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Final year project report

“GROUND SOURCE COOLING


SYSTEM”

SUBMITTED BY
AMANPREET SINGH
MECHANICAL ENGINEERING
8TH SEMESTER
ROLL NO. 40411010
CEC LANDRAN
A

DISSERTATION REPORT

ON

“GROUND SOURCE COOLING SYSTEM”


In partial fulfillment of the requirement for the award of the degree of

BACHELOR OF TECHNOLOGY
In

MECHANICAL ENGINEERING
Submitted

By

AMANPREET SINGH
MECHANICAL ENGINEERING

UNIVERSITY ROLL NO - 40411010

Under the Esteemed guidance of

MR. RADHY SHAAM (Lecturer, CEC LANDRAN)

CHANDIGARH ENGINEERING COLLEGE MOHALI (LANDRAN)

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CHANDIGARH ENGINEERING COLLEGE MOHALI (LANDRAN)

Certificate

This is to certify that this dissertation work entitled

“GROUND SOURCE COOLING SYSTEM”


SYSTEM”
is the bonafied work done

By

Amanpreet Singh

In partial fulfillment of the requirement for the award of the degree of

Bachelor of technology

In

Mechanical engineering

from Punjab Technical University

During the academic year 2007-2008

Mr. Radhey Shaam Dr. Rupinder Gupta


(Lecturer, Department of Mechanical (HOD Department of Mechanical Engineering)
Engineering)

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ACKNOLEDGEMENT

Every Orientation work has an imprint of many people and we hereby take this excellent
opportunity to acknowledge all the help , guidance & support that we have received for the
completion of this project.

With supreme sincerity and deep sense of appreciation, we express our thanks to Dr. Rupinder
Gupta, Head, Department of Mechanical Engineering, for his co-operation.

I express my gratitude Mr. Radhey Shaam (lecturer CEC Landran) who has guided us regarding the
project, for his kindness, courtesy, valuable suggestions and inspirations.

Above all, I would like to thank my beloved parents for their direct and indirect help, moral support
and blessings, without which, this would not have been possible.

I would also like to express thanks to my colleagues and friends, for their help and moral
support.

Lastly I would like to thank all those who directly or indirectly helped me throughout my work.

AMANPREET SINGH

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CANDIDATE’S DECLARATION
I hereby declare that the project work which is being presented in this report entitled GROUND
SOURCE COOLING SYSTEM by Amanpreet Singh in partial fulfillment of requirement for the award of
degree of B.Tech. in Mechanical Engineering submitted to the Department of Mechanical
Engineering of Chandigarh Engineering College under Punjab Technical University, Jalandhar is
authentic record of my own work carried out during Eighth Semester under the supervision of Mr.
Radhey Shaam (Lecturer), Department of Mechanical Engineering, Chandigarh Engineering College
Mohali (Landran). The matter presented in this report has not been submitted by me in any other
university/ institute for the award of B.Tech. Degree.

(Signature of Student)

This is to certify that the above statement made by the candidate is best of my knowledge.

(Signature of Supervisor)

To B.Tech. Viva-Voce examination of Amanpreet Singh has been held on _______________and


accepted.

Signature of the Supervisor (External Examiner)


( Internal Coordinator)

(Signature of H.O.D)

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Table of Contents
ACKNOLEDGEMENT.................................................................................................................................4
Abstract ...................................................................................................................................................7
INTRODUCTION .......................................................................................................................................8
Module I ..................................................................................................................................................9
CONCEPT .............................................................................................................................................9
TYPES OF GROUND SOURCE HEAT PUMP .......................................................................................9
1. Closed Geothermal Ground Loops ..........................................................................................9
2. Open Geothermal Ground Loops ..............................................................................................11
MODULE II .............................................................................................................................................12
Components ......................................................................................................................................12
Module III .............................................................................................................................................. 15
WORKING ..........................................................................................................................................15
Module III .............................................................................................................................................. 16
DRAWING PLAN .............................................................................................................................16
Module IV .............................................................................................................................................. 18
Test observations: .............................................................................................................................18
Calculations .......................................................................................................................................18
MODULE V .............................................................................................................................................20
Advantage of ground source cooling system ....................................................................................20
PROJECT RELATED PHOTOGRAPHS .......................................................................................................22
BIBLIOGRAPHY .......................................................................................................................................24

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Abstract

This project work describes in detail, the project work undertaken by me during the final year of
degree at Chandigarh Engineering College, Landran. The contents of this report includes a brief
description of the Ground Source Cooling System, supplemented by a good number of necessary and
descriptive drawings which makes this project report very easy to understand.

In addition to these, the report also contains the details regarding the different type of other ground
source cooling systems which are used these days. Above all, this report gives a detailed description
of closed looped ground source cooling system. This description is empowered with the
experimental analysis of the system and the heat transfer calculations. This report will be of help for
those who wish to understand about the basic working of different ground source cooling systems
especially those who wish to study close loop ground source cooling system.

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INTRODUCTION

This project report deals in depth with our project “Closed System”. In
Closed Loop Ground Source Cooling System”
this project we have designed and established a closed loop ground source cooling system so as to
have a future alternative to traditional heating,
and air conditioning systems. Closed Loop
Ground Source Cooling System use the
relatively constant temperature of the ground
to regulate the temperature of a home or
building at very high effective efficiency. The
system does not create heat through
combustion of fuel or passing electricity
through resistors; it moves heat from the
ground to the home/building for heating and in
the opposite direction for cooling. In so far as
the heat in the ground that these systems
sys use
is supplied by the sun, they are using
renewable energy.

As an additional benefit, ground source


cooling/heating system can provide
inexpensive hot water, either to supplement or replace entirely the output of a conventional,
domestic water heater.. Ground source heating and cooling is cost effective because it uses energy so
efficiently.

At the initial stage the project work was divided in to two parts:

1) Digging 5 X 5 X 10 feet deep pit


2) Preparing the rest of the apparatus as per the drawings

For better
etter description of the project work the project report has been divided in different modules
as discussed further.

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Module I

CONCEPT
Ground Source cooling uses the earth or ground water or both as the sources of heat in the
winter, and as the "sink" for heat removed from the home in the summer. For this reason,
Ground Source cooling systems have come to be known as earth-energy systems (EESs).
Heat is removed from the earth through a liquid, such as ground water or an antifreeze
solution, upgraded by the heat pump, and transferred to indoor air. During summer months,
the process is reversed: heat is extracted from indoor air and transferred to the earth through
the ground water or antifreeze solution.

TYPES OF GROUND SOURCE HEAT PUMP

1. Closed Geothermal Ground Loops


The most typical geothermal installation utilizes a closed loop system. In a closed loop system, a
loop of piping is buried underground and filled with water or antifreeze that continuously circulates
through the system. There are four major types of closed loop geothermal systems: horizontal
loops, vertical loops, slinky coils and pond loops.

a. Horizontal Geothermal Ground Loops


If adequate soil or clay based land is available,
horizontal geothermal ground loops are typically
one of the more economical choices. In horizontal
geothermal ground loops, several hundred feet of
five to six feet deep trenches are dug with a
backhoe or chain trencher. Piping is then laid in
the trench and backfilled. A typical horizontal
ground loop will be 400 to 600 feet long for each
ton of heating and cooling. Because of the
amount of trenching involved, horizontal ground
loops are most commonly used for new
construction. Finally, because horizontal
geothermal ground loops are relatively shallow,
they are often not appropriate for areas with
extreme climates such as the north or Deep
South.

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b. Vertical Geothermal Ground Loops
When extreme climates, limited space or rocky
terrain is a concern, vertical geothermal ground
loops are often the only viable option. This makes
them popular for use on small lots and in retrofits.
In vertical geothermal ground loops, a drilling rig
is used to drill 150 to 300 foot deep holes in which
hairpin shaped loops of pipe are dropped and then
grouted. A typical vertical ground loop requires
300 to 600 feet of piping per ton of heating and
cooling. Vertical loops are typically more
expensive than horizontal loops, but are
considerably less complicated than drilling for
water. Less piping is also required for vertical
geothermal ground loops as opposed to horizontal
loops as the earth temperature is more stable at
depth.

c. Slinky Coil Geothermal Ground Loops


Slinky coil geothermal ground loops are gaining popularity, particularly in residential geothermal
system installations. Slinky coil ground loops are essentially a more economic and space efficient
version of a horizontal ground loop. Rather than using straight pipe, slinky coils, as you might
expect, use overlapped loops of piping laid out horizontally along the bottom of a wide trench.
Depending on soil, climate and your heat pumps run fraction, slinky coil trenches can be anywhere
from one third to two thirds shorter than traditional horizontal loop trenches.

d. Geothermal Pond Loops


If at least a ½ acre by 8 ft deep pond or
lake is available on your property, a closed
loop geothermal system can be installed by
laying coils of pipe in the bottom of a body
of water. However, a horizontal trench will
still be needed to bring the loop up to the
home and close the loop. Due to the
inherent advantages of water to water heat
transfer, this type of geothermal system is
both highly economical and efficient.

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2. Open Geothermal Ground Loops
With open geothermal ground loops, rather than continuously running the same supply of water or
antifreeze through the system, fresh water from
a well or pond is pumped into and back out of
the geothermal unit. Both an abundant source of
clean water and an adequate runoff area are
required for a successful open loop system.
While double well designs can be economical,
use of open geothermal ground loops is generally
discouraged and even prohibited in some
jurisdictions. Water quality is key to an open
loop design as mineral content and acidity can
quickly damage geothermal units. Also,
improper installation or runoff management of
an open loop geothermal system can result in
ground water contamination or depleted
aquifers.

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MODULE II

Components
The ground source cooling system requires three primary components; loop of G.I. pipes, a liquid
pumps pack, Coolant and a radiator (heat transfer device). A loop field can be installed horizontally
or vertically as convenient.

1) Loop of G.I. pipes

A closed loop system, the most common, circulates the fluid through the loop fields’ G.I. pipes. In a
closed loop system
there is no direct
interaction between
the fluid and the
earth; only heat
transfer across the
G.I. pipe. The amount
of vertical or
horizontal loop
required is a function
of the ground
formation thermal
conductivity, deep
earth temperature,
and heating and
cooling power
needed, and also
depends on the
balance between the amount of heat rejected to and absorbed from the ground during the course of
the year. A rough approximation of the soil temperature is the average daily temperature for the
region.

2) Heat exchanger (Radiator)

The radiator is designed to dissipate the


heat that the coolant has absorbed from
the system. Radiators are filled with tubes
that the coolant passes through. The fan
carries heat off of the radiator. The
coolant enters the receiving tank at the
top of the radiator, passes through the
tubes inside, losing the heat it has
collected, and then collects in the
dispensing tank at the bottom for the

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water pump to circulate it back through the cooling system.

3) Monoblock pump:

These are single phase capacitor start and run, 2 pole design pump used for clear water free from
mud, grit etc. for domestic application and
as a booster pump to fill the overhead tank
for multi storaged buildings. Pump is fitted
with a non return
turn valve, which does not
allow water to return in the suction line,
thereby delivering the water
instantaneorsly when the pump is switched
on Ball Bearing sealed on both sides take
the entire load with ample factor of safety
and additional lubrication in not required.
Copper alloy die-cast
cast forged impeller has
high strength to with stand wear and tear.

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The pump is available in three different bodies namely: Aluminium die-cast body, Cast iron body and
Steel body.

4) Coolant (Water)

The most common coolant is water. Its high heat capacity and low cost makes it a suitable
heat-transfer medium. It is usually used with additives, like corrosion inhibitors and
antifreezes. Antifreeze, a solution of a suitable organic chemical (most often ethylene glycol,
diethylene glycol, or propylene glycol) in water, is used when the water-based coolant has to
withstand temperatures below 0 °C, or when its boiling point has to be raised.

Very pure demonized water, due to its relatively low electrical conductivity, is used to cool
some electrical equipment, often high-power transmitters.

Heavy water is used in some nuclear reactors; it also serves as a neutron moderator.

Some common used thermal properties for water:

5) Maximum density at 4 oC - 1,000 kg/m3, 62.43 Lbs./Cu.Ft, 8.33 Lbs./Gal., 0.1337 Cu.Ft./Gal.
6) Freezing temperature - 0 oC (Official Ice at 0 oC)
7) Boiling temperature - 100 oC
8) Latent heat of melting - 334 kJ/kg
9) Latent heat of evaporation - 2,270 kJ/kg
10) Critical temperature - 380 - 386 oC
11) Critical pressure - 221.2 bar, 22.1 MPa (MN/m2)
12) Specific heat capacity water - 4.187 kJ/kgK
13) Specific heat capacity ice - 2.108 kJ/kgK
14) Specific heat capacity water vapor - 1.996 kJ/kgK
15) Thermal expansion from 4 oC to 100 oC - 4.2x10-2
16) Bulk modulus elasticity - 2.15 x 109 (Pa, N/m2)

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Module III

WORKING
Ground Source cooling systems work on a different principle than an ordinary furnace/air
conditioning system, and they require little maintenance or attention. Furnaces must create heat by
burning a fuel, typically natural gas, propane, or fuel oil. With Ground Source cooling systems,
there's no need to create heat, hence no need for chemical combustion at the building (though, of
course, the electricity used is usually made via
combustion). Instead, the Earth's natural heat is
collected in winter through a series of pipes,
called a loop, installed below the surface of the
ground or submersed in a pond or lake. Fluid
circulating in the loop carries this heat to the
home. An indoor Ground Source cooling system
then uses electrically-driven compressors and
heat exchangers in a vapor compression cycle -
the same principle employed in a refrigerator - to
concentrate the Earth's energy and release it
inside the home at a higher temperature. In
typical systems, duct fans distribute the heat to
various rooms; other applications include water-
to-water transfer, as seen in a radiant floor
system.

In summer, the process is reversed in order to cool the home. Excess heat is drawn from the home,
expelled to the loop, and absorbed by the Earth. Ground Source cooling systems provide cooling in
the same way that a refrigerator keeps its contents cool, by drawing heat from the interior, not by
injecting cold air.

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Module III

DRAWING PLAN

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Module IV

Test observations:

S no. Source Observed temperature in ◦C

1 Inlet temp of heat exchanger 27

2 outlet temp of heat exchanger 30

3 Room temp 32

4 Temp outside room 35

5 Outlet air temp from heat exchanger 28

Calculations
1) Heat transfer rate between radiator and room air

As per forced convection fluid passing through the tube of a heat exchanger follows the Newton’s
law of cooling

  


= 13.1 X (0.3625 X 0.425)X(303 – 300)

=13.1 X (0.3625 X 0.425)X 3

=6.0546 Watts

Where, Q is the convective heat flow rate (watt)

A is area exposed to heat transfer (m2),

tout = temp at outlet of heat exchanger (K)

tin= temp at inlet of heat exchanger (K)

h = heat transfer coefficient (W/m2K)

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2) Heat transfer rate between pipe and earth

Since conduction s essentially due to random molecular motion, the concept is termed as microform
of heat transfer is usually referred to as diffusion of energy. Conduction is prescribed by Fourier law,


 



  
 
   
 

= 50 X (0.0125)2 X 0.785 X 0.5

=0.003067 Watt

Where, Q is the conduction heat flow rate (watt)

A is area exposed to heat transfer (m2),

tout = temp at outlet of pipe (K)

tin= temp at inlet of pipe (K)

k = thermal conductivity (W/mK)

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MODULE V

Advantage of ground source cooling system


Geothermal systems are able to transfer heat to and from the ground with minimal use of
electricity.

When comparing a geothermal system to an ordinary system a homeowner can save


anywhere from 30% to 70% annually on utilities.

Even with the high initial costs of purchasing a geothermal system the payback period is
relatively short, typically between three and five years.

Geothermal systems are environmentally friendly; they are a renewable energy source, non-
polluting, and recognized as one of the most efficient heating and cooling systems on the
market.

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has called geothermal the most energy-
efficient, environmentally clean, and cost-effective space conditioning systems available.

The life span of the system is longer than conventional heating and cooling systems. Most
loop fields are warranted for 25 to 50 years and are expected to last at least 50 to 200 years.

Geothermal systems do not use fossil fuels for heating the house and eliminate threats caused
by combustion, like carbon monoxide poisoning. The fluids used in loop fields are designed
to be biodegradable, non-toxic, non-corrosive and have properties that will minimize
pumping power needed.

Geothermal heat pumps are especially well matched to underfloor heating systems which do
not require extremely high temperatures (as compared with wall-mounted radiators). Thus
they are ideal for open plan offices. Using large surfaces such as floors, as opposed to
radiators, distributes the heat more uniformly and allows for a lower temperature heat transfer
fluid.

The Earth below the frost line remains at a relatively constant temperature year round. This
temperature equates roughly to the average annual air-temperature of the chosen location, so
is usually 7-21 degrees Celsius (45-70 degrees Fahrenheit) depending on location. Because
this temperature remains constant, geothermal heat pumps perform with far greater efficiency
and in a far larger range of extreme temperatures than conventional air conditioners and
furnaces, and even air-source heat pumps.

A particular advantage is that they can use electricity produced from renewable sources, like
solar and wind power, to heat spaces and water much more efficiently than an electric heater.
This allows buildings to be heated with renewable energy without transporting and burning
biomass on site, producing biogas for use in gas furnaces or relying solely upon solar heating.

Geothermal heat pump technology is a Natural Building technique. It is also a practical


heating and cooling solution that can pay for itself within a few years of installation.

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The current use of geothermal heat pump technology has resulted in the following emissions
reductions

• Elimination of more than 5.8 million metric tons of CO2 annually


• Elimination of more than 1.6 million metric tons of carbon equivalent annually

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PROJECT RELATED PHOTOGRAPHS
P

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BIBLIOGRAPHY

Heat and Mass Transfer……………………………………………………………………………………….........by D. S. Kumar

Heat and Mass Transfer……………………………………………………………………………………….........by R. K Rajput

Web Sites

Wikipedia.org

Google.com

About.com

Kalsipumps.com

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