOK;tzsm;jzpfaom aumufudk ay;vSLjcif;ud?k 0g-aumufOK;tvSLud?k
''aEmay;vSLvaomf? t*om0u|meHt*om0ut&mud?k yawwmG
awmifw
h ? em'god(e+t'god)ay;vSLcJo
h nfr[kw?f yet[kwu
f m;?
t*"rH tjrwfq;kH w&m;jzpfaom? t&[wH t&[wzv
kd u
f ?kd oAyXrH
tvH;k pHak omolw\
Ykd a&S;OK;pGm? y#d0Zd w
d kH xd;k xGi;f odjcif;iSm? yawwmG
? t'goday;vSLcJNh y?D }} wdodYk rdeaYf wmfrNl y/D ]]b*0gjrwfpmG bk&m;?
u'g yetb,ftcgenf;}} wdodYk ar;avQmufuek Nf y/D ]]bdua 0
wdYk okP
d xem;axmifMurnfavm}} wdodYk ar;awmfrNl y/D
]]baE tmrrSeyf g?}} wdodaYk vQmufuek Nf y/D b*0gonf? twDwH
ud?k tm[&daqmifawmfrNl y?D (uenf;)/
bdua 0wdYk awmurmrS? {ue0kwu
d ay91urmtxuf?
0dyD emr0dyDrnfaom? b*0gonf? avmau? O'yg'dxif&mS ;
yGiahf wmfrNl y/D w'gxkt
d cg? r[mumaVmr[mumVvnf;aumif;?
plVumaVmplVumVvnf;aumif;? wdod?Yk a'Gbmwdum2a,muf
aom nDaemifjzpfuek af om? uk#Kru
d mol<u,fwo
Ykd nf? r[EH Bu;D us,f
aom? omvdauwH oav;pyg;cif;ud?k 0ygayoHk pdu
k yf sK;d apukeNf y?D tx
xdt
k cg? {u'd0oH? plVumaVmonf? omvdauwH od?Yk *Em? {uH
wpfaphaom? omvd*AH oav;pyg;\ 0rf;wkdufukd? 0g-EkdY&nf&Sdaom
omvd*A/H / omvdaem+*aAm omvd*aAm-oav;pyg;oD;\ 0rf;wku
d ?f
tvkd *Ao'g 0rf;wku
d t
f eufa[m? (wpfenf;) *aAm+{w twDw
d *aAm?
omvd p+aom+*aAm pmwd omvd*aAm-oaEEkdY&nf&Sdaom oav;pyg;
zk;H wke;f vk;H wke;f jzpfaom oav;pyg; tESx
H u
G cf gpoav;pyg;? tvkd *Ao'g
oaEom;teufa[m? oaEom;qkad omfvnf; oav;pyg;oD;\ Ek&Yd nfudk
o'dolypm&tm;jzihf,l? aemuf]]omvd*A'geH}}[laomyk'fukd axmufvQif
aemufenf;u ykdaumif;onf/

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oav;pyg;ud?k (oav;pyg;zk;H ud)k ? zmavwGmazmuf? (omvdc&D &oHk av;


oav;pyg;oD;\ Ek&Yd nfu?dk ) cg'dcJpm;Ny/D tH#-D 1 148I/ wHxdo
pyg;oD;\ Ek&Yd nfonf? twdr"k&H tvGecf sKo
d nf? ta[mod/ aomxdk
plVumVonf? Ak'y r ck bk&m;trSL;&Sad om? oHCtm;? omvd*A'geHEk&Yd nf&adS om oav;pyg;tvSLuk?d (oav;pyg;zH;k tvSLud)k ? 0goav;pyg;Ek&Yd nftvSLuk?d 'gwkumarmay;vSLvdo
k nf? [kwmG ? aZ|bmwduH tpfuBkd u;D r[mumVod?Yk OyouFrw
d mG ? ]]bmwdutpfukd
omvd*AH ud?k zmavwGm? Ak'g eHwdt
Yk m;? tEkp0 u
d H avsmufywfonf
ud?k uwGm? ypmaywGmusKd csuaf p? 'geHtvSLud?k a'ray;vSLMupd?Yk }}
wd tm[/ ]]wmwighnD ubmud?k 0a'odajymbdoenf;? omvd*A-H uk?d zmavwGm-? 'geH emray;vSLjcif;rnfonf? twDawtwdwf ?
0g-a&S;wke;f u? ae0 blwykAH rjzpfcphJ zl;? tem*awydaemiftcgvnf;?
e b0dwdjzpfvrd rhf nfr[kw?f oHaumufu?kd rm emo,drysupf ;D
apygESi?hf 0g-rzsuq
f ;D ygESi?hf }} wdod?Yk 0kawmajymqdt
k yfonf? (ormaem)yd-jzpfygaomfvnf;? aomxdpk Vl umVonf? ykeyKeH tzefzef? ,mpda,0awmif;yefonfom/ txxdt
k cg? eHxdpk Vl umVud?k bmwm
tpfujkd zpfaom r[mumVonf? ]]awe [dvQi?f omvdauwH oav;
cif;ud?k a'G2ckuek af om? aum|maotzdt
Yk pkwu
Ykd ?kd uwGm-? rr\?
aum|moHtzkt
Yd pku?kd temrodwmG rok;H oyfr
l ? 0g-rxdr
l ? twaem\? aum|maotzdt
kY pkjzpfaom? acawv,f? ,HtMuiftrI
ud?k (umwkH jyKjcif;iSm?) pod tvd&k \
dS ? wHxdt
k rIu?kd ua&m[djyK
avm?}} wd tm[? aomxdpk Vl umVonf? ]]om"l}}-aumif;ygNy?D wd
odaYk jym? acwH ud?k 0dbZdwmG cJaG 0? A[lrsm;pGmukeaf om? rEka
wdu
Yk ?kd [wurH [wurfu?kd 0gvufjzihf jyKz,
G u
f pd u
?dk [w+urH
[wur(H yg&mbm-1 77)? (wpfenf;) [awe+uwA+H urH [wur(H yg&mk aue
2 490)? ,mpdwmG awmif;? omvd*AH ud?k zmavwGm? ed'

a&r&daS om? 0ga&rygaom? cDa&eEkYd &nfjzif?h ypmaywGmusKd csuaf p?

260

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,ru

oydr"kou&m'D[daxmywf ysm;&nf oMum;tp&SdonfwdkYjzifh?


a,maZwGm,SOpf yfap? 0ga&m? Ak'y r ck bk&m;trSL;&Sad om?
bduK oC
H &[ef;taygif;tm;? 'geHtvSLud?k 'wGmNy;D ? bwupd -
y&da,momae? ]]baE-&m; rr\? 'H t*'geHtOK;tzsm;tvSL
onf? t*"rtjrwfq;kH jzpfaom t&[wzv
kd w
f &m;ud?k a&SU ]]t*"rH
ye t&[w}H }udak xmuf/ oAyXrHtvk;H pkaH omolw\
Ykd a&S;OK;pGm? y#da0"m,xd;k xGi;f odjcif;iSm? oH0wwk jzpfygap?}} wdod?Yk tm[
avQmufNy?D 0g-qkawmif;Ny?D owmonf? ]]{0Hqkawmif;onft
h wdik ;f ?
a[mwkjzpfygap?}} wdod?Yk tEkarm'eHtEkarm'emud?k tumod
jyKawmfrNl y/D
aomxdpk Vl umVonf? acwH v,fo?Ykd *Em? MoavmauaEm
vaomf? ouvacwH tvk;H pkaH omv,fonf? (v,fwpfuiG ;f vH;k onf)?
uPu
d Aa'[d 0d,zJUG tyfaom txGw&f u
dS ek o
f uJo
h Ydk jzpfuek af om? 0gtxGww
f jYkdzifh zGUJ pyftyfuek o
f uJo
h Ykd jzpfuek af om? omvdoaD o[doav;
ESw
H jYkd zif?h o E H aumif;pGmzk;H vTr;f tyfonfu?kd 'domG ? y0"d yDw (ck'u
d m
cPdum MouEu
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d ?kd
yDwd5rsdK;t"dym,ftus,fukd tbd.|-1 158? oN*K[fbm-112I/ y#dvbdwmG &? ]]ar\? 0g-rSm? vmbmvmbfwo
Ydk nf? 0g-pD;yGm;csr;f om
udk &jcif;wdo
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ykxu
k umavrkeq
Yf ef;vkyaf vmufaom toD;&S&d mtcg? ykxu
k *H emr
ykxkuumav/ / ykxk0+um,wDwd ykxkaum-avSmftyfpOf rrsm;
aomfvnf; rsm;ouJo
h Ydk toHjrnfaomtpm(rkeq
Yf ef;)? y-e? ykx+k au+u?axmr/ ykxku+a,m*szavm+umavm ykxkuumavm-rkefYqef;tm;
avsmufywfaom toD;&Sd&mtcg? a,m*szvyk'facs/ ]]EkYd&nfwnfp cJNyD;p
&ifph ok;H jzm rkeq
Yf ef;cg/ ajyma&;tyfMu ok;H umv cJp rSm ,ltyfpmG }}[laom
q&mwd\
Yk vuFmtwkid ;f rkeq
Yf ef;vkyEf idk &f mtcgonf ]](1) pyg; Ek&Yd nfwnfcgp
tcg (2) EkdY&nfcJNyD;cgptcg (3) EkdY&nf&ifhcgptcg}}[k 3rsdK;&Sd&m EkdY&nf

0*f

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261

rkeq
Yf ef;\ tOK;tzsm;tvSLrnfonfu?dk 0g-rkeq
Yf ef;OK;tvSLrnfonfu?kd
t'godNy?D *gr0goD[d &Gmaeavh&adS om vlwEYkd iS ?hf (&Gmol&mG om;wkEYd iS )fh ?
o'? t*o'geH emrtOK;tzsm;jzpfaom aumufudk ay;vSLjcif;
rnfonfu?kd 0g-aumufOK;tvSLrnfonfu?kd (aumuf&w
d cf geD;tvSLuk)d ?
Ydk iG f &dwpf aeY
t'god/ vm,ae&dw&f mtcg? vm,e*H &dw&f maeYww
tvSLuk?d 0g-&dwOf K;tvSLud?k (t'god)? a0Pdu&aPaumufviId ;f xk;H
rIjyK&maeY? (aumufviId ;f pnf;&maeY)? a0P*H aumufviId ;f xk;H &maeYwYdk
wGif xk;H paeY tvSLuk?d 0g-xk;H OK;tvSLud?k (t'god)? uvmyg'Dok
aumufvIdif;pkykH&mtcg tp&SdonfwkdY? uvmy*H aumufvdIif;ykH&m
aeYww
Ydk iG f ykpH aeY tvSLuk?d 0g-ykOH K;tvSLud?k (t'god)? cv*H wvif;
aumufviId ;f wku
Yd dk xm;&maeYww
Ydk iG f tpaeY tvSLuk?d 0g-wvif;OK;
tvSLud?k (t'god)? cvb@*H wvif; e,fNy;D avSNY y;D pyg;b@mukd
pky&Hk maeYww
Ydk iG f tpaeY tvSLuk?d 0g-e,fOK;tvSLud?k (t'god-ay;vSLNy)D ?
cJNyD;p tcgukd ,lyg/ ykykxu
umavwd omeH emwdyau ykxu
k a,m*sk umav
zvumav?-'D#D-2 182/
vm,e*/H / vm,e*Ed yu o v0ae v0em&ar 'geH
t'god?-'D#D-2 182/
d mG XyeH a0Pdu&PH/
a0P*/H / vke o a0Pd0aoe AEw
w tm&ar 'geH a0P*H?-'D#D-2 182/
uvmy*/H / a0Pda,m ye {uawm uwGm &modu&PH uvmayg/
ww t*'geH uvmy*?H -'D#D-2 182/
cv*H/ / uvmyawm eD[&dwGm r'ae t*'geH cv*H('D#D-2 182)?
cav uvmygeH Xye'd0ao t*H *a[wGm 'geH cv*H(r#D-2 140)/
cvb@*H/ / r'dwH MozkPdwGm "n &modu&aP t*'geH
cvb@*H('D#D-2 182)? r'dwGm 0D[DeH &modu&P'd0ao t*H *a[wGm
'geH b@*H(r#D-2 140)/

262

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,ru

aum|*H usnt
f wGi;f pyg;oGi;f &maeYww
Ydk iG f tpaeY tvSLuk?d 0g-usnf
OK;tvSLud?k (t'god)? wd {0Hodv
Yk Qi?f {uoawpfo;D aom
aumuf? e0 0ga&9Burd w
f w
Ykd ikd w
f ikd ?f t*'geHtOK;tzsm;tvSLud?k (tvSL
OK;uk)d ? t'goday;vSLNy/D wxdpk Vl umVonf? oA0ga&oktvk;H pkH
aom tBurd w
f Ykd ? 0g-vSLonft
h Burd w
f idk ;f wdYk ? *[dw*[dw|meH,ltyf
,ltyfaom t&yfonf? y&dy&l d jynfNh y?D oHonf? twda&uHvGef
uJpmG ? O|meorE-H pnfyifw;kd wufjcif;ESihf jynfph o
kH nf? 0g-toD;tESEH iS fh
O|me
O|meEd acwm'dawm OyErm,H(jzpfaomtoD;tESH tcGef
jynhfpkHonf? O|me
twkyf)?-oD#Dopf-1 375/ ta[modNy/D [drSe?f {o({aom) "arm
emrukovuryxw&m;rnfonf? twmeHrdru
d ?kd &uEH apmifh
a&Smufou
l ?kd &uwd jyef apmifah &Smuf\/ aweaMumif?h b*0gonf?
]]"arm ?ay? "rpm&D}}wd[l? tm[a[mawmfrNl y/D
"arm [a0 &uwd "rpm& "arm okpad Pm okc}rm0[mwd?
{omedoaH om "ar okpad P e 'k*w
*pwd "rpm&D/
"arm-avmuDavmukw& mokpku
d w
f &m;onf? "rpm&-w&m;ukd
usiafh vh&o
dS u
l ?dk &uw-d (tyg,fqif;&J oHo&m0#fqif;&Jr)S apmifah &Smuf
\? okpad Pm-aumif;pGm usit
hf yfaom? "arm-avmuD avmukw& m
okpku
d w
f &m;onf? okc-H avmuD avmukw& mcsr;f omuk?d tm0[wdaqmifEidk \
f ? "rpm&D-w&m;ukd usiahf vh&adS om yk*Kd vo
f nf? "ar-avmuD
aum|*H / / "n cvawm auma| yuyd ae t*'geH aum|*H('D#D2 182)? aum|m*ga& "n yuyd e'd0ao 'geH aum|*H(r#D-2 140)/
"arm...okcrm0[mwd/ / "armwd avmud,avmukwa &m okp&dw"arm? &uww
D d tyg,'kua wm &uw?d oHom&'kua wm p 0d0Lyed,blawm &uwad ,0? okpdaPmwd ok|K pdaPm urzvmed o'[w
d mG oupH
pdwDuwGm Oypdawm? okcEd avmud,avmukw&okcH(ax&.|-2 27)/
[a0
[a0wd edygwrwH(aewd.|-44)/

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avmukw& mokpku
d w
f &m;uk?d okpad P-aumif;pGm usit
fh yfonf\
tjzpfaMumih?f (wpfenf;) okpad P-aumif;pGmusit
fh yfaom? "ar-aMumih?f
'k*w
- raumif;aom *wdo?Ykd e *pw-d ra&mufEidk ?f {o ({aom)-
'k*w
o
d Ydk ra&muf&jcif;onf? okpad P-aumif;pGm usit
fh yfaom? "arw&m;\? tmedoaH om-tusKd ;wnf;/ ]]"ar okpdaP}}ukd wEenf;ponf
t& e *pwd pyfcu
dk f edrw
d t
f euf tmedoaH ompyfcu
dk f q|Dteuf ay;&
onf?-x&.|-2 27? aewd0d-61/

{0HodkYvQif? {o ({aom)tnmwaum@nonf? 0dyDormorK'u


mav0dyDb&k m;&Siyf iG afh wmfr&l mtcg? (0dyDb&k m;&Sif
vufxufawmftcg)? t*"rH ud?k yXrHpGm? y#d0Zd w
d Hk xd;k xGi;f od
jcif;iSm? yawaEmawmifhwvsuf? e0 0ga&9BudrfwdkYwdkifwdkif? t*'gemedtOK;tzsm;tvSLwdkYudk? (tvSLOK;wkdYukd)? t'godNyD/ yetzkdY
wpfyg;um;? 0g-onfomruao;? awmurmrS? owo[uyrwauurmwpfoed ;f \ txuf? [Ho0wDe*a&[Ho0wDNrKd U?
y'krkw&orK'umavydy'krkwdK&fbk&m;&Sif\ vufxufawmftcg
vnf;? owm[Hckepf&ufywfv;Hk ? r[m'geHBu;D pGmaom tvSLud?k (tvSL
Bu;D uk)d ? 'wGm? w b*0awmxdyk 'krw
k Kd &jf rwfpmG bk&m;\? yg'rlavajcawmf&if;? edyZw
d mG 0yfpif;? t*"rud?k yXrHpGm? y#d0dZewar0xd;k xGi;f odjcif;tusK;d iSmom? yweH qkawmif;rIu?kd XayodjzpfapcJhNyD/ XaywDwd...Oyga'wd?-tH#D-3 103/ wdodkYvQif?
rdemtnmwaum@nonf? yww
d ar0awmifw
h tyfaom qk
uko
d m? r,migbk&m;onf? 'dEH ay;awmfrt
l yfNy?D bdua 0wdYk t[H
'k*w/ / 'ku+*wd 'k*wd-'ku\ jzpfwnf&mbkHXme(tH#D-1 97)?
'ka|e urKem+edAwm+*wd 'k*wd-a'goonf zsufqD;tyfaom uHaMumihf
jzpfaom bkHXme(0d.|-135)? 'ku# urum&De+H *wd 'k*w
-d raumif;rIjyKow
l \
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a&muf&mbkHXme(aewd0d-166)? 'kum ukpdwm 0g *wd 'k*wd-qif;&Jaompufqkwftyfaom bkHXme(om&w -2 144)/

264

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onf? rkcH ud?k MoavmauwGmMunf


h ? e a'rday;onfr[kw?f wd
odrYk ed aYf wmfrNl y/D
baE-&m; ,oukvykwy r ck g,otrsK;d aumif;om;trSL;&Su
d ek f
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aumif;rIudk? u&okjyKcJhukefoenf; wdodkYar;avQmufukefNyD/
{awyd,otrSL;&Sad om 55yg;aom &[ef;wdo
Yk nfvnf;? {u
wpfqal om? Ak'
\? oEad u? t&[wH ud?k yawEm awmifw
h
ukev
f su?f A[kH rsm;pGmaom? yknurH aumif;rIu?kd uwGm? ty&bma*
aemuftzdYk ? Aka'a*gwrbk&m;&Sio
f nf? tEkya EyGiahf wmfrrlao;v
aomf? 0g-rD? o[m,umoli,fcsi;f wdo
Yk nf? [kwmG ? 0*AEaeetkypf zk UGJ
jcif;jzifh? (emrIulnDa&;toif;zGJYjcif;jzifh)? yknmedaumif;rIwdkYudk?
ua&mEmjyKuek v
f aomf? temxrwo&D&medtm;ud;k rScD &dk mr&Sad om
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f ifuek v
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hf nfcu
hJ ek Nf y/D awxdo
k il ,fcsi;f wdo
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aom aojcif;&Sdonfudk? 0gaoaeonfudk? 'doGm? ]]psmaymr
rD;avmifapuket
f ?hH 0g-rD;oN*K [u
f ek t
f ?hH }} wdodYk wdik yf if? okomeH
okomefo?Ykd [&ok aqmifuek Nf y/D awokxdo
k il ,fcsi;f wdw
Yk iG ?f y5
a,mufuek af om? Zaevlwu
Ykd ?kd ]]wkarSwdo
Yk nf? psmayxrD;avmif
apMuavm? 0g-rD;oN*K [Mf uavm?}} wdodYk ajym? okomae?
XaywGmxm;? aoomxdik g;a,mufwrYkd S <uif;aomvlwo
Ykd nf? *grH
&Gmod?Yk y0d|m0ifuek Nf y/D ,o'g&aum,ooli,fonf? (armif,o
onf)? wH rwo&D&H xdo
k al otavmif;ud?k olav[dwHp;l 0g;wdjYk zif?h
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d mG xd;k azmuf? y&d0awwmG y&d0awwmG vnfap vnfap?
0g-vSe
f vSe
f ? psmayaEmvaomf? tokbonHtokb[kjzpfaom
trSwo
f nmud?k y#dvbd&Ny?D wa&ord rdrrd S tjcm;vnf;jzpfuek af om?

0*f

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265

pwkEH4a,mufukefaom? ZemeHvlwdYkwkdYukd? 0g-wkdYtm;? ]]abmtdk


...oli,fcsi;f wdYk ww wwxdx
k t
kd &yf? 0d'o
H w
d prH zsuq
f ;D tyfaom
ta&&Sad om? 0g-ysupf ;D aom ta&&Sad om? uA&a*glyH 0d,ajymuf
usm;aom EGm;ESiw
hf al om? tokp rpifMu,faom? 'k*E H raumif;aom
teH&Y adS om? y#duv
l H pufqyk zf ,
G af umif;aom? rH o&D&H tavmif;
aumifu?kd yxMunfMh uavm?}}wdodYk ajym? 'aodjrifap
d Ey'k rf sm; &Syd u
Hk dk Munh
f ]]abm}}ESifh ]]0d'o
H w
d Ny?D 0g-jyNy/D ]]tokp} }paom 'kw,
prH}}wkdYaemif yk'fxD;r&Sdoihf/ awydxdk4a,mufaomolwdkYonfvnf;?
wwxdt
k avmif;aumif? tokbonHud?k y#dvbok &ukeNf y/D yyd
5a,mufvnf;jzpfuek af om? aw Zemxdv
k w
l o
Ykd nf? *grHod?Yk *Em?
aooo[m,umeH<uif;aom oli,fcsi;f wdt
Yk m;? ux,ok ajymjy
ukeNf y/D ,aom,ornfaom? 'g&aum yeoli,fonfum;? a*[H
tdro
f ?Ykd *Em? rmwmydwel rdbwdt
Yk m;vnf;aumif;? b&d,m, p
ZeD;tm;vnf;aumif;? uaxodNy/D oaAyd tvk;H pkv
H nf;jzpfuek af om?
awxdo
k w
l o
Ykd nf? tokbH tokbur|mef;ud?k bm0,ok jzpfapukeNf y/D
'Hqdt
k yfcNhJ y;D onfum;? {awoH,otrSL;&Sad om 55yg;aom
&[ef;wd\
Yk ? ykAu
rH a&S;aumif;rIwnf;/ awae0xdak Mumifo
h mvQi?f
,o\? wm*ga&armif;raqmif? okomeonmokomef[k
jzpfaom trSwo
f nmonf? 0g-okomef[
l rSwx
f ifjcif;onf? OyZd
jzpfNy?D p-onfomruao;? wm, Oyed,orw,
d mxdt
k m;Bu;D aom
rS&D mtaMumif;\ jynfph jHk cif;aMumif?h oaAord tvk;H pkaH om ,otrSL;
&Sad om 55yg;aom &[ef;wk\
Yd vnf;? 0daoom"d*arm&oihf &xku
d af om
uA&a*gly/H / a*glyH lyo'g teufrhJ okrYd [kwf orl[teuf[k
2rsdK;zGifhqkdMu&m teufrJh,ljcif;u ykdaumif;\? ]]a*g {0 a*glyH? uA&H+
a*glyH uA&a*glyH}}[kjyK/ (oD#Dopf-2 86? oH#D-1 315)
0daoom"d*arm/ / 0daooH t"d*pwd {awemwd 0daoom"d*arm-

266

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,ru

r*fzv
dk w
f &m;xl;onf? 0g-w&m;xl;&jcif;onf? edAw
d jzpfNy/D {0HodYk
vQi?f aryd,otrSL;&Sad om 55yg;aom &[ef;wdo
Yk nfvnf;?
twemrdro
d nf? yww
d ar0awmifw
h tyfaomqkuo
kd m? vbok
&ukeNf y/D t[Honf? rkcH ud?k MoavmauwGm? e 'rd ay;onfr[kw?f
wdodYk rdeaYf wmfrNl y/D
baE b'0*,
d o[m,um yeb'0*jD zpfuek af omoli,fcsi;f
wdo
Yk nfum;? u urH tb,faumif;rIuu
H ?kd u&ok jyKcyhJ gukeo
f enf;
wdodkYar;avQmufukefNyD/ {awydb'0*Doli,fcsif;wdkYonf
vnf;? ykAA 'k g eHa&S;bk&m;&Siw
f \
Ykd ? oEad u? t&[wH ud?k yawwmG
awmifw
h ? yknmedaumif;rIwu
Ykd ?kd uwGm? ty&bma*aemuftzdYk ?
Aka'onf? tEkya Eaomf? wook;H q,faom? "kwm aoaomufMuL;
wdo
Yk nf? [kwmG ? wk@ad vm0g'Hwk@v
d 0uf\ Mo0g'ud?k okwmG Mum;
em&? o|d0o[medtESpaf jcmufaomif;wdyYk wfv;Hk ? y5yg;
ukefaom? oDvmedoDvwdkYudk? &uokapmifhcJhukefNyD/ {0HodkYvQif?
arydb'0*&D [ef;wdo
Yk nfvnf;? twemonf? yww
d ar0udo
k m?
vbok ukeNf y/D t[Honf? rkcH ud?k MoavmauwGm? e 'rd ay;
onfr[kw?f wdodrYk ed aYf wmfrNl y/D
baE Oka0vuyg'a,m yeOka0vuytp&Su
d ek af om
&[ef;wdo
Yk nfum;? u urH ud?k u&ok enf; wdukeNf y/D awyd
xdOk ka0vuytp&Sad om &[ef;wdo
Yk nfvnf;? t&[war0udk
om? yawwmG ? yknmed? u&ok ukeNf y/D [dcsUJ OK;tH?h awmb'
urmrS? a'Ge0kwduay92urmtxuf? wdamwdbk&m;&Sif
vnf;aumif;? zkamzkbk&m;&Siv
f nf;aumif;? wdod?Yk a'G2ql
xl;jcm;ol\tjzpfukd &&SdaMumif; r*fzkdvfw&m;-w&m;xl;(0dok'd#D-1 114)?
t"d*EaAmwd t"d*arm? 0daoaom {0+t"d*arm 0daoom"d*arm-&oihf
&xkdufaom r*fzkdvfw&m;xl;(0dok'd#D-1 212)/

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ukeaf om? Ak'g wdo


Yk nf? OyZo
k yGiahf wmfrcl u
hJ ek Nf y/D zkAk'
zk
bk&m;&Si\
f ? r[daEm emrr[dEr nfaom? &mZmrif;onf? ydwmcrnf;
awmfonf? ta[modNy/D yequfOK;tH?h wo xdzk
k bk&m;&Sio
f nf?
oarm"t&[wr*fPf oAnKwPfawmfo?Ykd yowm okE& m aAm"d
oarm"d(Ak'0H.|-75)? orKZwd {wm,mwd oarm"d('D#D-3 59? oH#D-2
474)/ yawa&mufawmfrv
l aomf? &anm-rif;\? ued|ykawmti,f

qk;H jzpfaom om;awmfonf? yXrt*om0aumyXrt*om0uonf?


(ta[mod)? yka&m[dwykawmyka&m[dw\
f om;onf? 'kw,
d t*om0aum'kw,
d t*om0uonf? ta[mod/ &mZmonf? owK
\? oEu
d H od?Yk *Em? ]]ar\? aZ|ykawmtBu;D qH;k om;onf? Aka'g
wnf;? ued|ykawmti,fq;Hk jzpfaom om;awmfonf? yXrt*om0aumwnf;? yka&m[dwykawmonf? 'kw,
d t*om0aumwnf;?}}
wdodkYawG;? awxdkbk&m;&SifESihf yXrt*om0u 'kwd,t*
om0uwdkYudk? MoavmauwGmMunfh? ]]rar0ig\om? Aka'g
bk&m;wnf;? rar0\om? "armwnf;? rar0\om? oHaCmwnf;?
t&[awmtvSLawmfrSef tylaZmfudk cHawmfrlxdkufaom? ormorK'
razmufrjyef rSeu
f efpmG ud,
k af wmfwikd f tvH;k pHak om w&m;
wdkYudk odawmfrlaom? w b*0awmxdkjrwfpGmbk&m;tm;? earm
earm/ / earmedygwfaemif od0b
d wf tH0b
d wf 2rsKd ;ausEidk o
f nf? od0b
d wf
ausvQif ]]earm-&Scd ;dk jcif;onf? (twK-jzpfygapownf;?)}}[kvnf;aumif; tH0d
bwfausvQif ]]earm-&Sdckd;jcif;ukd? (ua&mrd-jyKyg\?)}}[kvnf;aumif; ay;yg/
(eDwdokw-94? eDwd"mwk-133)
udwyf 'k /f / ]]ereH earm? erwd {awemwd 0g earm? ermrDwd earm?
erk+t?}}[k jyK udwyf 'k v
f nf; ,lEidk o
f nf? ok,
Yd &l mvnf; od0b
d wf tH
0dbwf2rsdK;yif oufEkdifonf? tH0dbwf,lvQif txufazmfjyyg 2enf;xJrS
aemufenf;twkid ;f ay;yg? od0b
d wf,v
l Qif ]]earm-&Scd ;dk yg\}}[k ay;? txuf
twkdif; ay;xm;onf/ (*Em#D-524? ucFgr[m#D-1 15-19)

268

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,ru

d wGuf av[kew
f uf
&Scd ;kd yg\?}} wdod?Yk wduw
KH 3Burd ?f O'geHyDwt
h ? owK
ay:xGuv
f maom pum;ud?k 0g-O'gef;ud?k O'gaewGmusL;&if
\? yg'rlavajcawmf&if;? edyZdw
mG 0yfpif;? ]]baEjrwfpmG bk&m;
d mG q|Duwm;pyf? 0g-\? ed'ged? arwynfah wmfonf? edo'D w
oD'dwGm orefpyf? e0kwd0o[y&drmPtESpf 9 aomif;
twdik ;f t&Sn&f adS om? tm,kaemtouf\? (oufwrf;\)? aum#d,H
tpGet
f zsm;? edo'D w
d mG ae&jcif;aMumif?h (tm,k-<uif;useaf om touf
onf)? ed'g,eumavm 0d,tdyf&mumvuJhodkY? (a[mwd-jzpfyg\?
tH0dbwfjzihf kyfNyD;yk/H / tH0dbwf[k ,l&m eraemif tH0dbwfukd
tHarm ed*[
w
d H psvay[dow
k f ]]tHarm psvay[d}}[laom a,m*0dbm*jzihf
r-jyK r-ukd Mo? (wpfenf;) erkaemif tH0dbwfukd if;a,m*0dbm*jzihf r-jyK
awok 0k'dokwfBuD;jzihf r\ t-ukd MojyK? a&SUenf;onf plVedkwdusrf;vm
kyfNyD;ykHwnf;? tH0dbwf,lvQif kyfNyD;ykHIyfaxG;aomaMumihf 'kwd,mt0kwuH
teuf yxrmodouf[v
k nf; qkad o;\/ (ucFgr[m#D-1 15-19? 0daAm48)
O'geH/ / O'g[&D,wd OaA*0aoemwd wxm 0g O'g[&PH O'geHtxufoYdk SLxkwt
f yfaomt&m? 0g-txufoYdk SLxkwjf cif;? (o'w) ? 0g-&ifxJ
rsdKodyfrxm;Ekdifojzihf xkwfazmfajymqkdtyfaompum;? (t"dym,w)?-r#D-2
146? tH#D-3 60/ O' (arm'teuf)+,k? ,kukd tejyK t-ukd 'DCjyK(eDwd
"mwk-93)? (wpfenf;) ]]O+te+P? 'fvm tm0k'djyK(eDbm-1 63? 0dyd"mef?
"mygwkduf-54/ O'gef;pum;onf yDwdtpGrf;aMumihfjzpfaom O'gef;pum; "r
oHa0*tpGrf;aMumihfjzpfaom O'gef;pum;}}[k 2rsdK;&Sd\? yDwdtpGrf;aMumihf
jzpfaom O'gef;pum;ukd ,lyg/ (O'ge.|-2? om&w-1 99)
O'gaewGm/ / O+te+aP+wGm? ]]O'gaewGm-txufokdY SLxkwf?
(o'w)? 0g-&ifxJ rsdKodyfrxm;Ekdifojzihf xkwfazmfajymqkd? (t"dym,w)?
0g-usL;&ih
f ? (a0g[m&w)}}[kay;/ (wpfenf;) O+tm+eD+wGm? ]]O'gaewGmtxufoYdk xkwaf qmif? (o'w) }}[kay;? (wpfenf;) O'geaemif "mwGaw
emrod(arm*f-5 12)okwfjzihf ypnf;ouf {jyK(eDbm-1 69)/

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269

wom-xdak Mumif?h ) tanoHtjcm;olw\


Ykd ? a*['Gg&Htdrw
f cH g;od?Yk t*Emr<url? ,m0tMuifrQavmufumvywfv;kH ? t[Honf? ZD0grd
touf&iS v
f wUH ? wm0xdrk Qavmufumvywfv;Hk ? ar\? pwma&m
ukeaf om? ypa,ypn;f wdu
Yk ?kd t"d0gaoxud,
k af wmft
h xuf 0ifouf
wnfaeapawmfryl guke?f 0gvufcaH wmfryl guke?f }} wdodYk avQmuf?
y#dnH y#dnmOfu?kd 0g0efcu
H wdu?kd *a[wGm,l? edA'H tNrrJ jywf?
Ak'K y|meHbk&m;&Siu
f dk qnf;uyfru
I ?kd ua&mwd\/ yequfOK;tH?h
&anm\? tya&ydtjcm;vnf;jzpfuek af om? wa,mukeaf om? ykwm
om;awmfwdkYonf? ta[oHk&SdukefNyD/ awokxdkom;awmfwdkYwGif?
aZ|om;awmfBu;D \? y a,m"owmedig;&maom ppfom;wdo
Yk nf?
y&d0g&medtjct
H &Htjzpf&u
dS ek \
f ? 0g-jc&H jH cif;&Su
d ek \
f ? rZrd om;
awmfvwf\? wDPd (a,m"owmed)oHk;&maom ppfom;wdkYonf?
(y&d0g&meduke\
f ?) ued|om;awmfi,f\? a'G (a,m"owmed)
ESpf&maom ppfom;wdkYonf? (y&d0g&med)/ awxdkom;awmfwdkYonf?
]]r,rd uReaf wmfrsKd ;wdo
Yk nfvnf;? bmwduH aemifawmfb&k m;ud?k abmaZmrqGr;f vkyaf uR;yguket
f ?hH }} wdodo
Yk aH wmfOK;wif? ydw&H
crnf;awmfu?kd MoumoHtcGiu
hf ?kd ,mpdwmG awmif;? tvbrmem
r&ukev
f aomf? ykeyKeH xyf? ,mpEmydawmif;ygukeaf omfvnf;? tvbdwGmr&rl? ypaEwdik ;f jynf\ tpGet
f zsm;t&yfonf? 0g-e,fpyfa'o
onf? ukyad wysupf ;D vaomf? 0g-olyek x
f vaomf? wxdt
k pGef
tzsm;jzpfaomt&yfu?kd 0lyorewm,Nird ;f at;apjcif;tusK;d iSm? (Nird f
0yfapjcif;iSm)? ayodwmapvTwt
f yfuek o
f nf? ([kwmG )? ypEH ud?k 0lyoarwGmNird ;f at;apNy;D ? ydwk crnf;awmf\? oEu
d H od?Yk tm*rok
jyefvmukeNf y/D tx? aexdo
k m;awmfwu
Ykd ?kd ydwmonf? tmvd*w
mG
zuf? oDaoOK;acgif;? pkrw
d mG pkw
f ? (erf;Iy
f )? ]]wmwmcspo
f m;
wdYk a0gwdt
Yk m;? 0&Hqku?kd 'rd ay;tH?h }} wd tm[/

270

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awxdo
k m;awmfwo
Ykd nf? ]]a'0crnf;awmfrif;jrwf om"kaumif;
ygNy?D }} wdodo
Yk aH wmfOK;wif? 0&Hqku?kd *[dwuH,ltyfonfu?kd
uwGm? ykewpfzef? uwdyg[pa,etenf;i,faom&ufukd vGef
&mtcg? 0g-2&uf 3&uf vGe&f mtcg? ydw&monf? ]]wmwmwdYk 0&H
ud?k *PSx,lMuavm?}} wdod?Yk 0kwm ukeo
f nf? (ormemukev
f
aomf)? ]]a'0jrwf trSmuHuReaf wmfrsKd ;wdt
Yk m;? tanetjcm;aom?
auepdwpfpw
Hk pfcak omqkjzif?h tawmtvdo
k nf? ewd r&Syd g? awm
aeYr?S y|m,p? r,HuReaf wmfrsKd ;wdo
Yk nf? bmwduH aemifawmf
bk&m;ud?k abmaZmrqGr;f vkyaf uR;yguket
f ?hH aemuReaf wmfrsKd ;wdYk
tm;? rH 0&Hqku?kd a'[day;awmfryl g?}} wdod?Yk tm[Hok oHawmf
OK;wifuek Nf y/D ]]wmwmwdYk e a'rdray;Edik ?f }} wdodrYk ed NYf y/D ]]a'0
jrwf edpu
mvHNraJ omumvywfv;kH ? ta'aEmray;vaomf? ow
oH0p&med7ESpfwdkYywfvHk;? a'xay;oem;awmfrlygukef?}} wd-NyD/
]]wmwmwdYk e a'rdEdik ?f }} wd-Ny/D ]]a'0jrwf awe [dxdo
k jYkd zpf
vQi?f q (oH0p&med)6ESpw
f yYkd wfv;kH aomfvnf;aumif;? y (oH0p&med)
5ESpw
f yYkd wfv;kH aomfvnf;aumif;? pwm&d (oH0p&med)4ESpw
f yYkd wfv;kH
aomfvnf;aumif;? wDPd (oH0p&med)3ESpw
f yYkd wfv;kH aomfvnf;aumif;?
a'G (oH0p&med)2ESpw
f yYkd wfv;kH aomfvnf;aumif;? {uH oH0p&H 1ESpf
ywfv;kH aomfvnf;aumif;? a'xuke?f }} wd-odo
Yk aH wmfOK;wifuek Nf y/D
]]wmwmwdYk e a'rdEdik ?f }} wd-Ny/D ]]a'0 awe [dvQi?f ow rmao
7vwdyYk wfv;Hk ? a'xuke?f }} wd-Ny/D ]]a'0 q rmao6 vwdyYk wfv;Hk
aomfvnf;aumif;? y rmao5vwdyYk wfv;Hk aomfvnf;aumif;? pwma&m rmao4vwdyYk wfv;Hk aomfvnf;aumif;? wa,m rmao3vwkYd
ywfv;kH aomfvnf;aumif;? a'xuke?f }} wd-okYd oHawmfOK;wifuek Nf y/D
]]wmwm-wk?Yd e a'rd?}} wd-Ny/D ]]a'0jrwf a[mwk&Syd gap? aemuRef
awmfrsdK;wdkYwGif? {auuwpfa,mufwpfa,muftm;? {auuH
rmoHwpfvpDwpfvpDu?dk uwGm? wa,m rmaook;H vwdyYk wfv;Hk ?

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271

a'xuke?f }} wd-Ny/D {auuESihf aemukd 0kprf wlaom 0daooe 0dao


osMu
H ]]{auu-aom? aem-wkt
Yd m;}}[kvnf; ay;Ekid o
f nf? ]]wmwm
wdYk om"kaumif;Ny?D awe [dvQi?f wa,m rmaowdyYk wfv;Hk ? abmaZxqGr;f vkyaf uR;Muavm?}} wd tm[/ awxdo
k m;awmfwo
Ykd nf?
wk|mESpo
f ufauseyfuek o
f nf? ([kwmG )? &mZmeHud?k 0Ew
d mG ? ou|mear0rdrOd pmjzpfaom ae&modo
Yk m? *wmoGm;ukeNf y/D yequf?
wdPr d 3a,mufvnf;jzpfuek af om? awoHxdo
k m;awmfw\
Ykd ? 0g-wkrYd mS ?
{aum0wpfa,mufwnf;omvQijf zpfaom? aum|m*g&daumb@m
wdu
k f ,SOo
f o
l nf? 0g-b@mpk;d (b@ma&;rSL;)onf? (tw)d ? {aum0
aom? tm,kwa umpm&if;trI txl;,SOo
f (l tm;xkwo
f )l onf? 0g
pm&if;udik o
f nf? (tw)d ? wxkpd m&if;udik \
f ? 0g-rSm? 'Gg'oe[kwm
wpfoed ;f ESpaf omif;ukeaf om? yk&o
d y&d0g&ma,mufsm;tjct
H &Hwo
Ykd nf?
(ta[oHk &Su
d ek Nf y/D ) awxdo
k m;awmfwo
Ykd nf? awxdb
k @ma&;rSL;ESihf
pm&if;udkifwdkYudk? ]]aw aw-xdkxdka,mufsm;wdkYudk}}[kvnf; ay;Muonf?
yaumomaywGmac:ap? ]]r,Hwdo
Yk nf? rH awrmoH3vywf
vH;k ? 'oq,fyg;ukeaf om? oDvmedwdu
Yk ?kd *a[wGm,l? a'G2xnf
ukeaf om? umom0gedzef&nfjzifh qd;k tyfaom t0wfwu
Ykd ?kd ed0gaowGm
aum|m*g&daum// / aum|H 0kpwd "n tmXye|meH? aum|blwH
t*g&H aum|m*g&H(om&w-3 349)? uko,
D wd taumoD,wDwd auma|m
"nedva,m(arm*f-7 55)/ tqkdrsm;tvkdrl aum|m*g&t& pyg;usD
(*kad 'gif)}}uko
d m &\? okaYd omf aum|m*g&onf (1) Opmokad vSmif&m b@mwku
d f
(2) t0wfoadk vSmif&m b@mwku
d f (3) aumufyo
J adk vSmif&mus(D *kad 'gif)tm;jzihf
3rsKd ;&S\
d ? xkad Mumihf ]]aum|m*ga&+ed,ak wm aum|m*g&daum}}[kjyK aum|m*g&daum-b@mwkduf ,SOfol(b@mpdk;)? 0g-usDwkduf ,SOfol(uDswkdufpkd;)}}[k
teuf2rsdK; ay;Edkifonf/ (r[med.|-12? 'D.|-1 264? om&w-3 350)
tm,kwa um
um/ / 0daoaoe+,kawm tm,kawm? tm,kaawm {0 tm mmwd 0daoaoe ,kw
,kwa um/ tm,kw
?-r[med.|-227/

272

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,ru

0wf? owm&mESi?hf o[0goHtwlaejcif;jzif?h 0odmraeuket


f ?hH
wkarSwdo
Yk nf? {wuH emrrQtwdik ;f t&Sn&f o
dS nfrnfaom? 'ge0wH
tvSL0wfudk? *a[wGm,l? a'0oduHaeYpOfaeYwdkif;? e0kwdo[meH-9aomif;ukeaf om? bduL eH&[ef;wdzYk v
Ykd nf;aumif;? 0g-twGuf
vnf;aumif;? a,m"o[ pppfonfwpfaxmifzv
Ykd nf;aumif;?
0g-twGuv
f nf;aumif;? oAH aom? cg'eD,abmZeD,H cJz,
G f abmZOf
ud?k y0aw,smxjzpfapMuavm? [drSe\
f ? r,Hwdo
Yk nf? awm
aeYr?S y|m,p? udd bmudrk Q? e 0umrajymMuvdrrhf nfr[kw?f }} wd
l ]](uom-tb,faMumihf
od?Yk 0'ok ajymqdu
k ek Nf y/D [dudk um&Pteuf,
enf;) [d (,om)-tMuifaMumih?f r,H-wko
Yd nf? awm-rS? y|m,-? ud-d
rQ? e 0umr-r[kw?f wd-xkad Mumihw
f nf;? wd-ok?Yd wdwpfv;Hk aus? 0'o}k }
[kvnf; ay;Ekdifonf/

wa,myd3a,mufvnf;jzpfuek af om? aw Zemxdrk if;om;wdo


Yk nf?
y&d0g&o[Htjct
H &Hwpfaxmifu?kd *a[wGmac:,l? 'oukef
aom? oDvmedwdu
Yk ?kd orm'g,aumif;pGm,l? 0gaqmufwnf?
umom,0wmedzef&nfq;kd t0wfwu
Ykd ?kd ed0gaowGm0wf? 0d[ma&a,0ausmif;omvQi?f 0ook aeukeNf y/D aum|m*g&daum ponf
vnf;aumif;? tm,kwa um ponfvnf;aumif;? {uawmwpfaygif;
wnf;? [kwmG ? wdPH ukeaf om? bmwdumeH-nDaemifw\
Ykd ? aum|m*ga&[db@mwdu
k w
f rYkd ?S 0ga&e 0ga&etvSnt
hf m;jzifh tvSnt
hf m;
jzifh? 'ge0wHudk? *a[wGm? 'geHudk? a'Edukef\? ye-qufOK;tHh?
urum&meHtvkyo
f rm;wd\
Yk ? ykwm om; orD;wdo
Yk nf? ,m*kbwm'DeH ,m*kxrif;tp&So
d nfw\
Ykd ? twm,tusK;d iSm? a&m'Ed idu
k ek \
f /
awxdt
k vkyo
f rm;wdo
Yk nf? awoHxdo
k m;orD;wdt
Yk m;? bduK oaH C
orm'g,/ / tmykA' g"mwfudk xk;H pHtwkid ;f *[Pteuf,
l ay;cJo
h nf?
tmukd tm'dteuf 'g"mwfukd &uPteuf,l ]]orm'g,-tprS pvsuf
apmifh xdef;jznhfusihf}}[k wpfenf;ay;Ekdifonf/(tH#D-3 158)

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273

&[ef;taygif;onf? tem*awa,0r<uvmao;rDyif? ,m*kbwm'DedwdkYudk? a'Eday;ukef\/ bduKoHC\? bwudpm0omae?


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acs("mef#D-125? 693)/

274

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aMumifh? r&Pmaojcif;[laom pkwdpdwfrS? y&Haemufjzpfaom y#doaEpdwuP? aywd0doa,-NydwmbHk? edAwokjzpfukefNyD/ awbmwdum yeoHk;OK;aom nDaemifwdkYonfum;? yk&doo[ae
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wGifonf?-Ak'0H.|-301/

276

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owmonf? ]]r[m&mZBu;D awmurmrS? a'Ge0kwu


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278

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0eol<u,frnfonf? ta[mod/ Oabmyd2a,mufvnf;jzpfuek af om?

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awxdo
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onf? (ormaem-aomf?) pdaEod Ny?D (u)? ]]t[Honf? "avmuwbm0ar0avmutwabmudkom? (rsufarSmufb0ukdom)?
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wd\
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J ? r,monf? {uH
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280

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m}}[k ac:onf(oDbm-4 23)/ t'du
mwd yxm0daem?-'D.|-1 266/
0PdAu
mm/ / 'geESihf 'ge&Sifukd csD;rGrf; awmif;olukd ]]0PdAu}}[k ac:
onf? 'gezvH 0aPwGm 0uEd ,mpEDwd 0edAum("mef#D-740)? *kP p
zv p 0aPe udwa ee yoHom, ,mpdwmG 0uEd tm''Ed *PSEw
D d
0PdAu
m? 0P+ 0u+t? Pwpfv;Hk ukad cs 0a'Gabmfvm vm?-"mefeo
d pf740? (wpfenf;) *kPudwaee 0eEd ,mpEDwd 0PdAum? 0e+PGK? Avm
eukd PjyK? (wpfenf;) 0edrSd ,mpeuar ed,kwm 0edAum? 0ed+P? Avm
eukd P jyK?-"mefed-740? tem*w0H.|? (wpfenf;) 0eeH ,mpeH 0ed? 0e
pEw
D d 0PdAu
m? 0edaemif pw ,ypn;f ? 0eD,[laom emr"mwf
aemif PGKypnf;ouf tujyK? (0eD,u)? ,ukd 0jyK 0a'Gabmf eD &
eukd PjyK? (wpfenf;) 0ed,m twmeH yEDwd 0PdAum? 0ed+yg+t? (0edy)?
onm(oGw) uypn;f ouf? (0edyu)? yuk0d 0a'Gabmf eukd PjyK("mefed
0PdAu
mmwd a, ]]|H 'dEH uEH remyH
opf-740? tr&? uy? aumwKb)/ 0Pd
umave te0ZH 'dE?H ''H pdwH yoma',s? *pwk b0H jA[avmu}} Edt
m'dem
ea,e 'ge 0PH axmr,rmem 0dp&Ed?-'D.|-1 266/
,mpum/ / rcs;D rGr;f bJ awmif;oludk ]],mpu}}[k ac:onf? ]],mpEDwd
,mpum
,mpum}}[kjyK? ,mpum
,mpumwd a, ]]yowrwH a'x o&m0rwH a'xm}}wdtm'Ded 0wGm ,mprmem 0dp&Ed?-'D.|-1 266/

0*f

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281

odyAZH &aohtjzpfoYkd uyfa&mufjcif;od?Yk yAZd uyfa&mufNy/D {aum


wpfa,mufvnf;aumif;? a'G2a,mufwdkYvnf;aumif;? wa,m3
a,mufwv
Ykd nf;aumif;? wd {0Hod?Yk wxdo
k &'&aoh\? tEkyAZH twkvu
kd
f &aohtjzpfuyfa&mufjcif;od?Yk yAZw
d muyfa&mufuek f
aom? pwkowwo
d [rwm7aomif;4axmiftwdik ;f t&Sn&f u
dS ek f
aom? Z#dvm&aohwo
Ykd nf? ta[oHk ukeNf y/D aomxdo
k &'&aohonf?
y5yg;ukeaf om? tbdnmtbdnmOfwu
Ykd v
kd nf;aumif;? t|8yg;
ukeaf om? ormywad ,m pormywfwu
Ykd v
kd nf;aumif;? edAa wwmG
jzpfapNy;D ? awoH Z#dvmeHxd&k aohwt
Ykd m;? uodPy&durH uodP
k ;f
y&duu
H ?dk 0g-uokP
d ;f 0ef;wdYk ]]yx0D yx0D}}ponfjzihf pD;jzef;yGm;rsm;yku
H ?kd
tmpdud ajymjyNy/D oaAukeaf om? awydxd&k aohwo
Ykd nfvnf;? y
ukeaf om? tbdnmwdu
Yk v
kd nf;aumif;? t|ukeaf om? ormywad ,m
pwdu
Yk v
kd nf;aumif;? edAa woHk jzpfapMuukeNf y/D
awe ora,e? taemr'D emrtaemr'Drnfawmfrl
aom? ormorKa'gonf? avmau? O'yg'dNy/D e*&HNrKd Uawmfonf?
pE0wD emrpE0wDrnfonf? ta[modNy?D ydwmcrnf;awmfonf?
,o0g emr,o0grnfaom? cwad ,mrif;onf? (ta[mod)? rmwm
r,fawmfonf? ,aom"&m emr,aom"&m rnfaom? a'0Drdz&k m;
onf? (ta[mod)? aAm"daAm"dyifonf? tZKekaumaxmufMuyhH if
onf? (ta[mod)? edoabm pedobax&fvnf;aumif;? taemarm
ptaemrax&fvnfaumif;? (wdod?Yk ) a'Gukeaf om? t*om0um
t*om0uwdo
Yk nf? (ta[oHk ukeNf yD?) Oy|maumtvkyt
f auR;onf?
0kaPm emr0kPrnfaom &[ef;onf? (ta[mod)? okE& m p
okE& max&Dvnfaumif;? okrem pokremax&Dvnf;aumif;? (wd
od)Yk ? a'Gukeaf om? t*om0dumt*om0dumrwdo
Yk nf? ta[oH/k
tm,koufawmfonf? 0owo[HtESpfwpfodef;onf?

282

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,ru

ta[mod? o&D&H ud,


k af wmfonf? t|ynmo[wKaA"H 58awmif
tjrif&h o
dS nf? (ta[mod)? o&D&ybmud,
k af wmf\ a&mifjcnfawmf
onf? 'Gg'oa,mZeH12 ,lZemwdik w
f ikd ?f z&dysUH EHUNS y?D bduK owo[y&d0ga&m&[ef;wpfoed ;f tjct
H &H&o
dS nf? ta[mod/ aomxdt
k aemr
'Db&k m;&Sio
f nf? {u'd0oH? ypLoumav? r[mukPmormywad wmrS? 0k|m,? avmuHud?k a0gavmauaEmaomf? o&'wmyoHo&'&aohu?kd 'domG ? ]]tZ,aeY? r,SH \? o&'wmyo\? oEu
d H od?Yk *wypa,eoGm;jcif;[laom taMumif;aMumif?h
"ra'oem ponfvnf;? r[wDBu;D us,o
f nf? b0dwdvdrrhf nf?
aom pxdo
k &'&aohonfvnf;? t*om0u|meHt*om0u&mxl;ud?k
yawwdawmif;vdrrhf nf? wxdo
k &'&aoh\? o[m,aum
oli,fcsi;f jzpfaom? od&0d euk#Krad umonf? 'kw,
d om0u|meH'kwd
,t*om0u&mxl;ud?k (yawwdrnf?) a'oemy&da,momae p
vnf;? txdo
k &'&aoh\? y&d0g&mtjct
H &Hjzpfuek af om? pwk
owwdo[rwm7aomif;4axmiftwdkif;t&Snf&Sdukefaom?
Z#dvmwdo
Yk nf? t&[wH od?Yk ygykP
d Ed a&mufuek v
f rd rhf nf? r,m
onf? wwxdo
k &'&aoh\ txHo?Ykd *EHKiSm? 0wdoif\
h ?}} wd
odMYk uaH wmfr
l ? twaem\? ywp0D &Hud?k tm'g,,lawmfr
l ?
tnHtjcm;aom? ud &[ef;wpfyg;yg;ud?k temraEwmG rac:rl?
oDa[m 0d,jcaoFu
h o
hJ ?Ykd {upa&mwpfyg;wnf;<uoGm;awmfro
l nf?
[kwmG ? o&'wmyo\? taE0godauokteD;aewynfw
h o
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zvmzvwm,opfo;D i,f opfoD;BuD;tusKd;iSm? *awokoGm;ukef
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m0Hbk&m;\tjzpfu?kd Zmemwkodapownf;?}}
wdodkY? t"d|[dwGmt"d|mefawmfrl? o&'wmyoonf?
yEa0Munfah epOfyif? tmumoawmaumif;uifr?S Mow&dwmG
oufqif;awmfrl? yx0d,H? ywd|modwnfawmfrlNyD/ o&'wmyaomonf? Ak'g Ekbm0a0bk&m;&Si\
f tmEkabmfawmfuv
kd nf;

0*f

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283

aumif;? txdb
k &k m;&Si\
f ? o&D&edyw
pud,
k af wmf\ Ny;D jynfph ykH u
kH kd
vnf;aumif;? 'domG Munf
h ? vuPraEvuPmusr;f aA'ifusr;f
wdu
Yk ?dk 0g-vuPmBu;D i,fwu
Ydk kd jywwfaom aA'ifusr;f wdu
Yk ?kd oro-d
wGmoHk;oyfqifjcif? ]]ar[d vuaP[dvuPmwdkYESifh?
orEm*awm emrjynfph akH omolrnfonf? t*g&raZtdr\
f tv,f?
0oaEmaevaomf? pu0wD pMum&wemudk vnfapEdik af om? &mZm
rif;onf? a[mwdjzpfwwf\? yAZaEm&Sif &[ef;jyKvaomf? avmau? 0d0pa'gzGichf mG tyfNy;D aom &m* a'gopaom trk;d tum&Sad wmfrl
aom? 0g&m*a'gopaom trd;k tumudk zGichf gG awmfrNl y;D aom? oA-k
Aka'goAnKb&k m;&Sio
f nf? a[mwdjzpfwwf\? t,H yk&ad omonf?
vuPraE/ / vuPmed p rEmed p vuPrEmed(okwed.|-2
207)/ vuP'Dyemed rEmed vuPrEmed('D#D-1 291? oD#Dopf-2 228)/
0d0pa'g/ / &m*a'goarm[rme'd|dudavowPSmocFgwH q'eH
tm0&PH 0d0#H 0d'HodwH 0d0#uH {awemwd 0d0pa'g('D.|-2 36? oD#Dopf2 243)/ tzGihft& ]]0d0#+q'}}ukd pyfxm;&um; ]]0d0#pa'g}}[k&SdvQif ykd
aumif;onf? #a'Gabmfvm ]]0d0pa'g}}jzpfonf[kMuH? q&mwkdYum; ]]0d0#pa'g}}ygXfukd ESpfoufawmfrlonf? xkdaMumihf ]]0d0&D,dwmwd 0d0a#m? q'D,aw taeemwd qa'g? 0d0a#m+qa'g a,emwd 0d0pa'g}}[k jyKawmfrl
onf/ (oDbm-3 342)
wpfenf;/ / 0d0,dwaAm 0d*arwaAmwd 0d0am? qma'wd y#dpma'wDwd qa'g? 0d0am+qa'g taeemwd 0d0pa'g-uif;aptyfNy;D aom
&m*a'gopaom trk;d tumtum&Sad om bk&m;&Si?f yk'o
f nf &mZm'd*P
dk ;f
]]0d0#p'g}}[kvnf;aumif; yk&o
d m'd*P
dk ;f ]]0d0#pa'g}}[kvnf;aumif; 2rsKd ;&S\
d /
(oD#Dopf-2 243? eDwdy'-219? eDwdokw-45?)/
wpfenf;/ / 0+qa'g p 0p'g-0#f3yg; &m*paom trkd;tum
7yg;? 0d0pa'[d 0d*awm 0d*wm 0g 0p'g ,mwd 0d0pa'g-0#f3yg;
&m*paom trkd;tum 7yg;wkdYrS uif;awmfrlaom bk&m;&Sif? 0g-uif;aom
0#f3yg; &m*paomtrkd;tum7yg;&Sdawmfrlaom bk&m;&Sif? q't& 'D.|-

284

"ry'bmom#Dum

,ru

edo
H ,H,krH mS ;oHo,r&Sad omtm;jzih?f (oHo,rJ)h ? 0g-pifppf{uef
trSew
f u,fyif? Aka'gbk&m;wnf;?}} wdod?Yk ZmedwmG od? ypK*r eH
c&D;OK;BuKd qkd jcif;ud?k uwGm? yywd|ad weig;yg;aomwnfjcif;jzif?h
0Ew
d mG &Scd ;kd Ny;D ? t*goeHjrwfaom ae&mud?k ynmaywGmcif;?
t'goday;vSLNy/D b*0gonf? ynawcif;xm;tyfaom? t*goae
jrwfaom ae&m? edo'D d xkid af wmfrNl y/D o&'wmyaomydonfvnf;?
twaemrdrt
d m;? tEkp0 u
d H avsmufywfaom? tmoeHud?k *a[wGm
,l? {urEH ? edo'D d Ny/D
wo ora,xdt
k cg? pwkowwo
d [Z#dvm7aomif;
4axmifuek af om&aohwo
Ykd nf? yPDwyPDwmedrGejf rwfuek f rGejf rwf
ukeaf om? 0g-tvGerf eG jf rwfuek af om? MoZ0EmedtqDMoZm&Su
d ek af om?
zvmzvmedopfo;D i,f opfo;D Bu;D wdu
Yk ?kd *a[wGm,l? tmp&d,q&m\? oEu
d H od?Yk orwm a&mufvmukeo
f nf? (ormem-jzpfuek f
vaomf)? Ak'g ea0wd\
Yk vnf;aumif;? tmp&d, p\vnf;aumif;?
edoEd m oeHxdik af eaomae&mud?k MoavmauwGmMunf
h ? tm[Hok
ajymukeNf y?D (u)? ]]tmp&d,q&m r,Hwynhaf wmfwo
Ykd nf? ]ro
1 223tvkd ]]&m* a'go arm[ rme 'd|d t0dZm 'kp&dw}}[laom 7yg;
'D.|-2 36tvkd ]]&m* a'go arm[ rme 'd|d udavom wPSm}}[laom
7yg;ukd,l/
wpfenf;/ / 0awm 0d*awm 0d0am? q'awm+0d*awm 0dpa'g?
0d0am p+aom+0dpa 'g pmwd 0d0pa'g-0#frv
S nf; uif;awmfrl &m*paom
trdk;tumrSvnf; uif;awmfrlaom bk&m;&Sif? ]]0d00dpa'g}}[k qkdvkdvsuf
aemufyk'f 0dukd acs?(oD#Dopf-2 243)/
edHo,H / / wwd,mteuf 'kwd,mouf? (wpfenf;) Bud,m0d
aooeteuf 'kw,
d mouf? ]]orH orEm 0g aowd y0www
D d oHoa,m?
eaww oHoa,mwd edHoa,m(y#doH.|-2 141)}}[kjyK/ edHo,Ed
toaEa[e? {uaEemwd tawm?-O'ge.|-144? om&w-3 411/

0*f

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285

avmauavmu? wkarS[d toifq&mwdx


Yk uf? r[Ewa&m
omjrwfoo
l nf? ewd r&S?d } wdodrYk w
S x
f if? 0dp&mrvSnv
hf nf
aexkid yf guke\
f ? t,H yk&ad om yeonfum;? wkarS[d wdx
Yk uf? r[Ewa&m ranomjrwfonf[k xifyg\?}} wd-odYk ajymukeNf y/D
]]wmwmcspo
f m;wdYk utb,fov
Ykd si?f 0a'xajymukeo
f enf;? omoayerken
f if;aphEiS ?hf o' wuG? t|o|da,mZeowo[kaA"H
,lZemwpfoed ;f ajcmufaomif;&Spaf xmiftjrif&h adS om? odaeHk jrif;rd&k f
awmifu?kd orHwlnaD tmif? umwHk iSm? pxvkv
d m;ukeb
f \
d ? ykw-
umom;i,fwYkd oAnKAak 'eESi?hf o' wuG? rrHighu?kd OyrHEIid ;f ,SOf
aMumif;(EIdif;,SOfp&m)tjzpftm;jzifh? 0g-EdIif;,SOfjcif;ukd? a&SUorHuJhokdY
Bu,
d m0daooeMu
H a&SUenf;ay;onf? rm u&dw rjyKMuESi?hf }} wd-odYk
ajymNy/D txxdt
k cg? aw wmyomxdk&aohwdkYonf? ]]t,H
a,mufsm;(yk*Kd v)f onf? w&oawm,kwn
f ahH om ow0g(yk*Kd v)f
onf? oap tb0dtu,fjzpft?hH ({0H owdaomf)? trSmuH
wd\
Yk ? tmp&da,monf? {0lyH odo
Yk abm&Sad om? OyrHOyrmud?k
0gEIid ;f ,SOrf u
I ?kd e tm[&draqmif&m? t,H yk&ad omonf? ,m0
tvGet
f uJomvQi?f r[m 0wBu;D jrwfoyl gwum;}}wdodYk pOf;
pm;? oaA0tvHk;pHkaom&aohwdkYonfyif? yga'okajcawmfwdkY?
edywdwmG 0yfpif;? od&omOK;acgif;jzif?h 0Eo
k &Scd ;kd ukeNf y/D txxdrk S
aemuf? aexd&k aohwu
Ykd ?kd tmp&da,monf? tm[Ny?D (u)? ]]wmwm
cspo
f m;wdYk trSmuHwd\
Yk ? 0g-rSm? Ak'g eHwdt
Yk m;? tEkp0 ad umavsmuf
ywfaom? a',s"armay;vSLxdu
k af om oabm&Sad omypn;f onf? 0g
vSLzG,0f wKonf? ewd r&S?d owm ponfvnf;? bdum pm&a0vm,H
qGr;f tusdK;iSm vnfv
h nf&mtcsed f ? 0gqGr;f cH<ucsed f ? "t&yfo?Ykd
tm*awm<uvmawmfrlNyD? r,HwdkYonf? ,xmowdowdtm;
avsmpf mG ? 0g-tpGr;f &So
d avmuf? ,xmAvHtiftm;tm; avsmpf mG ? 0gtiftm;&So
d avmuf? a',s"rH ud?k 'mray;vSLMupd?Yk wkarSwdo
Yk nf?

286

"ry'bmom#Dum

,ru

yPDwH rGejf rwfaom? ,H ,H zvmzvHtMuiftMuifopfo;D i,f opfo;D


Bu;D onf? (tw)d ? wH wH (zvmzvH)ud?k tm[&xaqmif,cl MhJ uavm?}}
wdodaYk jym? tm[&maywGmaqmif,al p? [awvufwu
Ykd ?kd
a"m0dwmG aq;? o,Hud,
k w
f ikd ?f wxm*w\? yawoydwf ?
ywd|mayodwnfapNy?D 0g-avmif;Ny/D owm&monf? zvmzavud?k
y#d*[
w
d rawcH,al wmfrt
l yfumrQjzpfaomfom? (cH,v
l Qicf ,
H cl si;f )?
a'0wmewfwo
Ykd nf? 'daAmZHewfMoZmud?k 'd0+d Zmwm 'dAm ? 'dAm +MoZm
d o
k xnfu
h ek Nf y/D aom
'daAmZm-ewfjzpfaomMoZm?-rtlyged-2 427/ yuy
wmyaomxdo
k &'&aohonf? O'urd a&udv
k nf;? o,ar0ud,
k w
f ikd f
omvQi?f y&dma0wGmxuf0ef;usif ,kad p? 0g-ppf? t'goduyf
vSLNy/D wawmxdrk aS emuf? bwupd H qGr;f bkO;f jcif;udpu
?kd uwGm?
ow&donf? edodaExdkifawmfrlvaomf? oaAukefaom? taE0godauteD;aewynfw
h u
Ykd ?kd yaumodwmG ac:? owK\? oEad u
txHawmf? om&PD,uxHtNrrJ jywf trSw&f xdu
k af om pum;ud?k
om&PD,uxH/ / umvEa& o&dwA,w
k m qom&PD,y#do,
H w
k m
0g uxm om&PD,uxm(r#D-2183)/ ]]o&dwA,kwm}}[laom tzGifhtvkd
]]o&dwAmwd om&PD,m-trSwf&xkdufaompum;}}[kjyK? o&(pdEmteuf)
+tPD,? ]]o&PD,m}}[kqv
dk v
dk suf o 'DCjyK? (wpfenf;) ]]oma&wAmwd
om&PD,m-tqufrjywf jzpfapxkdufaompum;}}[kjyK? o&(*wdteuf)+
aP+,k? xkad emif ]]om&PD,m p+om+uxm pmwd om&PD,uxm}}[k
quf/ (om&w-1 337? oD#o
D pf-2 35? 248? yg&mbm-1 501)
aemufenf;tzGihf/ / ]]qom&PD,y#doH,kwm}}[laom tzGihftvkd
]]om&D,aEwd om&PD,m-&Snaf omumvokYd a&mufaptyf (ESp&f n
S u
f si&fh )
aom tusirfh sm;? (wpfenf;) o&dwAmwd om&PD,m-tNrrJ jywf trSw&f vsuf
usihftyfaom tusifhrsm;? om&PDa,[d+y#doH,kwm+uxm om&PD,uxm-om&PD,tusihfESihf pyfaompum;}}[kjyK? om&PD,tusifh 6yg;ukd
tH-2 255I/

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287

uaxaEmajymvsu?f edo'D d xdik af eNy/D owmonf? ]]a'Gukeaf om?


t*om0umwdo
Yk nf? bduK oaH Ce&[ef;taygif;ESi?hf o' twl?
tm*pEK vmapukeo
f wnf;?}} wd? pdaEod Ny/D awxdt
k *om0u
2yg;wdo
Yk nf? owK\? pdwH pdwaf wmfu?kd wGmod? owo[cDPmo0y&d0g&mwpfoed ;f aom &[Emtjct
H &H&u
dS ek o
f nf? ([kwmG )?
tm*Em<uvm? owm&Hud?k 0Ew
d mG ? {urEH ? t|Hok wnf
ukeNf y/D
wawmxdrk aS emuf? o&'wmyaomonf? taE0godauwdu
Yk ?dk
tmraEod ajymNy?D (u)? ]]wmwmwdYk Ak'g eHwk\
Yd ? 0g-wdzYk ?Ydk edoEd m oerd xdik af wmfr&l mae&monfvnf;? eDpH edr\
hf ? orPowo[meH
&[ef;wpfoed ;f wd\
Yk ? 0gwdzYk ?Ydk tmoerd ae&monfvnf;? ew?d tZ
,aeY? wkarS[d wdo
Yk nf? OVm&HrGejf rwfaom? Ak'o
um&HjrwfpmG bk&m;
ukd aumif;rGefkdaopGm jyKpkylaZmfjcif;ukd?0g-jrwfpGmbk&m;zdkY kdaopGm
h ?
jyKtyfaom ypn;f ud?k r[moum&H(ESm-4)I/ umwHk iSm? 0wdoif\
yAwyg'awmawmifajcrS? 0P*EorEm edtqif; teHEY iS hf jynhpf u
kH ek f
aom? ykyg edyef;wdu
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Ny/D uxeumavmajymqd&k mtcsed o
f nf? yyam 0d,Mumjrifo
h uJo
h ?Ykd
a[mwd\? ye-pifppfum;? 0g-tMuihaf Mumih?f 'rd awmwefc;kd &So
d \
l ?
(wefc;kd &Si\
f )? '0d o
d a,mwefc;kd t&mud?k tpdaEa,smrMupH nftyf
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k r awae0wpfr[
k w
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h mvQi?f
(wpfcPrQjziho
f mvQi)f ? aw wmyomwdo
Yk nf? 0P*EorEm edukef
aom? ykyg edwdu
Yk ?kd tm[&dwmG aqmif,
l ? Ak'g eHwdzYk ?Ykd 0gwdt
Yk wGu?f
a,mZeyrmPHwpf,lZemtwdkif;t&Snf&Sdaom? ykygoeH-yef;wdkYjzihf
a,mZeyrmPH/ / ,kZaw raem ,odEd a,mZeH(uy'Kr)? y&dap'H
,kZwd {w {awe0gwd a,mZeH(ucFg.r[m#D-3161)? a,mZeH+yrmPH
tmwd a,mZeyrmPH? omoemusr;f tvkd wpf,Zl em 12 rkid f 5 zm

288

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,ru

jyKtyf(cif;tyf)aom ae&mud?k (yef;ae&muk)d ? ynmayoHk cif;ukeNf y/D


ObdEH2yg;ukefaom? t*om0umeHwdkYzdkY? 0gwdkYtwGuf? wd*g0kwH
vkH tawmif-360(ay-540)&S\
d / vDvm0wDusr;f tvkd wpf,Zl em 9 rkid f
tawmif-320 &S\
d ? rwE&tvkd wpf,Zl em 1 rkid f 1-zmvkH tawmif-40
&S\
d ? xk3d rsKd ;wkw
Yd iG f omoem,lZemjzifh jrihrf &dk af wmif pMum0Vmawmiftjrifu
h dk
a&wGut
f yf\? NrKd U&GmtuGm ta0;ponfwYdk oihaf vsm&f m ,lZemjzihf a&wGuf
oifh\/ wpfrkdifrSm aytm;jzifh 5280 ay tawmiftm;jzifh 3520 awmif
rDwmtm;jzihf 1609.35rDwm uDvkdrDwmtm;jzihf 1.609 uDvkdrDwm &Sd\/
("mefedopf-79? jref"mef)
tjcm;tqkdrsm;/ / wpf,lZemonf ]]t*Fvdyfrkdif 4 rkdif okdYr[kwf 5
rkdif}}[kvnf;aumif; ]]9 rkdifcefY}}[kvnf;aumif; ]]2rkdifcJG (2rkdif 4zmvkH)}}
[kvnf;aumif; qkd\(0Dvs.H S-E-D 0Dvs.H E-S-D)/ xkdYjyif U- B-E-P-D ESihf
C-P-E-D 7rk d i f [ k v nf ; aumif ; M-E-DES i f h jref " mef c sKyf 12.72rk d i f
[kvnf;aumif; qk\
d / [Yojana, mesure of distance, sometime regarded
as equal to 4 or 5 English miles, but more correctly=about 9 miles;
according to other calculations=2 English miles, ( 0Dvs.H S-E-D).
Yojana,mesure of distance, equal to 5 miles, or, according to some, to
nine miles(0Dvs.
H E-S-D). distance of about 7 miles(U-B-E-P-D). mesure
of length, which is about, 7miles.(C-P-E-D) mesure of distance equal
to 12.72 English miles(M-E-D).]

Akom0D-54tqk/d / 'D.|-1 36 emvEmESihf &mZN*dK[fonf wpf,l


Zema0;uGmonf[k qkd&m xkdtuGmta0;ukd ,cktcg rD;&xm;vrf;rkdifwkdif
trSwo
f m;rSm 8rkid t
f wdtustrSwt
f om;&Sad Mumif; Akom0D-54 qk d \ / xkd
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wd*g0kw/H / *0H *a0[d 0g ,kwH *g0kw?H a*g+,kw? Moukd tmjyK? ,ukd
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twkdif;twmukd ]]7awmif wpfwm? wm20 (tawmif 140) wpfOob?
Oob 80 wpf*g0kwf? 4*g0kwf wpf,lZem(tbd.|-2 328? "mef-196)}}
[laom twkid ;f twmwkid ;f wGu,
f &l m\? oH#-D 2 288 28awmif wpfOob
[k qkad o;\/

0*f

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289

ok;H *g0kw&f adS om? (ykym oeH ynmayok)H ? aoobduL eH<uif;aom &[ef;
awmfwzYkd ?Ykd 0gtwGu?f ta,mZedum'dab'H,lZem0uftp&Sad om
tjym;&Sad om? (ykym oeH ynmayok)H ? oHCe0uoHCmi,fz?Ykd 0g
twGu?f OobrwH wpfOobtwkid ;f t&Sn&f adS om? (ykyg oeH-onf?)
ta[mod/ ]]uxHtb,fov
Ykd Qi?f {uo wpfcak om? trya'
ocFr;f ausmif;t&yf? wm0 r[Emedxdrk Qavmuf us,0f ef;ukeaf om?
tmoemedwdu
Yk ?kd ynwmedcif;tyfuek o
f enf;?}} wd? e pdaEwAH
rMupH nfxu
kd /f [drSe\
f ? {o ({aom)odaYk e&mcif;jcif;onf? '-d
0doa,mwefc;kd \ t&mwnf;/ {0Hod?Yk ynawok cif;tyfNy;D ukef
aom? tmoaeokwdYk ? o&'wmyaomonf? wxm*w\? yk&awma&SU? 0g-u? tv vuftyk u
f ?kd y*,S cs
D ? Xdawmwnfvsu?f
]]baE r,SH \? 'DC&wH &Snpf mG aom aeYnOfyh wfv;kH ? [dwm,pD;yGm;
tvdiYk mS vnf;aumif;? okcg,csr;f omjcif;iSmvnf;aumif;? rH ykyg oeH
od?Yk tbd[
k xwufa&mufawmfryl guke?f }} wd tm[/ aweaMumif?h
]]ememyky ? ay ? oa'0au}}wd[l? 0kwH qdt
k yfNy/D
ememyky *E orma'wGme {uawm?
ykyg oeH ynmaywGm 'H 0pe rjA0d/
ememyky - trsKd ;rsdK;aom yef;ukv
d nfaumif;? *E- (trsKd ;rsdK;aom)
eHo
Y mukv
d nfaumif;? orma'wGme- aumif;pGmNy;D ap? 0g- jynfph aHk p?
(pkaH tmifmS )? {uawm-wpfaygif;wnf;? ykyg oeH-yef;wkjYd zifh jyKtyfaom
ae&muk?d ynmaywGm-cif;ap? 'H 0peH- pum;uk?d tjA0d-avQmuf
Ny?D (u-tb,fodYk avQmufoenf;)
'H ar tmoeH 0D& ynwH w0Ekp0 ?
rr pdwH yoma'wGm edo'D ykyr moae/
0D&-&J&ifhawmfrlaom jrwfpGmbk&m; w0-Sifawmfbk&m;tm;?
tEkp0 - oifah vsmaf om? 'H tmoeH- yef;wkjYd zifh jyKtyfaomae&muk?d

290

"ry'bmom#Dum

,ru

ar-onf? ynw-H cif;tyfygNy?D rr-wynfah wmf\? pdw-H uk?d yoma'aEmMunfadk pvsu?f ykyr moae- yef;wkjYd zihf jyKtyfaom ae&m? edo'D xkid af wmfryl g? (wd- okYd avQmufNy/D )
ow&wEd 0d H Aka'g edo'D d ykyr moae?
rr pdwH yoma'wGm [mo,dwmG oa'0au/
ow&wEd 0d -H 7nOfh 7aeYywfv;Hk ? rr-\? pdw-H uk?d yoma'wGm-Munf
kad pawmfr
l vnf;aumif;? oa'0au-ewfEiS w
hf uGaom vlwu
Ydk ?kd
[mo,dwmG - Tiv
f ef;apawmfr
l vnf;aumif;? Aka'g-onf? ykyr moae? edo'D -d xkid af wmfrNl y/D
{0Hod?Yk ow&d onf? edoad Exkid af wmfrv
l aomf? a'Gukeaf om?
t*om0umwdo
Yk nfvnf;aumif;? aoobduL p<uif;aom &[ef;
wdo
Yk nfvnf;aumif;? twaem twaemrdr\
d rdr\
d ? ywmoae
a&muftyfaomae&m? (a&muf&mae&m)? edo'D o
k ukeNf y/D o&'wmyaomonf? r[EH Bu;D pGmaom? ykyp w
H yef;wdjYk zifh zk;H vTr;f tyfaom
xD;ud?k 0g-yef;wkjYd zihf jyKtyfaom xD;uk?d (yef;xD;uk)d ? y'krkyvykym'D[d
qm'dwH ykyr,H qwH ykypwH?-ty.|-2 11/ *a[wGmudi
k
f ? wxm*w\? rwautxuf? "ma&aEmaqmif;vsuf? t|mod
wnfNy/D owmonf? ]]Z#dvmeH&aohw\
Ykd ? t,H ouma&maumif;
rGef kad opGm jyKpyk al Zmfjcif;onf? r[yavmrsm;aom tusK;d &So
d nf?
a[mwkjzpfygap?}} wdodMYk uaH wmfr
l ? eda&m"ormyw eda&m"
ormywfu?kd ormyZd aumif;pGm a&mufawmfrNl y?D 0g0ifpm;awmfrNl y/D
eda&m"ormywd/ / ormyZeH ormywd? eda&m"+ormywd eda&m"ormywd-pdwf apwoduf pdwZkyfwdkY\ csKyfjcif;odkY aumif;pGma&mufjcif;
(0dbm-277)? (wpfenf;) ormyZdw
Amwd ormywd? eda&ma"m {0+ormywd
eda&m"ormywd- pdwaf pwoduf pdwZ kyw
f \
Ykd csKyjf cif;[laom ormywf(rPd1 500)/

0*f

"ry'bmom#Dum

291

owK\? 0g-onf? ormyw od?Yk ormyEbm0Haumif;pGma&mufawmfrl


onf\tjzpfu?kd 0g0ifpm;awmfro
l nf\tjzpfu?kd wGm-od? a'Gukef
aom? t*om0umydwdo
Yk nfvnf;aumif;? aoobduL yd<uif;aom
&[ef;wdo
Yk nfvnf;aumif;? ormyw ud?k ormyZo
k 0ifpm;awmfru
l ek f
Ny/D wxm*awonf? owm[H7&ufywfv;kH ? eda&m"ormyw ud?k
ormyZw
d mG ? edoad Exdik af eawmfrv
l aomf? taE0godumwdo
Yk nf?
bdum pm&umavqGr;f tusKd ;iSm vnfv
h nf&mtcsed o
f nf? 0gqGr;f cH
<ucsed o
f nf? orawa&mufvaomf? 0erlvzvmzvHawm ayguf
a&mufaom opfjrpf opfo;D i,f opfo;D Bu;D ud?k y&dbk w
d mG oH;k aqmif
? aooumav<uif;aomtcg? Ak'g eHwdt
Yk m;? tv ud?k y*,S
cs
D ? wd|Ed wnfuek \
f / o&'wmyaom yeonfum;? bdum pm&rd
qGr;f tusKd ;iSm vSnv
hf nf&mt&yfov
Ykd nf;? 0gqGr;f cHvn
S v
hf nfjcif;iSm
vnf;? t*Emr<url? ykyp w
H ud?k "m&,rmaem0aqmif;vsuo
f m?
owm[Hywfv;kH ? yDwo
d ak ceyDwo
d ck jzif?h 0Dwed marodukev
f eG af pNy/D
owmonf? eda&m"awmeda&m"ormywfrS? 0k|m,xawmfrl?
'uP
d yavuf,mbufab;? edoEd H xdik af eaom? yXrt*om0uHyXrt*om0ujzpfaom? edobaw&H edobax&fu?kd tmraEod
Ny?D (u)? ]]edobedob oum&um&umeHaumif;rGef kad opGm jyKpyk l
aZmfru
I kd jyKuek af om? wmyomeHwdzYk ?Ykd 0g-wkt
Yd wGu?f ykym oemEkarm'eH
yef;ae&mESipfh yfaom 0rf;ajrmufaMumif; (0rf;ajrmufz,
G )f w&m;pum;uk?d
(yef;ae&mtvSLtEkarm'emw&m;pum;ud)k ? ua&m[djyKavm?}} wd0erlvzvmzvH/ / r[E+H zvH tzvH? eo'g 0k't
d eufa[m? zv+
tzv zvmzvH? rlv+zvmzv rlvzvmzvH? 0ae+ZmwH+rlvzvmzvH
0erlvzvmzvH?-rtlyged-3 29/
bdum pm&H/ /a&SUenf;tvkd ]]bdum , p&d,wd (p&Ed) {wmwd bdum pma&m(tEk#D-2 181? ygpda,m-525)}}[kjyK? aemufenf;tvkd ]]p&PH pma&m?
bdum,+pma&m bdumpma&m}}[kjyK/

292

"ry'bmom#Dum

,ru

NyD/ axa&medobax&fonf? pu0wd&anmpMum0aw;rif;\?


oEu
d mrS? y#dv'r[mvmabm&tyfaom rsm;aom qkvmbf&adS om?
r[ma,ma"m 0d,ppfoBl u;D uJo
h ?Ykd wk|rmeaomESpo
f ufaompdw&f dS
onf? ([kwmG )? om0uyg&rdaPom0uyg&rDPf? XwGmwnf?
ykyg oemEkarm'eHud?k tm&bdtm;xkwNf y/D wxdek o
d bax&f\?
a'oem0omaea'oemawmf\tqH;k ? 'kw,
d om0uH'kw,
d t*
om0uud?k tmraEod Ny?D (u)? ]]bduK &[ef; wGrd onfvnf;? "rH
ud?k a'ao[da[mavm?}} wd-Ny/D taemrawa&mtaemrax&f
onf? awyd#uHyd#uoH;k yH[
k al om? Ak'0 peHud?k orow
d mG oH;k oyfqif
jcif? "rH ud?k uaxodNy?D 'GEd H ukeaf om? t*om0umeHwd\
Yk ? a'oem,a'oemawmfaMumifh? {umydwpfyg;aom &aoh\vnf;?
tbdora,mopmav;yg;w&m;wdu
Yk kd xd;k xGi;f odjcif;onf? e+
ta[modrjzpfc/hJ txxdrk aS emuf? owmonf? ty&drmaP
twdik ;f t&Snrf &Sad om? Ak'0 o
d a,bk&m;&Si\
f t&m? XwGmwnfawmf
rl? "ra'oeHudk? 0g-w&m;a[mawmfrljcif;iSm? tm&bdNyD/ a'oemy&da,momae? o&'wmyoHud?k XaywGmcsex
f m;? oaAyd
tvk;H pkv
H nf;jzpfuek af om? pwkowwo
d [Z#dvmwdo
Yk nf? t&[wH od?Yk ygykPo
k ukeNf y?D owmonf? ]]bdua 0gwdYk {xvmMuuke?f }}
wdodrYk ed aYf wmfr
l ? [wH vufawmfu?kd yoma&odqefw
Y ef;awmf
rlNy/D wm0a'0xdck Pyif? awoHxd&k aohw\
Ykd ? auorled qH
rkwq
f w
d f usipf ,
G w
f o
Ykd nf? tE&"m,ok uG,af ysmufuek Nf y?D t|8yg;
ukeaf om? y&dum &my&du& mwdo
Yk nf? 0g-wku
Yd ?dk uma,ud,
k f ? y#drkum 00wfqiftyfuek o
f nfom? 0g-ukev
f suo
f m? tm y#dyak Am rkp"mwk
y&d'[ae awm?-"mef#D-377/ ta[oHk ukeNf y/D
o&'wmyaomonf? uomaMumif?h t&[wH od?Yk e yawm
ra&mufoenf; wdum;tar;wnf;? 0duw
d p w
d w
m txl;xl;

0*f

"ry'bmom#Dum

293

tjym;jym; ypfviG t
hf yfaom pdw&f o
dS nf\ tjzpfaMumifw
h nf;? 0g-ysUH vGihf
aom pdw&f o
dS nf\ tjzpfaMumifw
h nf;? (wd-um; tajzwnf;)?
ud&csUJ OK;tH?h aomxdo
k &'&aohonf? Ak'g eHwd\
Yk ? 'kw,
d moae2ck
ajrmufae&m? edo'D w
d mG -? om0uyg&rdaP-? XwGm-? "r-H uk?d
a'o,awma[mawmfral om? t*om0uyXrt*om0u\?
"ra'oeHud?k aomwH-k iSm? tm&'umvawmtm;xkwt
f yf&mtcgrS?
y|m,? ]]t[rd onfvnf;? tem*awaemiftcg? OyZe uAk'
yGiahf wmfrrl nfh bk&m;&Si\
f ? omoaeomoemawmf? rdem
om0aueom0uonf? y#dv'"&k H &tyfaomwm0efu?k d (vuf,m
&H&mxl;uk)d ? vab,sH &ygrlum;? ta[m 0waMomf... aumif;avpG?}}
wdod?Yk pdwH ud?k Oyga'odjzpfapNy/D aomxdo
k &'&aohonf? awe
y&d0w
d auexdo
k Ykd MupH nfjcif;aMumif?h r*zvy#da0"Hr*fzv
dk u
f kd xd;k
xGi;f odjcif;ud?k umwHk iSm? emoud rpGr;f Edik cf /hJ yequfOK;tH?h wxm*wH-uk?d 0Ew
d mG -? orKacrsuaf rSmufawmf? XwGmwnf? ]]baE
wkrmS uH&Siaf wmfjrwfb&k m;wd\
Yk ? teE&moaetjcm;rJah e&m? edodaEmxdik af eaom? bduK onf? wkrmS uHwd\
Yk ? omoae-? aum
emrtb,frnfolonf? a[mwdjzpfygoenf;}} wd-odkY? tm[ar;avQmufNy/D ]]{aom&[ef;onf? r,migbk&m;onf? y0ww
d H
jzpfaptyfaom? "rpuH w&m;pufu?kd tEky0awaEmtwkvu
kd
f jzpf
apEdkifaom? 0g-vnfapEdkifaom? om0uyg&rdP\? aum#dyawmtxGwt
f xdyo
f Y kd a&mufaom? aomVo16yg;ukeaf om? ynm
ynmwdkYudk? y#d0dZdwGmxdk;xGif;od? Xdawmwnfaom? r,HS\?
aomVo ynm/ / aomVo ynm y#d0dZdwGm Xdawmwd rZdreduma,
tEky'okwEa'oem, ]]r[myanm bdua0 om&dykawm? ykxkyanm
bdua0 om&dykawm? [moyanm bdua0 om&dykawm? Z0eyanm bdua0
om&dykawm? wduyanm bdua0 om&dykawm? edaA"duyanm bdua0
om&dykawm}}wd {0rm*wm r[mynm'dum q woa,0 okaw tm*wm

294

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,ru

omoae? t*om0aumyXrt*om0ujzpfaom? edoabm emr


edobrnfolwnf;?}} wd-odkY rdefYawmfrlNyD/ ]]baE r,monf?
owm[H7&ufywfvHk;? ykypwHudk? "ma&aEeaqmif;vsuf? ,Gm,H
(a,m+t,H) ouma&mtMuifaumif;rGef adk opGm jyKpyk al Zmfjcif;ud?k
uawmjyKtyfNyD? t[Honf? raumif;rGef kdaopGm jyKpkyl
aZmfjcif;\? zavetusK;d tm;jzif?h (tusKd ;taetm;jzih)f ? tnHaom?
ouwH 0godMum;\tjzpfudkaomfvnf;aumif;? jA[wH 0gjA[m\
tjzpfudkaomfvnf;aumif;? e yawrdrawmifhwyg? yepifppfum;?
0g-awmifw
h rdonfum;? tem*awaemiftcg? t,H edobawa&m
0d,edobax&fuJhodkY? {uwpfqlaom? Ak'\? t*om0aumyXrt*om0uonf? ba0,sH jzpf&ygvd\
k ?}} wdod?Yk yweH
qkawmif;rIu?kd tumojyKNy?D wd-odYk avQmufNy/D owmonf?
]]r yk&o
d \? ywemqkawmif;rIonf? ordZ
d wd Ek acg
jynfph v
kH rd rhf nfavm?}} wdodq
Yk ifjcifawmfr
l ? tem*wHoPH
tem*wHoPfawmfu?kd ayaowGmapvTw
f ? MoavmauaEmv
aomf? uyowo[m"duH urmwpfoed ;f tvGe&f adS om? {uHwpfck
aom? toacs,
F sH toacsu
F ?kd twdur w
d mG vGe
f ? ordZebm0Hjynfph kH
rnf\ tjzpfu?kd t'ojrifawmfrNl y/D 'domG ejrifawmfr
l ? 0gjcif;
aMumif?h o&'wmyoHud?k tm[Ny?D (u)? ]]awoif\? t,H ywem
qkawmif;rIonf? armCmtcsn;f ES;D onf? e b0dwdjzpfvrd rhf nf
e0gEkykA0d[m&ormywdynm t*r*ynmwd rm aomVo0d"m ynm
y#d0dZdwGm opduwGm Xdawm?-tH#D-1 150/
zave/ / wrLwvuPteuf wwd,mouf(0drme.|-147)?
(wpfenf;) [dwfteuf wwd,mouf(0drme.|-14? ayw.|-66)?
a&SUenf;om aumif;\? ]]aue uare w edaEe}}[k taMumif;uHukd
ar;&m ajz&mom aemufenf; ay;oihfonf/

0*f

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295

r[kw?f yet[kwu
f m;? tem*aw-? uyowo[m"du-H aom?
{uH-aom? toacs,
F sH -uk?d twdur w
d mG ? 0gvaomf? a*gwarm
emra*gwrrnfawmfral om? Aka'gonf? OyZ
d wdyGiahf wmfrv
l rd rhf nf?
wxdak *gwrbk&m;&Si\
f ? rmwmr,fawmfonf? r[mrm,m emr
r[mrm,mrnfaom? a'0Drdz&k m;onf? b0dwd-rnf? ydwmcrnf;
awmfonf? oka'g'aem emroka'g'ernfaom? r[m&mZmrif;Bu;D onf?
(b0dwd)? ykawmom;awmfonf? &m[kavm emr&m[kvmrnfonf?
(b0dwd)? Oy|maumtvkyt
f auR;onf? tmeaEm emrtmeEm
rnfonf? (b0dwd)? 'kw,
d t*om0aumonf? arm*vm aem emr
arm*vm efrnfonf? (b0dwd)? wGH yeoifonfum;? txdk
a*gwrbk&m;&Si\
f ? yXrt*om0aumaom? "raoemywdw&m;
ppfolBuD;jzpfaom? om&dyak wm emrom&dyMk wmrnfonf? b0dod
"raoemywd/ / "raoemywDwd "are ynm, b*0awm pwky&doocFgwm, y&dom, (aoem,) ywd y"maemwd "raoemywd-ynm
aMumihf y&dowf4yg;[laom ppfonf tBu;D trSL;jzpfaom t&Sio
f m&dyMk wm
(ty.|-1 262)/
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+ywd "raoemywd-yd#uwfw&m;wnf;[laom ppfonftaygif; (ppfwyf)
\ y"metBuD;trSL;jzpfaom t&Sifom&dykMwm}}[kjyK/
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tukov"raoem) Zdwm a,oEd "raoem-ukokdvfw&m;vufeufwkdYjzihf
atmiftyfNyD;aom tukokdvfw&m;ppfwyf&Sdaom bk&m;om0utaygif;wkdY?
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f m&dyMk wm)? "arae0

296

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,ru

vdrrhf nf?}} wd-rdeaYf wmf rlNy/D {0Hod?Yk wmyoHo&'&aohu?kd Asmu&dwmG rdeaYf wmfrNl y;D ? "ruxHud?k uaxwGmNy;D ? bduK oC
H y&d0ak wm&[ef;taygif; jc&H t
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ysw
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tm;? ]aw\? o[m,auejzpfaom? o&'wmyaoeonf? taemr'DA'k
\? yg'rlav? tem*aw? OyZe uyGiahf wmfrl
rnfjzpfaom? a*gwrAk'
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yww
d H qkawmif;tyfNy?D wGH onf? 'kw,
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om&dykMwm}}[k yxrenf;ukd qkdonf? "arae0 {0jzihf yuwdppfolBuD;uJhokdY
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aqmifOK;pD;jzpfouJo
h Ydk t&Sio
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w&m;awmfudk emMum;&ol od&oljzpfaomaMumihf tbd"rmw&m;t&m &[ef;
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[laom ppfwyf? "raoem0+ywd omrD aZ|aum 0g Owarm 0g {w
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tBu;D jrwfq;Hk &Sad om t&Sio
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&efolukd nOf;qJowfjzwfwwfaomaMumihf ppfwyfrnf\/

0*f

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297

axa&[dwdrYk ?S yka&w&ar0oma&S;OK;pGmomvQi?f {uyae


tjcm;zufvrf;jzif?h *Em? od&0d e\? eda0oe'Gga&aetdrf
wHcg;? t|modwnfNy/D od&0d aemonf? ]]arig\? ta,smt&Sif
onf? pd&HMumjrifrh ?S tm*awm 0w<uvmNyw
D um;?}} wdodYk
ajym? tmoae? edo'D gaywGmxdik af p? twemud,
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f su?f ]]baE a0gt&Sib
f &k m;wd\
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rxif&mS ;ygoenf;}} wd ykp/d ]]orrdwaf qG tmrtdr;f ? trSmuH
wd\
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f m;?
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I ?kd tu&drmS jyKcu
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ok&[ef;jyKuek Nf y/D t[Honf? owK\? yXrt*om0uHjzpfaom?
edobaw&H edobax&fu?kd 'domG zl;jrif&? tem*aw? OyZe uyGiahf wmfrrl nfjzpfaom? a*gwrAk'
emra*gwrrnfawmfral om
bk&m;&Si\
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cJNh y?D wGrd onfvnf;? wxdak *gwrbk&m;&Si\
f ? omoae-? 'kw,
d t*om0u|meHud?k yaw[d qkawmif;avm?}} wd-Ny/D ]]baE r,HS
\? 0g-rSm? Aka'[d wdEYk iS ?hf o'? y&dpa,majymqdq
k akH wGUtavhtusihf
onf? 0g-tuRr;f 0ifjcif;onf? ewd r&Syd g?}} wd-ajymNy/D ]]Aka'[-d wkEYd iS ?fh
o'- twl? uxeHajymqdjk cif;onf? r,HS \? bma&mwm0efonf?
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aopGm jyKtyfaom ypn;f ud?k oaZ[d pD&ifygavm?}} wd-Ny/D
od&0d aemonf? wxko
d &'&aoh\? 0peH-ud?k okwmG -?

298

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,ru

twaem\? eda0oe'Gga&aetdrw
f cH g;? &mZrmaeerif;\ twkid ;f
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t&Sn&f adS om? XmeHt&yfu?dk orwvHnDw
G af om ajrjyif&o
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ap? vmZyrmedaygufaygufvQif ig;ckajrmuf&Sdukefaom? ykyged
yef;wku
Yd ?dk 0du&d maywGmBujJ zefaY p? eDvyk v
p'eHMumndKyef;trk;d tum
&Sad om? r@yHr@yfu?dk uma&wGmjyKvyk af p? 0g-aqmufap? Ak'g oeHbk&m;&Siw
f \
Ykd ae&muk?d 0g-bk&m;&Siw
f zYdk Ydk ae&muk?d ynmaywGm
cif;ap? aoobduL erd <uif;aom &[ef;wk\
Yd vnf;? 0g-wkzYd v
Ydk nf;?
tmoemedwku
Yd ?dk y#d,ma'wGmpD&ifap? r[EH Bu;D us,rf sm;jym;aom?
oum&ormeHaumif;pGmjyKtyf jrwfE;dk tyfaom ypn;f uk?d oaZwmG
jyifqifNy;D ? 0g-vaomf? Ak'g eHwku
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o&'wmyotm;? onHtrSwo
f nmuk?d (todu)dk ? t'goday;Ny/D
t|u&Dorw/H / ua&mEd {w uoea&myem'duEd u&Domed? u&+
o?-"mef#-D 197/ t|+u&Domed t|u&Do?H t|u&Do+H rwm tmwd
t|u&DorwH? ]]u&DoH pwk&rPH("mef-197)}}ESihftnD 4trPrsdK;BuJavmuf
&m t&yfonf wpfu&Downf;? ]]{um'o a'gPm wk trP(H "mef-484)}}
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"mefedopf-337? 484? awmifayguf"mefed-197I/

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299

wmyaomo&'&aohonf? Ak'y r ck H aom? bduK oC


H H uk?d *a[wGm
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oGm;Ny/D od&0d aemydonfvnf;? ypK*r eHuk?d uwGm? wxm*w
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ap? ynwmoaeokcif;xm;tyfaom ae&mwkYd ? edoEd
xkid af e
awmfral om? Ak'y r ck aom? bduK oC
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aom? bduK oC
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Ydk m; xku
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zk;H vTr;f ? (vSL'gef;)? ]]baE t,H tm&armvGepf mG tm;xkwrf I
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? b*0EH ud?k 0Ew
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onf/ (r[mbm-2 688? 0d.|-3 416? om&w-3 343? 0drwd-2201?202)

300

"ry'bmom#Dum

,ru

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&Sad om? toacs,
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wko
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jzpfaom? o,\? oEu
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;f q&mud?k
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,SOfukefonfjzpfjzpfaom vl0wfaMumifwkdY/

302

"ry'bmom#Dum

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m[k rdpm
tBuv
H Qif usupf m;&mSMd uonf? 0g-rSm;,Gi;f aom tawG;tac:[l
aom usupf m;&mSMd uonf? ([kwmG - ?) om&H-oDv orm"d edAm efxd

0*f

"ry'bmom#Dum

303

atmif aumif;bduspv
f pf tESpw
f &m;uk?d em"d*pE-d aumif;pGmykid yf idk f
d jzihf ]]a,}}[k ted,rxnf
h ]](u) toma&
r&Ekid u
f ek /f ]]aw}}[k ted,r&So
om&rwdaem? (c) oma& pmom&'daem? (*) aw? ay? a*gp&m}}[k
30gus,lum ]](a,-tMuifolwdkYonf?) toma&-? om&rwdaem-ukef\?
oma& p-um;? tom&'daem-uke\
f ? aw-wdo
Yk nf? rdpm ouFya *gp&monf? ([kwmG - ?) om&H-uk?d em"d*pE-d uke}f }[kvnf; ay;Ekid o
f nf/

om& om&awm wGm tom& tom&awm?


aw om&H t"d*pEd ormouFya *gp&m/
om&H-oDv orm"d edAm efxad tmif aumif;bduspv
f pf tESpf
w&m;uk?d om&awm-tESp[
f
l ? wGm p-odvnf;aumif;? tom&HtESprf rS;D tcsn;f ES;D aom ypn;f av;jzm rdpm 'd|d xk\
d jzpfaMumif;
raumif;aom tumw&m;ukd? tom&awm-tESpfr[kwf[l? 0gtum[l? wGm p-odvnf;aumif;? aw-trSet
f wkid ;f yif aumif;
pGmjrif tpOfBuKd ;ukwf tm;xkwMf ubd xkyd nmSw
d o
Ykd nf? ormouFy-
a*gp&m-aeurE iS hf tAsyg'g t0d[o
m[k ormtBuv
H Qif usupf m;&m
Su
d ek o
f nf? 0g-rSeaf omtawG;tac:[laom usupf m;&mSMd uonf?
([kwmG ?) om&H-uk?d t"d*pE-d aumif;pGmykid yf idk f &&SEd idk u
f ek \
f /
om&? ay? a*gp&m/ / a&SU*gxmuJhokdY 30gus,l ]](a,-wdkYonf?)
om&H-uk?d om&awm-? (ZmeE-d oduek \
f ?) wGm p-odvnf;aumif;? tom&Huk?d tom&awm-? (ZmeEd- uke\
f ?) wGm p-aumif;? aw-wdo
Yk nf? ormouFya*gp&m-Muonf? ([kwGm?) om&H-ukd? t"d*pEd-ukef\}}[kvnf; ay;
Ekdifonf/
wpfenf;/ / wGmypn;f onf ypKye t
f eufuv
dk nf; a[mEkid &f um; tm0kwd
enf; wEenf;ponft& wGmukd ZmeEt
d euf rl&if;0daooeteuftm;
jzihf 2euf,
l ]](a,-wdo
Yk nf?) om&H-uk?d om&awm-? wGm (ZmeE)d -od
ukef\? wGm p-odvnf;aumif;? tom&H-ukd? tom&awm-? wGm
(ZmeEd) -uke\
f ? wGm p-aumif;? aw-wdo
Yk nf? ormouFya *gp&m-Muonf?

304

"ry'bmom#Dum

,ru

ww-xkd*gxmwkdY? toma& om&rwdaemwd-um;? pwma&m-4


yg;ukeaf om? yp,m-ypn;f wkv
Yd nf;aumif;? 'o0wKum-10 yg;aom
rS&D mtaMumif;&Sad om? rdpm 'd|-d rSm;aomt,lvnf;aumif;? wm-xkd
rSm;aomt,l\? Oyed,blwm-tm;Bu;D aom rS&D mtaMumif;jzpf
jzpfaom? "ra'oem-w&m;a[mjcif;vnf;aumif;? 0g-a[mtyfaom
w&m;vnf;aumif;? wd t,H-tvH;k pHo
k nf? ]]wd-okaYd om? t,HtvHk;pHkonf}}[kvnf; cJGay;Ekdif\? toma&m emr-tom&rnf\? 0gtESprf [kwaf om tumrnf\? wo- xkt
d ESprf [kwaf om tum?
om&'d|ad em-tESp[
f k t,l&u
dS ek \
f ? wd tawm-um;teuf/
([kwGm) om&H-ukd? t"d*pEd-ukef\}}[k ay;? q&mwkdYum; a&SUenf;twkdif; oD;
jcm; ypKyefBud,mxnfhay;awmfrlonf/ (rPd-1 6-9? oN*K[fbm-4?5)
'o0wKum/ / 'o0wKum; ]](1) ewd 'dEH (2) ewd ,d|H (3) ewd
[kwH (4) ewd okuw'kuwmeH urmeH zvH 0dygaum (5) ewd t,H
avmaum (6) ewd ya&m avmaum (7) ewd rmwm (8)ewd ydwm (9)
ewd owm Moyygwdum (10) ewd avmau orPjAm[Pm or*wm
ormy#dyEm a, r avmuH y& avmuH o,H tbdnm opdu
wGm ya0a'Ed} }[laom 10 yg;wdw
Yk nf;? ]]'o+0wLed ,mwd 'o0wKum}}[kjyK
ormoEuypn;f ? yxr ]]vSLjcif;\ tusKd ;onf &Srd nfrxif}}[k awG;awm\?
xkdawG;awmcsdef 'd|drjzpfao;? 0dpdudpmom jzpfao;\? xkdokdY awG;awm&mrS
p ]]tvSL\ tusdK;onf r&Sd}}[k qHk;jzwfaom rdpm"darmuESihfwuG rdpm'd|d
jzpf\? enf;tm;jzihf tvSL\ tusdK;r&Sdjcif;ukd rdpm'd|d\ wnf&m0wK[k
qk&d avonf/
om&'d|ad em
em/ /om&rwdaemudk ]]om&'d|ad em}}[k zGiahf omaMumifh ]]rwdEiS hf
'd|o
d nf t&wl\}}[k jy\? ]]rnwd-rSwx
f ifwwf\? wd rwd}}[k 0d*[
jyK
tom& om&[k rSwfxifwwfaom rdpmt,lukd t&aumufyg? oma&m
wd+rwd a,oEd om&rwdaem? a,meH aemokwf\ a,m*0dbm*jzihf
tuw& ()aemufvnf; a,mukd aemjyK? ]]oma&m wd+'d|d a,oEd
om&'d|daem}}vnf; enf;wl/

0*f

"ry'bmom#Dum

305

oma&pm om&'daemwd-um;? 'o0wKum-10 yg;aom wnf&m


taMumif;&Sdaom? orm'd|d-orm'd|dvnf;aumif; 0g-razmufrjyef
rSeu
f efaomtjrifvnf;aumif;? 0g-razmufrjyef rSeu
f efaom t,l
vnf;aumif;? wm-xko
d rm'd|\
d ? Oyed,blwm-tm;Bu;D aom rSD
&mtaMumif;jzpfjzpfaom? "ra'oem-w&m;a[mjcif;vnf;aumif;? 0ga[mtyfaomw&m;vnf;aumif;? wd t,H-tvH;k pHo
k nf? oma&m
emr-om&rnf\? 0g-tESprf nf\? wo- xko
d rm'd|d xk\
d jzpfaMumif;
aumif;aomw&m;[laomtESpf ? t,H-onfum;? e oma&m-tESpf
r[kw?f wd-ok?Yd tom&'daem-tESprf [kw[
f k Iavh&u
dS ek \
f /
aw om& Ed- um;? wH rdpm 'd|*d [
PH-xkrd pd m 'd|t
d ,ludk ,ljcif;uk?d 0gxk,
d t
l yfaom rdpm 'd|t
d ,lu?dk *a[wGm-,l? Xdwm-wnfuek af om?
hf d k axmuf
aw-xkv
d Ul Amvwko
Yd nf? a&SU ]]aw y@dwm}}[laom tzGiu
okYd ay;onf? ]]ye}} teufr&S?d umr0dwum'De-H umr0dwuftp&Sad om
0dwufw\
Ydk ? 0aoe-tpGr;f jzih?f rdpm ouFya *gp&m-rSm;aomtMu[
H al om
usupf m;&m&Su
d ek o
f nf? [kwmG ? oDvom&H-oDvtESpfukdvnf;aumif;?
orm"dom&H-orm"dtESpu
f v
dk nf;aumif;? ynmom&H-0dyemynm
r*fynmtESpu
f v
dk nf;aumif;? 0drw
k o
d m&H-t&[wzv
dk t
f ESpu
f v
dk nf;
aumif;? 0drw
k
d P'eom&H-t&[wzv
dk u
f dk odjrifwwfaom yp
a0uPmPfynmtESpu
f v
dk nf;aumif;? y&rwom&H-y&rwtESpjf zpf
aom? edAm e-edAm efuv
dk nf;aumif;? em"d*pE-d rodEidk u
f ek ?f (r&Ekid u
f ek )f /
om&mwd-um;? war0 oDvom&m'dom&H-xko
d v
D tESpt
f p&Sad om
Yk m; oDvom&m' om&H}}[k 0gus,
l ]]oDvom&m'tESpu
f ydk if? q&mwdu
rdpm ouFya *gp&m/ / rdpm ouFyt
& ]]umr0dwuf Asmyg'0dwuf 0d[o
m
0dwuf}}wku
Yd dk ,lapvk
d ]]umr0dwum'DeH 0aoe}}[k okyu
f dk jyonf? *ga0g+
p& Ed {wmwd a*gpa&m-EGm;wk\
Yd usupf m;&m pm;usu?f a*gpa&m 0d,mwd
a*gpa&m-EGm;pm;usuEf iS w
fh al om rdpm ouFyp onf? rdpm ouFaym+a*gpa&m
a,oEd rdpmouFya*gp&m/

306

"ry'bmom#Dum

,ru

oDvtESpt
f p&Sad om? war0 om&H-xkt
d ESpu
f ydk if}}[k ay;awmfr\
l / t,H-

oDvpaomw&m;onf? oma&m emr-tESpfrnf\? wd-okdY?


(wGm p-odvnf;aumif;?) 0kwy u
m&H-qkt
d yfNy;D aom tjym;&Sad om?
tom&H-tESprf rS;D ypn;f av;jzm rdpm 'd|d xk\
d jzpfaMumif; raumif;
aom w&m;a'oemuk?d t,H-ypn;f av;jzm rdpm 'd|d xk\
d jzpfaMumif;
raumif;aom w&m;a'oemonf? toma&m emr-tESpf r[kwaf om
w&m;rnf\? wd-ok?Yd wGm p-odvnf;aumif;/ t"d*p Ed pyf?
aw om& Ed- um;? {0H-qkt
d yfNy;D aomenf;jzih?f orm'eH-razmuf
rjyef rSeu
f efaomtjrifu?dk 0g-razmufrjyef rSeu
f efaom t,lu?dk
*a[wGm-,l? Xdwm-wnfuek af om? aw y@dwm-xkyd nm&Sw
d o
Ykd nf?
aeuro
uFym 'De-H aeuro
uFyt
p&Sad om tMuw
H \
Ydk ? 0aoe-tpGr;f
jzih?f ormouFya *gp&m-rSeu
f efaom tMu[
H al om usupf m;&m&Su
d ek f
onf? [kwmG -jzpf? 0kwy um&H-qkt
d yfNy;D aom tjym;&Sad om? wH om&HxkdtESpfukd? t"d*p Ed-odEkdifMuukef\? 0g-&Muukef\? wd-wGif
*gxmzGifh tNyD;wnf;/ *gxmy&da,momae-? A[l-rsm;pGmukefaom
yk*dKvfwkdYonf? aomwmywdzvm'Ded-aomwmywdzkdvftp&Sdaom
tusKd ;xl;wko
Yd ?Ydk ygykPo
-k a&mufuek Nf y?D oEdy wdwmeH-pka0;a&mufvm
ukeaf om &[ef;wk\
Yd ? "ra'oem-w&m;a'oemawmfonf? omwdu
mtusKd ;ESiw
fh uG jzpfonf? 0g-tusKd ;&So
d nf? ta[mod-Ny?D wd-wnf;/
om&dyw
k a w&0wKbmom#DumNy;D \/
9-eEaw&0wKbmom#Dum
,xm t*g&Ed tp&Sad om? rH "ra'oeH owm aZw0ae
0d[&aEm? tm,oEH eEH t&Sief Eu?kd tm&A uaxod/
[dcsUJ ? owmonf? y0ww
d 0&"rpaumjzpfapawmfrt
l yfNy;D aom
jrwfaom"rpMum&Sdonf? 0g-jrwfaom"rpMumukd jzpfapawmfrlNyD;

0*f

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307

(a[mawmfrNl y;D )onf ([kwmG )? &mZ*[Hod?Yk *Em? a0VK0aea0VK


0efausmif;wdu
k f ? 0d[&aEmaeawmfrpl Of? ]]arig\? ykwH om;awmf
ud?k tmaewGmyifah qmif? 'axjyMuavm?}} wdodYk rde
Yf ?
oka'g'er[m&maZeoka'g'erif;Bu;D onf? ayodwmeHapvTwt
f yf
ukeaf om? o[o[y&d0g&meHwpfaxmifwpfaxmif tjct
H &H
&Su
d ek af om? 'oEH q,fa,mufuek af om? 'lwmeHwrefww
Ykd iG ?f oAypawmtvHk;pHkaom wrefwdkY\ aemuf? 0gaemufu? *Em-?
t&[wyawet&[wzdkvfodkY a&mufaom? umVK'g,dawa&e
umVK'g,Dax&fonf? *reumvH<uawmfr&l mtcgud?k wGm? r*0PHvrf;c&D;\*kPf om,mykHudk? 0aPwGmcsD;rGrf;avQmufxm;?
0Dowdo[cDPmo0y&d0kawmESpfaomif;aom &[EmwdkYonf
jc&H t
H yfvsu?f uydvyk&H uydvNrKd Uawmfo?Ykd eDawmyifah qmiftyfonf?
([kwmG )? wdorm*araqGawmfrsK;d awmfw\
Ykd pka0;rd&m? aygu&0HHMumzufrdk;udk? 0g-Mumzuf usaom rkd;uJhokdY pGyfapolukdom
aygu&0H/ / aygua&+0am aygu&0am? aygu&0am
0d,mwd aygu&0am? y'krm Mumzuf a&avQmouJo
h Ydk rpGyaf pvko
d w
l \
Ykd
ukd,f a&rpGyfatmif &Gmaomrkd;ukd y'rmMumzufay: usaomrkd;ESihf wl
aomaMumihf ]]aygu&0}}[k ac:onf/ (0drwd-1 34? 2 0drwd-2 112?
r[mbm-1 192)
wpfenf;/ / *Pyd 'k w
f t
Ykd vkd Mumzuftqif;&Sad omrk;d ukd }}aygu&0}}[k
vnf;aumif; 0'Ed(tmp&d,)0g'tvkd MumzufyrmP&Sdvsuf aumif;uif
tv,f tpOftwkid ;f jzpfay:vm &maygif;rsm;pGm axmifaygif;rsm;pGmaom
wdrfawmifwdrfvdyfwdrfvTmrsm;jzpfum &GmoGef;aomrkd;ukd ]]aygu&0}}[k
vnf;aumif; zGiq
hf adk o;\/ *Pyd 'k t
f vkd ]]aygu&0aPm+0am aygu&0am-Mumzuftqif;&Sdaomrkd;? (0Pyk'facs)}}[k jyK? 0'Ed0g'tvkd ]]aygu&yrmaPm+0am aygu&0am-MumzufyrmP&Sad omrk;d ? (yrmPyk'af cs)}}
[kjyK/ (om&w-3 245)

308

"ry'bmom#Dum

,ru

pGyfaom rkd;ukd? twKywa0E&mZmwfawmfw&m;a[mjcif;\


taMumif;0wKjzpfay:vmjcif;ud?k 0g-a0E&mZmwfawmfukd a[mawmf
rljcif;iSm jzpfay:vmaom taMumif;ud?k uwGm? a0E&ZmwuH
a0E& Zmwfawmfu?kd uaxwGmNy;D ? yke'd0ao? yd@m,iSm?
y0da|m0ifawmfro
l nf? (ormaem)? ]]Owad | eyraZ,sm}}wd[laom?
*gxm,jzif?h ydw&Hud?k aomwmywzd av? ywd|maywGmwnfap
awmfr
l ? ]]"ra &}}wdaom? *gxm,jzif?h r[myZmywrdaxG;awmf
r[myZmywda*gwrDudk? aomwmywdzavvnf;aumif;? &mZmeHoka'g'erif;Bu;D ud?k ou'g*grdzav pvnf;aumif;? ywd|mayod
wnfapawmfrNl y/D ye-qufOK;tH?h bwupd m 0omae? &m[kvrmwk*kPuxH&m[kvmr,fawmf\ *kPfaus;Zl;ESifh pyfaompum;udk?
edm,? pEuEd & ZD mwuHpEuEd & ZD mwfawmfu?kd uaxwGm?
wawmxdak eYr?S wwd,'d0aooH;k &ufajrmufaeY eEurk m&eE
rif;om;\? tbdaoua*[ya0oe0d0g[r*Favoktdrfa&SUrif;
tbdou
d cf aH omr*Fvm tdraf &SUrif;\ eef;opfoYkd 0ifa&mufjcif;r*Fvm
xdrf;jrm;vufxyfjcif;r*FvmwdkYonf? y0wrmaeokjzpfukefvaomf?
tw K y w / / t&D , aw t0*rD , awwd taw m -od t yf a om
taMumif;0wK? tw+Oywd twKyw
-d taMumif;0wK\ jzpfay:vmjcif;?
0g-taMumif;t&mtjzpftysuf('D#D-1 57? oDbm-1 318)/ (wpfenf;)
two'g a[wkteufa[m ,l ]]"ra'oem, tawm a[wk OyZwd
{wmwd twKyw
-d w&m;a[mjcif;\ taMumif;\ jzpf&mypKye 0f wK}}[kvnf;
aumif; ya,mZeteufa[m,l ]]"ra'oem'daum tawm OyZwd
{wm,mwd twKyw
-d w&m;a[mjcif;paom tusKd ;\ jzpfaMumif; ypKye 0f wK}}
[kvnf;aumif; jyKyg/ (0drwd-1 90? yg&mbm-2 106)
tbdaou...r*Favok / / r*Fvm 3rsdK;om qkd\? 0d.|-3
]](1) auo0dZeH-qHxkH;jznfjcif;r*Fvm (2) yAaEm-ezl; oif;uspfjym;ukd
zJGUjcif;r*Fvm (3) C&r*FvH-tdrfa&SUrif;\ eef;opfwufr*Fvm (4) tm0g[-

0*f

"ry'bmom#Dum

309

yd@m,-iSm? y0dow
d mG 0ifawmfr
l ? eEurk m&\? [aw? ywH
ud?k 'wGm-? r*FvH r*Fvmw&m;awmfu?kd 0wGma[mawmfr
l ? tmoemrS? O|m,? yuaEmzJ<uawmfrv
l aomf? eEurk m&\?
[wawmrS? ywH ud?k e *PSd ,lawmfrrl/ aomydxdek Erif;om;onf
vnf;? wxm*w*g&a0ejrwfpmG bk&m; av;pm;ol\tjzpfaMumif?h 0gjrwfpmG bk&m; av;pm;jcif;aMumih?f ]]baE a0gt&Sib
f &k m;wd\
Yk ? ywH
ud?k *PSx,lawmfryl guke?f }} wdod?Yk 0wKH avQmufjcif;iSm? emoud
Edik ?f {0H yeodu
Yk m;? pdaEo?d (u)? ]]aomygeoDaoapmif;wef;OK;?
(avScg;xdyf )? ywH ud?k *PS
d wd,lawmfrv
l rd rhf nf?}} wd-Ny/D owm
onf? word d Xmaexdak pmif;wef;OK;t&yfvnf;? e *PSd ,lawmfrrl/
wa&mtjcm;aom eErif;om;onf? ]]aomygeyg'rlavapmif;wef;
ajc&if;? (avScg;ajc&if;)? *PS
d wdrnf?}} wd pdaEo/d owm
onf? wwmydxdak pmif;wef;ajc&if;vnf;? e *PS/d wa&monf?
]]&mZ*FaPrif;&ifjyif? *PSdwd?}} wd pdaEod/ owmonf?
wwmydxdrk if;&ifjyifvnf;? e *PS/d ukrma&mrif;om;onf? ed0ww
d -k
umarmjyefvn
S v
hf o
kd nf? ([kwmG )? tkp,
d mtvdrk &So
d jzif?h 0gtvdk
r&Sb
d ?J *paEmvdu
k o
f mG ;&vaomf? owK*g&a0ejrwfpmG bk&m; av;pm;
ol\tjzpfaMumif?h 0g-jrwfpmG bk&m; av;pm;jcif;aMumih?f ]]yw-H uk?d
*PSx-uke?f }} wd 0wKH -iSm? e oaumwdrpGr;f Edik /f ]]"t&yf?
*PS
d wd? {wxdt
k &yf? *PS
d wd?}} wdod?Yk pdaEaEmvsu?f *pwd
vdu
k o
f mG ;\/
wo caP? tnmtjcm;ukeaf om? wad ,mwdo
Yk nf? wH
r*FvH-xdrf;jrm;vufxyfjcif;r*Fvm (5) qwr*FvH-tdrfa&SUxD;jzLaqmif;jcif;
r*Fvm}}[k r*Fvm5rsdK; qkd\? xkdYjyif tH.|-1 244 ]]0d0g[}}tpm; ]]tm0g[}}
[k &Sd\? O'ge.|-151? ty.|-1 107? Zm.|-1 106wkdYum; "r.|twkdif;
yif ]]0d0g[}}[k &Sd\/

310

"ry'bmom#Dum

,ru

xdek Erif;om;ud?k 'domG ? Zey'uvsmPd,mZey'uvsmPDrif;orD;


tm;? (lyeEmrif;orD;tm;)? tmpduokajymukefNyD? (u)? ]]ta,s
t&Sirf b*0gonf? eEurk m&Hud?k *a[wGmac:? *awm<uawmf
rlNy?D wkarS[d t&Sirf wdEYk iS ?hf wHxdek Erif;om;ud?k 0demuGaJ tmif? u&dwdjyKawmfrv
l rd rhf nf?}} wd-odaYk jymNy/D omxdZk ey'uvsmPDrif;
orD;onf? y*&aEa[0,dkpD;usaeonfomvQifjzpfukefaom? 0gZey'uvsmPd,m/ / Zey'rSd+uvsmPD Zey'uvsmPD-Zeyk'fe,f
y,fwpfckvkH; aumif;aom*kPft*Fg&Sdaom rif;orD;? ]]rnf;-jzL-ql-BuHK edrfhjrihfwkH rSwfukefjypf6yg;}}[lonfESifhtnD rnf;vGef;jcif; jzLvGef;jcif; 0vGef;jcif;
ydefvGef;jcif; edrfhvGef;jcif; jrifhvGef;jcif;tm;jzihf ukd,f\tjypf 6yg;&Sdonf?
Zey'uvsmPDonf xkdtjypf 6yg;uif;vGwf vlavmufvnf;ru ewf
avmufvnf;rus (vlru ewfrrQ) tvGev
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hJ Ydk jzLazG;aejcif;onf taMum\ aumif;jcif;
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ta&rwGefY qHrjzLjcif;onf t&G,f\aumif;jcif;rnf\? okdY aumif;jcif;
5jzmESihf jynfhpkHaomaMumihf Zey'uvsmPDrnf\/ (om&w-3 3248-9?tH#D1 187? "r#D-49) "r.|-1 244 ]]e[mkuvsmP}}ae&m0,f ]]auouvsmP-qHyif\ aumif;jcif;}}[kvnf;aumif; O'ge.|-152 ]]ecuvsmP}}[kvnf;aumif; qk\
d /

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waygufaygufusaeonfomvQijf zpfuek af om? O'uAdEL [da&ayguf


wdjYk zif?h tKvcd ad w[dwpf0ufwpfysuo
f m Nz;D tyfNy;D ukeaf om? (Nz;D
rNy;D ao;ukeaf om)? auao[dqHyifwjYkd zif?h a0a*et[kejf zif?h 0g-vsif
jrefpmG ? *Em? ]]t,syw
k t&Sio
hf m; wk0#H acgjrefjrefomvQi?f tm*ap,smodjyefvmcJyh gavm?}} wd tm[/ wmxdZk ey' uvsmPD
rif;orD;\? wH 0peHonf? wxdek Erif;om;\? ['a,pdwEf v
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dS mG 0
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rl? ]]eEeE yAZ
d od&[ef;jyKrnfavm?}} wdod?Yk tm[ar;
awmfrNl y/D aomxdek Erif;om;onf? Ak'* g&a0eaMumif?h ]]e yAZ
d mrd&[ef;rjyKEikd yf g?}}wdod?Yk t0wGmravQmufr
l ? ]]tmrrSeyf g? yAZ-d
mrdygrnf?}} wd tm[/ owmonf? ]]awe [dvQi?f eEH ud?k
yAmaZx&[ef;jzpfapMuavm?}} wd tm[/ owmonf? uydvyk&H
uydvNrKd Uawmfo?Ykd *Ema&mufawmfr
l ? wwd,'d0aook;H &ufajrmuf
aeY? eEH ud?k yAmaZod&[ef;jzpfapawmfrNl y/D
OyKvdcdaw[d auao[d/ / ]]O'uAdEL[d}}ponfwdkY ]]om bdaEe
oDaoe y*&aEe avm[dawe(r-1 177)}}uJhokdY wrLvuPteuf
wwd,mouf/ OyKvcd ad w[d auao[Dwd wrL wvuaP u&P0peH?
0dyu
wkvcd ad w[d auao[d Oyvuw
d mwd tawm? ]]tKvcd ad w[D}}wdyd
yXEd/ OvdceEd p zPum'D[d auooPmyeH? tum&0d"meEdyd 0'Ed?O'ge.|- 153? "r#D-49/
wwd,'d0ao/ / bk&m;&Sifonf bk&m;jzpfawmfrlonfhESpf r[mou
&mZf 103ckESpf waygif;vjynhfausmf 1&ufaeY &mZN*dK[fNrdKUrS pwifxGufcGm
awmfrcl \
hJ ? ,lZem (60)c&D;ukd wpfaeYwpf,Zl em <uawmfrcl &hJ m 2vjynhaf om
tcg uydv0wfoYdk a&mufawmfro
l nf? 2vjynhaf omtcg[lonf aemufEpS f

312

"ry'bmom#Dum

,ru

owarckepf&ufajrmufaom? 'd0aoaeY? &m[kvrmwmonf?


ukrm&H&m[kvmrif;om;ud?k tvuF&w
d mG wefqmqif? b*0awm
\? oEduHodkY? ayaoodapvTwfNyD? (utb,fodkYrSm apvTwf
oenf;) ]]wmwcspo
f m; 0Dowdo[orPy&d0w
k H ESpaf omif;
aom &[ef;jc&H t
H yfaom? 0g-Nc&H t
H yfvsu?f ok0P0PH a&Ttqif;ESihf
wlaom tqif;&Sad wmfral om? jA[yl 0d PH jA[m\ tqif;uJo
h aYdk om
tqif;&Sad wmfral om? {wH orPH&[ef;awmfu?kd yMunfph rf;
(104-ckESpf) uqkefvjynfhausmf 1&ufaeYwnf;? xkdaeYwGif aygu&0rkd;ukd
&Gmap a0E&mZmwfawmfukd a[mawmfrlonf/
aemufaeY (uqkefvjynhfausmf2&ufaeY)wGif crnf;awmf oka'g'erif;
BuD;tm; ]]Owda| eyraZ,s}}paom *gxmukd a[mawmfrl aomwmyef
wnfaponf? ]]"ra &}}paom *gxmukd qufa[mawmfr
l rdaxG;awmf a*g
wrDtm; aomwmyefwnfapum crnf;awmfoak 'g'erif;Bu;D tm; ou'g*grf
wnfaponf? quf ,aom"&mtaqmifokdY <uawmfrlum pEudE&DZmwf
awmfudk a[mawmfro
l nf? aeY(uqkev
f jynhaf usm2f &ufaeY)yif eErif;om;
ukd &[ef;jyKaponf[k 0d.|-3 290 qk\
d ? xk0d .d |tqko
d nf ]]wwd,'d0ao3&ufajrmufaeY (uqkev
f jynhaf usmf 3&ufaeY)}}[laom "r.|tqkEd iS fh uJv
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dk mPuaqmifwYdk aqmif,v
l monfh
twkdif; qdk&jcif;aMumihf jzpfonf/ (om&w-3 250)
jA[lyd0P/H / jA[Kaem+lyH jA[lyH? jA[lyar0 jA[lyD? ypnf;
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oPmefESihfwlaom ykHoPmef&Sdawmfrlaom bk&m;&Sif? (a&SU0Pyk'fukdacs)}}[k
vnf; MuHMuao;\/ 0d.|-3 290 ]]jA[ly0PH}}[k &Sd ] jA[ly0PEd
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(om&w-3 250? 0drwd-2 114)}}[k zGihf\/

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313

avm? t,H&[ef;awmfonf? awoifom;awmf\? ydwmcrnf;


awmfwnf;? {woifch rnf;awmf\? 0g-rSm? r[EmBu;D rm;ukef
aom? ed"u
d rk ad ,ma&Tt;kd 4vk;H wdo
Yk nf? ta[oHk &Scd u
hJ ek Nf y/D wmxdk
a&Tt;kd Bu;D 4vk;H wdu
Yk ?kd txdo
k ihcf rnf;awmf\? edur eawmawm
xGuaf wmfr&l maeYr?S y|m,? e ymrrjrifawGU&awmhukef? *p
oGm;acs? eH-xkdoihfcrnf;awmfukd? 'g,ZHtarGukd? ,mpkawmif;
acsavm? (u-tb,foYdk ajym awmif;&rnfenf;) ]wmwcrnf;awmf
t[HuReaf wmfonf? ukrma&mrif;om;ygwnf;? tbdaouHtbd
oduaf &pifo?Ykd ywGma&muf? wpfenf;-tbdaouH ywGm-tbdou
d f
cH? pu0wD pMumrif;onf? b0dmrdjzpfvrd rhf nf? (jzpfvydk g\)? ar
tm;? "aeeOpmjzif?h tawmtvd&k ydS g\? artm;? "eHud?k a'[day;
awmfryl g/ [dawmif;oih\
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oEuOpm\? omrdaumt&Sifygwnf;?} wd-odkY ajym?
(,mpk-avm?) wd-odYk rSm apvGwNf y/D wdwpfv;kH aMu? 0d.|3 290tvkd ukrma&maemif yk'x
f ;D r&S?d t[HrpS b0dmrdtxd wpf0gus
wnf;jzpf\? ]]wmw? t[H ukrma&m-uREyfk rf if;om;onf?... b0dmrd}}[k
q&mwdYk ay;awmfr\
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d rk ad ,m/ / ]]ed"dukrda,m}}[k&SdykHukd axmufvQif P0Pdu
paomokwft& ypnf;ouf ]]r[ED}} okdYr[kwf ]]r[Eda,m}}[k &Sdoihf
onf? (wpfenf;) vd*F0dyvmoMuHyg? 0d.|-3 290? ty.|-1 107? Zm.|1 107wkdYtwkdif; ]]r[Em ed"a,m}}[k &SdvQif ykdaumif;onf/
wsm/ / ]]r[Em ed"a,m(0d.|-3 290)}}udk pJG&aomaMumihf om&w3 250 ]]wsm}}ukd ]]aw+t}}[k yk'fjzwfjyonf? ]]ed"d-ukrda,m}}ukd
pJG&aomaMumihf ]]wm+t}}[kjzwf ,vm/ (wpfenf;) w,m-w,DeH
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wl wsoAemrfy'k w
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d vkd ]]wsm+t}}[kjzwfyg/(ed'-D 121? 122)/

314

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,ru

a&mufom? 0g-a&mufvQiaf &mufcsi;f yif? ydwo


k ad e[Hzcif jzpfaom
cspfjcif;udk? y#dvbdwGm&? [|pdawm&Tifvef;aom pdwf&Sdonf?
([kwmG )? ]]orPtk.d ..&[ef; aw\? qm,mt&dyaf wmfonf? okcg
at;csr;f vSyg\?}} wdod?Yk 0wGm? tnrd tjcm;vnf;jzpfaom? A[Hk
rsm;pGmaom? twaemtm;? tEkyl H oihaf vsmaf om pum;ud?k 0'aEm
ajymvsuf? t|modwnfNyD/ b*0gonf? uwbwudapmonf?
([kwmG )? tEkarm'eHud?k uwGm? tmoemrS? O|m,? yumrd
zJ<uawmfrNl y/D ukrma&mydonfvnf;? ]]orPtk.d ..&[ef; arom;
awmftm;? 'g,ZH tarGu?kd a'[day;ygavm? orP ar-tm;? 'g,Z-H
uk?d a'[d-avm?}} wdodYk wwGww
f w
G af jym? b*0EH ok?Yd tEkAEd
vdu
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l aygif;onf
vnf;)? b*0wmESi?hf o' twl? *p EH vku
d o
f mG ;aeaom rif;om;ud?k
ed0awwkH jyefapjcif;iSm? emoud rpGr;f Edik /f wdodv
Yk Qi?f aomxdk
&m[kvmrif;om;onf? b*0wmESi?hf o' twl? tm&mrar0ausmif;
wdkufodkYom? t*rmodvdkufoGm;NyD/
wawmxdrk aS emuf? b*0gonf? pdaEod Ny?D (u)? ]]t,H
&m[kvmrif;om;onf? ydw-k crnf;awmf\? oEuH Opmjzpfaom? ,H "eH
tMuifOpmud?k pwd tvd&k \
dS ? wHxdOk pmonf? 0mEk*wH0#f'u
k o
Ykd
tpOfvu
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'kuE iS hf wuGjzpf\? [E,ck? t&m[kvmrif;om;tm;? aAm"dwavaAm"d&ifjyif? y#dv'H &tyfaom? ow0"d H 7yg;tjym;&Sad om?
0mEk*wH o0dCmwH/ / 0mEk*wEd 0y&d,myE(H udavo0#f 0dygu
0#f yg0ifonf)? o0dCmwuEd 'kuo[dwwm o0dCmwuH? o'kuEd
tawm?-om&w-3 250/

0*f

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315

t&d,"eHt&d,mwd\
Yk Opmud?k 0g-jzLpifjrihjf rwfaom Opmud?k a'rd-ay;
awmfrt
l ?hH eHxd&k m[kvmrif;om;ud?k avmukw& 'g,Zavmukw
&mtarG\? (avmukw& mw&m;[laomtarG\)? omrduH ydik &f iS u
f ?kd
ua&mrdjyKt?hH }} wd-odYk MuaH wmfrNl y/D tx acgxdt
k cg? b*0g
onf? tm,oEH om&dyw
k H ud?k tmraEod awmfrNl y?D (u)? ]]om&dyw
k
om&dyMk wm awe [dwku
d w
f eG ;f awmfr\
l ? 0g-xdo
k t
Ykd arGukd awmif;jcif;
aMumih?f wGH onf? &m[kvukrm&Hud?k yAmaZ[d&Sijf zpfapavm? 0g-&Sijf yK
ay;avm?}} wd-Ny/D axa&monf? ukrm&Hud?k yAmaZodNy/D p ye
t&d,"eH/ / t&d,meH+"eH t&d,"eH-t&d,molawmfaumif;wk\
Yd Opm?
(wpfenf;) t&d,+wH+"emwd t&d,"eH-jzLpifjrihfjrwfaomOpm(oH#D-2
537)? t&d,mOpm 7yg;rSm ]]o'g oDv [d&D Mowy okw pm* ynm}}
wkdYwnf;/ ('D-3 207? om&w-3 250? 0drwd-2 114)
awe [d/ / awe [donf a&SUenf;tvkd Oa,smZe(wkdufwGef;jcif;)
teufa[medygwfyk'fwnf;? (om&w-1 45ponf)? aemufenf;tvkd awe
[dudk um&Pteufa[medygwfy'k [
f v
k nf;aumif; aweum; woAemrfy'k f
aemif [dwt
f euf em0dbwfq;Hk aomyk'f [dum; teufr& edygwfrQ[v
k nf;
aumif; 2rsdK;,lyg? ]]om&dykw (a,e um&aPe-tMuiftaMumif;aMumihf?)
ukrma&myd ]]orP ar-tm;? 'g,ZHudk? a'[davm? orP ar 'g,ZH
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f tus,af y;Ekid o
f nf/ (r.|-2 178? oD#o
D pf1 351? yg&mbm-1 57)
axa&m ukrm&H yAmaZod/ / &m[kvmrif;om;ukd &SifjyKay;&m t&Sif
r[marm*vmefu acgif;&dwfqHcsjcif; ouFef;0wfay;jcif; o&P*kHay;jcif;ukd
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f m&dyMk wmudo
k m acgif;
wyf ]]axa&m ukrm&H yAmaZod}}[k qkd&onf/(0d.|-3 291)

316

"ry'bmom#Dum

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xyfqufOK;tH?h ukrma&onf? yAZad w&Sit


f jzpfoYkd a&mufvaomf?
0g&Sijf yKNy;D vaomf? &anmoka'g'erif;\? 0g-rSm? t"drwH vGeu
f aJ om
twdik ;f t&Sn&f adS om? 'kuH pdwq
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qif;&Jjcif;ud?k t"d0gaowHk onf;cHjcif;iSm? toaumaEmrpGr;f Edik v
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aomf? b*0awmud?k eda0a'wGmodap? 0g-avQmuf? ]]baE&m;
om"kawmif;yefyg\? t,smt&Sib
f &k m;wdo
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l d rdb
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od?Yk 0&Hqku?kd ,mpdawmif;Ny/D b*0gonf? wxdo
k ak 'g'erif;tm;?
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0*f

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317

aMumih?f 0g-r[m"rygvZmwfawmfw&m;a[mjcif;\ taMumif;0wK


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omvQi?f &mZ*[Hod?Yk *Em<uawmfr
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om eaEmt&Sief Eonf? OuPw
d mG -ysi;f &d? ]]txuf vnfyif;&S
o'way;? bduL eHwdt
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ajymNy?D (u)? ]]tm0kaomwd?Yk t[Hwynfah wmfonf? tebd&awm
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tdypf uf&jcif; arxkerf S a&Smif&jcif;[laom) jrwfaom tusiu
fh ?kd p&mrd
jA[p&d,/H / jA[p&d,onf 'ge tyrnm omoemawmf arxkef
rSa&SmifMuOfjcif; a0,sm0p rdrdr,m;jzihfom a&mif&Jwif;wdrfjcif; ig;yg;oDv
t&d,r*f Oykoft*Fg vkHYvpaom teufwdkYukd a[m\? ]]jA[p&d,H
p&mrd}}0,f jA[p&d,Ht& omoejA[p&d,ukd &\? omoejA[p&d,t&
odum 3yg;ESihf y&d,wfw&m;wkdYukd &aomfvnf; wpfyg;wnf;aexkdif&
jcif; wpfyg;wnf;tdyfpuf&jcif; arxkefrSa&SmifMuOfjcif;ukdom ,l&onf?
aemuf ]]jA[p&d,H oEma&wk}H } jA[p&d,t
H &um; omoejA[p&d,omru
r*if 8 yg; [laom r*jA[p&d,udkyg ,l&onf/ jA[p&d,Ed jA[H ao|H

318

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,ru

usiahf e&\? jA[p&d,H omoejA[p&d, r*jA[p&d,[laom jrwf


aom tusiu
fh ?kd oEma&wHk (a&S;qk;H pdwrf S aemufq;Hk pdww
f idk af tmif )
aumif;pGm aqmifxm;jcif;iSm? e oaumrdrpGr;f Edik ?f oduH odum 3yg;uk?d
ypum ,pGe
Yf ? 0g-cs? [Dem,,kwef rd afh om vlUtjzpftusK;d iSm? 0gvlt
Y jzpfo?Ykd tm0wd
mrdjyefvnfygawmhrnf? (wpfenf;) [Dem,m0w
d mrdvlxu
G yf gawmhrnf?}} wd-ajymNy/D b*0gonf? wH y0w
xkjd zpfyu
Hk ?dk okwmG ? tm,oEH eEH uk?d yaumomaywGmac:apawmf
rl? {wHpum;uk?d ta0gprdeaYf wmfrNl y?D (u)? ]]eEeE wHG onf?
or[v
k meHrsm;pGmukeaf om? bduL eHwkt
Yd m;? ]tm0kaom-wdYk t[Honf? tebd&awm-onf? ([kwmG ) jA[p&d,-H uk?d p&mrd? jA[p&d,-H
uk?d oEma&wk-H Ekid ?f e oaumrd? odu-H uk?d ypum ,-? [Dem,-iSm?
0g-uk?d tm0w
d mrd-tH?h } wd {0Hok?Yd tma&mapod ud&ajymowJ[
h k
Mum;&onfum;? opH rSeo
f avm?}} wd-okYd ar;awmfrNl y/D wdwpfv;Hk
f &k m; {0H-twkid ;f rSeyf g\?}} wdodYk
tausMu/H ]]H baEt&Sib
avQmufNy/D ]]eE ud yetb,faMumif?h wGH onf? tebd&awm
onf? ([kwmG )? jA[p&d,H ud?k p&odusi&hf oenf; jA[p&d,H uk?d
oEma&wkH iSm? e oaumodrpGr;f Ekid o
f enf; oduH uk?d ypum ,?
[Dem,iSm? tm0wd
odjyefvnfrnfenf;}} wd-okYd ar;awmfrNl y/D
]]baE&m; omud,meDomuD0ifrif;orD;jzpfaom? Zey'uvsmPD
Ow r H p&d , H {umoeH {uao,sH arxk e 0d & w / 'k w d , ya'e apw
r*jA[p&d,myd o*Fa[m a0'dwaAm?-O'ge.|-151/
oEma&wk/H /oEma&wkEd yXrpdwawm ,m0p&drupdwH orm y&dykPH
y&dok'H "ma&wkH y0awwkH?-O'ge.|-151/
odu/H / &[ef;cHpOfu &[ef;tjzpfEiS t
hf wl aqmufwnftyfaom rdrd
oEmefjzpfapxku
d o
f nf\tjzpfjzihf tpOfrjywfwnfaeaom odum 3yg;uk,
d ?l O'ge.|-151/

0*f

"ry'bmom#Dum

319

Zey'uvsmPDrif;orD;onf? rH\? 0g-onf? C&m-pHtrd rf ?S edur ExGuv


f mpOf? tKvcd ad w[dwpf0ufwpfysuo
f m Nz;D tyfNy;D ukeaf om?
auao[dwkjYdzif?h tyavmauwGmapmif;iJah rQmMf unf
h ? rH-wynfah wmf
uk?d ]t,syw
k t&Sio
hf m; wk0#H acgomvQi?f tm*ap,smodjyefvmcJh
ygavm?} wd-odaYk om? {wHpum;uk?d ta0gpajymNy?D baE&m;
aom t[Hxkw
d ynfah wmfonf? wHxkZd ey'uvsmPD\ pum;uk?d 0gxkZd ey'uvsmPD\ tjcif;t&mESifh wuGjzpfaom pum;uk?d wrEk&rmaemwd wH wm 0peH wH 0g wm tmum&o[dwH 0peH tEk&aEm?rH baE...rH {w'a0gp/ / ]]rH baE}}rS rH0,f q|Dteuf 'kwd,m
ouf? okdYr[kwf 0dbwd0dyvvmoMuH? csJUygOK;rnf- ]]rH baEwd ykaAyd ]]r}}Ed
0wGm OuPm ukvpdww
m,(ysi;f &DNi;D aiGUjcif;onf arTaESmuftyfaom pdw&f dS
onf\ tjzpfaMumihf) yke ]]rHrH {wa0gp
{wa0gp}}wd tm[(O'ge.|-153)}}[k rH2yk'f
qkd&jcif;taMumif;ukd zGihf&um; rHonf rl&if;ygXf[k odom\? ]]ar baE}}[k
vnf;aumif; ]]rr baE}}[kvnf;aumif; rlu&GJ \
dS ? xkrd u
l yGJ gXfrsm;ukd axmuf
q|Dteuf tem'&teuf[k MuHEkdifonf/
wpfenf;/ / ]]OuPm ukvpdww
m,}}[laom tzGit
hf & ]]u[H {uykwu u[H {uykwu}}uJhokdY aomujzpf&m 2Budrfqkdaom tmar!dwf
pum;[kMu?H teuft"dym ,fwpfcw
k nf;ukyd if aMumufjcif; pdwq
f ;dk jcif;ponf
jzpf&m 2Budrf 3Budrf qkdjcif;ukd tmar!dwf[k ac:onf? orr[kvnf; okH;EIef;
\? t&Sief Eonf Zey'uvsmPDudk vGr;f qGwo
f wd&ojzihf &ifxq
J NYdk y;D
ravQmufEkdifjzpfae&mrS pum;xGufvmaomtcg ]]rH rH-wynfhawmf wynhf
awmfu}dk }[k 2Burd x
f u
G v
f monf[k ,lyg? okYd tmar!dw,
f v
l Qif ]]rH rH-wynfh
awmf wynhaf wmfu?dk {wH-uk?d ta0gp}}[k ay;/
wpfenf;ay;Muyk/H / ]]rH baE}}rS rHudk tyavmauwGm pyf ]]baE
C&m-rS? edur E-pOf? rH-uk?d tKvcd ad w[d auao[dwkjYd zif?h tyavmauwGm}}[kvnf; ay;Mu\? t"dym ,f&aomfvnf; tzGit
fh wkid ;f um; rusyg/
edurE/ / C&m edurEmwd tem'a& omrd0peH? C&awm
edurawmwd tawm? ]]C&m edurE}}Edyd yXEd?-O'ge.|-153/

320

"ry'bmom#Dum

,ru

O'ge.|-153/ tEk&rmaemtzefzeftrSw&
f vaomf? 0g-vGr;f qGwf

owd&onf\tjzpfaMumif?h tebd&awmonf? ([kwmG )? jA[p&d,H


uk?d p&mrd\? jA[p&d,H uk?d oEma&wkH iSm? e oaumrd? oduH uk?d
ypum ,? [Dem, tm0w
d mrdrnf? }} wdokaYd vQmufNy/D
tx acg? b*0gonf? tm,oEH eEH uk?d Am[m,Hvufarmif;
? *a[wGm (0d,)ukid af wmfro
l uJo
h jYdk zpf? wpfenf;- tm,oEH eEH
\? Am[m,Hud?k *a[wGm (0d,)? 'Ad avewefc;dk awmf\ tpGr;f
jzif?h wm0woa'0avmuHwm0womewfjynfo?Ydk tmaeaEmac:
aqmifawmfrv
l aomf? tE&mra*? {uo wpfcak om? psmrauaw
rD;avmiftyfaom v,f? psmrcgPkaurD;avmiftyfaom opfiw
k f ?
edoEd H xkid af eaom? qdEu
Pemoe*F|k H jywfaom em;&Guf ESmacgif;
tNr;D &Sad om? {uHwpfaumifaom? yvk|ru# (rD;avmifxm;ojzih)f
kyfysufqif;ysufjzpfaeaom arsmufrukd? 'awGmjyawmfrl?
wm0wob0aebkH ? a'0&anmewfw\
Ykd rif;jzpfaom? ou
odMum;tm;? Oy|meHjyKpjk cif;iSm? (wpfenf;) ou-ud?k Oy|meHqnf;uyf&mt&yfo?Ydk tm*wmedvmukeaf om? uuk#yg'gedckad jcESihf
wlaom ajc&Su
d ek af om? y tp&mowmedig;&maom ewforD;wku
Yd ?dk
'aodjyawmfrNl y/D uuk#yg'geDwd ed[o
l nfum;? &w0Pwm,
eDaomtqif;&Su
d ek o
f nf\tjzpfaMumif?h yga&0wyg'o'doyg'gedck\
d
Yd nf
ajcESiw
hf al om ajc&Su
d ek af om? (y tp&mowmedpyf)? xked wforD;wko
uybk&m;&Si\
f wynfo
h C
H mrsm;tm; ajce,fqv
D LS cJah omaMumihf ajcaxmuf
uav;rsm; tvGefEl;nHhvSyMuowJh?-O'ge.|-154/ p yequfOK;tHh?

'awGmjyawmfrlNyD;? tm[ar;awmfrlNyD? (u)? ]]eEeE wHxkd


*a[wGm 0d,/ / vufarmif;ukd wu,fuidk af wmfro
l nf r[kw?f vuf
armif; udkif ac:aqmifovkdrsdK;jzpfatmif wefckd;awmfjzihf jyKvkyfzefqif;
jcif; jzpfonf? xkdaMumihf ]]0d,}}xnfhay;&onf/ (O'ge.|-154)

0*f

"ry'bmom#Dum

321

igrdeaYf wmfrt
l yfvwHah om pum;uk?d u rnodtb,foYkd rSwx
f if
oenf; omud,meDaom? Zey'uvsmPD 0g-onfvnf;aumif;?
uuk#yg'gedukeaf om? rmed y tp&mowmed 0gwko
Yd nfvnf;
aumif;? (oE-d &Su
d ek \
f ? wmoH-xdZk ey'uvsmPDrif;orD;ESihf ewforD;
ig;&mwdw
Yk iG ?f ) uwrmtb,forl onf? tbdyl w&m 0gtxl;tm;jzihf
vGeu
f aJ om tqif;&So
d nfvnf;aumif;? 0gtvGet
Yf vGef kyaf csmonf
vnf;aumif;? 'eD,w&m 0gtxl;tm;jzihf Munfh o
I ifh Munfh x
I u
dk f
onfvnf;aumif;? 0g-tvGeMf unfah umif;onfvnf;aumif;? ygom'duw&m 0gtxl;tm;jzihf pdwMf unfvifjcif;udk aqmifonfvnf;aumif;?
0g-tvGepf w
d Mf unfvifatmif qGaJ qmifEidk o
f nfvnf;aumif;? ygom'duw&mwd oAm0,0aombm, (uk,
d t
f *Fgtpdwt
f m;vk;H wifw
h ,fjcif;aMumih)f
orEawm yom'g0[m?-O'ge.|-153/ (a[mwd) Ekacg-jzpfoenf;}}

wd-ar;awmfrNl y/D wHxkpd um;awmfu?dk okwmG ? tm[avQmufNy?D


(u)? ]]baE qdEu
Pemoe*k|F maom? om yvk|ru#D xkd yk yf suf
qif;ysujf zpfaeaom arsmufronf? (Zey'uvsmPuk?d Oyed"m,teD; xm;? 0g-EIid ;f ,SOv
f aomf? ocsrF -d rde;f r[k a&wGujf cif;odv
Yk nf;?
ocsEF d wDwd *PeH?-O'ge.|-155? e Oaywd ao,sxmyd-ra&muf
ouJo
h ?Ykd uvr-d 16pdww
f iG f wpfpw
d af om tzko
Yd v
Ykd nf;? e Oaywd
ao,sxmyd-uJo
h ?Ykd uvbm*H-16pdwf 16jyefpw
d
f wpfpw
d af om tzdYk
odv
Yk nf;? e Oaywd ao,sxmyd-uJo
h ?Ykd ) baE {0ar0twlomvQi?f
omud,meDaom? Zey'uvsmPDonf? aroH yEH tp&mowmeH
ewforD;ig;&mwkdYukd? Oyed"m,-teD;xm;? 0g-EIdif;,SOfvaomf?
yEH tp&mowmeH Oyed"m,/ / a&SUenf;tvkd 'kwd,mteuf
q|Douf? aemufenf;tvkd t0,0orefteuf q|Douf? Oyed"m,
Oyum; orDyteufudk a[m "m"mwfum; ]]ed wk Esmao("mwGw) }}ESit
fh nD
eda&S;&Sdojzihf Esmo(tyfESHoGif;xm;jcif;) teufukd a[m\? xkdaMumihf ]]Oy
ed"m,-teD; xm;}}o'way;&onf? teD; xm;jcif;[lonf EIdif;,SOfjcif;

322

"ry'bmom#Dum

,ru

(wpfenf;) yEH tp&mowmeH ewforD;ig;&mwk\


Yd ? (lyorw-
kyt
f qif;\ jynfph jHkcif;uk?d ) Oyed"m,-teD;xm;? 0g-EIid ;f ,SOv
f aomf?
ocsrF -d okv
Yd nf;? e Oayrdruyfa&muf? uvrd odv
Yk nf;? e Oaywd? uvbm*rd okv
Yd nf;? e Oaywd? tx acgpifppfum;? rmae0 y tp&mowmedwko
Yd nfom? tbdyl w&med ap0txl;tm;jzihf vGeu
f aJ om
tqif;&Su
d ek o
f nfvnf;aumif;? 0gtvGet
Yf vGef yk af csmukeo
f nfvnf;
aumif;? 'eD,w&med ptxl;tm;jzihf Munfh o
I ifh Munfh x
I u
dk u
f ek f
onfvnf;aumif;? 0g-tvGeMf unfah umif;ukeo
f nfvnf;aumif;? ygom'duw&med ptxl;tm;jzihf pdwMf unfvifjcif;udk aqmifuek o
f nfvnf;
aumif;? 0g-tvGefpdwfMunfvifatmif qGJaqmifEkdifukefonfvnf;
aumif;? (a[mE-d jzpfyguke\
f )?}} wd-avQmufNy/D ]]eE tbd&rarGU
avsmaf vm? eE tbd&r-avm? t[Higonf? awoihzf ?Ykd 0g-oihf
twGu?f uuk#yg'geHukeaf om? yEH tp&mowmeHwku
Yd ?dk y#dvmbm,&jcif;iSm? yg#dabma*gtmrcHawmfr\
l ? 0g-wm0ef,al wmfr\
l ?}} wdrdeaYf wmfrNl y/D ]]baE-&m; b*0gonf? arzd?Yk 0g-twGu?f uuk#yg'geHyifwnf;? rSef\-EIdif;,SOfrIukd jyK&m EIdif;,SOfp&myk*dKvfESihf EdIif;,SOfaMumif;
t&m0wKrsm;onf wpfa,mufEiS fh wpfa,muf wpfcEk iS w
hf pfck ]]olEiS hf ol
onf wlonf? t&m0wKESifh t&m0wKonf wlonf}}[k EIdif;,SOfp&m
tjzpfjzihf eD;uyfatmifxm;um EdIif;,SOf&\? eD;yg;rQ xm;Ekdifavmufatmif
wlrS EdIif;,SOfbuf jzpf\/ (O'ge.|-155/
yk'fxD;r&Sdoih/f / "r.| Zey'uvsmPDyk'faemif yk'fxD;&Sdaeojzihf
]]baE qdEu
Pemoe*F|k m-aom? om yvk|ru#-D onf? (a[mwd) ao,sxmyd-ouJo
h ?Ydk baE {0ar0 om Zey'uvsmPD-onf? a[mwd-\}}[k ay;
Mu\? Oyrme Oyar,s ray:ojzihf raumif;yg? ]]Zey'uvsmPD}}aemif
yk'fxD;rygaom ck-1 102 twkdif; aumif;\? txuf yk'fxD;rygaom ck-1
102twkdif; O'ge.|-155ukd Munhf ay;onf/
yg#dabma*g/ / ]]bkeH abma*g-tokH;jyKjcif;? y#ded"dblawm+abma*g

0*f

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323

ukeaf om? yEH tp&mowmeH-wku


Yd ?dk y#dvmbm,iSm? yg#dabma*g
tmrcHonf? 0g-wm0ef,o
l nf? oap (a[mwd)-tu,fjzpft?hH baE
t[Honf? b*0wdjrwfpmG bk&m;txHawmf? jA[p&da,? tbd&rdmrdarGUavsmyf grnf?}} wd-avQmufNy/D
tx acg? b*0gonf? tm,oEH eEH uk?d *a[wGmac:
awmfr
l ? wwxkw
d m0womewfjynf? 0g-rS? tE&[dawmuG,f
aysmufvsu?f aZw0aea,0om? ygwk&a[modxif&mS ;jzpfawmfrNl y/D
bduL wko
Yd nf? tamokH Mum;oduek Nf y?D acg-y'yl&P (wpfenf;)
tamoHk acg-Mum;oduek o
f nfom? acg-t0"m&P (u)? ]]b*0awm
\? bmwmnDawmfjzpfaom? rmwkpm ykawmrdaxG;awmfa*gwrD\ om;
awmfjzpfaom? tm,om eaEmonf? tp&meHewforD;wk\
Yd ? a[wk
taMumif;aMumif?h jA[p&d,H uk?d p&wd ud&usio
hf wJ?h b*0gonf?
txkd t&Sief Ez?Ykd 0gtwGu?f uuk#yg'geHukeaf om? yEH tp&mowmeHwku
Yd ?dk y#dvmbm,iSm? yg#dabma*g ud&tmrcHowJ?h 0gwm0ef,o
l wJ?h }} wd-ukeNf y/D tx acgxdt
k cg? tm,oawm eE
{wmwd y#dabma*g-twljzpfaom tok;H jyKjcif;&So
d l (uk,
d pf m;jyKol uk,
d f
pm;vS,f tmrcH)? y#dabma*g {0 yg#dabma*g? y#dabm*+P? yg#dabma*g
0d,mwd yg#dabma*g}}[kjyK? (wpfenf;) o'doyl pm&Mu(H wd.|-36)/ "mef#-D
532 ]]y#dbk w
d ygv,wDwd yg#dabma*g?bkZ ygveteuf+P?}}[k qk\
d /
csJUOK;tHh-aiGajc;iSm;&mwGif aiGajc;iSm;olu olYpD;yGm;a&;tmrcHatmiff
aiG&Sifukd tokH;cs\? aiG&Sifuvnf; aiGajc;iSm;olukd olYpD;yGm;a&;tmrcHatmif
tokH;cs\? aiGajc;iSm;olESihf aiG&Sif2OK;onf tjyeftvSeftm;jzihf wpfOK;ukd
wpfOK; tok;H cswmjcif; wl\? okYd tjyeftvSef tmrcHtaejzihf tok;H cswm
jcif;wlaom aiGajc;iSm;olEiS hf aiG&iS u
f dk ]] yg#dabma*g-twljzpfaom tok;H jyKjcif;
&Sdol(ukd,fpm;jyKol ukd,fpm;vS,f tmrcH)}}[k qkd&onf? jrwfpGmbk&m;onf
vnf; t&Sief EtwGuf ewforD;ig;&m&&ef tmrcHawmfral omaMumihf o'do-l
ypm& Oyrmw'dwftm;jzifh yg#dabm*rnfawmfrl\/ (wd|-36)

324

"ry'bmom#Dum

,ru

\? o[m,umoli,fcsi;f jzpfuek af om? bduL &[ef;wko


Yd nf? tm,oEH eEHukd? bwu0ga'e ppm&if;iSm;[k ajymqdkjcif;jzifhvnf;
aumif;? Oyuw
d u0ga'e paps;0,fo[
l k ajymqdjk cif;jzifv
h nf;aumif;?
ork'gp&Edajymqkdukef\? (u)? ]]tm,om eaEmonf? bwaum
bwu0ga'e/ / tzkd;tcjzihf tvkyfvkyfolukd ]]bwu-pm&if;iSm;
(tcpm;)}}[k ac:\? t&Sief Eonfvnf; ewforD;[laom tzk;d tcjzifh jA[
p&d,ukd usihf&um; pm&if;iSm;ESifh wlonf? ]](bawe) a0waee+uDawm
bawm? bawm {0 bwaum? onm,H 0g aum? bw+u? bw a0weH
bkwDwd 0g bwaum? bwd+u? ukd t-jyK?-"mef#D-514/ bwaum
0d,mwd bwaum? (wpfenf;) o'doyl pm&Mu?H bwaumwd+0ga'g bwu0ga'g}}[k jyK/
wpfenf;/ / t&Sief Eonf jrwfpmG bk&m;\ wku
d w
f eG ;f awmfrcl suaf Mumihf
ewforD;ESifh aygif;azmfcHpm;rI[laom tzkd;tcjzihf jA[p&d,usifhokH;rI[laom
toufukd qufvufjzpfapoljzpf&um; xkdokdYjA[p&d,toufudk jzpfaprI
jrwfpGmbk&m;u ewforD;ESifh aygif;azmfcHpm;rI[laom tzkd;tcjzihf wm0ef
,lapmifha&Smuftyfol (jrwfpGmbk&m;\ wm0ef,lapmihfa&SmufcH&ol)uJhokdY jzpf
aomaMumihf t&SifeEukd ]]bwu-ewforD;ESifh aygif;azmfcHpm;rI[laom tzkd;
tcjzihf wm0ef,lapmifha&Smuftyfol}}[k qkd&onf? tvkd ]]b&D,awwd
bawm? bawma,0 bwaum}}[kjyK? xkad emif Oyrmw'dw
f o'doyl pm&
Mu
H ]]bwu0ga'e-ewforD;ESihf aygif;azmfcpH m;rI[al om tzk;d tcjzihf wm
0ef,lapmifha&Smuftyfol[k ajymqkdjcif;jzihf}}[kay;/ (O'ge.|-155? "r#D)
Oyudwu0ga'e/ / aiGponfjzihf ypnf;wpfpkHwpfck0,folukd Oyudw
u-aps;0,fo(l t0,fawmf)[k ac:\? t&Sief Eonfvnf; ewforD;aMumihf
jA[p&d,ukd usi&fh um; rdrjd A[p&d,ukd 0,f&ma&mufaomaMumihf t&Sief Eudk
]]Oyudw
u-aps;0,fo(l t0,fawmf)}}[k qk&d onf? ]]OyudP
mwDwd Oyuda wm?
Oyuad wma,0 Oyudw
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0*f

"ry'bmom#Dum

325

ud&pm&if;iSm;wJ?h tm,om eaEmonf? Oyudw


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aom? tp&mowmeH-wku
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aumif;? Oyuw
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jzpfaomaMumihf t&SifeEukd Oyudwu-0,ftyfol(t0,fcH&ol a&mif;pm;
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(O'ge.|-155? "r#D)

326

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tbdnm/ / tbdnmukd wwd,E,
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215)

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"ry'bmom#Dum

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th?H tm,om eaEmonf? t&[wH&[Emwkw
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328

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aumif;? ynm0drw
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dk yf nm
ukv
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jcif;[laomorm"d/
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0drw
k d 0darmaumwd apawm0drw
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f ufuad vomwkrYd S pdw\
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apawm0drw
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vnf; apawm0drw
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tjcm;enf;rsm; &Sad o;\? tvk&d u
dS Iavawmh/

0*f

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329

k nmPH?-O'ge.|\vnf;? PHoAnKwPfonf? PEd oAw


Yd ? c,m159/ O'yg'dxif&mS ;jzpfNy?D (u)? ]]eaEmonf? tmo0geH-wk\
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d wGm-? OyorZ- ?
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apwom apawm y&dpm/ / apwom apawm y&dpmwd twaem
pdawe w pdwH y&dpdEdwGm(tH.|-1 43)/ twaem pdawemwd twaem

330

"ry'bmom#Dum

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tmo0geH-wk\
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artm;? {wrwH taMumif;uk?d tma&mapodNy?D (u)? ]]eaEm
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0*f

"ry'bmom#Dum

331

GeAf u
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ukeaf Mumif;jzpfaom t&wzv
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bduK -xk&d [ef;onf? okc'kauo-k okc'kuw
aYdk Mumif?h 0g-okc'ku tp
vmonfh Spjf zmaom avmu"HwaYdk Mumif?h e a0"wd-rwkev
f yI af wmh/
]]OyaEok okacok...OyaEok 'kauok(O'ge.|-160)}}ukd Munhf ]]okc'kauo-k wko
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t&d,r*aowkem oaAm 'd|yd auFm oHom&yauFm {0 0g edAm eyg&*raee
wdaPm/ r'dawm umru@aumwd a,e owmeH 0dZeawm ]umru@aum}wd v'emarm oaAm udavoumarm oaAm umr0dolaum
t*P'a@e r'ad wm/ arm[u,H tEkya wmwd {0H blawm p 'kum'd0do, oA oarm[ acyaee arm[u,H yawm? t&[wzvH edAme tEkyawm?-O'ge. |-161/
OuPdawm/ / ]]OuPeH OuPm-qif;&JpGm touf&Sifjcif;? O+uX
udpZ 0D ae+t? (wpfenf;) O'+H *awm+uaPm {wdmwd OuPm -txuf
jzpfaom (txufoYdk armhaeaom) vnfyif;&Sad om ysi;f &djcif;? OuP+H awm
*awm yawmwd OuPad wm-qif;&JpmG touf&iS jf cif;okYd a&mufo?l 0g-txuf
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332

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,ru

trSd \?} wdod?Yk 0a'odajymcJNh y?D 0'+? o-vm/ 'ged? awoif\? (pdwo
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awmukd raemif awmyp,E awmESihf yrDwyK&dofwJG[k qkd\? ]]O'H+
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o'daomaumif;pGm rk;d tyfaomtdrEf iS hf wlonf? ZmawmjzpfNy/D [d


rSe\
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f )Ydk ? ygaywkH a&mufapjcif;iSm? 0g,raEm
tm;xkwv
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?dk (rwu-H od?Yk )
yawma&mufapNy?D }} wd? 0wGmNy;D ? ]],xm t*g&H ?ay ? e orwd
0dZw}D }wd[luek af om? rm *gxmwku
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,xm t*g&H 'kpE H 0k|D orwd0Zd w?d
{0H tbm0dwH pdwH &ma*g orwd0Zd w/d
'kpE H raumif;ojzihf rk;d tyfaom? 0gusK;d wk;d usw
J J rk;d tyfaom?
t*g&Htdrfukd? 0k|drkd;a&rkd;aygufonf?*gxm qef;aMumihf 'DCjyK
d wd ,xmvGepf mG xk;d azmufEidk o
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twl? tbm0dwH orx 0dyem bm0emwkjYd zihf rwk;d yGm;aptyf
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uk?d &ma*g&m*onf? 0g&m*ukrd w
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orwd0Zd wd vGepf mG xk;d azmufEidk \
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{0H okbm0dwH pdwH &ma*g e orwd0Zd w/d
udpH / / a&SU ]]rwuH ygaywk}H }ukd axmuf yawm um&dwyf pn;f
tausMuHum rwuHudk um&dwfuHtjzpf vkdufay;onf? (wpfenf;) ]]udprwu}H }[k qkv
d v
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yawm-a&mufNyD}}[k ay;? udpHukd yxrEMuH ]]wH udpH-onf? (rwuH-okdY?)
yawm-a&mufNy}D }[kvnf; ay;Mu\? yawm\ uwm;onf ]]t,H}}[k &Sjd cif;
udpHESihf yawmonf vdifrwljcif;aMumihf roifhyg/

334

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okpE H aumif;pGmrk;d tyfaom? 0gydwyf w


d o
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ww-xk*d gxmwkYd ? t*g& Ed- um;? ,H ud-d trSwt
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wk;d usw
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aom? pdwHpyf? {0lyH-okdY oabm&Sdaom? okbm0dwHukd ]]{0lyH}}[k
jyefTef;onf? pdw-H pdwu
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f ek ?f wd-wGif *gxm

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335

tzGihf tNy;D wnf;/ *gxmy&da,momae-? A[l-wko


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uk?d ork|mayokH jzpfapukeNf y?D (u)? ]]tm0kaomwk?Yd Ak'g emrwkrYd nf
onf? tp&,
d mvufazsmufcwfw;D tHch s;D xdu
k yf gayukepf ?G Zey'uvsmPuk?d edm,? OuPad wmaom? tm,om eaEm emr
t&Sief Ernfou
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eEukd? r,monf? rmwk*garermwk*grjzifh? yavmabwGm
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0wGmNy;D ? twDwH tm[&d? (uod?Yk tm[&denf;)
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uya#m emruy#rnfaom? 0gPdaZmukeo
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336

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ora,-tcg? *j'bbm&au[djrnf;jzifh aqmiftyfaom 0efwEYdk iS ?hf


o' twl? wuov
d H wuov
kd Nf rKd Uok?Yd *Em? ,m0tMuifrQavmuf
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jcif;onf)? (a[mwd)? wm0xkrd Qavmufumvywfv;kH ? *j'bHjrnf;uk?d
p&dwkHvSnfhvnfusufpm;jcif;iSm? 0daZodvTwfxm;NyD/ tx?
txku
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p&rmaemvSnv
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jrnf;ruk?d 'domG ? OyouFrd Ny?D omxkjd rnf;ronf? awexkjd rnf;ESi?hf
o'? y#doEm&Huk?d ua&mED jyKvo
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areukeaf &mif;jcif;tvkyu
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H tb,frQtwdik ;f t&Sn&f adS om? bm&H
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jcif;iSm? {0lyH aom? uxHuk?d uaxodNy?D aomxkjd rnf;onf? wm
xkjd rnf;r\? uxm,pum;aMumif?h OuPd ysi;f &d Ny/D uya#myduy#
onfvnf;? b@Hukeyf pn;f uk?d 0daZwmG pGeNYf y;D ? (a&mif;Ny;D )?
wxkjd rnf;\? oEu
d H ok?Yd tm*Em? ]]wmwtarmifjrnf; {[d
vmavm? *rdmroGm;Mupk}Yd } wd tm[/ ]]wkarSwko
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? eHxkjd rnf;uk?d ykeyKeH zef? ,mpdwmG awmif;qdNk y;D ? ]]tedpEH vdu
k zf Ydk
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338

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*j'abmonf? ]]pwky' ?ay? pwk'o
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0*f

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339

pwky' ocFrck em& oA*aF ombde?


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340

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342

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wGmavmifap? 0gNrKd u
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343

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344

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r&Pba,eaojcif;ab;onf? wZw
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346

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av;&GmokdY usa&mufapwwfaomuHukd)? um&aum-jyKwwfaom?
yk*a vm-yk*Kd vo
f nf? ]]ar-igonf? uvsmPH-aumif;rIu?dk tuwH 0wrjyKtyfrdavpGwum;? ygyH-raumif;rIukd? uwH 0w-jyKtyfrdavpG
wum;?}} wd-okaYd wG;? {uHaoae0-wpfcak om tzkt
Yd m;jziho
f m
vQi?f 0g-pifppf{ueftm;jziho
f mvQi?f r&Pora,-aocgeD;tcg? "b0? aompwd-0rf;enf;&\? 'H-0rf;enf;jcif;onf? t-xkd
raumif;rIudk jyKcahJ om yk*Kd v\
f uraompeH-uHaMumifh 0rf;enf;&jcif;
wnf;? 0g-uHudk pJ
G 0rf;enf;&jcif;wnf;? 0dyguH-tusKd ;uk?d tEkb0aEm
ye-cHpm;&aomfum;? ayp-wrvGeb
f 0? aompwd-0rf;enf;&\? 'H0rf;enf;&jcif;onf? t-xkrd aumif;rIjyKco
hJ \
l ? 0dyguaompeHtusKd ;aMumifh 0rf;enf;&jcif;wnf;? (tusKd ;ukpd
GJ 0rf;enf;&jcif;wnf;)?
{0H-ok?Yd 0g-qkt
d yfNy;D aomenf;jzih?f aom-xkrd aumif;rIukd jyKco
hJ l
onf? Ob,w-ypKye f wrvGef 2wefaomb0? aompwda,0-0rf;
enf;&onfom? 0g-{uefrck s 0rf;enf;&\? awae0 um&aPe-xkd
taMumif;aMumifyh if? ZD0rmaema,0-touf&iS q
f o
J mvQijf zpfaom?
aom pkEo
u
l &daumyd-xkpd Ek 0 ufowform;onfvnf;? aompwd-0rf;

348

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,ru

enf;&\/ 'domG uruv


d |d Ed- um;? twaem-rdr\
d ? udv|d urH- npfay
aom tukov
dk u
f u
H ?dk ydwmG -jrif? emeyum&uH-txl;xl;aom
tjym;&Sad tmif? 0dvyaEm-atmfjrnfwrf;vsu?f 0d[nwd-yifyef;&\?
wd-wGif *gxmtzGihf tNy;D wnf;/ *gxmy&da,momae-? A[lrsm;pGmukeaf om yk*Kd vw
f o
Ydk nf? aomyEm'a,m-aomwmyeftp&So
d nf
wko
Yd nf? ta[oH-k ukeNf y?D r[mZe "ra'oem omwdum Zmwm/
wd-wGif pkEo
u
l &du0wK tNy;D wnf;/
pkEo
u
l &du0wKbmom#Dum Ny;D \/

11-"rduOygou0wKbmom#Dum
" arm'wDwd rH "ra'oeH owm aZw0ae? 0d[&aEmpOf?
"ru
d OygouH"ru
d Oygoumud?k (w&m;&Sad om Oygoumud)k ? tm&A
uaxod/
ud&csUJ OK;tH?h om0w,
d H ? yowmig;&mtwdik ;f t&Sn&f u
dS ek f
aom? "ru
d Oygoum emr"ru
d OygoumwdrYk nfonf? (w&m;&Sad om
OygoumwdYk rnfonf)? ta[oHk &Su
d ek Nf y/D awokxd"k ru
d Oygoum
wdw
Yk iG ?f {auuwpfa,mufwpfa,muf\? 0g-rSm? y y Oygouowmedig;&mig;&mukeaf om Oygoumwdo
Yk nf? 0g-[luek af om? y&d0g&mta>ct&Hwo
Ykd nf? (ta[oH)k / awoHxdt
k vk;H pkaH om Oygoum
aompwd/ / aompwd okp"mwfonf aomuteufudk a[m\? xkd
aomuukd ]]pk;d &drjf cif;}}[k a&S;u teufay;k;d &S\
d ? pk;d &dr[
f o
l nf rdrt
d wGujf zpf
ap rdrdESifhpyfoltwGufjzpfap wpfpHkwpfck jzpfrnfhab;ukd (jzpfp&mab;ukd)
MuHpnfawG;awmjzpfaom oabmwnf;? aomuum; jyKtyfNyD;aom
raumif;rIukd awG; ]]jyKcJhwm rSm;aygh}}[k 0rf;enf;jcif;wnf;? aumif;rIukd
rjyKcJhvQifvnf; ]]rjyKrdcJhwm rSm;wmyJ}}[k awG; 0rf;enf;wwfonf? xkdaMumifh
]]pkd;&drf}}[k ray;bJ ]]0rf;enf;}}[k teufay;onf/(XjyK)

0*f

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349

wdw
Yk iG ?f a,mtMuif"ru
d Oygoumonf? aZ|aumtBu;D qH;k onf?
(a[mwd)? wxdt
k Bu;D qH;k Oygoum\? ow7a,mufuek af om?
ykwm om;wdo
Yk nfvnf;aumif;? owukeaf om? "Dwa&morD;wdo
Yk nf
vnf;aumif;? (ta[ok)H ? awokxdo
k m; orD;wdw
Yk iG ?f {auu
wpfa,muf wpfa,muf\? 0g-rSm? {auumwpfrsKd ; wpfrsKd ;aom?
ovmu,m*kpma&;wHrcJ s vSLxdu
k af om ,m*konfvnf;aumif;?
ovmubwH pma&;wHrcJ s vSLxdu
k af om qGr;f onfvnf;aumif;?
]]ovmuH ygawwGm 'gwAH bwH ovmubwH(H 0dv#H -D 36)}}twkid ;f ay;onf?
tjcm;enf;rsm;ukd umV,udeD0wK a&;cJhNyD/ yudubwH vqef;yu

vqkwyf uwYkd vSLxdu


k af om qGr;f onfvnf;aumif;? edrEebwH
yifhzdwf vSLtyfaom qGrf;onfvnf;aumif;? Oaygoxdubw-H
Oykoaf eY vSLtyfaom qGr;f onfvnf;aumif;? tm*EKubwH tm*EK
wdzYk Ykd qGr;f onfvnf;aumif;? 0g-tm*EKwt
Ykd m; ay;vSLxdu
k af om qGr;f
onfvnf;aumif;? oHCbwH oHCmzdYk qGr;f onfvnf;aumif;? 0g-oHCm
yudu
bwpH onf/ / yauo+k 'gwAH yudu
?H yuu
d +wH+bwm wd
yudubwH(tH#D-1 200? plbm-358)/ edraEwGm+'gwAH+bwH edrEebwH
(0dvH#D-1 36)? edraEwGm+v'bduLeH umwAH+bwH edrEebwH(ygpda,m501)? edrEDaw taeemwd edrEeH? edrEe+wH+bwmwd edrEebwH-&[ef;
wkdYudk yihfzdwfaMumif;qGrf;(plbm-358)/ Oaygoax+'gwAH (umwA)H Oaygoxdu?H Oaygoxdu+wH+bwm wd Oaygoxdubw/H
tm*EKubw/H / tm*EKumeH+'dE+H bwH tm*EKubw(H 0d.|-4-104)?
tm*EKumeH+bwH tm*EKubwH-tm*EKwkdYzkdYqGrf;? (pwkwDwyK&dof)?
tm*EKumeH+twm,+bwH tm*EKubwH-tm*EKwdkY\ tusdK;iSm qGrf;
(q|DwyK&dof)?-eDwdokw-196-7/
oHCbwH/ / oHC+bwH oHCbwH(0d.|-4-88)? oHC+tmb#H+bwH oCbwH- oHCmzkYd aqmif,t
l yfaomqGr;f ? oHCwm,+y#d,w+H
bwH oHCbw-H oHCm\ tusKd ;iSm pDrt
H yfaomqGr;f (ed'-D 226)? tm*EKu-

350

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,ru

ukef vSLtyfaom qGr;f onfvnf;aumif;? 0m0goduH rd;k vywfv;Hk


aejcif;&Sad om &[ef;wdt
Yk m; vSLxdu
k af om ypn;f onfvnf;aumif;? 0g
0gqd&k [ef;wdt
Yk m; vSLzG,yf pn;f onfvnf;aumif;? ta[mod&SNd y/D
oaA0tvH;k pHo
k mvQijf zpfuek af om? awydxdo
k m; orD;wdo
Yk nfvnf;?
tEkZmwykwm emrrdbwdt
Yk m; avsmaf om om;orD;wdYk rnfonf? 0grdbwkEYd iS fh *kP&f nfwal om om; orD;wdYk rnfonf? ta[oHk jzpfuek Nf y/D
wdodv
Yk Qi?f pk'o
EH 14a,mufuek af om? ykwm eHom; orD;wdYk
vnf;aumif;? b&d,m,r,m;vnf;aumif;? Oygou"ru
d Oyg
oumvnf;aumif;? wdod?Yk (aomVoEH ZemeH-16a,mufaom
vlw\
Ydk ?) aomVo16rsKd ;ukeaf om? ovmu,m*ktm'Ded pma&;wH
rJcs vSLxdu
k af om ,m*ktp&So
d nfwo
Ykd nf? y0wEd jzpfuek \
f / wd
odkYvQif? oykw'ga&mom; orD; r,m;ESifh wuGjzpfaom? aom
bwH uJo
h v
Ydk nf; qkEd idk \
f /
0m0goduH/ / 0H+tm0gaom ,mwd 0m0gaom-0gv
ywfvkH; aejcif;&Sdaom&[ef;? 00go+'gwAH ('dEH) 0m0goduH (r[m
bm-2 18?268)? 0H tm0owd oDavemwd 0m0goD? 0m0godaem+
'dEH 0m0goduH-0gvywfvkH;aeavh&Sdaom&[ef;tm; vSLtyfaomypnf;
(rtlyg&m-3 467)/ 0m0godut& ouFef;ESihf qGrf;2rsdK;ukd ,lavh&Sdaomf
vnf; bwpaom yk'frygbJ omrefqkdxm;aomaMumihf vSLzG,fypnf;
rSeforQudk ,lay;onf/
tEkZmwykwm / / (1) twdZmwom;orD; (2) tEkZmwom;orD; (3)
t0Zmwom;orD;[k om;orD;3rsdK; &Sd\? rdbwkdYxuf *kPf&nfjrifhaom
om;orD;onf twdZmwom;orD; rnf\? rdbwkEYd iS fh *kP&f nfwal om om;orD;
onf tEkZmwom;orD; rnf\? rdbwdaYk tmuf *kP&f nferd ahf om om;orD;onf
t0Zmwom;orD; rnf\? "rduOygoum\ om;orD;rsm;um; tEkZmw
om;orD;rsm;wnf;/ tEkZmawmwd rmwmydwleH tEklayg [kwGm Zmawm?
aw[d orme*kaPmwd tawm?-wd-238? wd.|-211/

0*f

"ry'bmom#Dum

351

xd"k rdu
Oygoumonf? oDv0goDv&So
d nf? uvsmP"armaumif;
aom ud,
k u
f siw
hf &m;&So
d nf? 'geoH0b
d m*&awmay;vSLjcif; cGjJ crf;
a0zefjcif; arGUavsmo
f nf? 0g-ay;vSLtyfaomypn;f rS cGjJ crf;a0zefjcif;
arGUavsmo
f nf? ta[modNy/D txxdrk ?S ty&bma*aemuftzdYk ?
txd"k ru
d OygoumBu;D \ ? 0g-rSm? a&ma*ga&m*gonf? OyZd jzpf
Ny?D tm,kocFga&mtwljzpfzufw&m;wku
Yd kd jyKprD w
H wfaom ZD0w
d ad `E
[laom toufonf? 0guHonf jyKp&D iftyfaom ZD0w
d ad `E[
k qdt
k yf
d Oygoum
aom toufonf? y&d[m,d-,kwaf vsmNh y/D aomxk"d ru
onf? "rH uk?d aomwkumarmemjcif;iSm tvk&d o
dS nf? ([kwmG )? ]]ar
wynfah wmfz?Ydk 0g-twGu?f t|8yg;ukefaom? bduL 0g-&[ef;wdkYudk
aomfvnf;aumif;? aomVo16ajcmufyg;ukeaf om? bduL 0gwku
Yd dk
aomfvnf;aumif;? ayaoxapvTwaf wmfryl guke?f }} wdokaYd jym?
owK\? oEu
d H ok?Yd y[dPd apvTwNf y/D owmonf? ayaoodap
vTwaf wmfrNl y/D awxk&d [ef;wko
Yd nf? *Em? wxk"d ru
d Oygoum
\? rH anmifapmif;uk?d (ckwifu)kd ? y&d0ga&wGm0dik ;f &H? ynawok
cif;xm;tyfuek af om? tmoaeokwkYd ? edoEd m xkid u
f ek Nf y/D ]]baEwkYd
ar\? t,smeHt&Siw
f u
dYk ?dk 'eHzl;jrif&jcif;onf? 0g-ud?k 'kvb
H
cJ,Of;ojzif&h tyfonf? 0g&Edik cf o
J nf? b0dwdjzpfvrd rhf nf? (t[H
onf?) 'kAa vmtm;r&So
d nf? trSd jzpf\? arwynfah wmfz?Ykd {uHwpf
rsdK;aom? okwHokwfawmfukd? oZm,xo&Zm,fay;awmfrlygukef?
'geoH0b
d m*&awm/ / 'geoH0b
d m*&awmwd 'gae p oH0dbma* p
&awm(oH.|-1 317)/ 'geoH0dbm*&awmwd {awe tyrwurd udd
vbdwmG wawmyd oH0b
d ma* &awm(aew.d |-230)/
tm,kocFga&m/ / o[Zmw"ar ocFa&mwDwd ocFga&m? tm,k
{0+ocFga&m tm,kocFga&m(r#D-2 273)? (wpfenf;) ocF&,
D awwd ocFga&m?
tm,k p+wH+ocFga&m pmwd tm,kocFga&m(eDbm-2 37)/

352

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,ru

0g-&Gwzf wfay;awmfryl guke?f }} wdok?Yd 0kawtyfaomf? ]]Oygou


Oygoum uw&H okwH tb,fow
k af wmfu?dk aomwkumarmemjcif;iSm
tvk&d o
dS enf;}} wdodaYk r;ukeNf y/D ]]oAA'k g eHtvk;H pkaH om bk&m;&Sif
wko
Yd nf? t0dZ[dwH pGeaYf wmfrrltyfaom? owdy|meokwH owdy|me
okwaf wmfu?dk (aomwkumarmemjcif;iSm tvd&k ydS g\)?}} wd 0kawaomf? ]]{um,aem ? ay ? 0do'k ,
d m}}wd]]{um,aem ?ay? 0do'k ,
d m}}
tp&Sad om? okwE H okwe u
f ?dk y|ayokH tjym;tm;jzihf Pf wnfap
jzpfapukeNf y?D 0g-&Gwq
f u
dk ek Nf y/D
bdua0-wdkY owmeH-wdkY\? 0dok'd,m-pifMu,fjcif;iSm? t,H ra*gedAm efa&mufaMumif;jzpfaom owdy|mefav;yg; jrwfw&m;onf? 0g-edAm ef
vkv
d m; yk*Kd vrf sm;wkYd &SmrD;S xku
d af om owdy|mefav;yg; jrwfw&m;onf?
owmeH-wd\
Yk ? 0do'k ,
d m-&m*a'go arm[jrLarS; tnpftaMu;rS uif;a0;
pifMu,fjcif;iSm? {um,aem-rrSm;rapmif; wpfaMumif;wnf;aom vrf;wnf;/
teufay;ykHtrsdK;rsdK;ukd 'D.|-2 335? okwfr[mbm-3 527ponfI/

wo caPxkcd P? q[dajcmufxyfuek af om? a'0avmau[dewfjynfwrYdk ?S oAmvuFm&y#dr@dwmtvk;H pkaH om wefqmwkjYd zifh


qif,iftyfuek af om? o[odE0 ,kwm odaEmjrif;wpfaxmif uyf
,SOt
f yfuek af om? 'd,a,mZeowdumtcGt
J m;jzifh ,lZemESp&f m&Sd
ukeaf om? 0g,lZem wpf&mhig;q,f&u
dS ek af om? q6pif;ukeaf om?
&xm&xm;wko
Yd nf? tm*rok qdu
k af &mufvmukeNf y?D awokxk&d xm;
wkYd ? Xdwmwnfuek af om? a'0wmewfwo
Ydk nf? ]]trSmuHigwk\
Yd ? a'0avmuHewfjynfo?Ydk aemraqmifuek t
f ?Hh trSmuH-wk\
Yd ? a'0avmuH-ok?Yd aemr-uket
f ?hH tarmtk.d ..tarmifa,musmf ; (tk.d ..
olawmfaumif;) rwu
d bmZeHajrcGuu
f ?dk bdEw
d mG cG
J ? ok0PbmZeH
a&Tcu
G u
f ?dk *PSaEm 0d,,loo
l nfuo
hJ ?Ydk trSmuHwk\
Yd ? a'0avmau
? tbd&rdwHk arGU avsmjf cif;iSm? "&xm;? edAw
m [djzpfygavm?
trSmuH-wk\
Yd ? a'0avmau-? tbd&rdw-Hk iSm? "-? edAw
m [d-avm?}}

0*f

"ry'bmom#Dum

353

wdod?Yk 0'ok ajymukeNf y/D Oygoaumonf? "r0eE&m,Hw&m;


emjcif;\ tE&m,fu?dk tedpa Emtvkrd &So
d nf? ([kwmG )? ]]tm*arx
qkid ;f iHMh uygOK;? tm*arxOK;?}} wd-ok?Yd tm[ajymNy/D bduL wko
Yd nf?
]]tarSigwku
Yd ?dk 0ga&wdwm;jrpf\?}} wdok?Yd onm,rSwx
f ifjcif;
aMumif?h wkPDS qdwq
f w
d ?f ta[okH ukeNf y/D
tx? txd"k ru
d Oygoum\? ykw" w
D a&mom; orD;wkYd
onf? ]]trSmuHwk\
Yd ? ydwmtzonf? ykaAa&S;? "r0aeew&m;
emjcif;jzif?h twdawmrwif;wdro
f nf? (tm;r&onf)? ta[modNy?D
'ged yeum;? bduL wku
dY ?dk yaumomaywGmyifah c:apNy;D ? oZm,Ho&Zm,fru
I ?dk uma&wGmjyKapNy;D ? o,ar0ud,
k w
f idk o
f mvQi?f
0ga&wdwm;jrpf\? r&Paojcif;rS? tbm,euoawm emr
raMumufaom ow0grnfonf? ew?d }} wdodaYk jym? 0d&0ok
jrnfwrf;idak <u;ukeNf y/D bduL wko
Yd nf? ]]'ged,cktcg? taemumaomqufvufae&ef tcGirhf [kw?f 0g-tcGirhf om?}} wdokYd
awG;? tmoemrS? O|m,? yuro
k zJomG ;MuNy/D Oygoaumonf?
axmuHtenf;i,f? 0Dwed marwGmukev
f eG af pNy;D ? 0g-owdvpfNy;D ?
owowdu?dk y#dvbdwmG &? 0g-&vaomf? ykawom;orD;wdu
kY ?kd
]]uomaMumif?h uEx[pfatmf idak <u;Muoenf;}} wd-ok?Yd ykpd/
]]wmwtaz wkarSoifwo
Ydk nf? bduL wdu
kY ?dk yaumomaywGm?
"rH ud?k okPEmemukev
f su?f o,ar0omvQi?f 0g&,dw wm;jrpfchJ
ukeNf y?D txwm;jrpf&m xdt
k cg? r,HuReaf wmf uRerf wko
Yd nf? ]r&P-rS? tbm,euoawm emr-onf? ew?d } wdok?Yd uErd mS
jrnfwrf;ikad <u;cJu
h ek Nf y?D }} wdodYk ajymukeNf y/D ]]t,smt&Siw
f o
Ydk nf?
uk[ yetb,frmS enf;}} wdodaYk r;Ny/D ]]wmwtaz ]taemumaomqufvufae&ef tcGirhf [kw?f } wdokaYd wG;? tmoemrS? O|m,-? yuEm zJomG ;MuNy?D }} wdodYk ajymukeNf y/D ]]t[Honf?

354

"ry'bmom#Dum

,ru

ta,s[d wkEYd iS ?hf o' wl? e uaxrdajymonfr[kw?f }} wd 0kaw?


]]txxdo
Yk jYdk zpfvQi?f auetb,foEl iS ?hf o'? uaxxajymqdyk g
ukeo
f enf;}} wdodYk ar;ukeNf y/D ]]q[d6xyfuek af om? a'0avmau[dwkrYd ?S a'0wmwko
Yd nf? q6pif;ukeaf om? &axwku
Yd ?dk
tvuF&w
d mG wefqmqif? tm'g,,l? tmumaoaumif;uif?
XwGmwnf? ]trSmuHwd\
Yk ? a'0avmau? tbd&rarGUavsmyf g
avm? trSmuH-wk\
Yd ? a'0avmau -? tbd&r?} wdok?Yd o'H toHu?dk
ua&mEd jyKuek \
f ? wm[dxkeYd wfwEYdk iS ?hf o'? uaxrdajymqk\
d ?}} wd
odaYk jymNy/D ]]wmwtaz &xmwko
Yd nf? uk[ tb,frmS ygenf;
r,HuReaf wmf uRerf wko
Yd nf? e ymrrjrifyguke?f }} wdodYk ajym
ukeNf y/D ]]r,SH ighz?Ykd 0g-twGu?f *Ew
d medoDu;Hk tyfuek af om? ykyg edyef;
wko
Yd nf? twd ye&Su
d ek o
f avm?}} wdodaYk r;Ny/D ]]wmwtaz
twd &Syd guke\
f ?}} wdodaYk jymukeNf y/D ]]uwa&m a'0avmaum
tb,fewfjynfonf? &rPDa,marGUavsmzf ,
G af umif;oenf;? (wpf
enf;) uwa&m a'0avmaum-ud?k &rPDa,m-arGUavsmx
f u
dk yf goenf;?}}
wdodkY ar;NyD/ ]]wmw-taz oAaAm"dowmeHtvkH;pkHaom
bk&m;tavmif;awmfw\
Ydk vnf;aumif;? Ak'r mwmydwel bk&m;&Siw
f \
Ykd
r,fawmf crnf;awmfw\
Ydk vnf;aumif;? 0odw|meHaetyfaom t&yf
jzpfaom? wkow
d b0eHwkow
d mewfbo
Hk nf? &rPD,H arGUavsmzf ,
G f
aumif;yg\? (wpfenf;) wkow
d b0eH-ud?k &rPD,-H xdu
k yf g\?}} wd
odkY ajymukefNyD/ ]]awe [dxkdokdYjzpfvQif? ]wkodwb0eawmrS?
tm*w&axvmaom &xm;? v*wk csw
d af pownf;?} wdokY d
ajym? yky' grHyef;uk;H uk?d cdyxypfMuavm?}} wdodaYk jymNy/D aw
xko
d m; orD;wko
Yd nf? cdyo
k ypfuek Nf y/D wHxkyd ef;uk;H onf? &x"ka&
&xm;OK;? v*w
d mG csw
d
f ? tmumao? Movrd wGv
J sm;usNy/D r[mZaemrsm;pGmaom vltaygif;onf? wa'0xkyd ef;uk;H uko
d m? ywd
jrif&\? &xHuk?d e ywdrjrif&/ Oygoaumonf? ]]{wH yky' grH

0*f

"ry'bmom#Dum

355

yef;uk;H uk?d yxjrifMuoavm}} wd? 0wGmar;? ]]tmr


[kwu
f ?hJ ymrjrifyguke\
f ?}} wd 0kaw? ]]{wHyef;uk;H onf? wko-d
wb0eawmrS? tm*w&ax? Movrwd wGv
J sm;usae\? t[H
onf? wkow
d b0eHok?Yd *pmrdoGm;awmhrnf? wkarSwko
Yd nf? rm pdE,
w
d
xkx
d
dk rMupH nfMuESi?hf 0g-0rf;renf;MuESi?hf rr\? oEad u?
edAw
w
d u
k mrmjzpfjcif;iSm tvk&d u
dS ek o
f nf? [kwmG ? 0gvaomf? r,m
onf? uwed,marae0jyKtyfNy;D aom enf;jzifo
h mvQi?f yknmedwku
Yd ?dk
ua&mxjyK&pfMuavm?}} wdod?Yk 0wGm? umvHud?k uwGmNy;D ?
&ax? ywd|modwnfNy/D
wm0a'0xkcd Pyif? txked wfom;\? wd*g0kwyrmaPm
3*g0kwt
f wkid ;f t&Sn&f adS om? o|dou#bm&mvuFm&y#dr@dawm
vSn;f tpD;ajcmufq,fwu
dk 0f ef&adS om wefqmwkjYd zifh wefqmqiftyf
aom? twbma0gtwabmonf? edAw
d Ny?D tp&mo[HewforD;
wpfaxmifonf? y&d0ga&odjc&H NH y?D y0o
D wda,mZeduH 25 ,lZem&Sd
aom? ueu0drmeHa&TArd mefonf? ygwk&a[modxif&mS ;jzpfNy/D 0d[m&H
ausmif;wdu
k o
f ?Ydk tEkya wtpOfa&mufuek af om? awyd bduL wku
Yd dk
vnf;? owmonf? ]]bdua 0wd?Yk Oygoaueonf? "ra'oemuk?d
okwmMum;emtyfoavm}} wd ykpd/ ]]baE tmrrSeyf g? yeodYk
aomfvnf;? tE&ma,0(&Gwrf Ny;D rD) twGi;f omvQi?f ]tm*arx
qdik ;f iHah wmfrMl uygOK;? 0g-&yfawmfrMl uygOK;?} wdod?Yk 0ga&odwm;jrpfyg
Ny/D tx? txk"d ru
d Oygoum\? ykw" w
D a&mwko
Yd nf? uEo
k
ukeNf y/D r,Hwynfah wmfwo
Ydk nf? ]'ged? taemumaomr[kw?f }
wdokMYd u
H ? tmoem-rS? O|m,-? eduE m xGucf yhJ gukeNf y?D }} wd
odYk avQmufuek Nf y/D ]]bdua 0 aomxk"d ru
d Oygoumonf? wkarS[d
wkEYd iS ?hf o'? e uaxodajymonfr[kw?f q[dukeaf om? a'0avmau[dwkrYd ?S a'0wmwko
Yd nf? qukeaf om? &axwku
Yd ?dk tvuF&w
d mG

356

"ry'bmom#Dum

,ru

wefqmqifNy;D ? tm[&dwmG aqmif? wH OygouHuk?d yaumook


zdwaf c:ukeNf y/D aomxk"d ru
d Oygoumonf? "ra'oem,w&m;
a'oemawmf\? tE&m,HtE&m,fukd? tedpaEmtvkdr&Sdonf?
([kwmG )? wm[dxked wfwEYdk iS ?hf o'? uaxodajymqdNk y?D }} wdodYk
rdeaYf wmfrNl y/D ]]baE {0HodyYk gavm?}} wdodaYk vQmufuek Nf y/D
]]bdua 0 {0Hodw
Yk nf;?}} wdodrYk ed aYf wmfrNl y/D ]]'ged? uk[
tb,fbHk ? edAa wmjzpfygoenf;?}} wdodYk ar;avQmufuek Nf y/D
]]bdua 0 wkow
d b0aebkH ? (edAa wmjzpfNy)D ?}} wdodrYk ed aYf wmfrl
Ny/D ]]baE 'ged? "b0? wdraZaqGrsK;d wk\
Yd tv,f?
arm'rmaem0rf;ajrmufvsu?f 0dp&dwmG vSnv
hf nf? 'gae0yif?
*Em? ykewpfzef? arm'e|maea,00rf;ajrmuf&m t&yfomvsi?f
edAa wmjzpf&Ny?D }} wdodaYk vQmufuek Nf y/D ]]bdua 0 tmrtdr;f ? [d
rSe\
f ? tyrwmrarhravsmu
h ek af om? *[|m 0gtdrf wnfol vl0wf
aMumifwo
Ydk nfvnf;aumif;? yAZw
d m 0g&Si&f [ef;wko
Yd nfvnf;aumif;?
oAw tvk;H pkaH om ypKye f wrvGef ESpw
f efaomb0? arm'Ead ,0
0rf;ajrmuf&ukeo
f nfom?}} wdod?Yk 0wGmNy;D ? ]]" arm'wd ?ay ?
ur0o
d 'k rd waem}}wd[laom? rH *gxHud?k tm[a[mawmfrNl y/D
" arm'wd ayp arm'wd uwykanm Ob,w arm'wd?
aom arm'wd aom yarm'wd 'domG ur0o
d 'k d rwaem/
uwykanm-jyKtyfNy;D aom aumif;rI&o
dS o
l nf? 0g-aumif;rIudk jyKNy;D
olonf? "-ypKye b
f 0? arm'wd-0rf;ajrmuf&\? ayp-wrvGef
b0? arm'wd-0rf;ajrmuf&\? Ob,w-ypKye f wrvGef ESpw
f efaom
b0? arm'wd-0rf;ajrmuf&\? twaem-rdr\
d ? ur0o
d 'k - uH\ pifMu,f
jcif;uk?d 'domG -jrif&? 0g-jrif&jcif;aMumif?h aom-xkad umif;rIudk jyKNy;D
olonf? arm'wd-0rf;ajrmuf&\? aom-xkd aumif;rIudk jyKNy;D olonf?
yarm'wd-vGepf mG 0rf;ajrmuf&\/

0*f

"ry'bmom#Dum

357

ww-xkd*gxm? uwykanmwd-um;? emeyum&-aom?


ukov-ukov
dk u
f ?dk um&aum-aom? yk*a vm-onf? arm'wd pyf?
ar-igonf? ygyH-raumif;rIu?dk tuwH 0w-rjyKtyfrad vpGwum;? arigonf? uvsmPH-aumif;aomtrIu?dk uwH (0w)-jyKtyfNy;D aypGwum;?
wd-okYd awG;? "-b0? urarm'aee-uHaMumifh 0rf;ajrmuf
&jcif;tm;jzihv
f nf;aumif;? 0g-uHudk axmuf 0rf;ajrmuf&jcif;tm;jzihf
vnf;aumif;? ayp-? 0dyguarm'aee-tusKd ;aMumifh 0rf;ajrmuf&jcif;
tm;jzihv
f nf;aumif;? 0g-tusKd ;ukd axmuf 0rf;ajrmuf&jcif;tm;jzihf
vnf;aumif;? arm'wd-0rf;ajrmuf&\? {0H-ok?Yd 0g-enf;tm;jzih?f
Ob,w-ypKye f wrvGef ESpw
f efaom b0? arm'wd emr-0rf;ajrmuf
&onf rnf\/ ur0o
d 'k Ed -d um;? "rdu
Oygoaumyd-"ru
d Oygoum
onfvnf;? twaem-rdr\
d ? ur0o
d 'k - uH\pifMu,fjcif;uk?d yknurorw- aumif;rIu\
H jynfph jkH cif;uk?d 'domG -jrif&? 0g-jrif&jcif;aMumif?h
umvH ud&,
d awm-aojcif;ukd jyK&mtcgrS? ykaA-a&S;? 0g-a&S;jzpfaom?
" avmauyd-avmuvnf;? arm'wd-0rf;ajrmuf&\? umvHaojcif;uk?d 0g-aocsed u
f ?dk uwGm-jyKNy;D ? (wpfenf;) umvH uwGm-aoNy;D
? 'ged-? y&avmauyd-aemufavmuvnf;? twdarm'wda,0tvGef 0rf;ajrmuf&onfom? wd-wGif *gxmtzGit
hf Ny;D wnf;/
*gxmy&da,momae-? A[l-wkdYonf? aomwmyEm'a,m-wkdY
onf? ta[oH-k ukeNf y?D r[mZe "ra'oem omwdu
m ta[mod?
wd-wGif "rdu
Oygou0wK tNy;D wnf;/
"rdu
Oygou0wKbmom#Dum Ny;D \/

12-a'0'w0wKbmom#Dum
" wyww
D d rH "ra'oeH owm aZw0ae? 0d[&aEmpOf?
a'0'wH t&Siaf '0'wfu?dk tm&A uaxod/

358

"ry'bmom#Dum

,ru

a'0'wa'0'wf\? 0wK0wKu?dk yAZw


d umvawm&[ef;jyK
&mtcgrS? y|m,? ,m0 yx0dya 0oemajrod0Yk if&m tcgwdik af tmif?
0g-ajrrsKcd sed w
f idk af tmif? a'0'wH t&Siaf '0'wfu?dk tm&A? bmodwmeda[mawmfrt
l yfuek af om? oAmedtvk;H pku
H ek af om? Zmwumed
Zmwfawmfwu
Ydk ?dk 0dwm a&wGmcsUJ ? uxdwH a[mawmfrt
l yfNy/D yequfOK;th?H {w"ry'|uxm? t,Hqkt
d yfvwHo
Y nf? oacFaygtusO;f wnf;/ ow&d jrwfpmG bk&m;onf? 0d[&aEa,0pyf? tEkyd,H emrtEky,
d mrnfaom? rvmeHrvmrif;wk\
Yd ? ed*armed*;Hk onf?
twd \? wHxdt
k Eky,
d med*;Hk ukd? edm,rSD? tEkyd,r0aetEkyd
,m o&ufO,smOf? 0d[&aEa,0aeawmfrlpOfyif? wxm*w
\? vuPy#d*[P'd0aoa,0(jAm[PwkdY zwfMum;tyfaom)
vuPmwku
Yd dk cH,&l maeYyif? 0g-vuPmzwfMum;&maeYyif? toDw-d
o[a[d&Spaf omif;ukeaf om? wduak v[daqGawmfrsK;d awmfwYdk
onf? ]]&mZm 0grif;onfaomfvnf;? a[mwkjzpfygap? Aka'g 0gbk&m;
onfaomfvnf;? (a[mwkap?) cw,
d y&d0ga&m0rif;rsK;d tjct
H &H&dS
onfom? ([kwmG )? 0dp&dwdvSnv
hf nf&vdrrhf nf?}} wdokYd ,kH
Munf? toDwdo[ykwm&Spfaomif;aom aqGawmfrsdK;awmf
rif;om;wku
Yd ?dk y#dnmwm(ta>ct&Hjzpfapygrnf[)k 0efct
H yfuek Nf y/D
awokxkrd if;om;wko
Yd nf? a,bka,sersm;aomtm;jzif?h yAZad wok
&Sif &[ef;jyKuek v
f aomf? b',
d H emrb',
d rnfaom? &mZmeHrif;vnf;
aumif;? tEk'k H tEk'k g rif;om;vnf;aumif;? tmeEH tmeEmrif;om;
vnf;aumif;? b*kH b*krif;om;vnf;aumif;? udrv
d H udrv
d rif;om;
vnf;aumif;? a'0'wH a'0'wfrif;om;vnf;aumif;? wdok?Yd q
tEkyd,H/ / ]]tEkyd,m}}[k qkdvkdvsuf tmudk &jyK ed*[dwfvm/
]]tEky,
d m emrm}}wd 0waA tmum& &wH tEkemodu p tm*rH
uwGm ]]tEkyd,H emrm}}wd 0kwH-om&w-410/

0*f

"ry'bmom#Dum

359

6a,mufuek af om? ar oausomuD0ifrif;om;wku


Yd ?dk tyAZaE
&Sif &[ef;rjyKonfwu
Ydk ?dk 'domG ? ]]r,Hwko
Yd nf? twaem\? ykaw
om;wdu
kY ?kd yAmaZr&Sif &[ef;jyKapuke\
f ? qukeaf om? ar ousm
wko
Yd nf? e wum ranaqGrsK;d rsm; r[kwMf u[k xif\? (aqGrsKd ;
awG r[kwMf uovdb
k )J ? uomaMumif?h e yAZEd &Sif &[ef; rjyKuek f
oenf;?}} wdod?Yk uxHpum;uk?d ork|mayokH jzpfapukeNf y/D tx
acgxdt
k cg? r[memarmr[memrfrnfaom? oausmomuD0ifrif;
om;onf? tEk'k H tEk'k g rif;om;ok?Yd OyouFrw
d mG ? ]]wmwnDawmf
trSmuHwk\
Yd ? ukvmtrsK;d rS? yAZad wm&Sif &[ef; jyKoo
l nf? ewd
r&S?d wHG 0goifonfaomfvnf;? yAZ&Sif &[ef;jyKygavm? t[H 0g
igonfaomfvnf;? yAZ
d mrd&Sif &[ef;jyKt?Hh }} wd ok?Yd tm[-Ny/D
ye-qufOK;tH?h aomxkt
d Ek'k g rif;om;onf? okcrk mavmodraf rGU Ek
e,fonf? orEa bma*gjynfph aHk om pnf;pdrOf pm&So
d nf? a[mwd\?
]]ew}D }wd 0perd r&S[
d al om pum;udv
k nf;? awexkt
d Ek'k g rif;om;
onf? e okwykAH a&S; rMum;tyf? 0grMum;tyfz;l / [dcsUJ OK;th?H {u'd0oH? qok6yg;ukeaf om? awok cwad ,okxkrd if;om;wko
Yd nf?
*kVuDVH *kn
H if;upm;jcif;uk?d 0g-a*:vDv;kH upm;jcif;uk?d uDVaEok upm;
ukev
f aomf? tEkak 'gtEk'k g rif;om;onf? yla0erkejYf zif?h y&mZdawmI;H onf? ([kwmG )? yl0wm,rket
Yf usK;d iSm? y[dPd apvTwNf y?D tx?
*kVuDVm / / *kVuDVmwd *kVzvuDVm-*kHnif;oD;jzihf upm;jcif; a,e
auepd 0g uw*kvuDVm-rnfonfh0wKjzihfrqkd tvkH;jyKxm;tyfaomtvkH;
a*:vD ausmuf'kd;upm;jcif;?-oD#Dopf-1 361/
yla0e/ / y0D,wd r&dpZD&um'D[d y0dwH u&D,wDwd ylayg? yl y0ae
+yuf?-arm*f-7 117/ yla&wDwd ylayg? yl&+y?-"mef#D-463? tqkdrsm;ukd
axmuf ]]ylaye}}om ygXfrSef[k q&mjrwfwkdY ,lawmfrl\(ygwdbm-273)?
P-T-S ylytjyif yl0ukdvnf; jy ylyrS y-ukd 0-jyK ]]yl0}} jzpfaMumif;ukd
qkd\/

360

"ry'bmom#Dum

,ru

txkt
d Ek'k g rif;om;\? rmwmr,fawmfonf? yla0wku
Yd ?dk oaZwGmpD&if? y[dPd ykNYd y/D awxkd rif;om;wko
Yd nf? cg'dwmG cJpm; Ny;D ?
ykewpfzef? uDVo
k upm;ukeNf y/D ykeyKeH tzefzeftxyfxyf? wa0
xkt
d Ek'k g rif;om;\om? y&mZa,mI;H jcif;onf? a[mwd\/ t
xkt
d Ek'k g rif;om;onf? 0g-\? a&SUenf; y[dawpyf? aemufenf; rmwm
pyf/ rmwmonf? t-xdt
k Ek'k g rif;om;onf? y[daw y[daw
apvTwt
f yfol apvTwt
f yfow
l u
Ykd ?kd 0g-apvTwt
f yfwidk ;f apvTwt
f yf
wkid ;f ? wduw
K H 3Burd ?f yla0wku
Yd ?dk y[dPw
d mG ykaYd p? pwkw0 ga& ye
4cgajrmuftBurd f um;? ]]yl0gwko
Yd nf? ewd r&Su
d ek ?f }} wdokYd ajym
? y[dPd apvTwNf y/D aomxkt
d Ek'k g rif;om;onf? ]]ew}D }wd 0pe
r&S[
d al om pum;\? 0guk?d tokwykAw
m a&S; rMum;tyfonf\tjzpf
aMumif?h 0grMum;tyfz;l onf\tjzpfaMumif?h ]]{omydew[
d o
l nf
vnf;? {umwpfrsK;d aom? yl00duwdrket
Yf xl;onf? b0dwdvdrrhf nf?}}
wdod?Yk rnrmaemrSwx
f ifvaomf? 0g-aMumif?h ]]aruReaf wmhzf ?Ykd ew-d
yl0H ewrd ek u
Yf ?dk (r&Srd ek u
Yf )dk ? tm[&x,laqmifcMhJ uavm?}} wdokYd
ajym? ayaoodapvTwNf y/D txkt
d Ek'k g rif;om;\? rmwm ye
onfum;? ]]ta,socifr ewyd 0l H uk?d a'x ud&ay;vku
d yf gukew
f ?hJ }}
wd-ok?Yd 0kaw-aomf? ]]rr\? ykaweonf? ]ew}D wdew[
d al om?(r&Sd
[laom)? y'Hyk'u
f ?dk e okwykAH a&S; rMum;tyf? 0grMum;tyfz;l cJ?h rdd Ek'k g uk?d {wem ye Oyga,eenf;vrf;jzif?h yeteuf rJh? eHxkt
ewdyl0/H / ewdo
nf tmcsmwfy'k jf zpfaomfvnf; ]]tnmodaum@anm
ruvda*gomavm}}wkdYuJhokdY emrnfukd qkdvkdaomaMumihf emrfyk'f jzpf&onf?
xkdaMumihf yl0HESifh ormofpyfEkdifonf? ]]ewd p+wH+yl0mwd (yla0g pmwd)
ewdyl0H (ewdyla0g)}}[kjyK? (wpfenf;) ]]emrmeH ormaom ,kwawm}}okwf
]]emrmeH}}[laom A[k0kpfo'gykdjzifhaomfvnf;aumif; ]]ormaom}}[laom
a,m*0dbm*jzihfaomfvnf;aumif; ewd[laom tmcsmwfyk'fESihf ormofpyf
xm;onf? (wpfenf;) ewdudk edygwfyk'f,l yl0ESifh ormofpyfxm;onf/("r#D)

0*f

"ry'bmom#Dum

361

rwH ew[
d al omyk'\
f teuft"dym ,fu?kd Zmemaymrdodapth?H }}
wdokMYdu
H ? wkpH tcsn;f ES;D aom? ok0Pygwa&Tcu
G u
f ?kd tnm,
tjcm;aom? ok0Pygwd,ma&Tcu
G jf zif?h y#duZk w
d mG arSmuf? 0g-zH;k
tky
f ? ayaoodykaYd pNy/D e*&y&d*g [dumNrKd Uukd xuf0ef;usif odr;f ,l
xm;ukeaf om? 0g-NrKd Uudak pmifu
h ek af om? a'0wmewfwo
Ydk nf? pdaEoHk
ukeNf y?D (u)? ]]tEk'k o
ausetEk'k g omuD0if rif;om;onf? tEbm&umavtEbm&rnfaom uRejf zpf&mtcg? twaem\? bm*bwH
tzkjYd zpfaomxrif;uk?d Oy&d|yapuAk'
Oy&d|yapuAk't
m;? 'wGm
ay;vSL? ]arwynfah wmf\? 0g-rSm? eww
D -d r&S[
d al om? 0pepum;
uk?d o0eHMum;&jcif;onf? rm a[mwkrjzpf&ygapownf;? abmZEkyw
-d
|meZmeeHabmZOf\jzpfay:&mXmeukd od&jcif;onf? rm a[mwkap
ownf;?} wdok?Yd ywemqkawmif;rIu?dk uwmjyKtyfcNhJ y?D t,H
tEk'k g rif;om;onf? wkpy gwtcsn;f ES;D aom cGuu
f ?dk oap ydwdtu,f jrif&tH?h ({0H owdaomf?) a'0orm*rHewfw\
Ykd tpnf;
ta0;ok?dY y0dow
d Hk 0ifjcif;iSm? 0g0ifciG u
hf ?dk e vbdmr&Muvdrrhf nf
r[kw?f aemigwk\
Yd ? oDord OK;acgif;onfvnf;? ow"m7pdwf 7jzm?
zav,suG&J m\?}} wd-ukeNf y/D txxdt
k cg? eH ygwxkad &Tcu
G u
f ?dk
'dAy al 0[dewfjzpfaom rkew
Yf Ydk jzif?h ykPH jynho
f nfu?dk 0g-jynfah tmif?
tuHok jyKuek Nf y/D wmxkd a&Tcu
G u
f ?dk *kVr@av*kn
H if;upm;&m0dik ;f
? 0g-a*:vDv;kH upm;0kid ;f ? XaywGmxm;? O*g#dwrwm,zGit
hf yf
umrQjzpfaomf? 0g-zGizhf iG chf si;f ? yl0*aEmrke\
Yf teHo
Y nf? ouve*a&
tvk;H pkaH omNrKd U? (wpfNrKd Uvk;H )? qma'wGmzk;H vTr;f ? XdawmwnfNy/D
yl0c@Hrke\
Yf tykid ;f onf? 0guk?d rkaccHwiG ;f ? Xydwrwar0wnfap
tyfumrQjzpfaomfom? 0g-xnfv
h Qif xnfch si;f ? ow&o[&PDo[medt&omukad qmifuek af om taMum7axmifwo
Ydk ?Ydk tEkz&dtpOf
avQmuf ysUH ESUH Ny/D

362

"ry'bmom#Dum

,ru

aomxdt
k Ek'k g rif;om;onf? pdaEod awG;Ny?D (u)? ]]t[Honf?
rmwkr,fawmf\? yda,mcspt
f yfoo
l nf? e-r[kw?f (wpfenf;) t[Huk?d rmwk-onf? e yda,m-rcspt
f yf? {wuH rQtwkid ;f t&Sn&f adS om?
umvHtcgywfv;Hk ? arighz?Ykd rH ewyd 0l H emrewrd ek rYf nfonfu?dk
(r&Srd ek rYf nfonfu)dk ? e ypdraMumfay;cJzh ;l ? awmtcgrS? y|m,
p? tnHr&Srd ek rYf S tjcm;aom? yl0H emrrkerYf nfonfu?dk e cg'dmrd
rcJpm;awmht?Hh }} wd-Ny/D aomxkt
d Ek'k g rif;om;onf? a*[Hok?Yd *Em0om? rmw&Huk?d ykpd Ny?D (u)? ]]trr,fawmf wkrmS uHoifwo
Ydk nf?
t[HuRefawmfhukd? yda,mcspftyfoavm tyda,mrcspftyf
oavm}} wd-Ny/D ]]wmwcspo
f m; {uuad emwpfzufaom rsupf d
&So
d o
l nf? tu-d rsupf u
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f yfouJo
h v
Ydk nf;aumif;? twd0d,tvGet
f uJomvQi?f aronf? yda,mcspt
f yfonf? ta[mod
Ny?D }} wdodaYk jymNy/D ]]trr,fawmf txxdo
k jYkd zpfvQi?f uom
aMumif?h {wuH rQtwkid ;f t&Sn&f adS om? umvHvH;k ? r,SH uReaf wmfzh ?Ykd
ewyd 0l H ewrd ek u
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f enf;}} wdNy/D omxdrk ,fawmfonf? plVLy|muHtvkyftauR;i,fudk? ykpd? (u)?
]]wmwcspfom; ygwd,Ha&TcGuf? uddwpfpHkwpfckonf? twd&Sd
oavm}} wd-Ny/D ]]ta,socifr ygwda&Tcu
G o
f nf? yla0[dwdjYk zif?h
y&dyP
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0grjriftyfz;l yguke?f }} wdod?Yk tma&mapodajymNy/D omxdrk ,fawmf
onf? pdaEod? (u)? ]]r,SH\? ykawmonf? ykn0gbkef;uH&Sdonf?
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D ma&mjyKtyfNy;D aom a&S;qkawmif;aumif;rItxl;&So
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uwmbdeD[ma&m/ / tbdeD[&wd {awemwd tbdeD[ma&m-rdrdpdwfudk
om0uyg&rDPfodkY a&S;Ivsuf jyif;xefpGm aqmifaMumif; qkawmif;rI?(yg

0*f

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363

b0dwdvdrrhf nf? a'0wm[dwdo


Yk nf? ygwud?k yla&wGmjynfah p?
yl0gwdu
Yk ?kd y[dwmydt
Yk yfuek o
f nf? b0dEd ukev
f rd rhf nf?}} wd-Ny/D
tx? eHxdkr,fawmfudk? ykawmonf? ]]trr,fawmf awm
tcgrS? y|m,? t[HuReaf wmfonf? tnHtjcm;aom? yl0H emr
rkerYf nfonfu?kd e cg'dmrdrcJpm;awmht?hH ewyd 0l ar0udo
k m? yap,smodaMumfay;avm?}} wdodkYajymNyD/ omydxdkr,fawmfonf
vnf;? txdt
k Ek'k g rif;om;zd?Yk wawmxdt
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ud?k cg'dwu
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f o
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ygwd,mjzif?h y#duZk w
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tMuifrQavmufumvywfv;kH ? t*g&raZtdr\
f tv,f? 0odaeNy?D
wm0xdrk Qavmufumvywfv;Hk ? txkt
d Ek'k g rif;om;zd?Yk a'0wm0wdo
Yk nfom? yla0wdu
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aomxdt
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kd nf;? tZmeaEmrodvaomf? yAZH emr&Sif &[ef;tjzpfrnfonfudk? utb,fodkYvQif? Zmedwdodvdrfhrnfenf;/ womaMumifh? ]]{om
yAZm emr&[ef;tjzpfrnfonf? umtb,fenf;}} wdodkY?
bmw&Haemifawmfu?kd ykpw
d mG ? ]]Mo[m&dwauorkem&dwyf ,f
aptyfNyD;aom qH rkwfqdwf usifpG,f&Sdonf? (qH rkwfqdwf usifpG,fukd
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h aom tjcif;t&mtm;jzifjh zpfaom
ukokdvftxl;ukd &\(oD#Dopf-1253)/

364

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,ru

Ad'vrau 0gBurd (f 0g;)jzihf &uftyfaom anmifapmif;aomfvnf;


aumif;? edyZw
d mG tdy
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qHrw
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k yfco
hJ nfum;? yAZm emr&[ef;tjzpf rnf\?}}
vnf;ay;/ {omqdt

wd-okdY? 0kaw-aomf? ]]bmwduaemifawmf t[HuRefawmfonf?


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uraEm emrvkyif ef;rnfonf? aumtb,fenf;}} wd ykp/d
(uom-aMumih?f ykp-d ar;oenf;) (,om-tMuifah Mumif?h ) bwK|me|merd xrif;xGuaf y:&mXmeudak omfvnf;? tZmeaEmrodaom? ukvykawmtrsK;d aumif;om;onf? urEH emrvkyif ef;rnfonfu?kd utb,fov
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wdkYjzihf &uftyfaom anmifapmif;(pvif;*H-3 106? 148)/ Ad'vruEd
a0wrH? a0VK0dvDa0[d 0g 0DwH?-0d.|-4 59/

0*f

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pum;onf? O'yg'dxif&mS ;jzpfNy?D (utb,foY kd jzpfoenf;) ]]bwH


emrxrif;rnfonf? uk[ tb,ft&yf? O|[wdxGuaf y:oenf;?
0gjzpfay:oenf;?}} wd-odjYk zpfNy/D udrad vmudrv
d rif;om;onf?
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xdu
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Ouv,
d H xrif;td;k ? O|[wd\?}} wd tm[/ tEkak 'gtEk'k g
rif;om;onf? ]]a'Gyd 2a,mufvnf;jzpfuek af om? wkarSwdo
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pDjc,ftyfaom tzl;tiHEk iS w
hf al om tzk;H &Sad om? 0g-&wemwdjYk zifh pDjc,f
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awokxdkrif;om;3yg;wdkYwGif? {u'd0oH? udrdavmonf?
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Yk ?kd Mowm&d,rmaeoufavQmus
aptyfonfwu
Ykd ?kd (cstyf xkw,
f t
l yfonfwu
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f ifjcif;&So
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0g-cl;tyfvaomf? 'domG ? 0gaMumif?h ]]Ouv,
d an0om? OyEH
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teufa[m ,l ]]Ouvad wm-rS? bw-H ud?k (eD[&dwmG -xkwaf qmif? ygwd,-H
a&Tcu
G f ?) 0d,rmeH-avmif;xnft
h yfonfu?kd 0g-tyfvaomf}}[k wpfenf;ay;?
("mwGw)/

366

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,ru

jzpfNy?D }} wd-ok?Yd onD-onf? ta[mod ud&-wJ/h tEkak 'e yeonf


um;? 0D[D wdu
Yk ?kd aumaEmaxmif;aeonfwu
Ykd ?kd 0g-ukev
f aomf? ae0
('d|ykAm )a&S; rjriftyfuek ?f 0grjriftyfz;l uke?f bwH ud?k ypEmcsuf
aeonfwu
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onfwu
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udo
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f ikd ;f ESpw
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kd af om? udpH jyzG,u
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?kd okwmG Mum;&? ]]u'gtb,ftcg?
urEm eHtrIvyk if ef;wd\
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vdrrhf nfenf;? u'g? r,HuReaf wmfwo
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ol\tjzpf r&Su
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taygkum? ty[&dawuJhokdY tyo'g tbm0teuf(r[mbm-1 43)/

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367

tjzpfu?kd tumwm,ajymjytyfaomf? ]]awe [dxdo


k jYkd zpfvQi?f wGan0oifaemifawmfonfom? C&m0goH? 0oaeavm? r,SH uRef
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plbm-617I/

368

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,ru

wdod?Yk qukeaf om? ar cw,


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f rm;? uy

0*f

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369

Ny;D ? ed0ww
d mG jyefvn
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edym wdwmxGuo
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370

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ac:? owK\? oEduHodkY? *Em? ]]baE r,H omud,m emr


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0*f

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wd\
Yk Opmjzpfaom? ' wefc;kd od?Yk yawma&mufNy/D
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oum&onf? edAw
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372

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rrzd?Yk 0g-twGu?f vmboum&Hud?k edAa w,sH Ek acgjzpfap&mygtHh


enf;?}} wd-BuNH y/D txxdrk aS emuf? txdt
k &Siaf '0'wf\? {wH
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o' twl? aomwmywzd av? ywd|ad wmwnfNy?D {aweAdr-d
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um;? updwpfpw
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Ykd ?kd 0gtaumif;tqd;k wdu
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a'0'wfonf? aumorad wmrS? &mZ*[Hok?Yd *Em? ukrm&u0PH


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ukd 'DCjyK? (wpfenf;) todw+H 0doH {awoEd tmoD0o
d m-pm;rsKd tyfaom
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Yd dk 'DCjyK? tmod,H 'gXm,H+

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373

ukeaf om? [wyga'okvuf ajcwkYd vnf;aumif;? {uHwpfaumif


aom? (tmoD0o
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d mG wefqm
qif? {uHwpfaumifaom? (tmoD0o
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yef;uH;k ESihf wlonfu?kd 0g-wlatmif? uwGm? {uHaom? (tmoD0o
d -H
uk?d ) {uHoH vuf0w
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aMumihf}}[k ay;/

374

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y,fazsmufjcif;tusK;d iSm? wH twbm0Hxkt


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xkad '0'wfonf? vmboum&mbdbal wm&tyfaom omrnvmbf
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k tzefzeftm;xkwaf wmf
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tyoma'wGmBudrf;armif;? y#dudawmy,fjrpfawmfrltyfonf?
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jyaMumif;uHu)dk ? uma&odjyKapawmfrNl y/D aomxkad '0'wfonf? ]]'ged
? t[Huk?d oraPe a*gware&[ef;a*gwronf? y&dpa wmpGeYf
tyfNy?D 'ged? txk&d [ef;a*gwr\? tewH tusK;d rJu
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wko
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376

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yeftyfonf? (ormaem)? plV[Ho r[m[Houu#uZmwumed


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,ru

ygu#Honf? e ta[mod/ [drSe\


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d u
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380

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,ru

onf? r,mwynfah wmfEiS ?hf o' wl? tm*pwk vku


d cf ahJ vm?}} wd
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{uaptcsKUd ukeaf om? rEA'k ad emEkaYH omtodPf&u
dS ek af om? (tod
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f Ydk ?
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uGjJ ym;jcif;iSm? y&urd tm;xkwNf y/D b*0wmonf? aomxkad '0'wfu?dk
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OaygoxHOykou
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om"kem ?ay? ygyr&da,[d 'ku& }}Ed [l? (O'gaeod)/
oku&med tom"led twaem t[dwmed p?
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382

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,H a0 [dw om"k wH a0 y&r'ku& /H


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w&m;vrf;aMumif; vGew
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k &H okace umwkH oum?O'ge|-289? om&w-3 415/

0*f

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383

vG,u
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l ?
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384

"ry'bmom#Dum

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ukd y,f&mS ;Ekid af om Tejf ya[majymjcif;ESifh wuGjzpfaom oGeo


f ifa[mjy
qk;H rjcif;jzihv
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[mESiw
fh uGjzpfaom tEkomoeDjzifv
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y,f&Sm;Edkifaom wefcdk;ESifhwuGjzpfaom oGefoifa[mjyqHk;rjcif;jzifh
vnf;aumif;? tEkomoEmoGefoifa[mjy qkH;rukefvsuf? awxkd
&d,rnf\? kd;&mw&m;a[m qkH;rjcif;onf tEkomoeDyg#d[m&d,rnf\?
wefckd;trsdK;rsdK;jyjcif;onf 'dyg#d[m&d,rnf\? xkdwGif t&Sifom&dykMwm\
yg#d[m&d,onf tma'oemyg#d[m&d,ESihf tEkomoeDyg#d[m&d,wnf;?
t&Siaf rm*vm ef\ yg#d[m&d,um; 'dy g#d[m&d,ESifh tEkomoeDyg#d[m&d
,wnf;/
qufOK;tH-h xk&d [ef;ig;&mwdo
Yk nf t*om0ut&Sijf rwf2yg;wd\
Yk w&m;
aMumihf aomwmyefjzpfaMumif;ukd 0d-4 363 qkd\/ 'D.|-1 323um;
t&Sifom&dykMwm\ w&m;em&ojzihf aomwmyefwnf t&Sifarm*vmef\
w&m;em&ojzihf t&[wzv
dk f wnfonf[k qk\
d ? 'DCbmPuESifh cEu
bmPuwd\
Yk tvkad Mumihf xko
d Ydk tqku
d jGJ ym;&onf[k rSw&f m\/ (om&w3 416? oD#Dopf-2 413)
0d*[/ / w w pdwm pm&H tm'd tm'd+a'oem tma'oem(0Zd&-533)? tm'dwd {wm,mwd tma'oem-olwpfyg;pdwjf zpfyu
Hk dk
Tejf yaMumif;wefc;dk ? y#dyau-qefu
Y sib
f ufwu
Ykd ?dk [&wDw-d y,f&mS ;wwfaom
aMumih?f y#d[m&d,?H (wpfenf;) ypm [&dwAH y0awwAEd y#d[m&d,-H aemuf
jzpfaptyfaom wefc;dk ? y#d[m&d,ar0 yg#d[m&d,?H (wpfenf;) y#d[m&da,+
b0H yg#d[m&d,H-'d tma'oem tEkomoeD[laom y#d[m&d,3yg;
taygif; jzpfaom(yg0ifaom) wpfyg;yg;aomwefckd;? (wpfenf;) y#d[m&da,+ZmwH yg#d[m&d,H-qefYusifbufudk y,f&Sm;wwfaom pwkwpsmefESihf
t&[wr*f (pwkwp smefESihf t&[wr*faMumifh) jzpfaomwefcdk;? (wpfenf;)
y#d[m&d,awm+tm*wH yg#d[m&d,H-qefYusifbufudk y,f&Sm;wwfaom
pwkwpsmefESihf t&[wr*frS vmaomwefckd;(rlv#D-1 8? eDbm-1 419 p
onf)/
tma'oem p+om+yg#d[m&d,H pmwd tma'oemyg#d[m&d,H? tEk-

0*f

"ry'bmom#Dum

385

&[ef;wku
dY ?dk trwHtNrKd uaf &at; raoaq;uk?d yga,wGmaomuf
ap? 0gwdkufauR;? tm'g,ac:,l? tmumaoeaumif;uif
c&D;jzifh? tm*rok<uvmawmfrlMuukefNyD/ aumumvdaumydaumumvduonfvnf;? ]]tm0kaom a'0'wigh&Sifa'0'wf Oa|[d
xavm? om&dykwarm*vmae[dwkdYonf? aw bduLwkdYukd? eDwm
Yk }kd }[kvnf; ay;Muao;\/
ac:aqmifomG ;tyfuek Nf y?D ]]aw- oif\? bduL -wdu
a&SUem; ]]aw bduL tm'g,}} [k&Sdojzifh pOf;pm;yg/ r,monf? wGH oifh
ukd? ]tm0kaomigh&Sif om&dykwarm*vmaewkYdukd? rm 0dmod
tuRr;f r0ifEiS ?hf } wdok?Yd 0kawm eEkajymqkt
d yfco
hJ nfr[kwaf vm
om&dykwarm*vmemwkYdonf? ygydpm,kwfrmaom tvkd&Sdukef\?
ygydumeH,kwrf mukeaf om? pmeHtvkw
d \
Ydk ? 0oHtvko
d ?Ydk *wm
vkdufukef\?}} wd 0wGm? ZPKaue'l;jzihf? [',raZESvkH;om;\
omowd {wm,mwd tEkomoeD-qkH;raMumif;w&m;(ygpda,m-514? plbm387)? tma'oemyg#d[m&da,e+o[dwm+tEkomoeD tma'oemyg#d[m&d,mEkomoeD-olwpfyg;pdwjf zpfyu
Hk dk Tejf yaMumif; wefc;dk jym#d[mESihf wuG
jzpfaom oGefoifqkH;rjcif;-qkH;raMumif;w&m;(0drwd-2 254)/ (wpfenf;)
tma'oemyg#d[m&da,e+oH,w
k m +tEkomoeD tma'oemyg#d[m&d,mEkomoeD-olwpfyg;pdwfjzpfykHukd TefjyaMumif; wefckd;jym#d[mESifh ,SOfaom
oGefoifqkH;rjcif;-qkH;raMumif;w&m;(0Zd&-533)/
'Gefvnf;jyKoif/h / y& pdwH wGm uxeH tma'oemyg#d[m&d,?H
au0vH "ra'oem tEkomoeDyg#d[m&d,?H w'kb,H "rD uxm emr? wm,
axa&m Mo0'd(0drwd-2 254)}}[laom tzGihf w'kb,Hukd Munhf tEkomoeDaemif yg#d[m&d,yk't
f ausMuu
H m ]]tma'oemyg#d[m&d,H p+tEkomoeD p tma'oemyg#d[m&d,mEkomoeD-olwpfyg;pdwfjzpfykHukd Tefjy
aMumif; wefckd;jym#d[m oGefoifqkH;raMumif;wefckd;jym#d[m}}[k 'Geformof
jyKoihfonf/ 'dyg#d[m&d,mEkomoed,mukdvnf; ]]'d {0+yg#d[m&d,H
'dyg#d[m&d,H-qefYusifbufukd y,f&Sm;wwfaomwefckd;-wefckd;jym#d[m(0Zd
&-533)}}[k jyKNyD;aemuf tma'oemyg#d[m&d,mEkomoeDtwkdif; qufyg/

386

"ry'bmom#Dum

,ru

wnf&m &iftv,f? y[&dwku


d Nf y?D wxkad '0'wf\? waw0xkd
t&yfyif? OPSH ylaom? avm[dwH aoG;onf? rkcawmcHwiG ;f rS? O*d
tefxu
G Nf y/D yequfOK;tH?h bduK oC
H y&d0w
k H &[ef;taygif; jc&H t
H yf
aom? 0g-tyfvsu?f tmumaoeaumif;uifc&D;jzif?h tm*p EH <uvm
aom? tm,oEH om&dyw
k H t&Sio
f m&dyw
k & muk?d 'domG -? bduL wkYd
onf? tm[Hok avQmufuek Nf y?D (u)? ]]baEjrwfpmG bk&m; tm,om
om&dyak wmonf? *reumav<uoGm;&mtcg? tw'w
k ad ,mrdrd
[laom 2yg;ajrmuftazmf&o
dS nf? ([kwmG )? *awm<uoGm;ygNy?D 'ged
? r[my&d0ga&mrsm;aomtjct
H &H&o
dS nf? ([kwmG -?) tm*paEm
<uvmvaomf? 0g-aMumih?f aombwdwifw
h ,fyg\?}} wd-Ny/D owm
onf? ]]bdua 0wkYd 'gae0yif? om&dyak wmonf? e aombwd
wifw
h ,fonfr[kwaf o;? ykaAa&S;? wd& pmea,med,H wd& pmefrsK;d ?
edAw
u
mavydjzpf&mtcgvnf;? r,SH \? ykawmom;jzpfaom om&d
ykMwmonf? rr\? oEu
d H ok?Yd tm*paEmvmvaomf? aombda,0
wifw
h ,fco
hJ nfom?}} wdod?Yk 0wGmNy;D ? ]]a[mwd ?ay? wdb}D }wd[laom? 'H ZmwuH-ud?k uaxod/
a[mwd oDv0wH tawm y#doEm&0kwed ?H
vuPH y tm,EH wdoC
H yk&uw?H
tx yod}rH umVH ok0[
d eD 0H wdb/d
oDv0wH-csr;f om&aMumif; aumif;aomtusihf u
dS ek af om? y#doEm&0kwed -H "ry#doEm& tmrdoy#doEm&[laom toufarG;rIdS
ukeaf om? (y@dwmeH-pOf;pm;ajrmfjrif ynmSiw
f \
Ydk ?) tawm-tSed jf rifh
vsuf wkd;wufBuD;yGm;jcif;onf? a[mwd-jzpf&kd;om "rwmwnf;?
(ba'-om;Bu;D aTaoG; vluav;\ arG;onfrh cd if tk.d ..Sirf wdoHCyk&uw-H ig;&m&Ha>c aqGawmfrsKd ;awmfwo
Ydk nf ,kMH unfu;dk pm; aSU
uxm;tyfonfjzpf? tm,EH-rdbXmeD igwkdYqDukd vmaeaom?

0*f

"ry'bmom#Dum

387

vuP-H acgifaqmifaumif;yDvo
S nfh om;Bu;D vuPuk?d y- qD;BuKd
*kPjf yK Munfh pI rf;ygavm? (ba'-om;qk;d orD;qk;d rjypf;dk rkYd wk;d
tm;opf atmifu
h mcsp&f tk.d ..ESr) tx-om;Bu;D *kPjf yK Munfh NI y;D
&m xkt
d cgrSaemuf? wdb-d ig;&m&Ha>c aqGawmfrsKd ;awmfwo
Ydk nf?
ok0[
d eD 0H - rjyefwrf; aojcif;jzifh t<uif;rJh pGeyYf pftyfco
hJ nfomjzpfaom?
(wpfenf;) wdb-d wkrYd ?S ok0[
d eD 0H -aumif;pGm ,kwaf vsmch o
hJ nfom
jzpfaom? rH umVH-acgif;aqmifvuPm tSi;f uGmonfh orift
om;zsi;f armifumVuk?d yod-om;zsi;f aemifa&; tm;ukeaf wG;um
Iprf;ygOK;avm/
ykewpfzef? bduL [dwko
Yd nf? ]]baE a'0'awmonf? a'G
ukeaf om? t*om0auwku
Yd ?dk Oabmok2zufuek af om? yaok
eHyg;wkYd ? edo'D gaywGmxkid af p? ]Ak'v
VD m,jrwfpmG ;bk&m;&Si\
f pr,f
jcif;jzif?h "rH uk?d a'aomrda[mth?H } wdokBYd u
H ? wkrmS uH
&Siaf wmfb&k m;wk\
Yd ? tEku&d ,
d H twkvu
kd
f jyKtyfaom trlt&muk?d
ua&mwd ud&jyKowJ?h }} wd 0kaw? ]]bdua 0 'gae0-om? e
r[kwaf o;? ykaAyd vnf;? {o({aom)a'0'wfonf? rr\?
tEku&d ,
d H uk?d umwkH iSm? 0g,rdtm;xkwcf zhJ ;l Ny?D yeodaYk omfvnf;? e
oud rpGr;f Ekid cf ?hJ }} wdod?Yk 0wGmNy;D ? tyd 0D&u ?ay? rawmwd tm'dem-tyd0&D ?ay? rawmtp&So
d nfjzif?h ZmwuH-ud?k 0wGm-?
tyd 0D&u yaod oukPH rKbmPuH?
r,l&*D0ouFmoH yw r,SH o0d|uH/
0D&ut&Si0f &D u? rKbmPuHom,mat;csKd ajymqkad vh&adS om?
r,l&*D0ouFmoHOa'gif;iSufrif; vnfyif;tqif;vkd pdrf;kdaom
tqif;&Sad om? r,HS uRerf \? ywvifjzpfaom? o0d|uHo0d|urnf
aom? oukPH iSuu
f ?dk tyd yaodjrifryd goavm/ avmyaw
ruma&mjzifh typnf;ukd {jyK?-Zm |-2 137/

388

"ry'bmom#Dum

,ru

O'uxvp& yuad em edpH tmrurpabmZdaem?


wmEku&H o0d|aum ao0gav yvd*P
k ad wm rawm/
o0d|aumo0d|uonf? O'uxvp&a&a&muke;f yg oGm;
vmvSnv
hf nfEidk af om? edpH tNr?J tmrurpabmZdaemig;pdr;f ukd pm;
avh&adS om? w yuad emiguJo
h aYdk om xkid u
S rf sK;d \? tEku&H (tEkua&maEm)twkvu
dk
f jyKvaomf? 0gtwkvu
dk
f jyKjcif;aMumif?h
ao0gavarSmfxJ? yvd*kPdawmxuf0ef;usif &pfywftyfonf?
([kwmG )? rawmaoavNy/D
ty&mya&okyd tjcm;tjcm;vnf;jzpfuek af om? 'd0aookaeYwYdk
? wxmEkyl ar0xkt
d aMumif;t&mtm; avsmo
f nfomjzpfaom? uxH
uk?d tm&A taMumif;jyK? tpm&d ?ay? 0da&mpoDwd {0rm'De-d tpm&d
?ay? 0da&mpod odt
Yk p&Sad om? Zmwumed-wdu
Yk ?kd uaxod-Ny/D
tpm&d 0wm,H 0dw'k H 0emed u|*Fak uok tom&auok?
txm}o'g c'd&H Zmwom&H ,w} A'd g *kaVm Owr*/
0emed-tumoufouf ESprf zufonfh vufyyH ifvdk awmopfyif
rsKd ;wku
Yd ?dk 0dw'k -H (0dw'k aEm)-acgufvsu?f 0g-xk;d azmufvsu?f tom&auok-tumcsn;f jynfh tESprf Su
d ek af om? u|*Fak uo-k xif;\ tzdYk
jzpfaom opfyifwYkd ? 0g- xif;qku
d zf o
Ydk pfyifwYkd ? t,H (wG)H - ckcgatmf
jrnf oifonf? tp&d 0w-oifwrYdk sK;d k;d bk;d ab;[kb
d uf tqufquf
u prSepf mG 0rf;pmSmvsuf vSnv
fh nfusupf m;cJah vNy?D tx-tESpf
r,SOf opfyifwrYdk mS SmazGc&hJ m xkt
d cgrSaemuf? (a,m) *kaVmuREyfk af &mif;&if; tMuiftaqGawmfiu
S rf if;onf? Owr*-tjrwft*Fg
OK;acgif;&wemuk?d ,w-tMuifmS ;yif? tA'd g- ku
d cf cJG ahJ vNy?D bd'"mwf
tp&d/ / tZweD Mo0dbwfukd jyK? qef;aMumifh uGpd "mwkjzifh p 'DC
jyK *gxmwGif ]]tpm&d}}[k &Sdonf/ tpm&d 0wm,Ed tp&d 0w t,H?-Zm
|.2 149/

0*f

"ry'bmom#Dum

389

tZweDtm0dbwf? (aom *kaVm-uREy


fk af &mif;&if; xkt
d aqGawmf iSuf

rif;onf?) Zmwom&H- tacgufyifyG rmvSuspv


f pf jzpfaomtESpf
Sad om? (wH) c'd&-H xkd mS ;yifo?Ydk tmo'g- trSwrf xm; rodjim;vnf;
i,fpOfwnf;u prSepf mG vma&mufcahJ yNy/D tm+o'+tZweD tm?
voD p aw edyv
w
d m rwaum p y'gvdawm?
oAm aw zmokum b*g tZ acg wHG 0da&mpod/
awoif\? voD pOK;aESmufonfvnf;? edyv
w
d muGx
J u
G Nf y?D
rwaum pOK;xdyu
f v
dk nf;? y'gvdawmeif;cGt
J yfNy?D awoif\? oAm
tvk;H pku
H ek af om? zmokumeH;dk wku
Yd v
dk nf;? b*grIerYf eI n
Yf ufnuf csK;d
zsuf eif;acstyfuek Nf y?D tZ acg,aeYawmh? wGH oifonf? 0da&mpod
pHy,fygay\? 0g-vSygay\/
ykezef? ]]a'0'awmonf? tuwlolwpfyg;wkYd jyKxm;tyfz;l
aom aus;Zl;ukd rodwwf?}} wdokaYd om? uxHuk?d tm&A?
]]tu&rSo ?ay? ZD0oD}}wdtm'De-d tu&rSo ?ay? ZD0odtp&Su
d ek af om?
Zmwumed uaxod/
tu&rSo aw udpH ,H AvH t[k0rSao?
rd*&mZ earm wswK tyd udd vbmrao/
,H AvH-tMuifpGrf;tm;onf? t[k0g-SdygNyD? (awe Aave-xkd
t[k0rao/ / ]]t[k0g+rSao}}[k yk'fjzwf? ]]t[k0g}}om vkd&if;wnf;?
]]rS}}um; twDwwaZmwuedygwfyk'f? aoum; *gxmyl&Pedygwfyk'fwnf;?
t[k0g tZweDtm0dbwf(Zm.|-3 25? arm*f.ed-2 350)? (wpfenf;)
[d,sweDtm0dbwfwnf;/ (l-295? arm*fed-2 350? lbm-2 322)
eDwd"mwk-192/ / xkd ]](u) t[k0g+trS+H ao? (c) t[k+trS+H ao}}[k
yk'fjzwfykH 2rsdK;jy\/ (c)tvkd 0-vm kyfNyD;ap&rnf/ Zm.|-3 25ukd rSD
Bu[
H efwo
l nf? xkt
d vkd ]]trSH (trSmuH)-igwk\
Yd ? ,H AvH-onf? t[k0g t[k&SdcJhygNyD? (awe Aave-jzifh?) aw udpH tu&rS}}[k ay;yg/

390

"ry'bmom#Dum

,ru

pGr;f tm;jzif?h ) aw-\? udp-H udpu


?dk tu&rS- jyKcyhJ gukeNf y?D rd*&mZ-om;
wko
Yd eif; jcaoFrh if;? aw-oift
h m;? earm-Scd ;dk jcif;onf? twK-jzpfygap
ownf;? udd tyd-wpfpw
Hk pfcu
k v
dk nf;? vbmrao-&vkyd guke\
f /
rr avm[dwbu edpH vk'g ed ukAa wm?
'E E& *awm oaEm wH A[kH ,rd ZD0od/
avm[dwbutaoG;ukd aomufpm;avh&adS om? edpH tNr?J
vk'g edMurf;MuKwaf om trIwu
Ydk ?dk ukAa wmjyKvyk af eaom? rrig\?
'E E& *awmoGm;tMum; a&mufNy;D onf? oaEmjzpfygvsu?f ,H ZD0od
tMuiftouf&iS \
f ? wHyd xkt
d ouf&iS jf cif;onfaomfrv
S nf;? (touf
&Siw
f mawmifrv
S nf;)? A[kH rsm;vSNy/D
ykewpfzef? txkad '0'wf\? 0"m,owfjcif;iSm? y&d-oueH
tm;xkwjf cif;uk?d tm&A? ]]warwH ?ay? zv}}Et
d m'Ded ukeaf om?
Zmwumed uaxod/
tu&rSo aw /

/ ]]tu&rSao+aw}}[k wnf okwBf u;D jzihf {ukd

t-jyK(lbm-2 297)? tu&rSao ]]tu&rS+ao}}[k yk'cf


JG [d,swe rD mS
0dbwf? aoum&m*arm tmcsmwemar[d(eDwd-1102)okwfjzifh aovm[k
vnf;aumif; ]]tu&+rSao}}[k cG
J [d,swe D ]]rSao}}0dbwf[v
k nf;aumif;
eDwd"mwk-272 qkd\/
ao (5) rsdK; / / ao 5rsdK;udk ykHpHESifhwuG tusOf;csKyf jyygOK;rnf/ xkd
5rsdK;rSm(1) y'g0,0ao= wGH urH ukak o / ukak o ao0dbwf?
(2) ty'g0,0ao= 0a'rao/ r0dbwf aotm*k?H
(3) taeuE y'g0,0ao= b0grao/ r0dbwf aotm*k[
H v
k nf;
aumif; tmrao0dbwf[kvnf;aumif; ESpfrsdK;,lEkdifonf?
(4) aomo'wa o= {aoao/ {aom aomESihf teufw?l
(5) tma'oao= tu&rSo MouEm rod/ ao {ukd tpOftwkid ;f
t-jyKykHESifh -jyKykH/ tus,fukd eDwd"mwk-171? 172 I/

0*f

"ry'bmom#Dum

391

warwH uk*k
F ,H wGH aoyPd od,so?d
tnH aoyPd *pmrd e ar aw kpa w zvH/
aoyPd ,raeyif od&drEmed yPmed ,mwd aoyPD? od&D+
yP+? od&u
D dk aojyK? tmvkyo
f ad Mumihf PD &jyK/ wGH oifonf? ,H
od,sod tMuifu,
kd w
f idk f a>ccs\? wHuk,
d w
f idk f a>ccsyu
Hk ?dk uk*k
F
'&,fonf? uk,H &*FwDwd ukka*Fg? uk+&*d+P? &\ t-ukd OjyK("mef#DYk a&muf yifatmuf
619)? "r*ged-1 45 tus,af &;cJNh y/D wH(ab;odr
wnfw
h nfh cswwf\[k) odtyfNy?D 0gem;vnftyfNy?D (wpfenf;) {wH
uk,
d w
f ikd af >ccsyo
Hk nf? uk*
F '&,f\ (pdwf )? wHxif&mS ;ygNy?D
0g-&Si;f ygNy?D arigYtm;? awoif\? zvHtoD;onf? e kpa wrESpf
oufawmh? aoyPd ,raeyif tnHtjcm;opfyifo?Ydk *pmrdoGm;
awmht/hH
yke'd0aoaemufwpfaeY? ]]a'0'awmonf? vmboum&awm
pvmbf ylaZmfoum&vnf;aumif;? omrnawm p&[ef;\ jzpf
aMumif; psmef r*f zkv
d w
f &m;vnf;aumif;? (wdok?Yd ) Obawm2 rsKd ;wdYk
rS? y&d[Daem,kwfavsmhNyD?}} wdodkY? uxmokpum;wkdYonf?
y0wrmemokjzpfuek v
f aomf? ]]bdua 0-wkYd 'gae0-yif? a'0'awmod,so/d / yk'o
f nf ]]od+,+ao? (wpfenf;) om+,+ao? (wpfenf;)
od&+,+od? (wpfenf;) aom (tEur-tqk;H jyKjcif;teuf)+,+ao? uGpd
"mwkjzihf Moudk jyK?}}[k 4rsdK; jzpfEkdif\? aom"mwf[laom tqkdum; a&S;
a[mif;o'gusr;f rsm; "mwfusr;f rsm;\ tqkrd [kw?f 0Dvs\
H tqkw
d nf;/ od,sod
ukd ]]0dodPzavm a[mod(Zm.|-1 190)}}[kzGihf&m 0dodPzavm 0dodP
ukd ]]0d+o&+w? (wpfenf;) 0d+od+w}}[k 2rsdK;,lMuykHukd axmufvQif o&
"mwf tauy(ypfy,fjcif;teuf) ,ypnf; od0dbwf? "mwGef&fukd acs ,
a'Gabmfvm[k MuHoihfonf? o&"mwfonf o'gusrf; "mwfusrf; txif
t&Sm;&So
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"mwfMuHjcif;u ykdaumif;onf/ t<uif;ukd "r*ged-1 45 a&;cJhNyD/

392

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onf? y&d[aD emqkw,


f w
k o
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({aom)a'0'wfonf? y&d[aD ema,0qkw,
f w
k cf zhJ ;l onfom?}}
wdod?Yk 0wGmNy;D ? ]]tuD ?ay? xvrSd pm}}wdwd tm'Ded -ukeaf om?
Zmwumed-wdu
Yk ?dk uaxod/
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Obawm y'k|m urEm O'urSd xvrSd p/
tuD rsupf w
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Ydk nf? bdEm uGu
J ek Nf y?D ya#mtay:NcKt
H 0wfonf?
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oli,fcsi;f r wpfa,muf\ tdrf ? b@eHcku
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0gcku
d &f efjyKojzifh Burd 'f Pf aiG'Pf tay;cH&Ny)D / O'urSd a&vnf;
aumif;? xvrSd puke;f vnf;aumif;? Obawm2XmewkYd ? (w0
oif\?) urEm trIwo
Ydk nf? y'k|mysupf ;D ukeNf y/D
{0Hod?Yk &mZ*a[? 0d[&aEm0aeawmfrpl Ofyif? a'0'wH
tm&A? A[led rsm;pGmukeaf om? Zmwumedwku
Yd ?dk uaxwGm? &mZ*[awmNrKd UrS? om0w NrKd Uok?Yd *Em? aZw0aernfaom? 0d[ma&
? 0goHaeawmfrjl cif;uk?d uayod jyKawmfrNl y/D a'0'awmydonfvnf;?
e0 rmao9vwkydY wfv;Hk ? *dvmaemruse;f rmonf? ([kwmG )? ypad r
aemufq;kH jzpfaom? umavtcg? owm&Huk?d '|Kumarmzl;jrifjcif;iSm
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dS nf? [kwmG ? twaem\? om0auwynhw
f u
Ydk ?dk ]]t[Honf?
owm&Huk?d '|Kumarm\? wHxkjd rwfpmG bk&m;uk?d arud?k 'ax
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0*f

"ry'bmom#Dum

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\? r,dig? auo*rawmydqHzsm;rQ twdik ;f t&Sn&f o


dS nfvnf; jzpf
aom? tmCmawmonf? ew/d [drSe?f aom b*0gonf?
0"au a'0'wrdS apma& t*Fv
k rd mvau/
"eygav &m[kav p oAw orrmeaomwd
0"aurdru
d v
dk yk Mf uo
H wfjzwfaom? a'0'wrSd a'0'wfvnf;
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l / wdokYd ajymNy?D wd-okaYd jymNy;D ? wdwpfyk'ftausMuH? ]]arud?k
b*0EH uk?d 'axjyay;Muygavm?}} wdok?Yd ykeyKeH tzefzeftxyf
xyf? ,mpdawmif;yefNy/D
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d ynfw
h o
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anmifapmif;i,fjzifh? tm'g,aqmif,l? edurokxGufcJhukefNyD/
wxkt
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Yd nf?
owKtm;? tma&mapokH avQmufuek Nf y?D (u)? ]]baE a'0'awm
aom [d b*0g / / [dudk 'Vu
D &P wdudk a[wkteufMu
H ay;cJo
h nf?
[dukd um&Pteufa[m,l ]](uom-tb,faMumihf? owK-\? r,d-?
auo*rawmydaom? tmCmawmonf? ew?d wd-ok?Yd 0dnm,wd-odtyf
oenf;) [d (,om)-tMuifaMumih?f aom b*0g-onf? 0"au? ay ? orrmeaom-\? wd (wom)-xkad Mumih?f (xko
d Ydk ow0gtm;vk;H wkYd wlrQaom
pdw&f o
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tausMuH/

394

"ry'bmom#Dum

,ru

onf? wkrmS uH&Siaf wmfb&k m;wku


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tm*pwd ud&vmowJ?h }} wd (tma&mapok)H / ]]bdua 0 aomxkd
a'0'wfonf? awe twbma0exkt
d wabmjzif?h rHuk?d ydwHk zl;
jrifjcif;iSm? 0gzl;jrifciG u
hf ?kd e vbdwd&vdrrhf nfr[kw?f }} wdodYk
rdeaYf wmfrNl y/D a'0'awmonf? yEH ukeaf om? 0wLeHwku
Yd ?dk tm,mpdwumvawmawmif;ol\tcgrS? 0g-awmif;&mtcgrS? y|m,? ykezef? Ak'H uk?d '|KH zl;jrifjcif;iSm? 0gcGiu
hf ?kd e vbwd ud&r&awmhb;l wJ?h
t,HokzYd ;l cGirhf &Ekid jf cif;onf? "rwmxk;H pHwnf;/ ]]baE toku|meH toku|mernfrnfaom t&yfodkYvnf;? tm*awm
a&mufvmNy?D }} wd-avQmufuek Nf y/D ]],HtMuiftrIu?dk (umwk)H ? pwd
tvk&d \
dS ? wHxkt
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ud?k ydwHk iSm? 0gud?k e vbdwd&vdrrhf nf r[kw?f }} wdodYk
rdeaYf wmfrNl y/D ]]baE awmaZw0efausmif;rS? a,mZerwH wpf,l
Zemtwdkif;t&Snf&Sdaomt&yfokdY? tm*awma&mufvmygNyD? ta,mZeH,lZem0uf&adS omt&yfo?Ydk (tm*awm)? *g0kwH wpf*g0kw&f dS
aom t&yfo?Ydk (tm*awm)? baE aZw0eaygu&PDorDyH aZw0ef
a&uefteD;ok?Yd tm*awmygNy?D }} wd-Ny/D ]]taEmZw0eHaZw0ef
ausmif;wGi;f od?Yk oapyd y0dowdtu,fyif0ifOK;awmh? ({0H owdyd
aomfvnf;?) rHud?k ydwHk iSm? 0gud?k ae0 vbdwdr[kw?f }} wd
odrYk ed aYf wmfrNl y/D a'0'wH uk?d *a[wGmac:,l? tm*wmvmukef
aom wynfw
h o
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em;? rH anmifapmif;uk?d Mowma&wGmatmufoYkd a&mufap? 0gcs? aygu&Pa&uefo?Ydk ESm,dwHk a&csK;d jcif;iSm? Mow&ok oufqif;
ukeNf y?D a'0'awmydonfvnf;? rawmrS? 0k|m,x? Oabm2zuf
ukeaf om? yga'ajcwku
Yd ?dk blr,
d H ajr? XaywGmxm;? edo'D d xkid Nf y/D
yg'gwko
Yd nf? yx0ok?Yd y0doo
k 0ifuek Nf y/D aomxkad '0'wfonf? tEkuaretpOftm;jzif?h ,m0 a*gyumrsupf w
d idk af tmif? ,m0 ZPKum

0*f

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395

'l;qpfwidk af tmif? ,m0 u#dawmcg;wkid af tmif? ,m0 xeawmEdw


Yk idk f
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f Ndk y/D
ar[d t|D[d wr*y*k v
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orEpuKH owyknvuPH ygaP[d Ak'H o&PH Oayrd/
t*yk*vH-urmtvkH;wGif tomqkH;yk*dKvfvnf; jzpfawmfrlay
xaom? a'0gwda'0H- ewftaygif;wk\
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orEpuK-H <uif;rJOh kH tvk;H pku
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f jd rif oA
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jzpfawmfrlayxaom? owyknvuPH-&maygif;rsm;pGm bkef;orm
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h ,faom vuPmvnf;Sad wmfral y
xaom? wH Ak'-H wkrEkid f NyKd i
f r& urmx
h yd af cgif xkad emifawmfjrwf
bk&m;uk?d ar[d t|D[-d tom;awGaysmuf ta&ajcmufojzifh rsuf
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f yI v
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Oayrd-tjypfo
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H twefwefqnf;
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'H XmeHtaMumif;t&muk?d 'domG jrifawmfr
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hJ wJ/h [dcsUJ OK;
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d tu,f &[ef; rjyKct
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396

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,ru

aMumif;edAm ef\ taMumif;uk?d ) umwkH iSm? e ou


d rpGr;f Edik &f m? p
ye-qufOK;tH?h 0g-tEG,um;? yAZw
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urH uk?d udm yd u&dwdtu,fum; jyKvwUH ? (wxmydxdo
k yYkd if
jyKygaomfvnf;?) tm,w? b0ed&Pyp,-H uk?d umwk-H iSm? ou-d
wdpGr;f Edik v
f w?YH wdokYd jrifawmfrjl cif;aMumif?h wHxkad '0'wf
uk?d owmonf? yAmaZod&[ef;jyKapawmfrNl y/D [drSe\
f ? aomxkd
a'0'wfonf? awmurmrS? owo[uyrwauurm
wpfoed ;f txuf? t|da&m emrt|d&rnfaom? yapuAka'g
yapuAk'g onf? b0dwdvdrrhf nf? aomxkad '0'wfonf? yx0od?Yk
y0dow
d mG Ny;D ? t0Dprd dS t0Dpid &J? edAw
d jzpfNy/D yequfOK;tH?h edpa v
avmu"HaMumifh wkev
f yI jf cif;&Sad wmfrrlaom? Aka'? ty&Zbma0e
jypfrmS ;cJo
h nf\ tjzpfaMumif?h edpa vm0vIy&f mS ;jcif;r&So
d nfom? [kwmG ?
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l d usuyf gap[l? 0g-usuyf gap[laom taejzif?h ]]ypw}d }[k rluGJ
&Sd\? ]]ypwd-usuf&\}}[kay;/ a,mZeowdau,lZemwpf&m&Sad om?
taEmt0Dprd dS t0Dpid &JtwGi;f ? txkad '0'wf\? a,mZeowkaA"ar0,lZemwpf&mtjrif&h o
dS nfomjzpfaom? o&D&H uk,
d o
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atmif? 0g-em;wGi;f wdik af tmif? Oy&dtxuf? t,uyvH oHt;dk uif;ok?Yd
yg0dod 0ifNy?D yg'gajcwko
Yd nf? ,m0 a*gyumzrsuw
f idk af tmif? 0gajc
rsupf w
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y0d|m0ifuek Nf y?D r[mwmvuEy &drmPHBu;D pGmaom xef;yifv;Hk twkid ;f
t&Sn&f adS om? (xef;yifv;Hk Bu;D avmuf&adS om)? t,olvH oHwu
H sio
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(oHwpH o
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d mG ?

0*f

"ry'bmom#Dum

397

Ow&bdw ajrmufbufe&H o
H ?Ydk yg0dod Ny?D ty&Htjcm;aom oHwu
H sif
onf? Oy&dtxufjzpfaom? uyvawmoH',ft;kd rS? edur w
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OK;xdyu
f ?dk bdEw
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Yk Qi?f aomxkad '0'wfonf?
wwxkt
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usu&f Ny/D bduL wko
Yd nf? ]]{wuH rQtwdik ;f t&Sn&f adS om? XmeHt&yf
ok?Yd tm*paEmvmaom? a'0'awmonf? owm&Hud?k '|KH iSm? 0g
ud?k tvbdwmG 0r&rlomvQi?f yx0od?Yk y0da|m0ifNy?D yx0 y0da|majrrsdKNyD?}} wdod?Yk uxHuk?d ork|mayokH jzpfapukeNf y/D owmonf?
]]bdua 0 a'0'awmonf? 'gae0? r,digbk&m;? ty&ZdwmG
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jzpf&mtcg? r*rVl H vrf;c&D; awGa0aeaom? 0grsupf v
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\? yd| ausmuke;f ok?Yd tma&maywGmwufa&mufap? 0gwif? acrEH
ab;wd\
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d a,mufsm;jrwfjzpfaom bk&m;tavmif;qifrif;\? puKyxH
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ausmv
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130/

398

"ry'bmom#Dum

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tjzpfu?dk 'DaywkH jyawmfrjl cif;iSm?


tuwk aygo edpH 0d0&'daem?
oAH ap yx0 'Zm ae0 eH tbd&m"a,/
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edpH tNr?J 0d0&'daem&ayguf&vrf;uko
d m Munfw
h wfaom? aygo
a,mufsm;tm;? oAH tvk;H pkaH om? yx0ajruk?d ap(yd) 'Zmtu,f
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a,mufsm;uk?d ae0 tbd&m"a,rESpo
f ufapEkid &f m? 0grMunfvif r&Tif
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0g ye r[myx0 y&d0awwGm yxa0gZH 'a',s(Zm.|-1 340)}}[laom
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ajrMoZmukd,l/

wd-odaYk om? 'H ZmwuHud?k uaxwGmNy;D ? ykeydwpfzef


vnf;? wax0xkt
Yd wlyif? uxm,pum;onf? ork|w
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wGmjypfrSm;cJh? uvmAk&mZblwuvmAkrif;jzpf jzpfcJhaom?
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cE0d g'dZmwuZmwfuv
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dk nf;aumif;? uaxod/
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f ef;ESpo
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Ydk ?dk OmaywGmpku
d x
f al p?
ykPC
a#a&jzifjh ynfah om tk;d wdu
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Ydk nf? (a[mEd) 0wjzpfavukepf w
G um;?}}

0*f

"ry'bmom#Dum

399

wdokaYd jym? r[EH Bu;D pGmaom? qPHyGo


J bifu?dk tEkabmwd
cHpm;\/ wrwH xkt
d aMumif;uk?d b*0awmtm;? tma&mapokH ukeNf y/D
b*0gonf? ]]bdua 0 'gae0? a'0'awonf? rawaovaomf?
r[mZaemonf? e wkwdESpo
f ufonf r[kwaf o;? ykaAy-d vnf;?
wkad ,0ESpo
f ufczhJ ;l onfom?}} wd 0wGm? oAZetvk;H pkaH om
vltaygif;onf? 0g-\? tyda ,rcspt
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400

"ry'bmom#Dum

,ru

taygif;uk?d [ao,sESyd pf uf&m\? [oad wmESyd pf uftyfaom? 0g


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0*f

"ry'bmom#Dum

401

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"ry'bmom#Dum

403

wpfoed ;f uk?d 0daZwmG pGev


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404

"ry'bmom#Dum

,ru

wdokv
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wpfcak om? 'gea*vSLzG,0f wKukd pGeBYf uaJ y;urf;&mXme? 0g-tvSLr@yf

0*f

"ry'bmom#Dum

405

? wmxko
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406

"ry'bmom#Dum

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odjYk zpfvQi?f uomaMumih?f {0Hod?Yk tm[ajymqdyk goenf;}} wdokaYd r;avQmufNy/D ]]ued|wma,0i,fonf\tjzpfaMumifo
h m? ({0H
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f <l u,f aw
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h uf? r[vu
d mBu;D \/
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0*f

"ry'bmom#Dum

407

um;? ou'g*grdeD ou'g*grfwnf;/ omxdo


k rD;onf? r*zav[d
wdjYk zif?h w,mxuf? r[vu
d wmBu;D onf\ tjzpfaMumif?h wHoifu
h ?kd
{0Hod?Yk tm[Ny?D }} wd-rdeaYf wmfrNl y/D ]]baE {0Htwdik ;f rSef
ygoavm {0H baE-'Dvdkvm;bk&m;}} wd-okdY ar;avQmufNyD/
f ,f ol<u,f?}}
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m jzpfygoenf;}}
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(edAw
m jzpfNy)D ?}} wd-okYd rdeaYf wmfrNl y/D ]]baE rr\? "Dwmonf?
"b0? wumeHaqGrsK;d wd\
Yk ? tEa&tv,f? eErmemESpf
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f uf0rf;
ajrmuf&m bHXk meomvQi?f edAw
m jzpfygNy?D }} wd-Ny/D tx? eHxkd
olaX;ud?k owmonf? ]]*[ywd tmrtdr;f ? *[|m 0gtdrf wnfol
vl0wfaMumifwaYkd omfvnf;jzpfuek af om? yAZw
d m 0g&Si&f [ef;wdaYk omf
vnf;jzpfuek af om? tyrwm emrrarh ravsmo
h w
l rYkd nfonf? "
avmau pb0vnf;aumif;? y&avmau pwrvGeb
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f nfom?}} wd-ok?Yd 0wGm? ]]" eEwd ?ay? ok*w
*awm}}wd[laom? rH *gxH tm[/
" eEwd ayp eEwd uwykanm Ob,w eEw?d
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uwykanm-jyKtyfNy;D aom aumif;rI&o
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f 0? eEw-d \? Ob,w-ypKye f
wrvGef 2wefaom b0? eEw-d \? ar-igonf? ykn-H aumif;rIu?dk uwHjyKtyfNy?D wd-okYd awG;? eEw-d \? ok*w-aumif;aom *wdo?Ydk
*awm-a&mufonf? (ormaem-vaomf?) bda,sm-vGepf mG ? eEw-d \/
ww-xk*d gxm? "mwd-um;? " avmau-avmu? ur-

408

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,ru

eEaee-uHaMumifh ESpo
f ufjcif;tm;jzih?f (uHudk taMumif;jyK ESpo
f uf
jcif;tm;jzih)f ? eEw-d ESpo
f uf&\? aypmwd-um;? y&avmau-aemuf
avmu? 0g-wrvGeb
f 0? 0dygueEaee-tusKd ;aMumifh ESpo
f uf&jcif;
tm;jzihf? (tusdK;ukdtaMumif;jyK ESpfoufjcif;tm;jzihf)? eEwd-\/
uwykanmwd-um;? emeyum&-txl;xl;aom tjym;&Sdaom?
ykn-aumif;rIu?dk uwm-jyKNy;D olonf? eEwd pyf? Ob,wmwd-um;?
dk u
f ?dk uwH-jyKtyf
"-b0? eEwd pyf? ar-igonf? ukovH-ukov
Nyw
D um;? ar-onf? ygyH-raumif;rIu?dk tuwH-rjyKtyfcw
hJ um;? wdokYd awG;? eEw-d \? y&w-aemufavmu? 0dyguH-tusKd ;uk?d tEkb0aEm-cHpm;&vaomf? eEw-d \/ yknH arwd-um;? "-b0? eEaEm-ESpo
f ufaomyk*Kd vo
f nf? ]]ye}}onf yuE& aZmwuwnf;? ar-onf?
ykn-H aumif;rIu?dk uwH-jyKtyfNyw
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h mvQi?f ureEe-H uHaMumifh ESpo
f uf
jcif;uk?d (uHudk taMumif;jyK ESpo
f uf&jcif;uk)d ? Oyg'g,-pJ
G ? eEw/d
bda,smwd-um;? 0dygueEaee ye-tusKd ;aMumifh ESpo
f uf&jcif;tm;jzihf
um;? (tusKd ;ukd taMumif;jyK ESpo
f uf&jcif;tm;jzihu
f m;)? yeonf
yuE& yifwnf;? ok*w-aumif;aom *wdo?Ydk *awm-a&mufonf? (orm
aem)? owynmo0aum#da,m-ESpfaygif; 57uka#wkdYywfvHk;
vnf;aumif;? o|d0owo[med-tESpf 6 oef;wkyYd wfv;kH vnf;
ureEaee/ / ]]uHukd+ESpfouf&jcif;tm;jzihf}}[k ray;&? uHukd taMumif;
jyK wpfoufvHk; 0rf;ajrmufESpfouf&jcif;jzpfaomaMumifh ]]uHaMumifh+ESpf
ouf&jcif;tm;jzihf}}[kom ay;&onf? uHonf yuwlyed,ypnf; ESpf
oufjcif;um; yp,kyefwnf;/
ow ?ay? o[med/ / ewfoufonf wkow
d mewfjynf\ touf
wnf;? okrema'0Donf wkow
d mewfjynf jzpfaomaMumifh 0wKaMumif;tvku
d f
wkow
d mewfoufudk jyxm;onf? ]]tEkb0aEm}}[k ykved x
f m;jcif;um; trsm;
twGuf jzpfaomaMumifhwnf;/

0*f

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409

aumif;? 'dAo
rw- ewfpnf;pdru
f ?dk tEkb0aEm-cHpm;&onf? ([kwmG ?) wkow
d yka&-wkow
d mewfjynf? twd 0d,-tvGet
f uJomvQi?f
eEw-d \? wd-wGif *gxmtzGit
hf Ny;D wnf;/ *gxmy&da,momae? A[l aomwmyEm'a,m ta[oHk? "ra'oem r[mZe
omwdu
m Zmwm? wd-wGif okrema'0D0wKtNy;D wnf;/
okrema'0D0wKbmom#Dum Ny;D \/

14- a'Go[m,ubduK 0wKbmom#Dum


A[krd apwdA[krd aptp&Sad om? rH "ra'oeHud?k owmonf?
aZw0ae? 0d[&aEmpOf? a'G2yg;ukefaom? o[m,au
oli,fcsi;f jzpfuek af om &[ef;wdu
Yk ?kd tm&A? uaxodNy/D
[dcsUJ OK;tH?h om0w0d godaemom0wNd rKd U aeukeaf om? 0g-om0wd
NrKd Uom;jzpfuek af om? a'G2a,mufuek af om? ukvykwm trsK;d aumif;
om;jzpfuek af om? o[m,umoli,fcsi;f wdo
Yk nf? 0d[m&Hod?Yk *Em-?
owK\? "ra'oeHud?k okwmG em&? umar0wKtmkH umr*kPf
wdu
Yk ?kd y[m,y,fpeG
Yf ? omoaeomoemawmf? 0g-tm;? O&H&ifu?kd
'wGmay;? 0g-tyfE
HS ? omoae omoe O&H 'wGm ed,smawwGm?d mG &[ef;jyK? y 0medig;0gwdyYk wfv;Hk ? tmp&d,yk Zm"r#/D yAZw
,meHq&mOyZm,fw\
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jrwfpmG bk&m;ud?k 0god?Yk OyouFrw
d mG ? omoae? "k&H wm0efu?kd
ykpw
d mG ar;avQmuf? 0dyem"k&udv
k nf;aumif;? *E"&k udv
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aumif;? 0dwm &awmtus,t
f m;jzif?h okwmG emMum;&? wm0a&S;OK;
pGm? {aum&[ef;wpfyg;onf? ]]baE t[Honf? r[vuumav
? yAZad wm&[ef;jyKco
hJ nf? ([kwmG )? *E"&k H ud?k yla&wHk jznfu
h sijhf cif;
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k m;? yla&mrd
ygrnf?}} wdodYk avQmuf? ,m0 t&[wmt&[wzv
kd w
f ikd f

410

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,ru

atmif? 0dyem"k&H ud?k uxmaywGma[map? Ca#aEmtquf


rjywftm;xkwv
f aomf? 0g,raEmvkv
YH pdu
k x
f w
k f jyKvyk v
f aomf? y#dor'd g[dy#dor'd gav;yg;wdEYk iS ?fh o[wuG? t&[wH od?Yk ygykPd Ny/D
wa&m yetjcm;&[ef;onfum;? ]]t[Hwynfah wmfonf? *E"&k H
ud?k yla&mrdygrnf?}} wdodY k avQmuf? tEkua retpOftm;
jzif?h awyd#uHyd#u3yH[
k al om? Ak'0 peHud?k O*Pw
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l ? *w*w|maea&muf&m a&muf&m t&yf? "rH ud?k uaxwda[m\? o&bnHtoHjzifh okwe pf onfudk &Gwjf cif;ud?k 0g-toHjzihf &Gwq
f t
dk yfaom
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f \
dk ? yEH 5
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f / t|m&oEH 18ckuek f
aom? r[m*PmeH*dP
k ;f Bu;D wd\
Yk ? tmp&da,mq&monf? ta[mod
Ny/D bduL wko
Yd nf? owK\? oEad utxHawmf? ur|meHud?k *a[wGm,l? w&tjcm;aom? ax&0dyemudk usiahf qmif
aom ax&f\? 0oe|meHae&mt&yfodkY? *Em-? wxdkax&f\?
Mo0ga'Mo0g'? XwGmwnf? t&[wH od?Yk ywGma&muf? ax&H
ud?k 0Ew
d mG ? ]]owm&Hud?k '|Kumrmzl;jrifjcif;iSm tvd&k u
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a,0 vuPmed 0d0&wd?-o'o*F[-14/

0*f

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411

]]tm0kaomwdYk *px-oGm;Mu? rr\? 0paeejzif?h owm&Huk?d 0Ew


d mG
Ny;D ? toDwd &Spu
f syd af om? r[maxa&r[max&fwu
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Muavm? ar\? o[m,uaw&rd oli,fcsi;f jzpfaom ax&fuv
kd nf;?
]trSmuHwynfah wmfw\
Ykd ? tmp&da,monf? wkarSt&Sib
f &k m;wdu
Yk ?kd
0Ewd &Scd ;kd vdu
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rSmMum;? ayaowdapvTw\
f / aw bduL wdo
Yk nf? 0d[m&Hod?Yk *Ema&muf? 0g-vaomf? owm&a0udkvnf;aumif;? toDwd aom?
r[maxa& pwdu
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kd nf;aumif;? 0Ew
d mG ? *Eu
d aw&usr;f pmudk
ykcYd saomax&f\? 0g-pmcsq&mawmf\? *EH okwE y #d um'dyu&PH 0gapwd
"ma&wDwd *Edaum? *Edaum p+aom+axa&m pmwd *Eduawa&m?-"r#D/

oEu
d H od?Yk *Em-? ]]baE trSmuHwd\
Yk ? tmp&da,monf? wkarS
t&Sib
f &k m;wdu
Yk ?kd 0Ewd &Scd ;kd vdu
k yf g\?}} wdod?Yk 0'Ed avQmufuek \
f /
wa&e ptjcm;aom usr;f pmudk ykcdY saom ax&fonfvnf;? 0g-pmcs
q&mawmfonfvnf;? ]]aomxdo
k ifw\
Ykd q&monf? aum emrtb,f
rnfoenf;}} wdod?Yk 0kawar;tyfaomf? ]]baE wkrmS uHwk\
Yd ?
o[m,ubduK oli,fcsi;f jzpfaom &[ef;ygwnf;?}} wd-ok?Yd 0'E-d
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xyf? omoeHowif;ud?k y[dPaEydv
Yk aomf? aom bduK xdu
k sr;f *ef
ukd ykcYd saom &[ef;onf? axmuHtenf;i,faom? umvHumvywfv;Hk ?
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Yd ?
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Ykd nf? wxdq
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412

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edum,fu?kd (O*[ad wm) uoif,t


l yfoavm wDok 3yHu
k ek af om?
yd#auokyd#uwdw
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d )H u
avm}} wd-ok?Yd 0wGmar;? 0g-vaomf? ]]pwky' u
d H 4yg'&Sad om?
*gxrd *gxmudak omfvnf;? e Zmemwdrod? yHou
k v
l H yHou
k o
l uFe;f ud?k
*a[wGm,l? yAZw
d umava,0&[ef;jyKNy;D &mtcgyif? t&nH
awmod?Yk y0da|m0ifNy?D A[lrsm;pGmukeaf om? taE0godauteD;ae
wynfw
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Ykd ?kd vbd 0w&avNyw
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txxdkrS? ty&bma*aemuftzdkY? axa&m0dyemusifh
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vmNy/D o[m,uoli,fcsi;f jzpfaom? ax&ax&f\? oEad u
? ywp0D &Huk?d XaywGmxm;? *Em-? owm&a0ukv
d nf;aumif;?
toDwd aom? r[maxa& pwku
Yd v
kd nf;aumif;? 0Ew
d mG &Scd ;dk Ny;D ?
o[m,uoli,fcsi;f jzpfaomax&f\? 0oe|meHae&mt&yfo?Ydk
ypm*rdjyefvmNy/D txxkt
d cg? aomxku
d sr;f pmykcYd saom ax&fonf?
txk0d yd emusiahf qmifaom ax&f\ (tay:)? 0g-twGu?f 0wH
0wfukd? uma&wGmjyKap? oryrmPHwlrQaom yrmP&Sdaom?
tmoeHae&muk?d *a[wGm,l? ]]yOH jyemuk?d ykp
d mrdar;tH?h }}
wdokYd Mu
H ? edo'D d xkid Nf y/D wo caPxkcd P? owmonf?
]]{o ({aom)&[ef;onf? {0lyH aom? rr\? ykwH om;awmfu?dk
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jrifawmfr
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hf nfjcif;uk?d 0g-tm;jzih?f p&aEm 0d,
vSnv
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t&yfo?Ydk *Em<uawmfr
l ? ynw0&Ak'g oaecif;xm;tyfaom jrwf

0*f

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413

aom bk&m;&Siw
f zYkd Ydk ae&m? edo'D d xkid af wmfrNl y/D [drSe\
f ? ww ww
xdx
k t
kd &yf? edo'D Emxkid u
f ek af om? bduL wdo
kY nf? Ak'g oeHbk&m;&Sif
wdzYk Ykd ae&muk?d ynmaywGm0cif;om? edo'D Ed xkid u
f ek \
f / awexkd
aMumif?h owmonf? yuwdynawa,0yifu,
dk t
f m;jzifh cif;xm;tyf
Ny;D onfomjzpfaom? 0g-e*du
k cif;xm;tyfNy;D onfomvQijf zpfaom?
tmoaeae&m? edo'D d xkid af wmfrNl y/D edoZ acg yexkid af wmfrNl y;D
um;? *Eu
d bduK H usr;f *efukd ykcYd saom &[ef;uk?d yXrZmaeyXrpsmef?
yOH uk?d ykpw
d mG ar;awmfr
l ? wo xkyd pk m ud?k tuxdawrajzqkt
d yf
rajzqkEd idk af omf? 'kw,
d ZmeH'kw,
d psmefu?dk tm' uwGmtpjyK? t|okyd 8yg;vnf;jzpfuek af om? ormywo
D k ormywfwYdk vnf;aumif;?
lyglayok plypsmef tlypsmefwYkd vnf;aumif;? yOH ud?k ykpd Ny/D *E-d
uawa&musr;f pmukd ykcYd saomax&fonf? {urd wpfcak om ykpm ukd
vnf;? uaxwHk ajzqkjd cif;iSm? emoud rpGr;f Edik Nf y/D wa&mtjcm;
aom 0dyemusiahf qmifaomax&fonf? oAH tvk;H pkaH om? wH-xkd
tar;ykpm uk?d uaxodajzqkNd y/D txxdt
k cg? eHxku
d sr;f pmukd ykcYd s
aomax&fu?dk aomwmywrd a*? yO-H uk?d ykp-d Ny/D *Eu
d awa&monf?
uaxwkH ajzqkjd cif;iSm? emoud Ny/D wawmxkrd aS emuf? cDPmo0aw&H ukeNf y;D aom tmoa0g&Sad omax&fu?dk 0g-&[Emax&fu?dk ykp-d Ny/D
axa&m&[Emax&fonf? uaxodajzqkNd y/D owmonf? ]]bduK
&[ef; om"k om"kaumif;aypG aumif;aypG?}} wdok?Yd tbdeEw
d mG
tvGeEf pS o
f ufawmfr
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onf? 0g-pmcsq&mawmfonf? {urd wpfcak om ykpm ukv
d nf;? uaxwkH
ajzqkjd cif;iSm? emoud Ny?D cDPmoa0gukeNf y;D aom tmoa0g&Sad om
ax&fonf? 0g-&[Emax&fonf? ykpw
d H ykpw
d H ar;tyfwidk ;f ar;tyf
wkid ;f aom ykpm uk?d uaxodajzqkNd y/D owmonf? pwlok 4yg;ukef
aom? Xmaeokyd t&mXmewkYd vnf;? wxk&d [Emax&ftm;? om"k-

414

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,ru

um&Hom"k[k jyKtyfaom toHu?kd 0gom"kou


H ?dk t'goday;awmf
rlNy/D wHxko
d m"kac:oHu?dk okwmG Mum;&? bkra 'a0ajr wnfae
aom ewfwu
Ydk ?dk 0g-bkrp ;dk ewfwu
Ydk ?dk tm' uwGmtpjyK? ,m0 jA[avmumjA[mjh ynfwikd af tmif? oAmukeaf om? a'0wm ap0ewf
jA[mwko
Yd nfvnf;aumif;? em*okyPm pe*g; *VKew
f o
Ydk nfvnf;
aumif;? om"kum&Hom"k[k jyKtyfaomtoHu?kd 0gom"kou
H ?dk t'Hok
ay;ukeNf y/D wH om"kum&Hxdo
k m"k[k jyKtyfaomtoHu?dk 0gxko
d m"k
oHu?dk okwmG ? wxku
d sr;f pmykcYd saom ax&f\? taE0godum
ap0teD;aewynfw
h o
Ydk nfvnf;aumif;? o'0d [
d m&daem ptwlae
wynfw
h o
Ydk nfvnf;aumif;? owm&Huk?d OZm,ok uJ&h UJ ukeNf y?D (u)?
]]owm&monf? u emrtb,frnfaom? {wHtrIu?dk uwHjyK
awmfrt
l yfoenf;? udd bmudrk Q? tZmeErodaom? r[vuaw&rax&fBu;D tm;? pwlok ukeaf om? Xmaeokt&mXmewkYd ?
om"kum&Hud?k t'god-Ny?D oAy&d,w"d &tvk;H pkaH om y&d,wfudk
aqmifaom? yEH bduK owmeH&[ef;ig;&mwd\
Yk ? ygarmutBu;D
trSL;jzpfaom? trSmuHwk\
dY ? tmp&d, yeq&mudu
k m;? yoHomrwrd cs;D rGr;f jcif;rQuv
dk nf;? e u&djyKawmfrrl?}} wd-uJ&h UJ ukeNf y/D tx
xkt
d cg? aexku
d sr;f pmykcYd saomax&f\ wynfw
h u
dYk ?dk owmonf?
]]bdua 0 u emrtb,frnfaom? {wHpum;uk?d uaxxajym
qku
d ek o
f enf; }}wd-ok?Yd ykpw
d mG -? wo tawxkt
d aMumif;uk?d
tma&mpdawavQmuftyfaomf? ]]bdua 0 wkrmS uHwk\
Yd ? tmp&da,m
onf? rr\? omoae? bwd,mtcjzif?h *ga0gEGm;wku
dY ?dk &uPo'daomapmifah &SmufoEl iS hf wl\? 0g-ausmif;olEiS hf wl\? r,SH \? ykawm
yeom;awmfonfum;? ,xmkp,
d mtvdt
k m;avsmo
f jzif?h 0g-tvd&k dS
wdik ;f ? yig;rsK;d ukeaf om? a*g&aoEGm;rSjzpfaom t&omwku
dY ?dk y&dbke uomrdo'daomok;H aqmif&aom EGm;ykid &f iS Ef iS hf wl\?}} wd
0wGm-? ]]A[krd ap ?ay? omrn a[mwD}}wd[luek af om? rm

0*f

"ry'bmom#Dum

415

*gxmwdu
Yk ?kd tbmoda[mawmfrNl y/D
A[krd ap oH[w
d bmormaem e wua&m a[mwd ea&m yrawm?
a*gayg0 *ga0g *P,H ya&oH e bm*0g omrn a[mwd/
oH[w
d -H aumif;aompD;yGm;&S&d m oH;k jzmyd#uwf w&m;awmfjrwfu?dk
A[H-k rsm;pGm? 0g-rsm;pGmuk?d bmormaemyd-oif,yl cYdk s a[majymygaomf
vnf;? ea&m-pmwwfayawmf yk*Kd vaf usmo
f nf? yrawm-bm0emrI
rjyK,iG ;f aygh arhavsmo
h nf? ([kwmG -jzpf? 0g-jzpfjcif;aMumif?h ) wua&mxkw
d &m;udk jyKusiw
fh wfoo
l nf? 0g-xkt
d edpm 'dreodum&ukd jyKusiw
hf wf
olonf? ap e a[mwd-tu,f rjzpft?hH ya&oH-wpfyg;aom EGm;&Sif
wk\
Yd ? *ga0g-EGm;wku
Yd ?dk *P,H (*P,aEm)-a&wGux
f ed ;f ausmif;aom?
a*gayg-tcpm;EGm;ausmif;om;onf? (a*g&o-EGm;rSjzpfaom 5 rsKd ;
aom t&om\?) bm*0g-tzk&Yd o
dS nf? e a[mwd 0-rjzpfEidk o
f uJo
h ?Ydk
({0H-twl?) omrn-orP\ jzpfaMumif; aumif;aom psmef r*f
zkv
d w
f &m;\? bm*0g-tzk&Yd o
dS nf? e a[mwd-rjzpf/
tyrd ap oH[w
d bmormaem "r a[mwd tEk"rpm&D?
&m* a'go y[m, arm[H oryZ maem ok0rd w
k p ad wm/
tEkyg',
d maem " 0g [k&H 0g o bm*0g omrn a[mwd/
oH[w
d -H aumif;aompD;yGm;&S&d m oH;k jzmyd#uwf w&m;awmfjrwfu?dk
tyH- tenf;i,f? 0g-uk?d bmormaemyd-oif,yl cYdk s a[majymygaomf
vnf;? "r-avmukw& mw&m;uk;d yg;tm;? tEk"rpm&D-avsmaf om
ykAb
m*tusiu
hf dk usiafh vh&o
dS nf? 0g-avsmaf om oDvjzLpif "kwif
wpfcef; ur|mef;ukd usiafh vh&o
dS nf? ap a[mwd-tu,f jzpft?hH
({0Howd-okYd jzpfvaomf?) &m*-&m*ukv
d nf;aumif;? a'go-a'go
ukv
d nf;aumif;? arm[-arm[ukv
d nf;aumif;? y[m,-y,fpeG
Yf ?
oryZ maem-odxu
dk af om 'kuo
pmw&m;wku
Yd dk aumif;pGm tjym;tm;
jzihf odonf? ok0rd w
k p ad wm-udavomwkrYd S aumif;pGm vGwaf ompdwf

416

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,ru

&So
d nf? ([kwmG -jzpf?) " 0g-ypKye cf Em tm,we "mwfvnf;
aumif;? [k&H 0g-[kdwrvGef cEm tm,we"mwfvnf;aumif;?
(wpfenf;) " 0g-tZwc Em tm,we "mwfvnf;aumif;? [k&H
0g-Am[d&cEm tm,we "mwfvnf;aumif;? tEkyg'd,maem-wPSm
'd|w
d jYdk zihf rpJv
G rf;aom? o (aom)-xk&d [Emyk*Kd vo
f nf? omrnorP\jzpfaMumif; aumif;aom r*frS jzpfvm&onfh av;0aom zkv
d f
ig;yg;aom "ruE m \? bm*0g-tzk&Yd o
dS nf? a[mwd-jzpf\/
ww-xk*d gxmwkYd ? oH[w
d Ed- oH[w
d [
H al om? {wH-trnfonf?
awyd#u-3yHak om yd#u[laom? 0g-yd#u3yH[
k al om? Ak'0 pebk&m;pum;awmf\? emrH-trnfwnf;? wH-xkyd #d u3yHu
k ?dk tmp&da,q&mwko
Yd ?Ydk OyouFrw
d mG -csO;f uyfNy;D ? O*Pw
dS mG -oif,Nl y;D ? A[kr-d
rsm;pGmukv
d nf;? ya&oH-olwpfyg;wkt
Yd m;? bmormaem-("ruxdu
tjzpfjzif)h a[majymaomfvnf;aumif;? 0gapaEm-("rmp&d,tjzpfjzih)f
ykcYd saomfvnf;aumif;? wH "rH- xkyd #d u3&yf w&m;jrwfu?dk okwmG -em
,lavhusuf aqmif&u
G Nf y;D ? um&aue-jyKusiw
fh wfaom? yk*a veyk*dKvfonf? ,H-tMuiftusifhukd? uwAH-jyKoifhjyKxkduf\? wua&mxdt
k usiu
fh dk jyKusiw
fh wfoo
l nf? ap e a[mwd-rjzpft?hH *gxm ]]ap}}ukd
jzpfoif
h ,lay;onf? ukuK #-Muuf\? yuy[&Prwr-d tawmif
cwf&m umvrQvnf;? tedpm'd0aoe-tedpponfwkdY\tpGrf;jzihf?
a,medaom-oifah omtaMumif;tm;jzih?f reodum&H- pdwf xm;rIu?dk
oH[w
d /H / ]]orm+[dwH ywdyg'sH ,mwd oH[w
d -H aumif;pGm odaptyf
aom pD;yGm;&Sad om yd#u3yk(H axmr? |jyK)? [dawe+o[ oH0wwd oH0Zd w
d
+[dwH {wmwd 0g oH[w
d -H pD;yGm;ESiw
fh uGjzpfaom yd#u3yk?H 0g-pD;yGm;&Sad om
yd#u3ykH("r#D)? yxryg'onf ]]Z-w-Z-*-*}}[k OayE0Zd&myg'jzpfaom
aMumifh ed*[dwfacs ]]oH[dw}}[k &Sdaomfvnf; yk'f&if;rSm ]]oH[dwH}}[k 'kwd
,Eyk'fwnf;/

0*f

"ry'bmom#Dum

417

0g-ESv;kH oGi;f rIu?dk ap ey0aww-d rjzpfapth?H {aom-yk*Kd vo


f nf? bm*D
a[mwd e a[mwdwYdk pyf? ,xm emr-Oyrmrnfonfum;? 'd0oHwpfaeYywfv;kH ? bwd,m-tcjzih?f b&wd uruma& {wm,mwd bwdYd ?dk &uaEmtvkyform;wkdYukd arG;jrLaMumif; jzpfaomtc? *ga0g-EGm;wku
apmihaf &Smufaom? 0g-ausmif;aom? a*gayg-EGm;ausmif;om;onf? *ga0g
+ygwd &uww
D d a*gayg? a*g+yg+t? ygawm0-eHeufapmapmyif? (eHeuf
apmapmuyif)? ed&0aooH-t<uif;tuserf &Sad tmif? (EGm;awG rusef
&atmif)? or#pd w
d mG -vufcNH y;D ? om,H-naecsr;f tcg? *a[wGm,lNy;D ? (awmxJrS ,lvmNy;D )? omrdumeH-EGm;&Siw
f t
Ydk m;? ed,smawwGm
(ed,sma'wGm)-tyfEiS ;f Ny;D ? 'd0obwdrwH- wpfaeYtwGuf EGm;ausmif;
crQu?dk *PSmwd ,xm-,l&ouJo
h ?Ydk ye-Asw&d u
d u
f m;? ,xmkp,
d mtMuiftMuiftvkt
d m;jzih?f 0g-tvk&d w
dS idk ;f ? y-5yg;ukeaf om? a*g&aoEGm;rSjzpfaom t&omwku
Yd ?dk y&dbk w
d -kH oH;k pJjG cif;iSm? 0g- oH;k pJcG iG u
hf ?dk e
vbwd ,xm-r&ouJo
h /Ydk {0ar0-UtwlomvQi?f au0vH-omrn
rzuf oufouf? taE0godumeH-teD;aewynfhwkdY\? oEdumtxHr?S 0wy#d0wu&Prw-0wfBu;D 0wfi,fudk jyKjcif;rQ\? bm*Dtzk&Yd o
dS nf? a[mwd-jzpf\? ye-Asw&d u
d u
f m;? omrn-orP\
jzpfaMumif; aumif;aom psmefw&m; r*fzv
dk w
f &m;\? bm*D-tzk&Yd o
dS nf?
e a[mwd-rjzpf/ ye-tzkdYwpfyg;um;? a*gygvaue-EGm;ausmif;om;
ed,smawwGm ed,sma'wGm/ /ed+,w+aP+wGm? eda&S;&Sdaom ,w
"mwfonf y#d'ge (tyfEjHS cif;)teufukd a[m\? wukd 'jyKvQif ]]ed,sma'wGm}}[k
jzpf\? xkad Mumihf ]]ed,smawwGm ed,sma'wGm}}2ygXfv;Hk oifo
h nf(eDw"d mwk309)/
a*g&ao/ / a*gawm+owm+&om a*g&om-EGm;rrS aumif;pGm
jzpfaom t&omwk?Yd a*g&o[lonf ]]cD&H '"d CwH wuH aemeDwH y a*g&om("mef-500)}}ESihftnD (1) EkdY&nf (2) EkdY"rf; ('defcsOf EkdYcsOf) (3) axmywf
(4) &ufwuf ('defcsOf&nf) (5) qDOK; (axmywfpdrf; axmay;)wkdYwnf;/

418

"ry'bmom#Dum

,ru

onf? ed,smwdwmeH(ed,sm'dwmeH)-tyfEiS ;f tyfNy;D ukeaf om? *kE-H EGm;rwkYd


\? a*g&oH-EGm;rSjzpfaom t&omukd? omrdum0-EGm;&SifwkdYonfom?
y&dbkEd ,xm-oHk;aqmif Mu&ukefouJhokdY? wxm-xkdtwl? awexk"d ruxduyk*Kd vo
f nf? 0g-xk"d rmp&d,yk*Kd vo
f nf? uxdw-H a[majym
ykcYd styfaom? wH "rH- xkw
d &m;awmfu?dk okwmG -em,lavhusuf aqmif
&GuNf y;D ? um&uyk*v
m-jyKusiw
hf wfaom yk*Kd vw
f o
Ydk nf? ,xmEko|d -H
tMuiftMuifoeG o
f ifonft
h wkid ;f ? 0g-tMuiftMuifoeG o
f ifonf tm;
avsmpf mG ? y#dyZdw
mG -usiNhf y;D ? aupd-tcsKd Uaomyk*Kd vw
f o
Ydk nf? yXrZmem'De-d yXrpsmeftp&Sad om tusKd ;wko
Yd ?Ydk ygykPEd- a&muf&uke\
f ? aupdwko
Yd nf? 0dyeH-0dyemuk?d 0akwmG -wk;d yGm;apNy;D ? r*zvmed-r*f
zkdvfwkdYokdY? ygykPEd-a&muf&ukef\? a*gPomrdum-EGm;&SifwkdYonf?
a*g&o-EGm;rSjzpfaom t&om\? bm*daem-tzk&Yd u
dS ek o
f nf? a[mEd
0-jzpfuek o
f uJo
h ?Ydk {0H-wl? omrn-orP\ jzpfaMumif; aumif;
aom psmefr*fzv
dk w
f &m;\? bm*daem-tzkUd &Su
d ek o
f nf? a[mEd- uke\
f /
wd-okv
Yd Qi?f owm-jrwfpmG bk&m;onf? uaxodpyf? oDvorE
-oDvESifh jynfph akH om? A[kw
k -rsm;aom okw&Sad om?
yrm'0d[m&daem-arharhavsmah vsmah eavh&adS om? tedpm 'd0aoe-tedp
ponfw\
Ydk tpGr;f jzih?f a,medaom-oifah omtaMumif;tm;jzih?f reoduma&-pdw0f ,fxm;jcif;? 0g-ESv;kH oGi;f jcif;? yrw-arhavsmah om?
bduKaem-&[ef;\? 0g-&[ef;ESihf? 0aoe-pyfojzihf? yXrH *gxH-yXr
omrn/ / ]]oarwDwd oraPm}}t& udavomwku
Yd dk Nird ;f at;ap
Ekid o
f u
l dk orPtppf[k ac:\? ]]orP+bma0g omrnH}}t& xkd orP\
jzpfaMumif;jzpf&m[lonf t&d,mr*f4yg;wnf;? ae&mum; xkdr*f4yg;\
tajccHjzpfaom oDv orm"d 0dyemynmwku
Yd ydk g ,lyg/
bduKaem 0aoe/ / 0oo'gonf ]]tm,wwm-pyfonf\tjzpf}}[l
aom teufukd a[m\? xkdtm,wwmteufukd a[m&m orefukd iJh\?
]]&[ef;\+pyfaom}}[lv?dk jrefrmwku
Yd m; o[m'da,m*teufudk oH;k pJaG vh&\
dS ?
xkdaMumifh ]]&[ef;ESihf+pyf}}[k a0g[m&w ay;&onf/ (|jyK)

0*f

"ry'bmom#Dum

419

*gxmud?k uaxod-a[mawmfrNl y?D 'kv


D -oDvr&Sad om&[ef;\?
0g-ESi?fh 0aoe-pyfojzih?f yXrH *gxH-uk?d e uaxod-a[mawmfro
l nf
d af p ]]'kv
D -aom? A[kw
k r[kw/f a&SU0gusrS yk'rf sm;ukd vku
aom? yrm'0d[m&daem-aom? tedpm 'd0aoe-jzih?f a,medaom-jzih?f reoduma&-? yrw-aom? bduK aem-\? 0aoe-jzih?f yXrH *gxH-uk?d e uaxodYd pfyg;um;? 'kw,
d *gxm-'kw,
d
r[kw}f }[kvnf; ay;Ekid o
f nf/ ye-tzkw
k -enf;aomokw&So
d nfjzpf?
*gxmuk?d uxdwm pyf? tyw

(orme)yd-jzpfaomfvnf;? a,medaom-oifah omtaMumif;tm;jzih?f


reoduma&-pdw0f ,fxm;jcif;? 0g-ESv;kH oGi;f jcif;? urH- tedpm 'dreod
um&trIu?dk ua&mE-jyKaom? um&uyk*v
-jyKusiw
fh wfaom
yk*Kd v\
f ? 0g-ESi?fh 0aoe-pyfojzih?f uxdwm-a[mawmfrt
l yfNy/D
ww-xk'd w
k ,
d *gxm? tyrd apwd-um;? axmuH-tenf;i,fu?dk
{u0*'0dG *rwr-d wpf0*f ESp0f *frQuv
dk nf;? bmormaempyf? "r
a[mwd tEk"rpm&Dw-d um;? twH- teuft"dym ,fu?dk 0g-tusKd ;uk?d
tnm,-odvnf;aumif;? "rH- ygVdu?dk 0g-taMumif;uk?d tnm,-od
vnf;aumif;? e0avmukw& "r-9yg;aom avmukw& mw&m;
tm;? tEkyl -H avsmaf om? "rH- tusiu
hf ?dk ykAb
m*y#dy'gocFgwH-a&SUtzkYd
jzpfaom tusi[
fh k qkt
d yfaom? pwkyg&do'k "d w
k *Ftokbur|mem'dab'H-4yg;aom yg&do'k o
d v
D "kwif tokbur|mef;tp&Sad om
tjym;&Sad om tusiu
fh ?dk p&aEm-usio
fh nf? ([kwmG - ?) tEk"rpm&Davmukw&mw&m;9yg;tm; avsmfaom tusihfukd usifhavh&Sdonf?
a[mwd-jzpf\/ aom-xkyd *k Kd vo
f nf? (ykAb
m*y#dy'gtusiu
hf dk usiafh e
aom xkyd *k Kd vo
f nf)? tZ taZ0-,aeY ,aeYyif? (y#d0Zd d mrd-xk;d
xGi;f od&awmht?hH ) wd-ok?Yd y#da0"H-xk;d xGi;f odwwfaom Pf
uk?d tmucFaEm-arQmv
f ihaf wmifw
h vsu?f 0dp&wd-vSnv
hf nfaexkid \
f ?
aom-xkyd *k Kd vo
f nf? (y#da0"ukd ajrm v
f ifv
h suf vSnv
hf nfaomyk*Kd vf

420

"ry'bmom#Dum

,ru

onf)? rm, ormy#dywd,


m-aumif;aom tusijhf zih?f &m*&m*ukv
d nf;aumif;? a'go-a'goukv
d nf;aumif;? arm[-arm[ukd
vnf;aumif;? y[m,-y,fpeG
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a[wkem-taMumif;jzif?h ea,e-enf;vrf;jzih?f y&dZmedwaA-odxu
dk u
f ek f
aom? "ar-'kuo
pmw&m;wku
Yd ?dk y&dZmeaEm-ykid ;f jcm;odvsu?f w'*F0dur e orkap'y#dy
'de
d &P0drw
k eD -H w'*F0rd w
k d 0dur e 0drw
k d
orkap'0drw
k d y#dy'd0 rd w
k d ed&P0drw
k w
d \
Ykd ? 0aoe-tpGr;f jzif?h
0g-tjym;tm;jzih?f ok0rd w
k p ad wm-aumif;pGm vGwaf om pdw&f o
dS nf?
([kwmG -?) tEkyg'd,maem pyf? tEkyg'd,maem " 0g [k&H 0gwdum;? "avmu-y&avmuy&d,myEm-ypKye af vmu wrvGef
avmu tusKH ;0ifuek af om? cEm,we"mwka,m 0g-cEm tm,we
"mwfwu
Ydk v
dk nf;aumif;? tZwu
d Am[d&m-tZwu
d Am[d&jzpfuek f
aom? cEm,we"mwka,m 0g-cEm tm,we "mwfwu
Ydk v
dk nf;aumif;?
pwl[-d 4yg;ukeaf om? Oyg'gae[d-Oyg'gefwjYdk zih?f tEkyg'd,aEm-rpJv
G rf;
onf? 0g-rpJv
G rf;onf\tjzpfaMumif?h a[wkrE0ad ooe? r[mcDPmoa0g-jrwfaom &[Emonf? ([kwmG -?) r*ocFgw-r*f[k qkt
d yf
w'*F?ay?pdawm/ / ok0drkwH+pdwH ,mwd ok0drkwpdawm? ur|mef;
yGm;rsm;rI r[mukokdvfpdwfonf w'*F0drkwd rnf\? &m*ponfESihf r,SOf
aomaMumifh xku
d o
k v
dk f tpdwt
f ykid ;f jzihf xkt
d ukov
dk t
f pdwt
f ykid ;f rS vGwaf om
pdwrf nf\? psmefw&m;onf 0dur e 0drw
k rd nf\? ]]psmefravQmorQ tawmfMum
atmif tukov
dk u
f dk y,fcmG Ekid af ompdw}f }[lv?dk r*fonf orkap'0drw
k rd nf\?
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y#dy'd0drkwdrnf\? ]]r*fonf y,ftyfNyD;aom udavomwkdYukd xyf Nidrf;
at;apEkdifaompdwf}}[lvkd? Oyrm-rD;Nidrf;NyD;aom ae&m0,f at;atmif a&jzifh
xyf Nird ;f ouJo
h w
Ydk nf;? edAm efum; udavomtm;vH;k 'kut
m;vH;k rS vGwaf om
aMumifh ed&P0drkwd rnf\? xkd0drkwdig;yg;jzihf tqifhqifhvGwfaom pdwf
&Sdolukd ]]ok0drkwpdwyk*dKvf}}[k ac:onf/
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yg&ma,m
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ykjH yaq;"mef
Am
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Am#D
Ak'0 .H |
aAm"d0o
H
bk&m;Bu;D
ab'pdEm
ab'bm#D
r-1
r-3
rCa'0
r#D-2

t|omvdeDbmom#Dum
t|omvdeaD ,mZemygXf
aewd0 b
d m0deD
y#dord' gr*|uxm*Pyd '
y#dord' gr*t|uxm (y)
y#dord' gr*t|uxm ('k)
y&rw'yD eD
pAcifnIyyArfm

ygpdwsm'da,mZem
ygwdarmuy'wtEk0Pem
okwyf gax,sbmom#Dum
yg&mZduPfa,mZemygXf
ayw0wKt|uxm
t&Sief m*odef ykjH yaq;tbd"mef
Amvm0wm&
Amvm0wm&*Pdy 'w0ed pd ,

Amvm0wm&#Dum
Ak'0 o
H t|uxm
aAm"d0o
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bk&m;Bu;D ed,H
o'wa b'pdEm
o'wa b'pdEm bmom#Dum
rlvyPmoygVd
Oy&dyPmoygVd
rCa'0vuFmopf
rlvyPmo#Dum ('k)

435

436

"ry'bmom#Dum
r#D-3
r.|-1
r.|-3
r.|-4
rPd-1
rPd-2
r"k
r[med
r[med.|
r[mAk
r[m0Ho
r[mod
rlv#D-1
rlv#D-2
rk;d xdr[med
arm*f
arm*fe-d 1
arm*fe-d 2
arm*fyH
arm*fy#H D
NrKd UeD*H
jref"mef
jref"mefcsKyf
l
l#D
l#eD o
d pf

rZrd yPmo#Dum Oy&dyPmo#Dum


rlvyPmot|uxm
rZrd yPmot|uxm
Oy&dyPmot|uxm
rPdom&rLom#Dum (y)
rPdom&rLom#Dum ('k)
r"k#u
D m
r[meda'oygVd
r[meda'ot|uxm
r[mAk'0 if
r[m0HoygVd
r[modaum0g'
"ro*FPrD v
l #Dum
0db*Frv
l #Dum
rk;d xdrl r[m0gygVdawmfe
d ,
arm*vm eAsmu&PH
arm*vm efe
d , (y)
arm*vm efe
d , ('k)
arm*vm eyu
d m
arm*vm eyu
d m#Dum
NrKd UjyifBu;D t|omvde*D Po
d pf
jrefrmtbd"mef
jrefrmtbd"meftusO;f csKyf
y'lyod'd
y'lyod'#d u
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lyod'#d u
D med,opf

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0*f

"ry'bmom#Dum
lbm-1
lbm-2
0Zd&
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0gpywd
0gp
0d-3
0d#-D 2
0d.|-1
0d.|-4
0daAm
0dbm0deD
0drwd
0drme.|
0dv#H -D 1
0dv#H -D 2
0do"k mef
0dow
k #f D
0do'k -d 1
0do'k -d 2
0do'k #d -D 1
0do'k #d -D 2
0DvsH E.S.D
0DvsH S.E.D
a0,Hr[med
oH-1

lyod'b
d mom#Dum (y)
lyod'b
d mom#Dum ('k)
0Zd&Ak'#d u
D m
upm,e0Pem
vAcpitsMk tAiBDAnm

0gp0gpuodum
r[m0*ygVd
0de,0depd ,
#Dum('k)
yg&mZduu@t|uxm(y)
plV0*g'dt|uxm
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tbd"rw0 b
d m0de(D #Dumausm)f
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D m
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0de,mvuFm&#Dum ('k)
0do'k g kt
H bd"mef
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H pn;f okwef uf#u
D m
0do'k rd *t|uxm (y)
0do'k rd *t|uxm ('k)
0do'k rd *r[m#Dum (y)
0do'k rd *r[m#Dum ('k)
A ENGLS-SANSKRITS DICTIONARY
A SANSKRITS-ENGLS DICTIONARY

a0,Hbo
Hk m r[m0gygVdawmfe
d ,
o*gxm0*e'd ge0*o,
H w
k y gVd (y)

437

438

"ry'bmom#Dum

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oH#-D 1
oH#-D 2
oH#-D 3
oH.|-1
oH.|-2
oH.|-3
oH'D
oHe-d 1
o'o*F[
oajy-3
oarm.bm-3
oarma,m
om&w-1
om&w-2
'D#-D 1
oD#o
D pf-1
oD#o
D pf-2
oDbm-1
oDbm-3
okwe .d |-1
okwe .d |-2
okwfr[mbm
olpd

oH,w
k # u
D m (y)
oH,w
k # u
D m ('k)
oH,w
k # u
D m (w)
oH,w
k t
|uxm (y)
oH,w
k t
|uxm ('k)
oH,w
k t
|uxm (w)
oHa0*0wK'yD eD
o*gxm0*o,
H w
k yf gVdawmfe
d , (y)
o'o*F[
oajyuefo'gMu;D ed, (w)
oarm[0daem'eDbmom#Dum (w)
oarm[0daem'eDa,mZemygXf
om&w'yD eD#u
D m (y)
om&w'yD eD#u
D m ('k)
oDvuE0 *#u
D m
oDvuE0 *tbde0#Dum (y)
oDvuE0 *tbde0#Dum ('k)
oDvuefbmom#Dum (y)
oDvuefbmom#Dum (w)
okwe yd gwt|uxm (y)
okwe yd gwt|uxm ('k)
okwfr[m0gbmom#Dum
tbd"mey'yD u
d molpd

C.P.E.D

CONCISE P LI-ENGLS DICTIONARY

M.E.D

MYANMAR-ENGLS DICTIONARY

U.B.B.P.D

The Universal BURMESE-ENGLS-P LI DICTIONARY

usr;f nTe;f tu&mpOfNy;D Ny/D