Anda di halaman 1dari 150

Calculus III

Instructor’s Solution Manual

Tunc Geveci

Spring 2011
ii
Contents

11 Vectors 1
11.1 Cartesian Coordinates in 3D and Surfaces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
11.2 Vectors in Two and Three Dimensions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
11.3 The Dot Product . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
11.4 The Cross Product . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16

12 Functions of Several Variables 19


12.1 Tangent Vectors and Velocity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
12.2 Acceleration and Curvature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
12.3 Real-Valued Functions of Several Variables . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27
12.4 Partial Derivatives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31
12.5 Linear Approximations and the Differential . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39
12.6 The Chain Rule . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42
12.7 Directional Derivatives and the Gradient . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51
12.8 Local Maxima and Minima . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58
12.9 Absolute Extrema and Lagrange Multipliers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63

13 Multiple Integrals 69
13.1 Double Integrals Over Rectangles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69
13.2 Double Integrals Over Non-Rectangular Regions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72
13.3 Double Integrals in Polar Coordinates: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 79
13.4 Applications of Double Integrals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 84
13.5 Triple Integrals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 88
13.6 Triple Integrals in Cylindrical and Spherical Coordinates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 94

14 Vector Analysis 107


14.1 Vector Fields, Divergence and Curl . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 107
14.2 Line Integrals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 109
14.3 Line Integrals of Conservative Vector Fields . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 118
14.4 Parametrized Surfaces and Tangent Planes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 124
14.5 Surface Integrals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 130
14.6 Green’s Theorem . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 140
14.7 Stokes’ Theorem . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 143
14.8 Gauss’ Theorem . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 146

iii
iv CONTENTS
Chapter 11

Vectors

11.1 Cartesian Coordinates in 3D and Surfaces


1.

If x = c then
2c + y + 4z = 8 ⇒ y + 4z = 8 − 2c.
These are lines.
If y = c then
2x + c + 4z = 8 ⇒ 2x + 4z = 8 − c.
These are lines.
If z = c then
2x + y + 4c = 8 ⇒ 2x + y = 8 − 4c.
These are lines.
2.

1
2 CHAPTER 11. VECTORS

If x = c then
z = 4c − 3y.
These are lines.
If y = c then
z = 4x − 3c.
These are lines.
If z = c then
c = 4x − 3y.
These are lines.
3.

If x = c then
z = 4c2 + 9y 2
These are parabolas.
If y = c then
z = 4x2 + 9c2
These are parabolas.
If z = c then
c = 4x2 + 9y 2
These are ellipses if c > 0. If c = 0 the curve is reduced to a single point, the origin. The surface
does not have any points below the xy-plane corresponding to c < 0.
4.

If x = c then
c = y 2 + 4z 2
These are ellipses if c > 0. If c = 0 the curve is reduced to a single point, the origin. The surface
does not have any points corresponding to c < 0.
11.1. CARTESIAN COORDINATES IN 3D AND SURFACES 3

If y = c then
x = c2 + 4z 2
These are parabolas.
If z = c then
x = y 2 + 4c2
These are parabolas.
5.

If x = c then
c2 + 2y 2 + 4z 2 = 4 ⇒ 2y 2 + 4z 2 = 4 − c2 .
These are ellipses if −2 < c < 2. The curve is reduced to a single point if c = ±2. The surface
does not have any points corresponding to x < −2 or x > 2.
If y = c then
x2 + 2c2 + 4z 2 = 4 ⇒ x2 + 4z 2 = 4 − 2c2
√ √ √
These are ellipses if − 2 < c < 2. The curve is reduced√ to a single √ point if c = ± 2. The
surface does not have any points corresponding to y > 2 or y < − 2.
If z = c then
x2 + 2y 2 + 4c2 = 4 ⇒ x2 + 2y 2 = 4 − 4c2
These are ellipses if −1 < c < 1. The curve is reduced to a single point if c = ±1. The surface
does not have any points corresponding to z > 1 or z < −1.
6.

If x = c then
4c2 + y 2 + 9z 2 = 4 ⇒ y 2 + 9z 2 = 4 − 4c2
These are ellipses if −1 < c < 1. The curve is reduced to a single point if c = ±1. The surface
does not have any points corresponding to x < −1 or x > 1.
If y = c then
4x2 + c2 + 9z 2 = 4 ⇒ 4x2 + 9z 2 = 4 − c2
4 CHAPTER 11. VECTORS

These are ellipses if −2 < c < 2. The curve is reduced a single point if c = ±2. The surface
does not have any points corresponding to y > 2 or y < −2.
If z = c then
4x2 + y 2 + 9c2 = 4 ⇒ 4x2 + y 2 = 4 − 9c2
These are ellipses if −2/3 < c < 2/3. The curve is reduced to a single point if c = ±2/3. The
surface does not have any points corresponding to z > 2/3 or z < −2/3.
7.

If x = c then
c2 − 9y 2 − 4z 2 = 1 ⇒ 9y 2 + 4z 2 = c2 − 1
These are ellipses if c < −1 or c > 1. The curve is reduced to a single point if c = ±1. The
surface does not have any points corresponding to −1 < x < 1.
If y = c then
x2 − 9c2 − 4z 2 = 1 ⇒ x2 − 4z 2 = 1 + 9c2
These are hyperbolas.
If z = c then
x2 − 9y 2 − 4c2 = 1 ⇒ x2 − 9y 2 = 1 + 4c2
These are hyperbolas.
8.

If x = c then
4y 2 − c2 − 2z 2 = 1 ⇒ 4y 2 − 2z 2 = 1 + c2
These are hyperbolas.
If y = c then
4c2 − x2 − 2z 2 = 1 ⇒ x2 + 2z 2 = 4c2 − 1
11.1. CARTESIAN COORDINATES IN 3D AND SURFACES 5

These are ellipses if c > 1/2 or c < −1/2. The surface does not have any points corresponding
to −1/2 < y < 1/2.
If z = c then
4y 2 − x2 − 2c2 = 1 ⇒ 4y 2 − x2 = 1 + 2c2
These are hyperbolas.
9.

If x = c then
y 2 − c2 + z 2 = 1 ⇒ y 2 + z 2 = 1 + c2
These are circles.
If y = c then
c2 − x2 + z 2 = 1 ⇒ −x2 + z 2 = 1 − c2
These are hyperbolas.
If z = c then
y 2 − x2 + c2 = 1 ⇒ y 2 − x2 = 1 − c2
These are hyperbolas.
10.

If x = c then
c2 + y 2 − z 2 = 4 ⇒ y 2 − z 2 = 4 − c2
These are hyperbolas.
If y = c then
x2 + c2 − z 2 = 4 ⇒ x2 − z 2 = 4 − c2
These are hyperbolas.
If z = c then
x2 + y 2 − c2 = 4 ⇒ x2 + y 2 = 4 + c2
These are circles.
6 CHAPTER 11. VECTORS

11.2 Vectors in Two and Three Dimensions


1.
P1 = (1, 2) , P2 = (3, 5) , Q1 = (2, 1)
a)
v = (2, 3)
b)
−−→ −−→
OQ2 = OQ1 + v = (2, 1) + (2, 3) = (4, 4) .
Therefore, Q2 = (4, 4) .

5
P2
4
Q2
3

2 P1

1 Q1
x
1 2 3 4

2.
P1 = (−2, 3) , P2 = (−4, 2) , Q1 = (1, 3)
a)
v = (−2, −1)
b)
−−→ −−→
OQ2 = OQ1 + v = (1, 3) + (−2, −1) = (−1, 2) .
Therefore, Q2 = (−1, 2) .

5
4
P1 3 Q1
2
P2 Q2
x
-6 -4 -2 -1 1 2 3 5

3.
P1 = (2, −3) , P2 = (4, 2) , Q1 = (3, 2)
a)
v = (2, 5)
b)
−−→ −−→
OQ2 = OQ1 + v = (3, 2) + (2, 5) = (5, 7)
11.2. VECTORS IN TWO AND THREE DIMENSIONS 7

Therefore, Q2 = (5, 7).

7
Q2

2 Q1
P2
x
2 3 4 5

-3 P1

4.
P1 = (−2, −1) , P2 = (−4, 2) , Q1 = (−1, 2)
a)
v = (−2, 3)
b)
−−→ −−→
OQ2 = OQ1 + v = (−1, 2) + (−2, 3) = (−3, 5)
Therefore, Q2 = (−3, 5) .

5
Q2

Q1 2
P2
x
-4 -3 -2 -1
-1
P1

5.
a)
v + w = (2, 1) + (3, 4) = (5, 5)
b)

v+w
w

v
2 3 5
8 CHAPTER 11. VECTORS

6.
a)
v + w = (2, −3) + (3, 2) = (5, −1)
b)

3
2
w

2 3 5
-1 v+w
v

-3

7.
a)
v + w = (−2, −1) + (2, 4) = (0, 3)
b)

w
v+w

-2 -1 2
v
-1

8.
a)
v + w = (2, 3) + (−1, −5) = (1, −2)
b)

-1 1 2
v+w
-2
w
-3

-5
11.2. VECTORS IN TWO AND THREE DIMENSIONS 9

9.
a)
v + w = (2, 4) + (−1, 2) = (1, 6)
b)

6
w

4
v+w

2
v

-1 2

10.
a)
v + w = (−4, 2) + (3, 1) = (−1, 3)
b)

3
w
2
v+w
v 1

-4 -1 3

11.
v − w = (2, 4) − (−2, 2) = (4, 2)

v- w

2 v

-2 2 4

12.
a)
v − w = (−4, 2) − (3, 1) = (−7, 1)
10 CHAPTER 11. VECTORS

b)

v- w

1
v

-7 -4 3

13.
2v − 3w = 2 (3, −1) − 3(−2, 5) = (6, −2) + (6, −15) = (12, −17)

14.

−4v + 5w = −4 (2, 4) + 5 (1, −4) = (−8, −16) + (5, −20) = (−3, −36)

15.
a) We have
p √
||v|| = 32 + 42 = 25 = 5.

Therefore,
µ ¶
1 1 3 4
u= v = (3, 4) = , .
||v|| 5 5 5

b)

u
3

16.
a) We have
q √
||v|| = (−2)2 + 22 = 8.

Therefore,
µ ¶ Ã √ √ !
1 1 2 2 8 8
u= v == √ (−2, 2) = −√ , √ = − ,
||v|| 8 8 8 4 4

b)
11.3. THE DOT PRODUCT 11

-2

17.
a)
v = 3i + 2j, w = −2i+4j
b)
2v − 3w = 2 (3i + 2j) − 3 (−2i+4j) = 6i + 4j + 6i − 12j = 12i − 8j
18.
a)
v = −4i + j, w = 4i + 3j
b)
2v + w = 2 (−4i + j) + 4i + 3j = −8i + 2j + 4i + 3j = −4i + 5j
19.
a)
v = −2i + 3j + 6k, w = 4i − 2j + k
b)

−v + 4w = − (−2i + 3j + 6k) + 4 (4i − 2j + k)


= 2i − 3j − 6k+16i − 8j + 4k = 18i − 11j − 2k

20.
a)
v = −i − 3j + 5k, w = 7i + 2j − 2k
b)

3v − 2w = 3 (−i − 3j + 5k) − 2 (7i + 2j − 2k)


= −3i − 9j + 15k−14i − 4j + 4k

11.3 The Dot Product


1.
a) √
||v|| = 1, ||w|| = 2, v · w = 1.
b) µ ¶ µ ¶
v·w 1 π
θ = arccos = arccos √ = .
||v|| ||w|| 2 4
2.
a) √ √
||v|| = 1, ||w|| = 1 + 3 = 4 = 2, v · w = −1.
12 CHAPTER 11. VECTORS

b) µ ¶ µ ¶
v·w 1 π 2π
θ = arccos = arccos − =π− = .
||v|| ||w|| 2 3 3
3.
a) vÃ
u √ !2 Ã √ !2
√ u 3+1 3−1 √
||v|| = 2, ||w|| = t + = 2,
2 2
√ √
3+1 3−1 √
v·w = + = 3
2 2
b) à √ ! Ã√ !
µ ¶
v·w 3 3 π
θ = arccos = arccos √ √ = arccos =
||v|| ||w|| 2 2 2 6
4.
a) √ √
||v|| = 2, ||w|| = 2, v · w = 0.
b) µ ¶
v·w π
θ = arccos = arccos (0) = .
||v|| ||w|| 2
Thus, v and w are orthogonal to each other.
5.
a) vÃ
u √ !2 Ã √ !2
√ u 3+1 1− 3 √
||v|| = 2, ||w|| = t + = 2,
2 2
v·w =1
b) µ ¶ µ ¶ µ ¶
v·w 1 1 π
θ = arccos = arccos √ √ = arccos = .
||v|| ||w|| 2 2 2 3
6.
a) √ √
||v|| = 2, ||w|| = 2, v · w = 0.
b) θ = arccos (0) = π/2. The vectors v and w are orthogonal to each other.
7.
a) √ √
||v|| = 5, ||w|| = 2, v · w = −1
b)
v·w −1 1
cos (θ) = = √ √ = −√ .
||v|| ||w|| 5 2 10
c) µ ¶
1 ∼
θ = arccos − √ = 1. 892 55
10
8.
a) √ √
||v|| = 13, ||w|| = 20, v · w = (3) (−2) + (2) (4) = 2
11.3. THE DOT PRODUCT 13

b)
v·w 2 2
cos (θ) = =√ √ =√
||v|| ||w|| 13 20 260
c) µ ¶
2
θ = arccos √ = 1. 446 44
260
9.
a) √ √
||v|| = 5, ||w|| = 10, v · w = (−2) (−1) + (−1) (3) = −1
b)
v·w −1 1
cos (θ) = = √ √ = −√ .
||v|| ||w|| 5 10 50
c) µ ¶
1
θ = arccos − √ = 1. 712 69
50
10.
a)
p √ p √
||v|| = 1 + 32 + 1 = 11, ||w|| = 22 + 1 + 1 = 6,
v · w = (1) (2) + (3) (−1) + (−1) (1) = −2

b)
v·w −2 2
cos (θ) = = √ √ = −√
||v|| ||w|| 11 6 66
c) µ ¶
2
θ = arccos − √ = 1. 819 54
66
11.
a) µ ¶
√ √ 1 1 2 3
||v|| = 4 + 9 = 13 ⇒ u = v = √ (2, 3) = √ ,√
||v|| 13 13 13
b) The direction cosines of v are
2 3
√ and √
13 13
12.
a)
√ √ 1 1 1 2
||v|| = 1+4= 5⇒u= v = √ (−i+2j) = − √ i + √ j
||v|| 5 5 5
b) The direction cosines of v are
1 2
− √ and √
5 5
13.
a) µ ¶
√ 1 1 3 4
||v|| = 9 + 16 = 5 ⇒ u = v = (−3, 4) = − ,
||v|| 5 5 5
b) The direction cosines of v are
3 4
− and
5 5
14 CHAPTER 11. VECTORS

14.
a)
√ √ 1 1 1 2 1
||v|| = 1+4+1= 5⇒u= v = √ (i − 2j + k) = √ i − √ j + √ k
||v|| 5 5 5 5
b) The direction cosines of v are
1 2 1
√ , − √ and √
5 5 5
15.
a)
µ ¶
√ √ 1 1 6 2
||w|| = 36 + 4 = 40 ⇒ u = w = √ (6, 2) = √ ,√
||w|| 40 40 40
b)
µ ¶
6 2 26
compw v = v · u = (3, 4) · √ ,√ =√
40 40 40
c)
µ ¶ µ ¶
26 26 6 2 39 13
P w v = (compw v) u = √ u = √ √ ,√ = ,
40 40 40 40 10 10
d)
µ ¶ µ ¶
39 13 9 27
v2 = v − P w v = (3, 4) − , = − ,
10 10 10 10

v v2
2 w

Pw v

-2 2 4 6 8

16.
a)
µ ¶
√ √ 1 1 2 1
||w|| = 4 + 1 = 5 ⇒ u = w = √ (2, 1) = √ ,√
||w|| 5 5 5
b)
1 3
compw v = v · u = (−2, 1) · √ (2, 1) = − √
5 5
c)
µ ¶ µ ¶
3 2 1 6 3
P w v = (compw v) u = − √ √ ,√ = − ,−
5 5 5 5 5
d)
µ ¶ µ ¶
6 3 4 2
v2 = v − P w v = (−2, 1) − − , = − ,
5 5 5 5
11.3. THE DOT PRODUCT 15

1
v
w
v2
-3 -2 -1 1 2 3
Pw v

-1

-2

-3

17.
a)
µ ¶
√ √ 1 1 2 1
||w|| = 4+1= 5⇒u= w = √ (2, −1) = √ , −√
||w|| 5 5 5
b)
µ ¶
2 1 4
compw v = v · u = (1, −2) · √ , −√ =√
5 5 5
c)
µ ¶ µ ¶
4 2 1 8 4
P w v = (compw v) u = √ √ , −√ = ,−
5 5 5 5 5
d)
µ ¶ µ ¶
4 6
v2 = v − P w v = (1, −2) − 8, − = −7, −
5 5

1 2 3

Pw v

w
-1 v

v2

-2

18.
a)
µ ¶
√ 1 1 3 4
||w|| = 9 + 16 = 5 ⇒ u = w = (−3, −4) = − ,−
||w|| 5 5 5
b)
µ ¶
3 4
compw v = v · u = (−2, −6) · − , − =6
5 5
c)
µ ¶ µ ¶
3 4 18 24
P w v = (compw v) u = 6 − , − = − ,−
5 5 5 5
16 CHAPTER 11. VECTORS

d)
µ ¶ µ ¶
18 24 8 6
v2 = v − P w v = (−2, −6) − − , − = ,−
5 5 5 5

-6 -4 -2

w -2

v -4
Pw v

v2
-6

11.4 The Cross Product


1. ¯ ¯
¯ i j k ¯ ¯ ¯ ¯ ¯ ¯ ¯
¯ ¯ ¯ 1 0 ¯ ¯ 2 0 ¯ ¯ ¯
¯ ¯ ¯
v×w=¯ 2 1 0 ¯=¯ ¯ i − ¯¯ ¯j+¯ 2 1 ¯ k = 5k
3 0 ¯ 1 0 ¯ ¯ 1 3 ¯
¯ 1 3 0 ¯

2. ¯ ¯
¯ i j k ¯¯ ¯¯ ¯ ¯ ¯ ¯ ¯
¯ 3 2 ¯¯ ¯ 0 2 ¯ ¯ ¯
v × w = ¯¯ 0 3 2 ¯¯ = ¯¯ i − ¯ ¯j + ¯ 0 3 ¯ k = 7i
−2 1 ¯ ¯ 0 1 ¯ ¯ 0 −2 ¯
¯ 0 −2 1 ¯

3.
¯ ¯
¯ i j k ¯¯ ¯ ¯ ¯ ¯ ¯ ¯
¯ ¯ 1 4 ¯ ¯ ¯ ¯ ¯
v × w = ¯¯ 3 1 4 ¯¯ = ¯¯ ¯i − ¯ 3 4 ¯j + ¯ 3 1 ¯k
3 1 ¯ ¯ −2 1 ¯ ¯ −2 3 ¯
¯ −2 3 1 ¯
= −11i − 11j + 11k

4.
¯ ¯
¯ i j k ¯¯ ¯ ¯ ¯ ¯ ¯ ¯
¯ ¯ 1 4 ¯ ¯ ¯ ¯ ¯
v × w = ¯¯ −2 1 4 ¯¯ = ¯¯ ¯ i − ¯ −2 4 ¯ j + ¯ −2 1 ¯k
−2 5 ¯ ¯ 1 5 ¯ ¯ 1 −2 ¯
¯ 1 −2 5 ¯
= 13i + 14j + 3k

5. ¯ ¯
¯ i j k ¯¯ ¯¯ ¯
¯ −1 3 ¯¯
(−1, 3, 0) × (2, 6, 0) = ¯¯ −1 3 0 ¯¯ = ¯¯ k = −12k
¯ 2 6 0 ¯ 2 6 ¯

Therefore, the area of the parallelogram spanned by (−1, 3) and (2, 6) is

||(−1, 3, 0) × (2, 6, 0)|| = ||−12k|| = 12.


11.4. THE CROSS PRODUCT 17

6.
¯ ¯
¯ i j k ¯¯
¯
(−i + 3j − 2k) × (4i − j − 6k) = ¯¯ −1 3 −2 ¯¯
¯ 4 −1 −6 ¯
¯ ¯ ¯ ¯ ¯ ¯
¯ 3 −2 ¯¯ ¯ −1 −2 ¯ ¯ ¯
= ¯¯ i − ¯ ¯ j + ¯ −1 3 ¯k
−1 −6 ¯ ¯ 4 −6 ¯ ¯ 4 −1 ¯
= −20i − 14j + −11k

Therefore, the area of the parallelogram spanned by −i + 3j − 2k and 4i − j − 6k is


p √
||−20i − 14j + −11k|| = 202 + 142 + 112 = 717 (∼ = 26. 776 9)

7.
¯ ¯
¯ 2 1 3 ¯ ¯ ¯ ¯ ¯ ¯ ¯
¯ ¯ ¯ ¯ ¯ 3 0 ¯ ¯ ¯
u · (v × w) = ¯¯ 3 1 0 ¯ = 2¯ 1 0 ¯−¯ ¯ + 3¯ 3 1 ¯
¯ ¯ 0 4 ¯ ¯ 1 4 ¯ ¯ 1 0 ¯
¯ 1 0 4 ¯
= 2 (4) − 12 + 3 (−1) = −7

Therefore, the volume of the parallelepiped spanned by u,v and w is |−7| = 7.


8.
¯ ¯
¯ 2 2 5 ¯¯ ¯ ¯ ¯ ¯ ¯ ¯
¯ ¯ −1 −4 ¯ ¯ 3 −4 ¯ ¯ 3 −1 ¯
¯ ¯ ¯
u · (v × w) = ¯ 3 −1 −4 ¯ = 2 ¯ ¯ ¯ ¯ ¯ ¯
−1 0 ¯ − 2 ¯ 1 0 ¯ + 5 ¯ 1 −1 ¯
¯ 1 −1 0 ¯
= 2 (−4) − 2 (4) + 5 (−2) = −26

Therefore, the volume of the parallelepiped spanned by u,v and w is |−26| = 26.
9.
3 (x − 1) + 2 (y − 3) + (z − 4) = 0 ⇔ 3x + 2y + z = 13
10.
(x − 2) − 2y + 4 (z − 5) = 0 ⇔ x − 2y + 4z = 22
11.
− (x − 3) + (y − 1) + 2 (z + 3) = 0 ⇔ −x + y + 2z = −8
12.
(x − 3) − 4 (y − 1) − (z − 2) = 0 ⇐⇒ x − 4y − z = −3
13. We have
−−−→ −−−→
P0 P1 = (−1, 0, −1) and P0 P2 = (0, −5, 2) .
We set
¯ ¯
¯ i j k ¯¯
−−−→ −−−→ ¯
N = P0 P1 × P0 P2 = ¯¯ −1 0 −1 ¯¯
¯ 0 −5 2 ¯
¯ ¯ ¯ ¯ ¯ ¯
¯ 0 −1 ¯¯ ¯ −1 −1 ¯ ¯ −1 0 ¯
= ¯¯ i−¯¯ ¯ j + ¯¯ ¯k
−5 2 ¯ 0 2 ¯ 0 −5 ¯
= −5i + 2j + 5k

The vector N is orthogonal to the plane. Therefore, the equation of the plane is

(−5i + 2j + 5k) × ((x − 1) i + (y − 2) j + (z − 2) k) = 0


18 CHAPTER 11. VECTORS


−5 (x − 1) + 2 (y − 2) + 5 (z − 2) = 0 ⇔ −5 + 2y + 5z = 9
14. We have
−−−→ −−−→
P0 P1 = (−3, 6, 2) and P0 P2 = (−2, 5, −1)
We set
¯ ¯
¯ i j k ¯¯
−−−→ −−−→ ¯
N = P0 P1 × P0 P2 = ¯¯ −3 6 2 ¯¯
¯ −2 5 −1 ¯
¯ ¯ ¯ ¯
6 2 ¯ −3 2 ¯ ¯ ¯
= i − ¯¯ ¯ j + ¯ −3 6 ¯k
5 −1 −2 −1 ¯ ¯ −2 5 ¯
= −16i − 7j − 3k

The vector N is orthogonal to the plane. Therefore, the equation of the plane is

−16 (x − 3) − 7 (y + 2) − 3 (z + 1) = 0 ⇔ −16x − 7y − 3z = −31


⇔ 16x + 7y + 3z = 31
Chapter 12

Functions of Several Variables

12.1 Tangent Vectors and Velocity


1.
a)
µ ¶
d ¡ ¢ d d
σ 0 (t) = t, sin2 (4t) = (t) , sin2 (4t) = (1, 8 sin (4t) cos (4t))
dt dt dt
(= i + 8 sin (4t) cos (4t) j)

Therefore,
µ µ ¶ µ ¶¶ à à √ !µ ¶!
³π ´ 4π 4π 3 1
0
σ = 1 + 8 sin cos = 1, 8 − −
3 3 3 2 2
³ √ ´ ³ √ ´
= 1, 2 3 = i + 2 3j

Thus, ¯¯ ³ π ´¯¯ √
¯¯ 0 ¯¯ √
¯¯σ ¯¯ = 1 + 12 = 13.
3
Therefore, Ã
³π´ √ ! Ã √ !
1 ³ √ ´ 1 2 3 1 2 3
T =√ 1, 2 3 = √ ,√ = √ i+ √ j
3 13 13 13 13 13
b) We have µ µ ¶¶ µ ¶
³π´ π 4π π 3
σ = , sin2 = ,
3 3 3 3 4
Therefore,

³π ´ ³π ´
L (u) = σ + uσ 0
µ 3 ¶ 3
³ √ ´
π 3
= , + u 1, 2 3
3 4
µ ¶
π 3 √
= + u, + 2 3u , −∞ < u ≤ +∞.
3 4

2.

19
20 CHAPTER 12. FUNCTIONS OF SEVERAL VARIABLES

a)
d
σ 0 (t) = (2 cos (3t) , sin (t)) = (−6 sin (3t) , cos (t)) .
dt
Therefore, Ã
³π´ µ µ ¶ ³ π ´¶ √ !
3π √ 2
σ0 = −6 sin , cos = −3 2,
4 4 4 2
Thus,
¯¯ ³ π ´¯¯ r 1
r
37
¯¯ 0 ¯¯
¯¯σ ¯¯ = 18 + =
4 2 2
Therefore, Ã
³π ´ r √ ! µ ¶
2 √ 2 6 1
T = −3 2, = −√ , √
4 37 2 37 37
b) We have Ã
³π´ µ µ ¶ ³ π ´¶ √ !
3π √ 2
σ = 2 cos , sin = − 2, .
4 4 4 2
Therefore,
Ã
√ ! Ã √ !
³π ´ ³π ´ 2 √ √ 2
0
L (u) = σ + uσ = − 2,
+ u −3 2,
4 4 2 2
à √ √ !
√ √ 2 2
= − 2 − 3 2u, + u , u∈R
2 2

3.
a) Ã !
µ µ ¶ µ ¶¶
0 d 3t d 3t2 −3t2 + 3 6t
σ (t) = , = 2, 2
dt t2 + 1 dt 2
t +1 (t2 + 1) (t2 + 1)
Therefore, µ ¶
3
σ 0 (1) = 0,
2
Thus,
3
||σ 0 (1)|| = .
2
Therefore,
2 0
T (1) = σ (1) = (0, 1) (= j) .
3
b) We have µ ¶
3 3
σ (1) = , .
2 2
Therefore,
µ ¶ µ ¶ µ ¶
3 3 3 3 3 3
L (u) = σ (1) + uσ 0 (1) = , + u 0, = , + u , u ∈ R.
2 2 2 2 2 2
4.
a) µ ¶
d d d
σ 0 (t) = (4 cos (3t)) , (4 sin (3t)) , (2t) = (−12 sin (3t) , 12 cos (3t) , 2) .
dt dt dt
12.2. ACCELERATION AND CURVATURE 21

Therefore, µ µ ¶ µ ¶ ¶
³π´ 3π 3π
0
σ = −12 sin , 12 cos , 2 = (12, 0, 2) .
2 2 2
Thus, ¯¯ ³ π ´¯¯ √
¯¯ 0 ¯¯ √
¯¯σ ¯¯ = 144 + 4 = 148
2
Therefore, µ ¶
³π´ 1 ³π´ 1 12 2
T =√ σ0 =√ (12, 0, 2) = √ , 0, √ .
2 148 2 148 148 148
b) We have µ µ ¶ µ ¶ ³ ´¶
³π´ 3π 3π π
σ = 4 cos , 4 sin ,2 = (0, −4, π) .
2 2 2 2
Therefore,
³π´ ³π´
L (u) = σ + uσ 0 = (0, −4, π) + u (12, 0, 2) = (12u, −4, π + 2u) , u ∈ R.
2 2
5.
µ ¶
0 d ¡ −t ¢ d ¡ −t ¢
v (t) = σ (t) = e sin (t) , e cos (t)
dt dt
¡ ¢
= e−t (cos (t) − sin (t)) , −e−t (cos (t) + sin (t))
= e−t (cos (t) − sin (t)) i − e−t (cos (t) + sin (t)) j

Therefore, ¡ ¢
v (π) = −e−π , e−π = −e−π i + e−π j
Thus, the speed at t = π is
p √
||v (π)|| = e−2π + e−2π = 2e−π .

6.
µ ¶
0 d d
v (t) = σ (t) = (t) , arctan (t)
dt dt
µ ¶
1 1
= 1, 2 =i+ 2 j
t +1 t +1

Therefore, µ ¶
1 1
v (1) = 1, =i+ j
2 2
Thus, the speed at t = 1 is r √
1 5
||v (1)|| = 1+ =
4 2

12.2 Acceleration and Curvature


1. We have
µ ¶
0 d d
v (t) = σ (t) = (6 + 3 cos (4t)) , (6 + 3 sin (4t))
dt dt
= (−12 sin (4t) , 12 cos (4t)) .
22 CHAPTER 12. FUNCTIONS OF SEVERAL VARIABLES

Therefore,

a (t) = v0 (t) = (−48 cos (4t) , −48 sin (4t)) = −48 cos (4t) i − 48 sin (4t) j

Thus,
µ ¶ Ã√ !
³π ´ 1 ³π ´ 3
a (π/12) = −48 cos i − 48 sin j = −48 i − 48 j
3 3 2 2

= −24i − 24 3j

2. We have
µ ¶
0 d d
v (t) = σ (t) = (6t − 6 sin (2t)) , (6t − 6 cos (2t))
dt dt
= (6 − 12 cos (2t) , 6 + 12 sin (2t)) .

Therefore,
a (t) = v0 (t) = (24 sin (2t) , 24 cos (2t)) .
Thus,
a (0) = (0, 24) .
3. We have
µ ¶ µ ¶
0 d d 1 1
v (t) = σ (t) = (t) , arctan (t) = 1, 2 =i+ 2 j
dt dt t +1 t +1

Therefore,
d ¡2 ¢−1 ¡ ¢−2 2t
a (t) = v0 (t) = t +1 j = −2t t2 + 1 j=− j.
dt (t + 1)2
2

Thus,
2 1
a (1) = − j = − j.
4 2
4. We have
µ ¶
d ¡ t¢ d t ¡ ¢ ¡ ¢
v (t) = σ 0 (t) = te , e = et + tet , et = et + tet i + et j
dt dt

Therefore, ¡ ¢
a (t) = v0 (t) = 2et + tet i + et j
Thus,
a (2) = 4e2 i + e2 j
5. We have
d
σ 0 (t) = (4 + 2 cos (t) , 3 + 2 sin (t)) = (−2 sin (t) , 2 cos (t)) = 2 (− sin (t) , cos (t))
dt
and q
||σ 0 (t)|| = 2 sin2 (t) + cos2 (t) = 2.
Therefore,
σ 0 (t) 1
T (t) = 0
= (2 (− sin (t) , cos (t))) = (− sin (t) , cos (t))
||σ (t)|| 2
12.2. ACCELERATION AND CURVATURE 23

Thus, Ã
³ ³π ´ ³ π ´´ √ !
1 3 1³ √ ´
T (π/6) = − sin , cos = − , = −1, 3 .
6 6 2 2 2

We have
dT d
= (− sin (t) , cos (t)) = (− cos (t) , − sin (t)) = − (cos (t) , sin (t))
dt dt
and ¯¯ ¯¯ q
¯¯ dT ¯¯
¯¯ ¯¯ = ||− (cos (t) , sin (t))|| = cos2 (t) + sin2 (t) = 1.
¯¯ dt ¯¯

Therefore,
T0 (t)
N (t) = = T0 (t) = − (cos (t) , sin (t)) .
||T0 (t)||
Thus, Ã√ !
³ ³π´ ³ π ´´ 3 1 1 ³√ ´
N (π/6) = − cos , sin =− , =− 3, 1 .
6 6 2 2 2

6. We have
d
σ 0 (t) = (cos (3t) , sin (3t) , 4t) = (−3 sin (3t) , 3 cos (3t) , 4)
dt
and q √
||σ 0 (t)|| = 9 sin2 (3t) + 9 cos2 (3t) + 16 = 25 = 5.
Therefore,
µ ¶
σ 0 (t) 1 3 3 4
T (t) = = (−3 sin (3t) , 3 cos (3t) , 4) = − sin (3t) , cos (3t) , .
||σ 0 (t)|| 5 5 5 5

Thus, µ µ ¶ µ ¶ ¶ µ ¶
3 3π 3 3π 4 3 4 1
T (π/2) = − sin , cos , = , 0, = (3, 0, 4) .
5 2 5 2 5 5 5 5
We have
µ ¶ µ ¶
dT d 3 3 4 9 9
= − sin (3t) , cos (3t) , = − cos (3t) , − sin (3t) , 0
dt dt 5 5 5 5 5
9
= − (cos (3t) , sin 3t, 0)
5
and ¯¯ ¯¯ ¯¯ ¯¯ q
¯¯ dT ¯¯ ¯¯ 9 ¯¯
¯¯ ¯¯ = ¯¯− (cos (3t) , sin 3t, 0)¯¯ = 9 cos2 (3t) + sin2 (3t) = 9 .
¯¯ dt ¯¯ ¯¯ 5 ¯¯ 5 5
Therefore,
µ ¶
T0 (t) 5 9
N (t) = = − (cos (3t) , sin (3t) , 0) = − (cos (3t) , sin (3t) , 0)
||T0 (t)|| 9 5

Thus µ µ ¶ µ ¶ ¶
3π 3π
N (π/2) = − cos , sin , 0 = (0, 1, 0) .
2 2
24 CHAPTER 12. FUNCTIONS OF SEVERAL VARIABLES

Therefore,
1
B (π/2) = T (π/2) × N (π/2) = (3, 0, 4) × (0, 1, 0) =
5¯ ¯
¯ i j k ¯
1 ¯¯ ¯ 1
= 3 0 4 ¯¯ = (−4i + 3k) .
5 ¯¯ 5
0 1 0 ¯

7.
a) We have
d
σ 0 (t) = (2 cos (t) , 3 sin (t)) = (−2 sin (t) , 3 cos (t))
dt
so that q
||σ (t)|| = 4 sin2 (t) + 9 cos2 (t).
0

Therefore,
Z t Z tq
s (t) = 0
||σ (τ )|| dτ = 4 sin2 (τ ) + 9 cos2 (τ )dτ .
0 0

b) Z π q
s (π) = 4 sin2 (τ ) + 9 cos2 (τ )dτ ∼
= 7. 932 72
0

8.
a) We have
d ¡ t t¢ ¡ t ¢
σ 0 (t) = te , e = e + tet , et = et (1 + t, 1)
dt
so that q p
||σ 0 (t)|| = et (1 + t)2 + 1 = et t2 + 2t + 2.
Therefore,
Z t Z t p
s (t) = ||σ 0 (τ )|| dτ = eτ τ 2 + 2τ + 2dτ .
0 0

b)
Z 1 p
s (1) = eτ τ 2 + 2τ + 2dτ ∼
= 3. 227 01
0

9. We have
d
σ 0 (t) = (3 cos (t) , 2 sin (t) , 0) = (−3 sin (t) , 2 cos (t) , 0)
dt
and
d
σ 00 (t) = (−3 sin (t) , 2 cos (t) , 0) = (−3 cos (t) , −2 sin (t) , 0) .
dt
Thus,
σ 0 (π/2) = (−3, 0, 0) and σ 00 (π/2) = (0, −2, 0) .
Therefore,
3
||σ 0 (π/2)|| = 23 = 8.

We have ¯ ¯
¯ i j k ¯¯
¯
σ 00 (π/2) × σ 0 (π/2) = ¯¯ 0 −2 0 ¯¯ = −6k
¯ −3 0 0 ¯
12.2. ACCELERATION AND CURVATURE 25

so that
||σ 00 (π/2) × σ 0 (π/2)|| = 6.
Therefore,
||σ 00 (π/2) × σ 0 (π/2)|| 6 3
κ (π/2) = 3 = = .
||σ 0 (π/2)|| 8 4
10. We have
d ¡ t ¢ ¡ t ¢
σ 0 (t) = t, e , 0 = 1, e , 0
dt
and
d ¡ t ¢ ¡ t ¢
σ 00 (t) = 1, e , 0 = 0, e , 0 .
dt
Thus, ¡ ¢ ¡ ¢
σ 0 (2) = 1, e2 , 0 and σ 00 (2) = 0, e2 , 0 .
Therefore,
³p ´3 ¡ ¢3/2
3
||σ 0 (2)|| = 1 + e4 = 1 + e4 .
We have ¯ ¯
¯ i j k ¯
¯ ¯
σ (2) × σ (2) = ¯¯ 0 e2
00 0
0 ¯ = −e2 k
¯
¯ 1 e2 0 ¯
so that
||σ 00 (2) × σ 0 (2)|| = e2 .
Therefore,
||σ 00 (2) × σ 0 (2)|| e2
κ (2) = =
||σ 0 (2)||3 (1 + e4 )3/2
11. We have
d
v (t) = σ 0 (t) = (cos (2t) , sin (2t) , 0) = (−2 sin (2t) , 2 cos (2t) , 0)
dt
so that the speed is q
||v (t)|| = 4 sin2 (2t) + 4 cos2 (2t) = 2.
Therefore
d d
||v (t)|| = (2) = 0.
dt dt
Thus, the tangential component of the acceleration is always 0 (this is merely a circular motion).
We have
à Ã√ ! µ ¶ !
3 1 ³ √ ´
0
σ (π/6) = (−2 sin (π/3) , 2 cos (π/3) , 0) = −2 ,2 , 0 = − 3, 1, 0
2 2

so that √
||σ 0 (π/6)|| = 3 + 1 = 2.
We have
d
σ 00 (t) = (−2 sin (2t) , 2 cos (2t) , 0) = (−4 cos (2t) , −4 sin (2t) , 0) ,
dt
so that
à µ ¶ Ã√ ! !
1 3 ³ √ ´
00
σ (π/6) = (−4 cos (π/3) , −4 sin (π/3) , 0) = −4 , −4 , 0 = −2 1, 3, 0 .
2 2
26 CHAPTER 12. FUNCTIONS OF SEVERAL VARIABLES

Therefore, ¯ ¯
¯ i j√ k ¯¯
¯
σ 00 (π/6) × σ 0 (π/6) = ¯¯ −2 ¯
√ −2 3 0 ¯ = (−2 − 6) k = −8k
¯ − 3 1 0 ¯
so that
||σ 00 (π/6) × σ 0 (π/6)|| = 8.
Thus,
||σ 00 (π/6) × σ 0 (π/6)|| 8
κ (π/6) = 3 = = 1.
||σ 0 (π/6)|| 23
Therefore, the normal component of the acceleration is
¡ ¢
κ (π/6) ||v (π/6)||2 = (1) 23 = 8.

12. We have
d ¡ 2 ¢
v (t) = σ 0 (t) = t, t , 0 = (1, 2t, 0)
dt
so that the speed is p
||v (t)|| = 1 + 4t2 .
Therefore
d dp 1 4t
||v (t)|| = 1 + 4t2 = √ (8t) = √ .
dt dt 2 1 + 4t2 1 + 4t2
Thus, the tangential component of the acceleration at t = 1 is
¯
d ¯ 4
||v (t)||¯¯ =√ .
dt t=1 5

We have
σ 0 (1) = (1, 2, 0)
so that √
||σ 0 (1)|| = 5.
We have
d
σ 00 (t) = (1, 2t, 0) = (0, 2, 0)
dt
Therefore, ¯ ¯
¯ i j k ¯
¯ ¯
σ 00 (1) × σ 0 (1) = ¯¯ 0 2 0 ¯¯ = −2k
¯ 1 2 0 ¯

so that
||σ 00 (1) × σ 0 (1)|| = 2.
Thus,
||σ 00 (1) × σ 0 (1)|| 2 2
κ (1) = 3 = ¡√ ¢3 = 3/2 .
||σ 0 (1)|| 5 5

Therefore, the normal component of the acceleration is


µ ¶
2 2 2√
κ (1) ||v (1)|| = 3/2
(5) = 5
5 5
12.3. REAL-VALUED FUNCTIONS OF SEVERAL VARIABLES 27

12.3 Real-Valued Functions of Several Variables


In the plots of the level curves for problems 1-6, the smaller values of f are indicated by the
darker color.
1.
a)

b)

2.
a)

b)
28 CHAPTER 12. FUNCTIONS OF SEVERAL VARIABLES

3.
a)

b)

4.
a)

b)

5.
a)
12.3. REAL-VALUED FUNCTIONS OF SEVERAL VARIABLES 29

b)

6.
a)

b)

7.
30 CHAPTER 12. FUNCTIONS OF SEVERAL VARIABLES

The level surfaces are spheres. In the pictures, the outer sphere is shown partially in order to
show the inner sphere.
8.

The level surfaces are ellipsoids. In the pictures, the outer ellipsoid is shown partially in order
to show the inner ellipsoid.
9. The pictures show two level surfaces of f .
12.4. PARTIAL DERIVATIVES 31

10. The pictures show two level surfaces of f .

12.4 Partial Derivatives


1.
∂ ¡ 2 ¢ ∂ ¡ 2 ¢
4x + 9y 2 = 8x, 4x + 9y 2 = 18y
∂x ∂y
2.
∂ ¡ 2 ¢ ∂ ¡ 2 ¢
6x − 5y 2 = 12x, 6x − 5y 2 = −10y
∂x ∂y
3.
∂ p 2 ∂ ¡ 2 ¢1/2 1 ¡ 2 ¢−1/2 2x
2x + y 2 = 2x + y 2 = 2x + y 2 (4x) = p ,
∂x ∂x 2 2x2 + y 2
∂ p 2 ∂ ¡ 2 ¢1/2 1 ¡ 2 ¢−1/2 y
2x + y 2 = 2x + y 2 = 2x + y 2 (2y) = p
∂y ∂y 2 2x2 + y 2
4.
∂ ¡ 2 ¢ ∂ ¡ 2 ¢
r cos (θ) = 2r cos (θ) , r cos (θ) = −r2 sin (θ)
∂r ∂θ
5.
∂ −x2 −y2 2 2 ∂ −x2 −y2 2 2
e = −2xe−x −y , e = −2ye−x −y
∂x ∂y
7.
à ¯ !µ ¶
∂ ¡ ¢ d ¯ ∂ ¡ 2 ¢
ln x2 + y 2 = ln (u)¯¯ x + y2
∂x du u=x2 +y2 ∂x
µ ¶
1 2x
= 2 2
(2x) = 2 ,
x +y x + y2
32 CHAPTER 12. FUNCTIONS OF SEVERAL VARIABLES

à ¯ !µ ¶
∂ ¡ ¢ d ¯ ∂ ¡ 2 ¢
ln x2 + y 2 = ln (u)¯¯ x +y 2
∂y du u=x2 +y 2 ∂y
µ ¶
1 2y
= (2y) = 2 ,
x2 + y 2 x + y2

8.

µ ¶
∂ ³ r2 ´ ∂ ³ r2 ´ 2
r2 r2 1 er
e tan (θ) = 2re tan (θ) , e tan (θ) = e =
∂r ∂θ cos2 (θ) cos2 (θ)

9.

à ! à ¯ !à à !!
∂ y d ¯ ∂ y
arctan p = ¯
arctan (u)¯ p
∂x du √ ∂x
x2 + y 2 u=y/ x2 +y 2 x2 + y 2
⎛ ⎞
µ ¶
⎜ 1 ⎟ ¡ ¢
= ⎜ ⎟ y ∂ x2 + y 2 −1/2
⎝ y2 ⎠ ∂x
1+ 2
x + y2
µ 2 ¶µ µ ¶¶
x + y2 1¡ 2 ¢
2 −3/2
= y − x + y (2x)
x2 + 2y 2 2
¡ 2 2
¢
xy x + y
= −
(x + 2y 2 ) (x2 + y 2 )3/2
2
xy
= − p ,
(x2 + 2y 2 ) x2 + y 2

à ! à ¯ !à à !!
∂ y d ¯ ∂ y
arctan p = arctan (u)¯¯ √ p
∂y x2 + y 2 du u=y/ x2 +y 2 ∂y x2 + y 2
⎛ ⎞ ³ ¡
⎛p

¢1/2 ´ ⎞
⎜ 1 ⎟ x2 + y 2 − y ∂y x2 + y 2
= ⎜ ⎟⎝ ⎠
⎝ y2 ⎠ x2 + y 2
1+ 2
x + y2
⎛p ³ ¡ ¢ ´⎞
µ 2 ¶ 2 2 1 2 2 −1/2
x + y2 ⎝ x + y − y 2 x + y (2y)

=
x2 + 2y 2 x2 + y 2
µ 2 ¶Ã 2 !
x + y2 x + y2 − y2 x2
= 2 2 3/2
= p
x + 2y (x2 + y 2 ) (x2 + 2y 2 ) x2 + y 2
12.4. PARTIAL DERIVATIVES 33

10.
à ! à ¯ !à à !!
∂ x d ¯ ∂ x
arccos p = ¯
arccos (u)¯ p
∂x du √ ∂x
x2 + y 2 u=x/ x2 +y2 x2 + y 2
⎛ Ã !⎞
p 2x
à ¯ ! ⎜ x2 + y 2 − x p ⎟
1 ¯ ⎜ 2 x2 + y 2 ⎟
= −√ ¯ ⎜ ⎟
1 − u2 ¯u=x/√x2 +y2 ⎜ ⎝ x2 + y 2 ⎟

⎛ ⎞
⎜ ⎟Ã 2 !
⎜ 1 ⎟ x + y 2 − x2
= ⎜
⎜− s

⎟ 3//2
⎝ x2 ⎠ (x2 + y 2 )
1− 2
x + y2
y2
= −s
y2
(x2 + y 2 )3//2
x2 + y 2
y2
= −
|y| (x2 + y 2 )

11.
à !
∂ 1 ∂ ¡ 2 ¢−1/2
p = x + y2 + z2
∂x x2 + y 2 + z 2 ∂x
à ¯ !µ ¶
d −1/2 ¯¯ ∂ ¡ 2 2 2
¢
= u ¯ x +y +z
du u=x2 +y 2 +z 2 ∂x
à ¯ !
1 −3/2 ¯¯
= − u ¯ (2x)
2 u=x2 +y 2 +z 2
x
= − 3/2
(x + y + z 2 )
2 2

Similarly,
à ! à !
∂ 1 y ∂ 1 z
p =− 3/2
, p =− 3/2
∂y x2 + y 2 + z 2 2 2 2
(x + y + z ) ∂z x2 + y 2 + z 2 (x2 + y2 + z2)

12.

∂ ¡ ¢
xyzex−y+2z = yzex−y+2z + xyzex−y+2z ,
∂x
∂ ¡ ¢
xyzex−y+2z = xzex−y+2z − xyzex−y+2z ,
∂y
∂ ¡ ¢
xyzex−y+2z = xyex−y+2z + 2xyzex−y+2z
∂z
34 CHAPTER 12. FUNCTIONS OF SEVERAL VARIABLES

13.
à ! à ¯ !à !
∂ 1 d ¯ ∂ 1
arcsin p = arcsin (u)¯¯ √ p
∂x x2 + y 2 + z 2 du u=1/ x2 +y 2 +z 2 ∂x x2 + y 2 + z 2
à ¯ !à !
1 ¯ x
= √ ¯ −
1 − u2 ¯u=1/√x2 +y2 +z2 (x2 + y 2 + z 2 )
3/2
⎛ ⎞
à !
⎜ 1 ⎟ x
= ⎜r ⎟ −
⎝ 1 ⎠ 3/2
1− 2 (x2 + y 2 + z 2 )
x +y +z 2 2
à p !à !
x2 + y 2 + z 2 x
= p −
x2 + y 2 + z 2 − 1 (x2 + y 2 + z 2 )3/2
x
= −p
x + y + z − 1 (x2 + y 2 + z 2 )
2 2 2

14.

(ρ cos (ϕ) sin (θ)) = cos (ϕ) sin (θ) ,
∂ρ

(ρ cos (ϕ) sin (θ)) = −ρ sin (ϕ) sin (θ) ,
∂ϕ

(ρ cos (ϕ) sin (θ)) = ρ cos (ϕ) cos (θ)
∂θ
15.
a) We have
∂f ∂ p 2 1 x
(x, y) = x + y2 = p (2x) = p ,
∂x ∂x 2 x2 + y 2 x2 + y 2
and
∂f ∂ p 2 1 y
(x, y) = x + y2 = p (2y) = p .
∂y ∂y 2
2 x +y 2 x + y2
2

Thus,
∂f 3 3 ∂f 1 1
(3, 1) = √ = √ and (3, 1) = √ =√
∂x 2
3 +1 10 ∂y 2
3 +1 10
Therefore, the vector
∂f 3
i+(3, 1) k = i + √ k
∂x 10
¡ √ ¢
is tangential to C1 at (3, 1, f (3, 1)) = 3, 1, 10 .
The vector
∂f 1
j+ (3, 1) k = j + √ k
∂y 10
¡ √ ¢
is tangential to C2 at 3, 1, 10 .
¡ √ ¢
b) The line that is tangent to C1 at (3, 1, f (3, 1)) = 3, 1, 10 is parametrized by
³ µ ¶ µ ¶
√ ´ 3 √ 3
L1 (u) = 3, 1, 10 + u 1, 0, √ = 3 + u, 1, 10 + √ u ,
10 10
12.4. PARTIAL DERIVATIVES 35

i.e.,

x (u) = 3 + u,
y (u) = 1,
√ 3√
z (u) = 10 + 10u,
10
where u is an arbitrary real number. ¡ √ ¢
Similarly, The line that is tangent to C1 at (3, 1, f (3, 1)) = 3, 1, 10 is parametrized by
³ µ ¶ µ ¶
√ ´ 1 √ 1
L2 (u) = 3, 1, 10 + u 0, 1, √ = 3, 1 + u, 10 + √ u , u ∈ R.
10 10

16.
a) We have
∂f ∂ ¡ ¢
(x, y) = 10 − x2 − y 2 = −2x
∂x ∂x
and
∂f ∂ ¡ ¢
(x, y) = 10 − x2 − y 2 = −2y.
∂y ∂x
Thus,
∂f ∂f
(2, 1) = −4 and (2, 1) = −2.
∂x ∂y
Therefore, the vector
∂f
i+ (2, 1) k = i − 4k
∂x
is tangential to C1 at (2, 1, f (2, 1)) = (2, 1, 51).
The vector
∂f
j+ (2, 1) k = j − 2k
∂y
is tangential to C2 at (2, 1, 5) .
b) The line that is tangent to C1 at (2, 1, f (2, 1)) = (2, 1, 5) is parametrized by

L1 (u) = (2, 1, 5) + u (1, 0, −4) = (2, 1, 5) + (u, 0, −4u)


= (2 + u, 1, 5 − 4u) .

The line that is tangent to C2 at (2, 1, 5) is parametrized by

L2 (u) = (2, 1, 5) + u (0, 1, −2) = (2, 1, 5) + u (0, 1, −2)


= (2, 1 + u, 5 − 2u) .

17.
a) We have
∂f ∂ ³ x2 +y2 ´ 2 2
(x, y) = e = 2xex +y
∂x ∂x
and
∂f ∂ ³ x2 +y2 ´ 2 2
(x, y) = e = 2yex +y .
∂y ∂x
36 CHAPTER 12. FUNCTIONS OF SEVERAL VARIABLES

Thus,
∂f ∂f
(1, 0) = 2e and (1, 0) = 0.
∂x ∂y
Therefore, the vector
∂f
i+ (1, 0) k = i + 2ek
∂x
is tangential to C1 at (1, 0, f (1, 0)) = (1, 0, e).
The vector
∂f
j+ (1, 0) k = j
∂y
is tangential to C2 at (1, 0, e) .
b) The line that is tangent to C1 at (1, 0, f (1, 0)) = (1, 0, e) is parametrized by

L1 (u) = (1, 0, e) + u (1, 0, 2e) = (1, 0, e) + (u, 0, 2eu)


= (1 + u, 0, e + 2eu) , u ∈ R.

The line that is tangent to C2 at (1, 0, e) is parametrized by

L2 (u) = (1, 0, e) + u (0, 1, 0) = (1, 0, e) + (0, u, 0)


= (1, u, e) , u ∈ R.

18.
a) We have
∂f ∂ ¡ 2 ¢
(x, y) = x − y 2 = 2x
∂x ∂x
and
∂f ∂ ¡ 2 ¢
(x, y) = x − y 2 = −2y.
∂y ∂x
Thus,
∂f ∂f
(3, 2) = 6 and (3, 2) = −4.
∂x ∂y
Therefore, the vector
∂f
i+ (3, 2) k = i + 6k
∂x
is tangential to C1 at (3, 2, f (3, 2)) = (3, 2, 5).
The vector
∂f
j+ (3, 2) k = j − 4k
∂y
is tangential to C2 at (3, 2, 5) .
b) The line that is tangent to C1 at (3, 2, f (3, 2)) = (3, 2, 5) is parametrized by

L1 (u) = (3, 2, 5) + u (1, 0, 6) = (3, 2, 5) + (u, 0, 6u)


= . (3 + u, 2, 5 + 6u) , u ∈ R.

The line that is tangent to C2 at (2, 1, 5) is parametrized by

L2 (u) = (3, 2, 5) + u (0, 1, −4) = (3, 2, 5) + (0, u, −4u)


= (3, 2 + u, 5 − 4u) , u ∈ R.
12.4. PARTIAL DERIVATIVES 37

19.
∂f ∂ ¡ 2 ¢ ∂f ∂ ¡ 2 ¢
(x, y) = 4x + 9y 2 = 8x, (x, y) = 4x + 9y 2 = 18y,
∂x ∂x ∂y ∂7
∂2f ∂ 2
∂ f ∂
(x, y) = (8x) = 8, (x, y) = (18y) = 0
∂x2 ∂x ∂x∂y ∂x
20.
∂f ∂ ¡ 2 ¢−1/2
(x, y) = x + y2
∂x ∂x
1¡ ¢−3/2 x
= − x2 + y 2 (2x) = −
2 (x2 + y 2 )3/2

∂2f ∂ ³ ¡ ¢−3/2 ´ ∂ ¡ 2 ¢−3/2


(x, y) = −x x2 + y 2 = −x x + y2
∂y∂x ∂y ∂y
µ ¶
3 ¡ 2 ¢−5/2 3xy
= −x − x + y2 (2y) = 5/2
,
2 (x2 + y 2 )

∂f ∂ ¡ 2 ¢−1/2
(x, y) = x + y2
∂y ∂y
1¡ ¢−3/2 y
= − x2 + y 2 (2y) = − 3/2
,
2 (x2 + y 2 )

à ! à ! µ ¶
∂2f ∂ y 1 ∂ ¡ 2 ¢−3/2
(x, y) = − = (−1) −y x + y2
∂y 2 ∂y (x2 + y 2 )
3/2
(x2 + y 2 )
3/2 ∂y
µ ¶
1 3¡ 2 ¢
2 −5/2
= − − y − x + y (2y)
(x2 + y 2 )3/2 2
1 3y 2
= − +
(x2 + y 2 )3/2 (x2 + y 2 )5/2
¡ ¢
− x2 + y 2 + 3y 2 −x2 + 2y 2
= 5/2
= 5/2
(x2 + y 2 ) (x2 + y 2 )

21.
∂f ∂ −x2 +y2 2 2
(x, y) = e = −2xe−x +y ,
∂x ∂x
2
∂ f ∂ ³ 2 2
´ 2 2 2 2

2
(x, y) = −2xe−x +y = −2e−x +y + 4x2 e−x +y ,
∂x ∂x

∂2f ∂ ³ 2 2
´ 2 2 2 2
(x, y) = −2xe−x +y = −2x (2y) e−x +y = −4xye−x +y
∂y∂x ∂y
22.
à !
∂f ∂ ³p ´ ³p ´ 1
(x, y) = sin x2 − y 2 = cos x2 − y 2 p (−2y)
∂y ∂y 2 x2 − y 2
y ³p ´
= −p cos x2 − y 2
x2 − y 2
38 CHAPTER 12. FUNCTIONS OF SEVERAL VARIABLES

à !
∂2f ∂ y ³p ´
(x, y) = −p cos 2
x −y 2
∂x∂y ∂x x2 − y 2
µ ¶ ³p ´
∂ ¡ 2 ¢
2 −1/2
= −y x −y cos x2 − y 2
∂x
µ ³p ´¶
y ∂
−p cos 2
x −y 2
x2 − y 2 ∂x
µ ¶ ³p ´
1¡ 2 ¢−3/2
= −y x − y2 2x cos x2 − y 2
2
ÃÃ !!
y ³p ´ 1
+p sin 2
x −y 2 p (2x)
x2 − y 2 2 x2 − y 2
xy ³p ´ xy ³p ´
= cos x 2 − y2 + sin x 2 − y2
(x2 − y 2 )3/2 x2 − y 2

23.
∂f ∂ ¡ ¢
(x, y, z) = xyzex−y+2z = xyex−y+2z + 2xyzex−y+2z ,
∂z ∂z

∂2f ∂ ¡ ¢
(x, y, z) = xyex−y+2z + 2xyzex−y+2z
∂x∂z ∂x
= yex−y+2z + xyex−y+2z + 2yzex−y+2z + 2xyzex−y+2z ,
= ex−y+2z (y + xy + 2yz + 2xyz)

∂2f ∂ ¡ ¢
(x, y, z) = xyex−y+2z + 2xyzex−y+2z
∂y∂z ∂y
= xex−y+2z − xyex−y+2z + 2xzex−y+2z − 2xyzex−y+2z
= ex−y+2z (x − xy + 2xz − 2xyz)

24.
∂f ∂
(ρ, ϕ, θ) = (ρ cos (ϕ) sin (θ)) = ρ cos (ϕ) cos (θ) ,
∂θ ∂θ
∂2f ∂
(ρ, ϕ, θ) = (ρ cos (ϕ) cos (θ)) = −ρ sin (ϕ) cos (θ) ,
∂ϕ∂θ ∂ϕ
∂2f ∂
(ρ, ϕ, θ) = (ρ cos (ϕ) cos (θ)) = cos (ϕ) cos (θ)
∂ρ∂θ ∂ρ
25.
∂ ¡ ¢ 1 8y
fy (x, y) = ln x2 + 4y 2 = 2 (8y) = 2 .
∂y x + 4y 2 x + 4y 2
µ ¶
∂ 8y ∂ ¡ 2 ¢−1
fxy (x, y) = = 8y x + 4y 2
∂x x + 4y 2
2 ∂x
³ ¡ ¢−2 ´ 16xy
= 8y − x2 + 4y 2 (2x) = −
(x2 + 4y 2 )2

∂ ¡ ¢ 1 2x
fx (x, y) = ln x2 + 4y 2 = 2 (2x) = 2 ,
∂x x + 4y 2 x + 4y 2
12.5. LINEAR APPROXIMATIONS AND THE DIFFERENTIAL 39
µ ¶
∂ 2x ∂ ¡ 2 ¢−1
fyx (x, y) = = 2x x + 4y 2
∂y x2 + 4y 2 ∂y
³ ¡ ¢−2 ´ 16xy
= 2x − x2 + 4y 2 (8y) = − .
(x2 + 4y 2 )
Thus, fyx = fxy .
26.
∂ ³ 2 x2 −2y2 ´ 2 2
³ 2 2
´
fy (x, y) = x ye = x2 ex −2y + x2 y −4yex −2y
∂y
2
−2y 2 2
−2y2
= x2 ex − 4x2 y 2 ex ,

∂ ³ 2 x2 −2y2 2 2
´
fxy (x, y) = x e − 4x2 y 2 ex −2y
∂x ³ ´ ³ ´
2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2
= 2xex −2y + x2 2xex −2y − 8xy 2 ex −2y − 4x2 y 2 2xex −2y
2 2 ¡ ¢
= ex −2y 2x + 2x3 − 8xy 2 − 8x3 y 2

∂ ³ 2 x2 −2y2 ´ 2 2 2 2
fx (x, y) = x ye = 2xyex −2y + x2 y (2x) ex −2y
∂x
2 2 2 2
= 2xyex −2y + 2x3 yex −2y ,

∂ ³ 2 2 2 2
´
fyx (x, y) = 2xyex −2y + 2x3 yex −2y
∂y
2 2
³ 2 2
´ 2 2
³ 2 2
´
= 2xex −2y + 2xy −4yex −2y + 2x3 ex −2y + 2x3 y −4yex −2y
2 2 ¡ ¢
= ex −2y 2x − 8xy 2 + 2x3 − 8x3 y 2

Thus, fyx = fxy .

12.5 Linear Approximations and the Differential


1.
a) We have
∂f ∂ ¡ 2 ¢3/2 3 ¡ 2 ¢1/2 p
(x, y) = x + y2 = x + y2 (2x) = 3x x2 + y 2 ,
∂x ∂x 2
∂f p
2 2
(x, y) = 3y x + y ,
∂y
Therefore,
∂f ∂f
(3, 4) = 45, (3, 4) = 60, and f (3, 4) = 125.
∂x ∂y
Thus,
L (x, y) = 125 + 45 (x − 3) + 60(y − 4).
b)

f (3.1, 3.9) ∼
= L (3.1, 3.9)
= 125 + 45 (0.1) + 60 (−0.1) = 123.5
40 CHAPTER 12. FUNCTIONS OF SEVERAL VARIABLES

c) According to a calculator, f (3.1, 3.9) ∼


= 123. 652. The absolute error is

|f (3.1, 3.9) − 123.5| ∼


= 0.152.

2.
a)
∂f ∂f
(x, y) = −e−x sin (y) , (x, y) = e−x cos (y) .
∂x ∂y
Therefore,
∂f ∂f
(0, π/2) = −1 and (0, π/2) = 0, and f (0, π/2) = 1.
∂x ∂y
Thus,
L (x, y) = 1 − x.
b)
f (0.2, π/2 + 0.1) ∼
= L (0.2, π/2 + 0.1) = 1 − 0.2 = 0.8.
c) According to a calculator, f (0.2, π/2 + 0.1) ∼
= 0.814 641. The absolute error is

|f (0.2, π/2 + 0.1) − 0.8| ∼


= 1.4 × 10−2
3.
a)
∂ y ∂ x
f (x, y) = − 2 , f (x, y) = 2 ,
∂x x + y 2 ∂y x + y2
so that √
∂ ³√ ´ 1 ∂ ³√ ´ 3 ³√ ´ π
f 3, 1 = − , and f 3, 1 = , and f 3, 1 = .
∂x 4 ∂y 4 6
Therefore, √
π 1³ √ ´ 3
L (x, y) = − x− 3 + (y − 1) .
6 4 4
b) √
π 1³ √ ´ 3
f (1.8, 0.8) ∼
= L (1.8, 0.8) =− 1.8 − 3 + (0.8 − 1) ∼
= 0.420 009
6 4 4
c) According to a calculator f (1.8, 0.8) ∼
= 0.418 224. The absolute error is

|f (1.8, 0.8) − L (1.8, 0.8)| ∼


= 1.8 × 10−3

4.
a)
∂ 2 2 ∂ 2 2
f (x, y) = 2xex +y , f (x, y) = 2yex +y .
∂x ∂y
Therefore,
∂ ∂
f (1, 0) = 2e, f (1, 0) = 0, and f (1, 0) = e.
∂x ∂y
Thus,
L (x, y) = e + 2e (x − 1) .
b)
f (1.1, −0.2) ∼
= L (1.1, −0.2) = e + 2e (0.1) = 1.2e ∼
= 3. 261 94

c) According to a calculator f (1.1, −0.2) = 3. 490 34. The absolute error is

|f (1.1, −0.2) − 1.2e| ∼


= 0.23
12.5. LINEAR APPROXIMATIONS AND THE DIFFERENTIAL 41

5.
a)

∂f x ∂f y
(x, y, z) = p , (x, y, z) = p ,
∂x x2 + y 2 + z 2 ∂y x2 + y 2 + z 2
∂f z
(x, y, z) = p .
∂z x2 + y 2 + z 2

Therefore,
∂f 1 ∂f 2 ∂f 3
(1, 2, 3) = √ , (1, 2, 3) = √ , (1, 2, 3) = √ .
∂x 14 ∂y 14 ∂z 14

and f (1, 2, 3) = 14.
Thus,
√ 1 2 3
L (x, y, z) = 14 + √ (x − 1) + √ (y − 2) + √ (z − 3) .
14 14 14
b)

f (0.9, 2.2, 2.9) ∼


= L (0.9, 2.2, 2.9)
√ 1 2 3
= 14 + √ (−0.1) + √ (0.2) + √ (−0.1)
14 14 14

= 3. 741 66

c). According to a calculator f (0.9, 2.2, 2.9) ∼


= f (0.9, 2.2, 2.9). The absolute error is

|f (0.9, 2.2, 2.9) − L (0.9, 2.2, 2.9)| ∼


= 8 × 10−3

6.
a)
∂ x ∂ y
f (x, y) = p , f (x, y) = p
∂x x2 + y 2 ∂y x2 + y 2
Therefore,
x y
df = p dx + p dy.
x2 + y 2 x2 + y 2
b)

f (12.1, 4.9) − f (12, 5) ∼


= df (12, 5, 0.1, −0.1)
12 5
= (0.1) + (−0.1) .
13 13
Therefore,
12 5
f (12.1, 4.9) ∼
= f (12, 5) + (0.1) + (−0.1)
13 13
12 5
= 13 + (0.1) + (−0.1) ∼
= 13. 053 8
13 13
c) According to a calculator f (12.1, 4.9) ∼
= 13. 054 5. The absolute error is

|f (12.1, 4.9) − 13. 053 8| ∼


= 1.5 × 10−3

7.
42 CHAPTER 12. FUNCTIONS OF SEVERAL VARIABLES

a)
∂ yz ∂ xz ∂ xy
f (x, y, z) = √ , f (x, y, z) = √ , f (x, y, z) = √ .
∂x 2 xyz ∂y 2 xyz ∂z 2 xyz
Therefore,
yz xz xy
df = √ dx + √ dy + √ dz.
2 xyz 2 xyz 2 xyz
b)

f (0.9, 2.9, 3.1) − f (1, 3, 3) ∼


= df (1, 3, 3, −0.1, −0.1, 0.1)
9 3 3
= (−0.1) + (−0.1) + (0.1) = −0.15
2 (3) 2 (3) 2 (3)

Therefore,
f (0.9, 2.9, 3.1) ∼
= f (1, 3, 3) − 0.15 = 3 − 0.15 = 2. 85
c) According to a calculator f (0.9, 2.9, 3.1) ∼
= 2. 844 47. The absolute error is

|f (0.9, 2.9, 3.1) − 2. 85| ∼


= 5.5 × 10−3

8.
a)
∂f 2x ∂f 2y
(x, y) = 2 , (x, y) = 2 .
∂x (x + y ) + 1 ∂y
2 2 (x + y 2 ) + 1
2

Therefore,
2x 2y
df = dx + dy.
(x2 + y 2 )2 + 1 (x2 + y 2 )2 + 1
b)
−2
f (0.1, −1.2) − f (0, −1) ∼
= df (0, −1, 0.1, −0.2) = (−0.2) = 0.2.
2
Therefore,
π
f (0.1, −1.2) ∼
= f (0, −1) + 0.2 = arctan (1) + 0.2 = + 0.2 ∼
= 0.985 398
4
c) According to a calculator f (0.1, −1.2) ∼
= 0.967 047. The absolute error i

|f (0.1, −1.2) − 0.985 398| ∼


= 0.018

12.6 The Chain Rule


1.
a) If we set z = f (x, y), we have

∂z ∂ p 2 1 x
= x + y2 = p (2x) = p ,
∂x ∂x 2
2 x +y 2 x + y2
2

and
∂z ∂ p 2 1 y
= x + y2 = p (2y) = p .
∂y ∂y 2
2 x +y 2 x + y2
2

We have
dx d dy d
= (sin (t)) = cos (t) and = (2 cos (t)) = −2 sin (t)
dt dt dt dt
12.6. THE CHAIN RULE 43

Therefore,
d dz ∂z dx ∂z dy
f (x (t) , y (t)) = = +
dt dt ∂x dt ∂y dt
à ! à !
x y
= p cos (t) + p (−2 sin (t))
x2 + y 2 x2 + y 2
sin (t) cos (t) − 4 cos (t) sin (t) 3 sin (t) cos (t)
= q = −q
sin2 (t) + 4 cos2 (t) sin2 (t) + 4 cos2 (t)

b) We have q
f (x (t) , y (t)) = f (sin (t) , 2 cos (t)) = sin2 (t) + 4 cos2 (t).
Therefore,
q
d d
f (x (t) , y (t)) = sin2 (t) + 4 cos2 (t)
dt dt
1
= q (2 sin (t) cos (t) − 8 cos (t) sin (t))
2
2 sin (t) + 4 cos2 (t)
3 sin (t) cos (t)
= −q
sin2 (t) + 4 cos2 (t)

2.
a) If we set z = f (x, y), we have

∂z ∂ −x2 +y2 2 2
= e = −2xe−x +y ,
∂x ∂x
and
∂z ∂ −x2 +y2 2 2
= e = 2ye−x +y .
∂y ∂y
We have
dx d dy d
= (2t − 1) = 2 and = (t + 1) = 1.
dt dt dt dt
Therefore,
d dz ∂z dx ∂z dy
f (x (t) , y (t)) = = +
dt dt ∂x dt ∂y dt
³ ´ ³ ´
−x2 +y 2 2 2
= −2xe (2) + 2ye−x +y (1)
2
+y 2
= e−x (−4x + 2y)
−(2t−1)2 +(t+1)2
= e (−4 (2t − 1) + 2 (t + 1))
6t−3t2
= e (6 − 6t) .

b) We have
2
+(t+1)2 2
f (x (t) , y (t)) = f (2t − 1, t + 1) = e−(2t−1) = e6t−3t .
Therefore,
d d 2 2
f (x (t) , y (t)) = e6t−3t = e6t−3t (6 − 6t) .
dt dt
3.
44 CHAPTER 12. FUNCTIONS OF SEVERAL VARIABLES

a) If we set z = f (x), we have


dz d 1
= ln (x) = .
dx dx x
We also have
µ ¶ Ã !
∂x ∂ 1 1 u
= √ = − 3/2
(2u) = − 3/2
,
∂u ∂u u2 + v2 2 (u2 + v2 ) (u2 + v2 )

and µ ¶ Ã !
∂x ∂ 1 1 v
= √ = − (2v) = − .
∂v ∂v u2 + v 2 2 (u2 + v2 )3/2 (u2 + v 2 )3/2
Therefore,
µ ¶Ã !
∂ ∂z dz ∂x 1 u
f (x (u, v)) = = = − 3/2
∂u ∂u dx ∂u x (u2 + v 2 )
à !
p u
= 2
u +v − 2
(u2 + v 2 )3/2
u
= − 2
u + v2
and
µ ¶Ã !
∂ ∂z dz ∂x 1 v
f (x (u, v)) = = = − 3/2
∂v ∂v dx ∂v x (u2 + v2 )
à !
p v
= 2
u +v − 2
(u2 + v2 )3/2
v
= − 2 .
u + v2
b) We have µ ¶
1 ³p ´
f (x (u, v)) = f √ = ln u2 + v 2 .
u + v2
2

Therefore.
µ ¶
∂ ∂ 1 ∂ ³ ³p ´´
f (x (u, v)) = ln √ = − ln u2 + v2
∂u ∂u u + v2
2 ∂u
µ ¶µ ¶
1 u
= − √ √
u2 + v2 u2 + v2
u
= − 2 ,
u + v2
and
µ ¶
∂ ∂ 1 ∂ ³ ³p ´´
f (x (u, v)) = ln √ = − ln u2 + v 2
∂v ∂v u + v2
2 ∂v
µ ¶µ ¶
1 v
= − √ √
u2 + v 2 u2 + v2
v
= − 2 .
u + v2
4.
12.6. THE CHAIN RULE 45

a) If we set z = f (x) we have


dz d ¡ ¢ ¡ ¢
= sin x2 = 2x cos x2 .
dx dx
We have
∂x ∂ ∂x ∂
= (u − 4v) = 1 and = (u − 4v) = −4.
∂u ∂u ∂v ∂v
Therefore,
∂ ∂z dz ∂x
f (x (u, v)) = =
∂u ∂u ¡ ∂u ¡ ¢¢
dx
= 2x cos x2 (1)
¡ ¢ ³ ´
2
= 2x cos x2 = 2 (u − 4v) cos (u − 4v)

and
∂ ∂z dz ∂x ¡ ¡ ¢¢
f (x (u, v)) = = = 2x cos x2 (−4)
∂v ∂v dx ∂v ¡ ¢
= −8x cos x2
³ ´
= −8 (u − 4v) cos (u − 4v)2

b) We have ³ ´
f (u, v) = sin (u − 4v)2 .
Therefore,
∂ ³ ´ ³ ´
2 2
f (x (u, v)) = cos (u − 4v) (2 (u − 4v)) = 2 (u − 4v) cos (u − 4v) ,
∂u
∂ ³ ´ ³ ´
2 2
f (x (u, v)) = cos (u − 4v) (2 (u − 4v)) (−4) = −8 (u − 4v) cos (u − 4v) .
∂v
5.
a) If we set z = f (x, y) we have
à ! µ ¶
∂z ∂ y 1 ∂ ¡ 2 ¢−1/2
= arcsin p = s y x + y2
∂x ∂x x2 + y 2 y2 ∂x
1−
x2 + y 2
p µ µ ¶ ¶
x2 + y 2 1¡ ¢−3/2
= √ y − x2 + y 2 (2x)
x2 2
y
= − 2 ,
x + y2
and
⎛p µ ¶⎞
à ! x2 + y2 − y √ y
∂z ∂ y 1 ⎜ x2 +y2 ⎟
= arcsin p = s ⎜ ⎟
∂y ∂y x + y2
2 ⎝ x2 + y 2 ⎠
y2
1−
x2 + y2
p à !
x2 + y 2 x2
= √
x2 (x2 + y 2 )3/2
x
= .
x2 + y 2
46 CHAPTER 12. FUNCTIONS OF SEVERAL VARIABLES

We also have
∂x ∂ ∂x ∂
= (u cos (v)) = cos (v) , = (u cos (v)) = −u sin (v) ,
∂u ∂u ∂v ∂v
and
∂y ∂ ∂y ∂
= (u sin (v)) = sin (v) , = (u sin (v)) = u cos (v) .
∂u ∂u ∂v ∂v
Therefore,
∂ ∂z
f (x (u, v) , y (u, v)) =
∂u ∂u
dz ∂x dz ∂y
= +
dx ∂u dy ∂u
µ ¶ µ ¶
y x
= − 2 cos (v) + sin (v)
x + y2 x2 + y 2
− (u sin (v)) cos (v) + (u cos (v)) sin (v)
=
u2 cos2 (v) + u2 sin2 (v)
= 0,

and
∂ ∂z
f (x (u, v) , y (u, v)) =
∂v ∂v
dz ∂x dz ∂y
= +
dx ∂v dy ∂v
µ ¶ µ ¶
y x
= − 2 (−u sin (v)) + (u cos (v))
x + y2 x2 + y 2
u2 sin2 (v) + u2 cos2 (v)
= = 1.
u2 cos2 (v) + u2 sin2 (v)

b) We have

f (x (u, v) , y (u, v)) = f (u cos (v) , u sin (v))


⎛ ⎞
u sin (v)
= arcsin ⎝ q ⎠
u2 cos2 (v) + u2 sin2 (v)
= arcsin (sin (v)) = v.

Therefore,
∂ ∂
f (x (u, v) , y (u, v)) = 0 and f (x (u, v) , y (u, v)) = 1.
∂u ∂v
6.
a) If we set z = f (x, y) we have

∂z ∂ ³y´ 1 ³ y´ x2 ³ y ´ y
= arctan = ³ y ´2 − 2 = 2 − 2 =− 2 ,
∂x ∂x x x x + y2 x x + y2
1+
x
and ³y´ µ ¶ µ ¶
∂z ∂ 1 1 x2 1 x
= arctan = ³ y ´2 = 2 = 2
∂y ∂y x x x + y2 x x + y2
1+
x
12.6. THE CHAIN RULE 47

We also have
∂x ∂ ∂x ∂
= (u + 2v) = 1, = (u + 2v) = 2,
∂u ∂u ∂v ∂v

and
∂y ∂ ∂y ∂
= (u − 2v) = 1, = (u − 2v) = −2.
∂u ∂u ∂v ∂v

Therefore,

∂ ∂z
f (x (u, v) , y (u, v)) =
∂u ∂u
dz ∂x dz ∂y
= +
dx ∂u dy ∂u
µ ¶ µ ¶
y x
= − 2 (1) + (1)
x + y2 x2 + y 2
x−y 4v 2v
= = 2 = 2
x2 + y 2 2u + 8v 2 u + 4v2

and

∂ ∂z
f (x (u, v) , y (u, v)) =
∂v ∂v
dz ∂x dz ∂y
= +
dx ∂v dy ∂v
µ ¶ µ ¶
y x
= − 2 (2) + (−2)
x + y2 x2 + y 2
2 (x + y) −4u 2u
= − 2 = 2 =− 2 .
x + y2 2u + 8v 2 u + 4v 2

b) We have
µ ¶
u − 2v
f (x (u, v) , y (u, v)) = f (u + 2v, u − 2v) = arctan .
u + 2v

Therefore,

µ ¶
∂ ∂ u − 2v
f (x (u, v) , y (u, v)) = arctan
∂u ∂u u + 2v
à !
1 (u + 2v) − (u − 2v)
= µ ¶2 2
u − 2v (u + 2v)
1+
u + 2v
à !
(u + 2v)2 4v
= 2 2 2
(u + 2v) + (u − 2v) (u + 2v)
4v 2v
= = 2 ,
2u2 + 8v2 u + 4v 2
48 CHAPTER 12. FUNCTIONS OF SEVERAL VARIABLES

and
µ ¶
∂ ∂ u − 2v
f (x (u, v) , y (u, v)) = arctan
∂v ∂v u + 2v
à !
1 −2 (u + 2v) − 2 (u − 2v)
= µ ¶2
u − 2v (u + 2v)2
1+
u + 2v
à !
(u + 2v)2 −4u
= 2 2 2
(u + 2v) + (u − 2v) (u + 2v)
−4u 2u
= =− 2 ,
2u2 + 8v2 u + 4v 2

7. As in the text,

∂z ∂z ∂z
= cos (θ) + sin (θ)
∂r ∂x ∂y
∂z ∂z ∂z
= −r sin (θ) + r cos (θ) .
∂θ ∂x ∂y

Therefore,

µ ¶2 µ ¶2 µ ¶2 µ ¶2
∂z 1 ∂z ∂z ∂z 1 ∂z ∂z
+ = cos (θ) + sin (θ) + 2 −r sin (θ) + r cos (θ)
∂r r2 ∂θ ∂x ∂y r ∂x ∂y
µ ¶2 µ ¶µ ¶ µ ¶2
∂z ∂z ∂z ∂z
= cos2 (θ) + 2 cos (θ) sin (θ) + sin2 (θ)
∂x ∂x ∂y ∂y
µ ¶2 µ ¶µ ¶ µ ¶2
∂z ∂z ∂z ∂z
+ sin2 (θ) − 2 cos (θ) sin (θ) + cos2 (θ)
∂x ∂x ∂y ∂y
µ ¶ µ ¶
¡ 2 2
¢ ∂z 2 ¡ 2 2
¢ ∂z 2
= cos (θ) + sin (θ) + cos (θ) + sin (θ)
∂x ∂y
µ ¶2 µ ¶2
∂z ∂z
= + .
∂x ∂y

8. We have

∂x ∂y
= et cos (θ) , = et sin (θ) ,
∂t ∂t
∂x ∂y
= −et sin (θ) , = et cos (θ) .
∂θ ∂θ

Therefore,

∂z ∂z ∂x ∂z ∂y ∂z ∂z
= + = et cos (θ) + et sin (θ) ,
∂t ∂x ∂t ∂y ∂t ∂x ∂y
∂z ∂z ∂x ∂z ∂y ∂z ∂z
= + = −et sin (θ) + et cos (θ) .
∂θ ∂x ∂θ ∂y ∂θ ∂x ∂y
12.6. THE CHAIN RULE 49

Thus,
µ ¶2 µ ¶2 µ ¶2 µ ¶2
∂z ∂z ∂z ∂z ∂z ∂z
+ = et cos (θ) + et sin (θ) + −et sin (θ) + et cos (θ)
∂t ∂θ ∂x ∂y ∂x ∂y
à µ ¶2 µ ¶2 !
∂z ∂z ∂z ∂z
= e2t cos2 (θ) + 2 cos (θ) sin (θ) + sin2 (θ)
∂x ∂x ∂y ∂y
à µ ¶2 µ ¶2 !
∂z ∂z ∂z ∂z
+e2t sin2 (θ) − 2 cos (θ) sin (θ) + cos2 (θ)
∂x ∂x ∂y ∂y
õ ¶ µ ¶2 !
2
2t ∂z ∂z
= e + .
∂x ∂y

Therefore, "µ ¶2 µ ¶2 # µ ¶2 µ ¶2
−2t ∂z ∂z ∂z ∂z
e + = + .
∂t ∂θ ∂x ∂y
9.
a) Set w (x, t) = x + at, so that u = f (w (x, t)). By the chain rule,
∂u df ∂w df df
= (w (x, t)) = (w (x, t)) a = a (w (x, t)) .
∂t dw ∂t dw dw
Therefore,
µ ¶ µ 2 ¶
∂2u ∂ df d f ∂w
=a (w (x, t)) = a (w (x, t))
∂t2 ∂t dw dw2 ∂t
2 2
d f d f
= a 2 (w (x, t)) a = a2 2 (x + at)
dw dw
Similarly,
∂u df ∂w df df
= (w (x, t)) = (w (x, t)) (1) = (w (x, t))
∂x dw ∂x dw dw
and
µ ¶
∂2u ∂ df d2 f ∂w
2
= (w (x, t)) = (w (x, t))
∂x ∂x dw dw2 ∂x
2 2
d f d f
= (w (x, t)) (1) = (x − at)
dw2 dw2
Therefore,
∂2u 2
2∂ u
= a .
∂t2 ∂x2
b) If f (w) = sin (w) and a = π/4 then
³ π ´ ³ π ´
u (x, t) = f x + t = sin x + t .
4 4
In particular,
³ π´
u (x, 0) = sin (x) , u (x, 2) = sin x + = cos (x) ,
2
u (x, 4) = sin (x + π) = − cos (x)

c)
50 CHAPTER 12. FUNCTIONS OF SEVERAL VARIABLES

sin(x) cos(x)
y y
1.0 1

0.5

-10 -5 5 10 -10 -5 5 10
-0.5 x x
-1.0 -1

-cos(x)
y
1

-10 -5 5 10
x
-1

10.
a)
∂z ∂z x
2z − 2x = 0 ⇒ = ,
∂x ∂x z
∂z ∂z y
2z − 2y = 0 ⇒ =
∂x ∂y z
b) ¯ ¯
∂z ¯¯ 1 ∂z ¯¯ 2
¯ = − , ¯ =− .
∂x x=1,y=2,z=−3 3 ∂y x=1,y=2,z=−3 3
Therefore, the tangent plane is the graph of the equation

1 2
z = −3 − (x − 1) − (y − 2) .
3 3

-3

2
1
x
y

11.
a)
∂z ∂z x
2z + 2x = 0 ⇒ =− ,
∂x ∂x z
∂z ∂z y
2z − 2y = 0 ⇒ =
∂x ∂y z
b) ¯ ¯
∂z ¯¯ 3 1 ∂z ¯¯ 6
= − = − , = = 1.
∂x ¯x=3,y=6,z=6 6 2 ∂y ¯x=3,y=3,z=6 6
Therefore, the tangent plane is the graph of the equation

1
z =6− (x − 3) + (y − 6) .
2
12.7. DIRECTIONAL DERIVATIVES AND THE GRADIENT 51

3
6 x
y

12.7 Directional Derivatives and the Gradient


1.
a)
∂f ∂ ¡ 2 ¢ ∂f ∂ ¡ 2 ¢
(x, y) = 4x + 9y 2 = 8x and (x, y) = 4x + 9y 2 = 18y.
∂x ∂x ∂y ∂y
Therefore,
∇f (x, y) = 8xi + 18yj
b)
∇f (3, 4) = 24i + 72j,
and µ ¶
√ √ 1 2 1
||v|| = 4 + 1 = 5 ⇒ u = √ (−2, 1) = −√ , √ .
5 5 5
Therefore,
µ ¶
2 1
Du f (3, 4) = ∇f (3, 4) · u = (24i + 72j) · − √ i + √ j
5 5

48 72 24 5
= −√ + √ =
5 5 5
2.
a)
∂f ∂ ¡ 2 ¢
(x, y) = x − 4x − 3y 2 + 6y + 1 = 2x − 4,
∂x ∂x
and
∂f ∂ ¡ 2 ¢
(x, y) = x − 4x − 3y 2 + 6y + 1 = 6 − 6y.
∂y ∂y
Therefore,
∇f (x, y) = (2x − 4) i + (6 − 6y) j
b)
∇f (0, 0) = −4i + 6j,
and µ ¶
√ √ 1 1 1
||v|| = 1 + 1 = 2 ⇒ u = √ (1, −1) = √ , −√ .
2 2 2
Therefore,
µ ¶
1 1
Du f (0, 0) = ∇f (0, 0) · u = (−4i + 6j) · √ i− √ j
2 2
4 6 10 √
= −√ − √ = − √ = −5 2
2 2 2
52 CHAPTER 12. FUNCTIONS OF SEVERAL VARIABLES

3.
a)
∂f ∂ x2 −y2 2 2 ∂f ∂ x2 −y2 2 2
(x, y) = e = 2xex −y and (x, y) = e = −2yex −y .
∂x ∂x ∂y ∂y
Therefore,
2
−y 2 2
−y 2
∇f (x, y) = 2xex i − 2yex j
b)
∇f (2, 1) = 4e3 i − 2e3 j,
and µ ¶
√ 1 1 3
||v|| = 10 ⇒ u = √ (−1, 3) = −√ , √ .
10 10 10
Therefore,
µ ¶
¡ 3 ¢ 1 3
Du f (2, 1) = ∇f (2, 1) · u = 4e i − 2e3 j · − √ i + √ j
10 10
4e 3
6e 3 √
= − √ − √ = − 10e3
10 10
4.
a)
∂f ∂
(x, y) = (sin (x) cos (y)) = cos (x) cos (y) ,
∂x ∂x
and
∂f ∂
(x, y) = (sin (x) cos (y)) = − sin (x) sin (y) .
∂y ∂y
Therefore,
∇f (x, y) = cos (x) cos (y) i − sin (x) sin (y) j.
b)

∇f (π/3, π/4) = cos (π/3) cos (π/4) i − sin (π/3) sin (π/4) j
µ ¶ Ã√ ! Ã√ ! Ã√ ! √ √
1 2 3 2 2 6
= i− j= i− j
2 2 2 2 4 4

and µ ¶
√ √ 1 2 3
||v|| = 4 + 9 = 13 ⇒ u = √ (2, −3) = √ , −√ .
13 13 13
Therefore,
Ã√ √ ! µ ¶
2 6 2 3
Du f (π/3, π/4) = ∇f (π/3, π/4) · u = i− j · √ i− √ j
4 4 13 13
√ √ √ √
2 3 6 2 2+3 6
= √ + √ = √
2 13 4 13 4 13
5.
a)
∂f ∂ ¡ 2 ¢ ∂f ∂ ¡ 2 ¢
(x, y, z) = x − y 2 + 2z 2 = 2x, (x, y, z) = x − y 2 + 2z 2 = −2y,
∂x ∂x ∂y ∂y
and
∂f ∂ ¡ 2 ¢
(x, y, z) = x − y 2 + 2z 2 = 4z.
∂z ∂z
12.7. DIRECTIONAL DERIVATIVES AND THE GRADIENT 53

Therefore,
∇f (x, y, z) = 2xi − 2yj + 4zk.
b)
∇f (1, −1, 2) = 2i + 2j + 8k
and µ ¶
√ 1 1 1 1
||v|| = 3 ⇒ u = √ (1, −1, 1) = √ , −√ , √ .
3 3 3 3
Therefore,

Du f (1, −1, 2) = ∇f (1, −1, 2) · u


µ ¶
1 1 1
= (2i + 2j + 8k) · √ i − √ j + √ k
3 3 3
2 2 8 8
= √ −√ +√ =√
3 3 3 3
6.
a)

∂f ∂ ¡ 2 ¢−1/2 1¡ ¢−3/2 x
(x, y, z) = x + y2 + z2 = − x2 + y 2 + z 2 (2x) = − 3/2
,
∂x ∂x 2 (x2 + y 2 + z 2 )
∂f y ∂f z
(x, y, z) = − 3/2
, (x, y, z) = − 3/2
∂y 2 2 2
(x + y + z ) ∂z (x + y + z 2 )
2 2

Therefore,
x y z
∇f (x, y, z) = − i− j− k.
(x2 + y2 + z 2 )3/2 (x2 + y2 + z 2 )3/2 (x2 + y2 + z 2 )3/2

b)
2 2 1
∇f (2, −2, 1) = − i+ j− k
27 27 27
and µ ¶
√ 1 3 4 1
||v|| = 26 ⇒ u = √ (3, 4, 1) = √ ,√ ,√ .
26 26 26 26
Therefore,

Du f (2, −2, 1) = ∇f (2, −2, 1) · u


µ ¶ µ ¶
2 2 1 3 4 1
= − i+ j− k · √ i+ √ j+ √ k
27 27 27 26 26 26
6 8 1 1
= − √ + √ − √ = √
27 26 27 26 27 26 27 26
7.
a) We have

∂f ∂ ¡ 2 ¢−1/2 1¡ ¢−3/2 x
(x, y) = x + y2 = − x2 + y 2 (2x) = − ,
∂x ∂x 2 (x + y 2 )3/2
2

∂f ∂ ¡ 2 ¢−1/2 1¡ ¢−3/2 y
(x, y) = x + y2 = − x2 + y 2 (2y) = − .
∂y ∂y 2 (x + y 2 )3/2
2
54 CHAPTER 12. FUNCTIONS OF SEVERAL VARIABLES

Therefore,
x y
∇f (x, y) = − i− j
(x2 + y 2 )3/2 (x2 + y 2 )3/2
Thus,
2 3
v = ∇f (2, 3) = − i − 3/2 j
133/2 13
The corresponding rate of increase of f is
sµ ¶2 µ ¶2
2 3 1
||v|| = + =
133/2 133/2 13

b)
2 3
w = −∇f (2, 3) = i + 3/2 j
133/2 13
The corresponding rate of decrease of f is 1/13.
8.
a) We have
³p ´ 1 ∂ µ ¶
∂f ∂ ¡ ¢ 1 1 x
(x, y) = ln x2 + y 2 = ln x2 + y 2 = (2x) = ,
∂x ∂x 2 ∂x 2 x2 + y 2 x2 + y 2

∂f ∂ ³p ´ y
(x, y) = ln x2 + y 2 = 2 .
∂y ∂y x + y2
Therefore,
x y
∇f (x, y) = i+ 2 j
x2 + y 2 x + y2
Thus,
3 4
v = ∇f (3, 4) = i+ j
25 25
The corresponding rate of increase of f is
sµ ¶2 µ ¶2
3 4 1
||v|| = + = .
25 25 5

b)
3 4
w = −∇f (3, 4) = − i− j
25 25
The corresponding rate of decrease of f is 1/5.
9.
a) We have

∂f ∂ x2 −y2 2 2 ∂f ∂ x2 −y2 2 2
(x, y) = e = 2xex +y , (x, y) = e = −2yex −y .
∂x ∂x ∂y ∂y
Therefore,
2
−y 2 2
−y 2
∇f (x, y) = 2xex i − 2yex j.
Since Ã√ !
³π ´ ³ ³π ´ ³ π ´´ 3 1 ³√ ´
σ = 2 cos , 2 sin =2 , = 3, 1 ,
6 6 6 2 2
12.7. DIRECTIONAL DERIVATIVES AND THE GRADIENT 55

and ³√ ´ √ √
∇f 3, 1 = 2 3e2 i − 2e2 j = 2 3e2 i − 2e2 j.

We have
dσ dσ ³ π ´ √
(t) = −2 sin (t) i + 2 cos (t) j ⇒ = −i + 3j.
dt dt 6
Therefore,
¯ ³ ³ π ´´ dσ ³ π ´
d ¯
f (σ (t))¯¯ = ∇f σ ·
dt t=π/6 6 dt 6
³ √ ´ ³ √ ´
= 2 3e2 i − 2e2 j · −i + 3j
√ √ √
= −2 3e2 − 2 3e2 = −4 3e.

b) We have ¯¯ ¯¯
¯¯ dσ ³ π ´¯¯ ¯¯¯¯ √ ¯¯ √
¯¯ ¯¯ = ¯¯−i + 3j¯¯¯¯ = 4 = 2,
¯¯ dt 6 ¯¯

so that √
1 dσ ³ π ´ 1 ³ √ ´ 1 3
u= = −i + 3j = − i + j
2 dt 6 2 2 2
is the unit vector in the tangential direction. Therefore,
³√ ´ ³√ ´
Ddσ/dt f (σ (π/6)) = Ddσ/dt f 3, 1 = ∇f 3, 1 · u
à √ !
³ √ ´1 3
= 2 3e2 i − 2e2 j ·
− i+ j
2 2
√ √ √
= − 3e2 − 3e2 = −2 3e2 .

10.
a) We have
à ! µ ¶
∂f ∂ y 1 ∂ ¡ ¡ 2 ¢¢−1/2
(x, y) = arctan p = y x + y2
∂x ∂x x2 + y 2 y2 ∂x
1+
x2 + y 2
µ ¶
x + y2
2
1¡ 2 ¢
2 −3/2
= y − x +y (2x)
x2 + 2y 2 2
xy
= − p ,
(x + 2y ) x2 + y 2
2 2

and
⎛p µ ¶⎞
à ! 2 2 √ y
∂f ∂ y 1 ⎜ x +y −y x2 +y 2 ⎟
(x, y) = arctan p = ⎜ ⎟
∂y ∂y x + y2
2 y2 ⎝ x2 + y 2 ⎠
1+
x2
+ y2
à !
x2 + y 2 x2
=
x2 + 2y 2 (x2 + y 2 )3/2
x2
= p ,
(x2 + 2y 2 ) x2 + y 2
56 CHAPTER 12. FUNCTIONS OF SEVERAL VARIABLES

Therefore,
xy x2
∇f (x, y) = − p i+ p j.
(x2 + 2y 2 ) x2 + y 2 (x2 + 2y 2 ) x2 + y 2
Since µ ¶
3 4
σ (2) = − , ,
5 5
and µ ¶
3 4 √ √
∇f − , = 2 3e2 i − 2e2 j = 2 3e2 i − 2e2 j.
5 5
We have
dσ dσ ³ π ´ √
(t) = −2 sin (t) i + 2 cos (t) j ⇒ = −i + 3j.
dt dt 6
Therefore,
¯ ³ ³ π ´´ dσ ³ π ´
d ¯
f (σ (t))¯¯ = ∇f σ ·
dt t=π/6 6 dt 6
³ √ ´ ³ √ ´
= 2 3e2 i − 2e2 j · −i + 3j
√ √ √
= −2 3e2 − 2 3e2 = −4 3e.

b) We have ¯¯ ¯¯
¯¯ dσ ³ π ´¯¯ ¯¯¯¯ √ ¯¯ √
¯¯ ¯¯ = ¯¯−i + 3j¯¯¯¯ = 4 = 2,
¯¯ dt 6 ¯¯
so that √
1 dσ ³ π ´ 1 ³ √ ´ 1 3
u= = −i + 3j = − i + j
2 dt 6 2 2 2
is the unit vector in the tangential direction. Therefore,
³√ ´ ³√ ´
Ddσ/dt f (σ (π/6)) = Ddσ/dt f 3, 1 = ∇f 3, 1 · u
Ã√ !
³ √ ´1 3
= 2 3e2 i − 2e2 j ·
− i+ j
2 2
√ √ √
= − 3e2 − 3e2 = −2 3e2 .

11.
a) Let f (x, y) = 2x2 + 3y 2 . We have

∇f (x, y) = 4xi + 6yj.

Therefore,
∇f (2, 3) = 8i + 18j
is orthogonal to the curve f (x, y) = 35 at (2, 3).
b) The tangent line is the graph of the equation

8 (x − 2) + 18 (y − 3) = 0

12.
a) Let f (x, y) = x2 − y 2 . Then,
∇f (x, y) = 2xi − 2yj.
12.7. DIRECTIONAL DERIVATIVES AND THE GRADIENT 57

Therefore, ³ √ ´ √
∇f 3, 5 = 6i − 2 5j
¡ √ ¢
is orthogonal to the curve f (x, y) = 4 at 3, 5 .
b) The tangent line is the graph of the equation
√ ³ √ ´
6 (x − 3) − 2 5 y − 5 = 0.

13.
a) Let
2
−y2
f (x, y) = e25−x .
Then,
2
−y 2 2
−y2
∇f (x, y) = −2xe25−x i − 2ye25−x j,
so that
∇f (3, 4) = −6i − 8j
is orthogonal to the curve f (x, y) = 1 at (3, 4).
b) The tangent line is the graph of the equation

−6 (x − 3) − 8 (y − 4) = 0.

14.
a) Let f (x, y, z) = z − x2 + y 2 . We have

∇f (x, y, z) = −2xi + 2yj + k

Therefore
∇f (4, 3, 7) = −8i + 6j + k
is orthogonal to the surface at (4, 3, 7).
b) The plane that is tangent to the surface at (4, 3, 7) is the graph of the equation

−8 (x − 4) + 6 (y − 3) + (z − 7) = 0.

15.
a) Let f (x, y, z) = x2 − y 2 + z 2 . We have

∇f (x, y, z) = 2xi − 2yj + 2zk

Therefore
∇f (2, 2, 1) = 4i − 4j + 2k
is orthogonal to the surface at (2, 2, 1).
b) The plane that is tangent to the surface at (2, 2, 1) is the graph of the equation

4 (x − 2) − 4 (y − 2) + 2 (z − 1) = 0.

16.
a) Let f (x, y, z) = x2 − y 2 − z 2 . We have

∇f (x, y, z) = 2xi − 2yj − 2zk

Therefore
∇f (3, 2, 2) = 6i − 4j − 4k
58 CHAPTER 12. FUNCTIONS OF SEVERAL VARIABLES

is orthogonal to the surface at (3, 2, 2).


b) The plane that is tangent to the surface at (3, 2, 2) is the graph of the equation
6 (x − 3) − 4 (y − 2) − 4 (z − 2) = 0.
17.
Let f (x, y, z) = x − sin (y) cos (z). We have

∇f (x, y, z) = i − cos (y) cos (z) j + sin (y) sin (z) k


Therefore
∇f (1, π/2, 0) = i
is orthogonal to the surface at (1, π/2, 0).
b) The plane that is tangent to the surface at (1, π/2, 0) is the graph of the equation
x − 1 = 0 ⇔ x = 1.

12.8 Local Maxima and Minima


1.
∂f ∂f
(x, y) = 2x + y + 1, (x, y) = −2y + x − 1.
∂x ∂y
Therefore, ∂x f (x, y) = 0 and ∂y f (x, y) = 0 ⇔
2x + y + 1 = 0,
−2y + x − 1 = 0
Thus, the critical point is (−1/5, −3/5).
We have
∂2f ∂2f ∂2f
= 2, = −2 and =1
∂x2 ∂y 2 ∂y∂x
Therefore,
µ 2 ¶2
∂2f ∂2f ∂ f
D= − = (2) (−2) − 1 = −4 − 1 < 0.
∂x2 ∂y 2 ∂y∂x
Thus, f has a saddle point at (−1/5, −3/5).

10

z 0

-5
1
1 0
0
-1
-1
-2
x
y -2
-3 -3

2.
∂f ∂f
(x, y) = 2x − y, (x, y) = 2y − x + 1.
∂x ∂y
Therefore, ∂x f (x, y) = 0 and ∂y f (x, y) = 0 ⇔
2x − y = 0,
2y − x + 1 = 0
12.8. LOCAL MAXIMA AND MINIMA 59

Thus, the critical point is (−1/3, −2/3).


We have
∂2f ∂2f ∂2f
2
= 2, 2
= 2 and = −1
∂x ∂y ∂y∂x
Therefore,
µ ¶2
∂2f ∂2f ∂2f
D= − = (2) (2) + 1 = 5 > 0,
∂x2 ∂y 2 ∂y∂x
2
and ∂xx f = 2 > 0. Therefore, f has a local (and absolute) minimum at (−1/3, −2/3).

15

10

z
5

0
1 1
0 0
-1 -1
y -2 -2 x
-3 -3

3.
∂f ∂f
(x, y) = 2x + 2y, (x, y) = 2y + 2x.
∂x ∂y
Therefore, ∂x f (x, y) = 0 and ∂y f (x, y) = 0 ⇔

2x + 2y = 0,
2y + 2x = 0

Thus, any point on the line y = −x is a critical point.


We have
∂2f ∂2f ∂2f
2
= 2, 2
= 2 and =2
∂x ∂y ∂y∂x
Therefore,
µ ¶2
∂2f ∂2f ∂2f ¡ ¢
D= − = (2) (2) − 22 = 0..
∂x2 ∂y 2 ∂y∂x
We expect that the quadratic function f attains its absolute maximum or minimum on the line
y = −x. Indeed,

f (x, y) = x2 + y 2 + 2xy − 10
= (x + y)2 − 10,

so that f (x, y) ≥ −10 for each (x, y), and f (x, y) = −10 iff y = −x.

20

10
z

-10
3
2
1 3
0 2
1
y -1 0
-2 -1
-2 x
-3 -3
60 CHAPTER 12. FUNCTIONS OF SEVERAL VARIABLES

4.
∂f ∂f
(x, y) = 2x + 3y, (x, y) = 2y + 3x − 3.
∂x ∂y
Therefore, ∂x f (x, y) = 0 and ∂y f (x, y) = 0 ⇔

2x + 3y = 0,
2y + 3x − 3 = 0

Thus, the critical point is (9/5, −6/5).


We have
∂2f ∂2f ∂2f
2
= 2, 2
= 2 and =3
∂x ∂y ∂y∂x
Therefore,
µ 2 ¶2
∂2f ∂2f ∂ f
D= − = (2) (2) − 32 = 4 − 9 < 0.
∂x2 ∂y 2 ∂y∂x
Thus, f has a saddle point at (−9/5, −6/5).

30

20
z
10

0
1
-1 0
y
-1
-2 x
-2 -3

5.
∂f ∂f
(x, y) = 2x − 3y + 5, (x, y) = −3x − 2 + 12y.
∂x ∂y
Therefore, ∂x f (x, y) = 0 and ∂y f (x, y) = 0 ⇔

2x − 3y + 5 = 0,
−3x + 12y − 2 = 0

Thus, the critical point is (−18/5, −11/15).


We have
∂2f ∂2f ∂2f
= 2, = 12 and = −3
∂x2 ∂y 2 ∂y∂x
Therefore,
µ 2 ¶2
∂2f ∂2f ∂ f
D= 2 2
− = (2) (12) − 9 = 15 > 0,
∂x ∂y ∂y∂x
2
and ∂xx f = 2 > 0. Therefore, f has a local (and absolute) minimum at (−18/5, −11/15).

120

100

80
z 60

40

20

0 -2 0
2 1 0 -1 -2 -3 -4 -6 -4
y x
12.8. LOCAL MAXIMA AND MINIMA 61

6.
∂f ∂f
(x, y) = 3 − 3x2 − 3y 2 , (x, y) = −6xy
∂x ∂y
Thus, ∂x f (x, y) = 0 and ∂y f (x, y) = 0 ⇔

3 − 3x2 − 3y 2 = 0,
−6xy = 0

From the second equation, x = 0 or y = 0. If x = 0, then

3 − 3y 2 = 0 ⇔ y 2 = 1 ⇔ y = ±1.

Therefore, (0, 1) and (0, −1) are critical points.


If y = 0 then
3 − 3x2 = 0 ⇔ x2 = 1 ⇔ x = ±1.
Therefore, (1, 0) and (−1, −0) are critical points.
We have
∂2f ∂2f ∂2f
2
= −6x, 2
= −6x and = −6y
∂x ∂y ∂y∂x
Therefore,
µ ¶2
∂2f ∂2f ∂2f ¡ ¢
D (x, y) = − = (−6x) (−6x) − (−6y)2 = 36 x2 − y 2 .
∂x2 ∂y 2 ∂y∂x

(x, y) D (x, y) fxx (x, y) critical point


(1, 0) 36 −6 local maximum
(−1, 0) 36 6 local minimum
(0, 1) −36 0 saddle point
(0, −1) −36 0 saddle point

20

10

0
z
-10

-20

0
y 2
-1
1
0
-2 -2 -1
x

7.
∂f ∂f
= −4x3 − 4y, (x, y) = −4y 3 − 4x.
∂x ∂y
Therefore, ∂x f (x, y) = 0 and ∂y f (x, y) = 0 ⇔

x3 + y = 0 ⇔ y = −x3
y 3 + x = 0 ⇔ x = −y 3 .

If we set y = −x3 in the second equation we obtain


¡ ¢3 ¡ ¢
x = − −x3 = x9 ⇔ x − x9 = 0 ⇔ x 1 − x8 = 0.
62 CHAPTER 12. FUNCTIONS OF SEVERAL VARIABLES

Therefore, x = 0, 1 or −1. Since y = −x3 , we have y = 0, −1 and 1, respectively. Thus, the


critical points are (0, 0), (1, −1) and (−1, 1).
We have
∂2f ∂2f ∂2f
2
= −12x2 , 2
= −12y 2 and = −4
∂x ∂y ∂y∂x
Therefore,
µ ¶2
∂2f ∂2f ∂2f ¡ ¢¡ ¢
D (x, y) = − = −12x2 −12y 2 − (−4)2 = 144x2 y 2 − 16
∂x2 ∂y 2 ∂y∂x

(x, y) D (x, y) fxx (x, y) critical point


(0, 0) −16 0 saddle point
(1, −1) 128 −12 local maximum
(−1, 1) 128 −12 local maximum

z
-10
1

0
-20
y
-1
0 -1
x 1

8.
f (x, y) = x3 − 12xy + 8y 3

∂f ∂f
= 3x2 − 12y, (x, y) = 24y 2 − 12x
∂x ∂y
Therefore, ∂x f (x, y) = 0 and ∂y f (x, y) = 0 ⇔

x2 − 4y = 0,
2y 2 − x = 0.

From the second equation x = 2y 2 . Substituting in the first equation,


¡ 2 ¢2 ¡ ¢
2y − 4y = 0 ⇔ y 4 − y = 0 ⇔ y y 3 − 1 = 0.

Thus, y = 0 or y = 1. The corresponding values of x are 0 and 1. Therefore, the critical points
are (0, 0) and (2, 1).
We have
∂2f ∂2f ∂2f
2
= 6x, 2
= 48y and = −12
∂x ∂y ∂y∂x
Therefore,
µ ¶2
∂2f ∂2f ∂2f 2
D (x, y) = − = (6x) (48y) − (−12) = 288xy − 144.
∂x2 ∂y 2 ∂y∂x

(x, y) D (x, y) fxx (x, y) critical point


(0, 0) −144 0 saddle point
(2, 1) 432 12 local minimum
12.9. ABSOLUTE EXTREMA AND LAGRANGE MULTIPLIERS 63

100

z 0

-100 4
2
2 0
0 x
-2 -2
y

12.9 Absolute Extrema and Lagrange Multipliers


1. We have f (x, y) = x + y and we set g (x, y) = x2 + y 2 , so that we will determine the extrema
of f (x, y) subject to the constraint g (x, y) = 4 (i.e., the extrema of f on the circle of radius 2
centered at the origin).
We have
∇f (x, y) = (1, 1) and ∇g (x, y) = (2x, 2y) .
Therefore,
∇f (x, y) = λ∇g (x, y) ⇔ 1 = 2λx and 1 = 2λy.
Thus, we need to solve the following system of equations:

1 = 2λx,
1 = 2λy,
x + y2 = 4
2

(the last equation is the constraint equation, g (x, y) = 4).


From the first two equations,
1 1
x= and y = .
2λ 2λ
We substitute these expressions in the last equation:
µ ¶2 µ ¶2
1 1 1 1
+ =4 ⇒ 2 + =4
2λ 2λ 4λ 4λ2
⇒ 2 = 16λ2
1 1
⇒ λ = ±√ = ± √ .
8 2 2
Therefore,
1 1 √
x=y=± =± µ ¶ = ± 2.
2λ 1
2 √
2 2
2 2
Thus, the necessary conditions
¡√ √ ¢for the
¡ extrema
√ √ of
¢ f subject to the constraint x + y = 4 are
satisfied at the points 2, 2 and − 2, − 2 . We have
³√ √ ´ √ ³ √ √ ´ √
f 2, 2 = 2 2 and f − 2, − 2 = −2 2.
¡√ √ ¢ √
Therefore, the maximum value of f on the circle x2 + y 2 = 4 is f 2, 2 = 2 2 and the
¡ √ √ ¢ √
minimum value is f − 2, − 2 = −2 2.
64 CHAPTER 12. FUNCTIONS OF SEVERAL VARIABLES

2. We have f (x, y) = 3x − 4y and we set g (x, y) = x2 + y 2 , so that we will determine the


extrema of f (x, y) subject to the constraint g (x, y) = 9 (i.e., the extrema of f on the circle of
radius 3 centered at the origin).
We have
∇f (x, y) = (3, −4) and ∇g (x, y) = (2x, 2y) .
Therefore,
∇f (x, y) = λ∇g (x, y) ⇔ 3 = 2λx and − 4 = 2λy.
Thus, we need to solve the following system of equations:

3 = 2λx,
−4 = 2λy,
x + y2 = 9
2

(the last equation is the constraint equation, g (x, y) = 9).


From the first two equations,
3 4
x= and y = − .
2λ 2λ
We substitute these expressions in the last equation:
µ ¶2 µ ¶2
3 4 9 16
+ =9 ⇒ 2 + =9
2λ 2λ 4λ 4λ2
25
⇒ = 4λ2
9
5
⇒ λ=±
6
Therefore,
3 3 9 4 4 12
x= = µ ¶ = and y = − =− µ ¶ =− ,
2λ 5 5 2λ 5 5
2 2
6 6
or
3 3 9 4 4 12
x= = − µ ¶ = − and y = − = µ ¶=
2λ 5 5 2λ 5 5
2 2
6 6
Thus, the necessary conditions for the extrema of f subject to the constraint x2 + y 2 = 9 are
satisfied at the points µ ¶ µ ¶
9 12 9 12
,− and − ,
5 5 5 5
We have µ ¶ µ ¶
9 12 7 9 12 47
f ,− = and f − , =− .
5 5 5 5 5 5
Therefore, the maximum value of f on the circle x2 + y 2 = 9 is
µ ¶
9 12 7
f ,− = ,
5 5 5

and the mimimum value on x2 + y 2 = 9 is


µ ¶
9 12 47
f − , =− .
5 5 5
12.9. ABSOLUTE EXTREMA AND LAGRANGE MULTIPLIERS 65

3. We have f (x, y) = xy and we set g (x, y) = 4x2 + y 2 , so that we will determine the extrema
of f (x, y) subject to the constraint g (x, y) = 8 (i.e., the extrema of f on an elllipse that is
centered at the origin).
We have
∇f (x, y) = (y, x) and ∇g (x, y) = (8x, 2y) .
Therefore,
∇f (x, y) = λ∇g (x, y) ⇔ y = 8λx and x = 2λy.
Thus, we need to solve the following system of equations:

y = 8λx,
x = 2λy,
4x2 + y 2 = 8

(the last equation is the constraint equation, g (x, y) = 16).


From the first equation, y = 8λx. We replace y in the second equation:

x = 16λ2 x

We cannot have x = 0: Then y = 0, and (0, 0) does not satisfy the constraint equation.
Therefore,
1
16λ2 = 1 ⇒ λ = ± .
4
and we set y = 8λx in the last equation:

4x2 + 64λ2 x2 = 8.

Since 16λ2 = 1,
4x2 + 4x2 = 8 ⇒ 8x2 = 8 ⇒ x2 = 1 ⇒ x = ±1.
If λ = 1/4 and x = 1 then µ ¶
1
y = 8λx = 8 (1) = 2,
4
If λ = −1/4 and x = 1 then µ ¶
1
y = 8λx = 8 − (1) = −2,
4
If λ = 1/4 and x = −1 then µ ¶
1
y = 8λx = 8 (−1) = −2,
4
If λ = −1/4 and x = −1 then
µ ¶
1
y = 8λx = 8 − (−1) = 2.
4

Therefore, the critical points are

(1, 2) , (1, −2) , (−1, −2) , (−1, 2) .

We have
f (1, 2) = 2, f (1, −2) = −2, f (−1, −2) = 2, f (−1, 2) = −2.
Therefore, the minimum value of f (x, y) subject to 4x2 + y 2 = 8 is -−2, the maximum value is
2.
66 CHAPTER 12. FUNCTIONS OF SEVERAL VARIABLES

4. We have f (x, y) = x + y 2 and we set g (x, y) = 2x2 + y 2 , so that we will determine the
extrema of f (x, y) subject to the constraint g (x, y) = 1 (i.e., the extrema of f on an elllipse
that is centered at the origin).
We have
∇f (x, y) = (1, 2y) and ∇g (x, y) = (4x, 2y) .
Therefore,
∇f (x, y) = λ∇g (x, y) ⇔ 1 = 4λx and 2y = 2λy.
Thus, we need to solve the following system of equations:

4λx = 1,
2 (1 − λ) y = 0,
2x2 + y 2 = 1

(the last equation is the constraint equation, g (x, y) = 1).


From the last equation, we have y = 0 or λ = 1. If y = 0 then
1
2x2 = 1 ⇒ x = ± √ .
2
If y 6= 0 then λ = 1. From the first equation
1 1
x= = .
4λ 4
Substituting in the last equation,
µ ¶2 r
1 2 2 1 7 7
2 +y =1⇒y =1− = ⇒y =± .
4 8 8 8
Therefore, the critical points are
µ ¶ µ ¶ Ã r ! Ã r !
1 1 1 7 1 7
√ , 0 , −√ , 0 , , , ,−
2 2 4 8 4 8

We have µ ¶ µ ¶ Ã r !
1 1 1 1 1 7 9
f √ , 0 = √ , f −√ , 0 = −√ , f ,± =
2 2 2 2 4 8 8

Therefore, the minimum value of f (x, y) subject to 2x2 + y 2 = 1 is -−1/ 2, the maximum value
is 9/8.
5. The critical point of f in the interior of D is (0, 0), and f (0, 0) = 0. In order to find the
critical point of f subject to x2 + y 2 = 4, we set g (x, y) = x2 + y 2 , and apply the technique of
the technique of Lagrange multipliers. We have

∇f (x, y) = (2x, 4y) and ∇g (x, y) = (2x, 2y) .

Therefore,
∇f (x, y) = λ∇g (x, y) ⇔ 2x = 2λx and 4y = 2λy.
Thus, we need to solve the following system of equations:

2x = 2λx ⇔ (λ − 1) x = 0
4y = 2λy ⇔ (λ − 2) y = 0
x2 + y 2 = 4
12.9. ABSOLUTE EXTREMA AND LAGRANGE MULTIPLIERS 67

If λ = 1 then y = 0 and x = ±2. Thus, (2, 0) and (−2, 0) are a critical points.
If x = 0 then y = ±2. Thus, (0, 2) and (0, −2) are critical point. We have
f (±2, 0) = 4, f (0, ±2) = 8.
Therefore, the minimum value of f in D is 0, and its maximum value in D is 8.
6. The critical point of f in the interior of D is (0, 0), and f (0, 0) = 0. In order to find the
critical point of f subject to x2 + 2y 2 = 1, we set g (x, y) = x2 + 2y 2 , and apply the technique
of the technique of Lagrange multipliers. We have
∇f (x, y) = (y, x) and ∇g (x, y) = (2x, 4y) .
Therefore,
∇f (x, y) = λ∇g (x, y) ⇔ y = 2λx and x = 4λy.
Thus, we need to solve the following system of equations:
y = 2λx
x = 4λy
x2 + 2y 2 = 1
We cannot have λ = 0: In that case x = 0 and y = 0, so that the constraint equation is not
satisfied.
We have
x = 4λy = 4λ (2λx) = 8λ2 x,
so that ¡ 2 ¢
8λ − 1 x = 0.
We cannot have x = 0. Therefore,
1
8λ2 − 1 = 0 ⇒ λ = ± √ .
8
Therefore
2 1
y = 2λx = ± √ x = ± √ x.
8 2
Thus, µ ¶
1 2 1
x2 + 2 x = 1 ⇒ 2x2 = 1 ⇒ x = ± √ .
2 2
Therefore,
1
y=± .
2
Thus, the critical points on x2 + 2y 2 = 1 are
µ ¶ µ ¶ µ ¶ µ ¶
1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
√ , . √ ,− , −√ , , −√ , −
2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2
We have

µ ¶ √ µ ¶ √
1 1 2 1 1 2
f √ , = , f √ ,− =−
2 2 4 2 2 4
µ ¶ √ µ ¶ √
1 1 2 1 1 2
f −√ , = − , f −√ , − =
2 2 4 2 2 4
√ √
Therefore, the maximum value of f in D is − 2/4 and its maximum value in D is 2/4.
68 CHAPTER 12. FUNCTIONS OF SEVERAL VARIABLES
Chapter 13

Multiple Integrals

13.1 Double Integrals Over Rectangles


1. We have
Z ¯x=3
x=3 ¡ ¢ 1 x2 ¯ 27
x2 + 3xy 2 dx = x3 + 3 y 2 ¯¯ = 9 + y2
x=0 3 2 x=0 2

Therefore,
Z y=2 µZ x=3 ¶ Z µ
y=2 ¶
¡ 2 ¢ 27
x + 3xy 2 dx dy = 9 + y 2 dy
y=1 x=0 y=1 2
¯2
9 ¯ 81
= 9y + y 3 ¯¯ =
2 1 2

2. We have
Z y=π/3
y=π/3
x sin (y) dy = −x cos (y)|y=π/4
y=π/4
³π ´ ³π´
= −x cos + x cos
à 3 4
√ ! ³ ´
1 2 x √
= − + x= 2−1
2 2 2

Therefore,

Z ÃZ ! Z
x=1 y=π/3
x ³√
x=1 ´
x sin (y) dy dx = 2 − 1 dx
x=0 y=π/4 x=0 2
√ ¯1 √
2 − 1 2 ¯¯ 2−1
= x ¯ =
4 ¯ 4
0

3. We have
Z x=3
exy ydx = exy |31 = e3y − ey .
x==1

69
70 CHAPTER 13. MULTIPLE INTEGRALS

Therefore,
Z y=4 µZ x=3 ¶ Z y=4
xy
¡ 3y ¢
e ydx dy = e − ey dy
y=2 x==1 y=2
¯4
1 3y y¯
¯
= e −e ¯
3 2
1 12 1
= e − e − e6 + e2
4
3 3
4. We set u = 1 + y 2 so that du = 2ydy. Thus,
Z y=3 p Z y=3 p
xy 1 + y 2 dy = x y 1 + y 2 dy
y=1 y=1
Z
x u=10 1/2
= u du
2 u=2
à ¯10 !
x 2 3/2 ¯¯ x ³ 3/2 ´
= u ¯ = 10 − 23/2 .
2 3 2 3

Z µZ ¶ Z
x=2 y=3 p x ³ 3/2
x=2 ´
2
xy 1 + y dy dx = 10 − 23/2 dx
x=0 y=1 x=0 3
¯2
103/2 − 23/2 2 ¯¯
= x ¯
6
¡ 3/2 ¢0
2 10 − 23/2
=
3
5.
Z Z Z x=1 µZ y=2 ¶
xy 2 xy 2
dA = dy dx
D x2 + 1 x=0
2
y=−2 x + 1
Z x=1 µZ y=2 ¶
x 2
= 2
y dy dx
x=0 x + 1 y=−2
µZ x=1 ¶ µZ y=2 ¶
x 2
= 2
dx y dy
x=0 x + 1 y=−2
à ¯ !à ¯2 !
1 ¡ 2 ¢¯1 1 3 ¯¯
= ln x + 1 ¯ ¯ y
2 0 3 ¯−2
µ ¶
1 16 8
= ln (2) = ln (2)
2 3 3
6.
Z Z Z y=2 µZ 1 ¶
x2 y x2 y
xye dA = xye dx dy
D y=1 x=0
Z y=2 Ã ¯x=1 !
1 x2 y ¯¯
= e ¯ dy
y=1 2 x=0
Z
1 y=2 y
= (e − 1) dy
2 y=1
1³ y 2
´ 1¡ ¢
= e − y|1 = e2 − 1 − e
2 2
13.1. DOUBLE INTEGRALS OVER RECTANGLES 71

7.
Z Z Z y=1 µZ x=1 ¶
x2 x2
dA = dx dy
D 1 + y2 y=0 x=0 1 + y
2

Z y=1 Ã ¯1 !
1 x3 ¯¯
= dy
y=0 1 + y
2 3 ¯0
1³ 1
´ 1 π
= arctan (y)|0 = arctan (1) = .
3 3 12
8.
Z Z Z ÃZ !
y=π/2 x=π/3
y cos (x + y) dA = y cos (x + y) dx dy
D y=0 x=0
Z y=π/2 ³ ´
x=π/3
= y sin (x + y)|x=0 dy
y=0
Z y=π/2 ³ ³π ´ ´
= y sin + y − sin (y) dy
y=0 3
Z y=π/2 ³π ´ Z y=π/2
= y sin + y dy − y sin (y) dy
y=0 3 y=0
Z u=5π/6 ³ Z y=π/2
π´
= u− sin (u) du − y sin (y) dy
u=π/3 3 y=0

π ¯u=5π/6 Z y=5π/6 Z y=π/2


¯
= cos (u)¯ + y sin (y) dy − y sin (y) dy
3 u=π/3 y=π/3 y=0
µ ¶ ³ π ´ Z y=5π/6 Z y=π/2
π 5π π
= cos − cos + y sin (y) dy − y sin (y) dy
3 6 3 3 y=π/3 y=0
√ Z y=5π/6 Z y=π/2
π 3 π
= − − + y sin (y) dy − y sin (y) dy
6 6 y=π/3 y=0

We set u = y and dv = sin (y) dy so that

du = dy and v = − cos (y) .

Therefore
Z Z Z
y sin (y) dy = udv = uv − vdu
Z
= −y cos (y) + cos (y) dy
= −y cos (y) + sin (y)

Thus,
Z y=5π/6
5π/6
y sin (y) dy = −y cos (y) + sin (y)|π/3
y=π/3
µ ¶ µ ¶ ³π´ ³π´
5π 5π 5π π
= − cos + sin + cos − sin
6 6 6 3 3 3
1 5√ 1√ 1
= π+ 3π − 3+ ,
6 12 2 2
72 CHAPTER 13. MULTIPLE INTEGRALS

Z y=π/2
y sin (y) dy = −y cos (y) + sin (y)|π/2
0 =1
y=0

Therefore,
Z Z √ Z y=5π/6 Z y=π/2
π 3 π
y cos (x + y) dA = − − + y sin (y) dy − y sin (y) dy
D 6 6 y=π/3 y=0

π 3 π 1 5√ 1√ 1
= − − + π+ 3π − 3+ −1
6 6 6 12 2 2
1√ 1√ 1
= 3π − 3−
4 2 2

13.2 Double Integrals Over Non-Rectangular Regions


1. We have
Z √ Z √ ¯√y ! Ã
y
2 2
y
x2 ¯¯ 2
xy dx = y xdx = y
0 0 2 ¯0
³ y ´ y3
= y2 = .
2 2
Therefore,
Z Z √ Z ¯4
y=4 x= y 4
y3 y 4 ¯¯ 44
xy 2 dxdy = dy = ¯ = = 32
y=0 x=0 0 2 8 0 8
2. We have Z Z
cos(θ) cos(θ)
esin(θ) dr = esin(θ) dr = esin(θ) cos (θ) .
0 0

Therefore,
Z θ=π/2 Z r=cos(θ) Z π/2
sin(θ)
e drdθ = esin(θ) cos (θ) dθ.
θ=0 r=0 0

We set u = sin (θ) so that du = cos (θ) dθ. Thus,


Z π/2 Z sin(π/2) Z 1
esin(θ) cos (θ) dθ = eu du = eu du
0 sin(0) 0
1
= eu |0 = e − 1.

3.

2
x

We have y = x2 and y = 2x if

x2 − 2x = 0 ⇔ x (x − 2) = 0 ⇔ x = 0 or x = 2.
13.2. DOUBLE INTEGRALS OVER NON-RECTANGULAR REGIONS 73

Thus, the graphs intersect at (0, 0) and (2, 4).


Z Z Z x=2 Z y=2x
3
4x ydA = 4x3 ydydx.
D x=0 y=x2

We have
Z y=2x Z y=2x
4x3 ydy = 4x3 ydy
y=x2 y=x2
à ¯2x !
3 1 2 ¯¯ ¡ ¢
= 4x y ¯ = 2x3 4x2 − x4 .
2 2 x

Therefore,
Z x=2 Z y=2x Z 2 ¡ ¢
4x3 ydydx = 2x3 4x2 − x4 dx
x=0 y=x2 0
Z 2 ¡ 5 ¢
= 8x − 2x7 dx
0
µ ¶ µ 8 ¶¯2
x6 x ¯¯
= 8 −2
6 8 ¯0
4 ¡ 6 ¢ 1 ¡ 8 ¢ 64
= 2 − 2 =
3 4 3
4.

16

4
x

We have
Z Z Z x=4 Z y=x2
√ √
y xdA = y xdydx,
D x=0 y=0
and
Z y=x2 Z y=x2
√ √
y xdy = x ydy
y=0 y=0
à ¯x2 ! √
√ y 2 ¯¯ x ¡ 4 ¢ 1 9/2
= x ¯ = x = x .
2 0 2 2
Therefore,
Z x=4 Z y=x2 Z 4
√ 1 9/2
y xdydx = x dx
x=0 y=0 0 2
µ ¶¯4
1 x11/2 ¯¯
=
2 11/2 ¯0
411/2 211
= = .
11 11
74 CHAPTER 13. MULTIPLE INTEGRALS

5.

1
x

Z Z Z y=1 Z x=y
y 2 exy dA = y 2 exy dxdy.
D y=0 x=0

We have Z Z
x=y x=y
2 xy
y e dx = y yexy dx.
x=0 x=0

We set u = xy so that du = ydx. Therefore,


Z x=y Z y2
2
xy
ye dx = eu du = ey − 1.
x=0 0

Thus,
Z y=1 Z x=y Z 1 ³ 2 ´ Z 1 Z 1
2
y 2 exy dxdy = y ey − 1 dy = yey dy − ydy
y=0 x=0 0 0 0
Z 1
2 1
= yey dy −
0 2

We set u = y 2 so that du = 2ydy. Therefore,


Z 1 Z 1
2 1 1
yey dy = eu du = (e − 1) .
0 2 0 2

Thus,
Z y=1 Z x=y
1 1 1
y 2 exy dxdy = (e − 1) − = e − 1.
y=0 x=0 2 2 2
6.


  
x



Z Z Z √
x= π Z y=x1/3
¡ ¢ ¡ ¢
y sin x2 dA =
2
y 2 sin x2 dydx.
D x=0 y=−x1/3
13.2. DOUBLE INTEGRALS OVER NON-RECTANGULAR REGIONS 75

We have
Z y=x1/3 Z y=x1/3
¡ ¢ ¡ ¢
y 2 sin x2 dy = sin x2 y 2 dy
y=−x1/3 y=−x1/3
⎛ ⎞
¯ 1/3
¡ 2 ¢ y 3 ¯x
= sin x ⎝ ¯¯ ⎠
3 −x1/3
µ ¶
¡ 2¢ 2 2 ¡ ¢
= sin x x = x sin x2 .
3 3
Thus,
Z √
x= π Z y=x1/3 Z √
x= π
¡ ¢ 2 ¡ ¢
y sin x2 dydx =
2
x sin x2 dx.
x=0 y=−x1/3 x=0 3
We set u = x2 so that du = 2xdx. Therefore,
Z x=√π Z
2 ¡ ¢ 1 u=π
x sin x2 dx = sin (u) du
x=0 3 3 u=0
1 2
= ( − cos (x)|π0 ) =
3 3
7.

4
z
2

0
x
-2
-1 0
1
2 y

-1 0 1
x

Let R be the region in the xy-plane that is between y = x2 and y = 1. The volume of D is
Z Z Z x=1 Z y=1
¡ 2 2
¢ ¡ 2 ¢
x + y + 1 dA = x + y 2 + 1 dydx
R x=−1 y=x2
Z x=1 Ã ¯y=1 !
y 3 ¯
= x2 y + + y ¯¯ dx
x=−1 3 y=x2
Z x=1 µ ¶
2 1 4 x6 2
= x + +1−x − − x dx
x=−1 3 3
Z x=1 µ ¶
4 x6
= − x4 − dx
x=−1 3 3
¯1
4 x5 x7 ¯¯ 38 38 76
= x− − ¯ = + =
3 5 21 −1 35 35 35
76 CHAPTER 13. MULTIPLE INTEGRALS

8.

z 0

-2

1.0
1.0
0.5 0.5
y 0.0 0.0 x

Let R be the square [0, 1] × [0, 1] in the xy-plane. The volume of D is

Z Z Z x=1 Z y=1
(ex + ey ) dA = (ex + ey ) dydx
R x=0 y=0
Z x=1 ³ ´
= ex y + ey |y=1
y=0 dx
x=0
Z x=1
= (ex + e − 1) dx
x=0
x 1
= e + (e − 1) x|0 = e + (e − 1) − 1 = 2e − 2.

9.

z
2

0
0

1 3
2
x 1
2 0 y

y
3

2
x
13.2. DOUBLE INTEGRALS OVER NON-RECTANGULAR REGIONS 77

Let R be the shaded triangle. The volume of D is


Z Z Z x=2 Z y=3−3x/2
(6 − 3x − 2y) dA = (6 − 3x − 2y) dydx
R x=0 y=0
Z x=2 ³ ¯3−3x/2 ´
= 6y − 3xy − y 2 ¯0 dx
x=0
Z x=2 Ã µ ¶ µ ¶ µ ¶2 !
3x 3x 3x
= 6 3− − 3x 3 − − 3− dx
x=0 2 2 2
Z x=2 µ ¶
9 2
= (x − 2) dx
x=0 4
Z u=0 ¯0
9 2 9 3 ¯¯ 9 ¡ 3¢
= u du = u ¯ = 2 =6
u=−2 4 12 −2 12

10.
a)

3
x

b)
Z y=1 Z 3 Z x=3 Z y=x/3
2 2
ex dxdy = ex dydx
y=0 x=3y x=0 y=0
Z x=3 ÃZ !
y=x/3
x2
= e dy dx
x=0 y=0
Z x=3
x x2
= e dx.
x=0 3
2
We set u = x so that du = 2xdx. Thus,
Z x=3 Z
x x2 1 9 u 1¡ 9 ¢
e dx = e du = e −1 .
x=0 3 6 u=0 6
11.
a)
78 CHAPTER 13. MULTIPLE INTEGRALS

b)
Z √
y= π/2 Z √
x= π/2 Z √
x= π/2 Z y=x
¡ ¢ ¡ ¢
cos x2 dxdy = cos x2 dydx
y=0 x=y x=0 y=0
Z √
x= π/2 µZ y=x ¶
¡ ¢
= cos x2 dy dx
x=0 y=0
Z √
x= π/2 ¡ ¢
= cos x2 xdx.
x=0
2
We set u = x so that du = 2xdx. Thus,
Z x=√π/2 Z
¡ ¢ 1 π/4
cos x2 xdx = cos (u) du
x=0 2 0
1³ ´ 1 ³ ³π ´ ´ √2
π/4
= sin (u)|0 = sin − sin (0) =
2 2 4 4
12.

b)
Z y=1 Z π/2 p Z x=π/2 Z y=sin(x) p
cos (x) 1 + cos2 (x)dxdy = cos (x) 1 + cos2 (x)dydx
y=0 x=arcsin(y) x=0 y=0
Z ÃZ !
x=π/2 p y=sin(x)
= 2
cos (x) 1 + cos (x) dy dx
x=0 y=0
Z x=π/2 p
= cos (x) 1 + cos2 (x) sin (x) dx
x=0

We set u = cos (x) so that du = − sin (x) dx. Thus,


Z x=π/2 p Z u=0 p
2
cos (x) 1 + cos (x) sin (x) dx = − u 1 + u2 du
x=0 u=1
Z u=1 p
= u 1 + u2 du.
u=0
2
If we set v = 1 + u then dv = 2udu. Thus,
Z u=1 p Z v=2
1
u 1 + u2 du = v1/2 dv
u=0 2 v=1
µ ¶¯2
1 2 3/2 ¯¯
= v ¯
2 3 1
1 ³√ ´
= 8−1 .
3
13.3. DOUBLE INTEGRALS IN POLAR COORDINATES: 79

13.3 Double Integrals in Polar Coordinates:


1.
a)

x
4

b)
Z Z Z θ=π/2 Z r=4
xydA = r cos (θ) r sin (θ) rdrdθ
D θ=0 r=0
Z θ=π/2 µZ r=4 ¶
3
= cos (θ) sin (θ) r dr dθ
θ=0 r=0
Z Ã ¯ !
4 r=4
θ=π/2
r ¯¯
= cos (θ) sin (θ) dθ
θ=0 4 ¯r=0
Z θ=π/2
= 64 cos (θ) sin (θ) dθ.
θ=0

We set u = sin (θ) so that du = cos (θ) dθ. Thus,


Z Z Ã ¯1 !
θ=π/2 1
u2 ¯¯
64 cos (θ) sin (θ) dθ = 64 udu = 64 = 32.
θ=0 0 2 ¯0

2.
a)

-2 2

b)
Z Z Z θ=π Z 2
¡ ¢ ¡ ¢
sin x2 + y 2 dA = sin r2 rdrdθ
D
Ãθ=0 r=0
Z θ=π ! µZ 2 ¶
¡ ¢
= dθ sin r2 rdr
θ=0 r=0
Z 2 ¡ ¢
= π sin r2 rdr.
r=0
80 CHAPTER 13. MULTIPLE INTEGRALS

We set u = r2 so that du = 2rdr. Thus,


Z 2 Z
¡ ¢ π 4 π³ ´ π
π sin r2 rdr = sin (u) du = − cos (u)|40 = (1 − cos (4)) .
r=0 2 u=0 2 2
3.
a)

y
3

3
x

-3

b)
Z Z p Z θ=π/2 Z 3 p
9 − x2 − y 2 dA = 9 − r2 rdrdθ
D θ=−π/2 r=0
ÃZ ! µZ ¶ Z
θ=π/2 3 p 3 p
= dθ 9 − r2 rdr = π 9 − r2 rdr.
θ=−π/2 r=0 r=0

We set u = 9 − r2 so that du = −2rdr. Thus,


Z r=3 p Z
2
π 0√
π 9 − r rdr = − udu
r=0 2 9
à ¯9 ! µ ¶
π 2 3/2 ¯¯ 1
= u ¯ =π (27) = 9π.
2 3 0 3

4.
a)

2
y

-2 -1 1 2
x

b)
Z Z Z θ=π Z r=2
2
−y 2 2
e−x dA = e−r rdrdθ
D θ=0 r=1
Z r=2
−r2
= π rdr e
r=1
à ¯2 !
1 −r2 ¯¯ π ¡ −1 ¢
= π − e ¯ = e − e−4
2 1 2

5.
13.3. DOUBLE INTEGRALS IN POLAR COORDINATES: 81

a)

2
y

1 2
x

b)
Z Z ³y´ Z θ=π/4 Z r=2
arctan dA = θrdrdθ
D x
Ãθ=0
Z θ=π/4
r=1
! µZ ¶
r=2
= θdθ rdr
θ=0 r=1
à ¯π/4 ! à 2 ¯2 ! µ ¶
θ2 ¯¯ r ¯¯ 1 π2 3π 2
= = (3) = .
2 ¯0 2 ¯1 4 16 64

6.
a)

0.5

-0.5 0.5
x

-0.5

b) We have
π π
r = sin (2θ) = 0 and 0 < θ ≤ if 2θ = π ⇔ θ = .
2 2
The area inside one loop is
Z Z Z Ã ¯sin(2θ) !
θ=π/2 sin(2θ) θ=π/2
1 2 ¯¯
rdrdθ = r dθ
θ=0 r=0 θ=0 2 ¯r=0
Z θ=π/2
1
= sin2 (2θ) dθ
2 θ=0
Z π/2
1
= (1 − cos (4θ)) dθ
4 0
à ¯π/2 !
1 1 ¯
= θ − sin (4θ)¯¯
4 4 0
³
1 π ´ π
= = .
4 2 8
7.
a)
82 CHAPTER 13. MULTIPLE INTEGRALS

1 2 3
x

-1

b) We have
1
1 + cos (θ) = 3 cos (θ) if 2 cos (θ) = 1 ⇔ cos (θ) = .
2
The only such angle between 0 and π/2 is π/3. By symmetry, the area of D is
ÃZ Z Z Z !
π/2 r=1+cos(θ) θ=π r=1+cos(θ)
2 rdrdθ + rdrdθ .
θ=π/3 r=3 cos(θ) θ=π/2 r=0

We have
Z Z Z Ã ¯1+cos(θ) !
π/2 r=1+cos(θ) π/2
r2 ¯¯
rdrdθ = dθ
θ=π/3 r=3 cos(θ) θ=π/3 2 ¯3 cos(θ)
Z π/2
1 ¡ ¢
= 1 + 2 cos (θ) − 8 cos2 (θ) dθ
2 θ=π/3
µ Z π/2 µ ¶¶
1 1 + cos (2θ)
= 1 + 2 cos (θ) − 8 dθ
θ=π/3 2 2
¯π//2
3 ¯
= − θ + sin (θ) − sin (2θ)¯¯
2 π/3
µ ¶ Ã √ √ !
3π π 3 3 π
= − +1 − + − = − + 1,
4 2 2 2 4

and
Z Z Z Ã ¯1+cos(θ) !
θ=π r=1+cos(θ) θ=π
1 2 ¯¯
rdrdθ = r dθ
θ=π/2 r=0 θ=π/2 2 ¯0
Z θ=π
1
= (1 + cos (θ))2 dθ
2 θ=π/2
Z θ=π
1 ¡ ¢
= 1 + 2 cos (θ) + cos2 (θ) dθ
2 θ=π/2
Z µ θ=π ¶
1 1 + cos (2θ)
= 1 + 2 cos (θ) + dθ
2 θ=π/2 2
à ¯π !
1 3 1 ¯
= θ + 2 sin (θ) + sin (2θ)¯¯
2 2 4 π/2
µ ¶
1 3π 3π 3π
= − −2 = − 1.
2 2 4 8
13.3. DOUBLE INTEGRALS IN POLAR COORDINATES: 83

Therefore, the area of D is


ÃZ ! µ ¶
π/2 Z r=1+cos(θ) Z θ=π Z r=1+cos(θ)
π 3π
2 rdrdθ + rdrdθ = 2 − +1+ −1
θ=π/3 r=3 cos(θ) θ=π/2 r=0 4 8
³π ´ π
= 2 = .
8 4
8. The volume of D is Z Z p
x2 + y 2 dA,
R
where R is the disk that is inside the circle x2 + y 2 = 4, so that R is the disk of radius 2 centered
at the origin. Using polar coordinates,
Z Z p Z θ=2π Z r=2
2 2
x + y dA = (r) rdrdθ
R θ=0 r=0
Z θ=2π Z r=2
= r2 drdθ
Ãθ=0 r=0
Z θ=2π ! µZ r=2 ¶
= dθ r2 dr
θ=0 r=0
à ¯ ! µ ¶
3 ¯2
r ¯ 8 16π
= 2π = 2π = .
3 ¯0 3 3
9. By symmetry, the volume of D is
Z Z p
2 16 − x2 − y 2 dA,
R

where R is the annular region between the circles x2 + y 2 = 4 and x2 + y 2 = 16. Thus,
Z Z p Z θ=2π Z r=4 p
2 2 2
16 − x − y dA = 2 16 − r2 rdrdθ
R θ=0 r=2
ÃZ ! µZ ¶
θ=2π r=4 p
= 2 dθ 16 − r2 rdr
θ=0 r=2
Z r=4 p
= 4π 16 − r2 rdr.
r=2
2
We set u = 16 − r so that du = −2rdr. Therefore,
Z r=4 p Z u=0
4π 2
16 − r rdr = −2π u1/2 du
r=2 u=12
à ¯0 !
2 3/2 ¯¯ 4π 3/2
= −2π u ¯ = 12 .
3 12 3
10.
a)

3
y

-3
x
84 CHAPTER 13. MULTIPLE INTEGRALS

b)
Z Z √ Z Z
3 9−x2 ¡ ¢ θ=π r=3 ¡ ¢
sin x2 + y 2 dydx = sin r2 rdrdθ
−3 0 θ=0 r=0
ÃZ ! µZ ¶
θ=π r=3 ¡ ¢
= dθ sin r2 rdr
θ=0 r=0
Z r=3 ¡ ¢
= π sin r2 rdr.
r=0

We set u = r2 so that du = 2rdr. Thus,


Z Z
r=3 ¡ ¢ π 9
π³ 9
´
π sin r2 rdr = sin (u) du = − cos (u)|0
r=0 2 u=0 2
π
= (− cos (9) + 1)
2
11.
a) We have
p
2 − y 2 ⇒ x2 + y 2 = 2.
x=
√ √
This is the equation of a circle of radius
√ 2 centered at the origin. If y = 1 then x = 2. The
polar coordinates of (1, 1) are r = 2 and θ = π/4

b) We have θ = π/4 on the line y = x. Thus,


Z y=1 Z x=√2−y2 Z θ=π/4 Z √2
xdxdy = r cos (θ) rdrdθ
y=0 x=y θ=0 r=0
ÃZ ! ÃZ √ !
θ=π/4 2
= cos (θ) dθ r2 dr
θ=0 r=0
à ¯√2 !
³ ´ 1 3 ¯¯
= sin (θ)|π/4 r
0
3 ¯0
√ ¡√ ¢3
2 2 4 2
= = = .
6 6 3

13.4 Applications of Double Integrals


1. The mass of the plate is
13.4. APPLICATIONS OF DOUBLE INTEGRALS 85

Z Z Z x=4 Z y=2
m (D) = ρ (x, y) dA = (1 + x + y) dydx
D x=0 y=0
Z 4
= (2x + 4) dx = 32
0
The moment of the plate with respect to the y-axis is
Z Z Z x=4 Z y=2
My (D) = xρ (x, y) dxdy = x (1 + x + y) dydx
D x=0 y=0
Z 4
224
= 2x (x + 2) dx =
0 3
The moment of the plate with respect to the x-axis is

Z Z Z 4 Z 2
Mx (D) = yρ (x, y) dxdy = y (1 + x + y) dydx
D 0 0
Z 4µ ¶
14 104
= 2x + dx =
0 3 3
Therefore, the x-coordinate of the center of mass is
224
My (D) 7
x̄ = = 3 = ∼ = 2.33
m (D) 32 3
The y-coordinate of the center of mass is
104
Mx (D) 13 ∼
ȳ = = 3 = = 1. 083
m (D) 32 12
2. The mass of the plate is
Z Z Z Z ³ p ´
m (D) = ρ (x, y) dA = 81 − x2 + y 2 dA.
D D
We transform to polar coordinates:
Z Z ³ p ´ Z θ=π Z r=3
81 − x2 + y 2 dA = (81 − r) rdrdθ
D θ=0 r=0
Z 3 ¡ ¢
= 2π 81r − r2 dr = 711π
r=0
The moment of the plate with respect to the y-axis is
Z Z Z Z ³ p ´
My (D) = xρ (x, y) dA = x 81 − x2 + y 2 dA.
D D
We transform to polar coordinates:
Z Z ³ p ´ Z θ=π Z r=3
2
x 81 − x + y dA =2 r cos (θ) (81 − r) rdrdθ
D
Ãθ=0
Z θ=π
r=0
! µZ ¶
r=3 ¡ ¢
= cos (θ) dθ 81r2 − r3 dr
θ=0 r=0
µ ¶
2835
= (0) = 0.
4
86 CHAPTER 13. MULTIPLE INTEGRALS

The moment of the plate with respect to the x-axis is


Z Z Z Z ³ p ´
Mx (D) = yρ (x, y) = y 81 − x2 + y 2 dA.
D D

We transform to polar coordinates:


Z Z ³ p ´ Z θ=π Z r=3
y 81 − x2 + y 2 dA = r sin (θ) (81 − r) rdrdθ
D
Ãθ=0
Z θ=π
r=0
! µZ ¶
r=3 ¡ ¢
2 3
= sin (θ) dθ 81r − r dr
θ=0 r=0
µ ¶
2835 2835
= (2) = .
4 2

Therefore, the x-coordinate of the center of mass is

My (D)
x̄ = = 0.
m (D)
The y-coordinate of the center of mass is
2835
Mx (D) 315 ∼
ȳ = = 2 = = 0.634.
m (D) 711π 158π

3. The moment of inertia of the plate about the x-axis is


Z Z Z Z Z Z
Ix = y 2 ρ (x, y) dxdy = y 2 ρ0 dxdy = ρ0 y 2 dxdy.
D D D

We transform to polar coordinates:


Z Z Z θ=2π Z r=r0
ρ0 2
y dxdy = ρ0 r2 sin2 (θ) rdrdθ
D
Ãθ=0
Z θ=2π
r=0
! µZ ¶
r=r0
= ρ0 sin2 (θ) dθ r3 dr
θ=0 r=0
µ ¶
1 4 π
= ρ0 (π) r = ρ r4
4 0 4 0 0

The moment of inertia of the plate about the y-axis is


Z Z Z Z Z Z
2 2
Iy = x ρ (x, y) dxdy = x ρ0 dxdy = ρ0 x2 dxdy.
D D D

We transform to polar coordinates:


Z Z Z θ=2π Z r=r0
2
ρ0 x dxdy = ρ0 r2 cos2 (θ) rdrdθ
D
Ãθ=0
Z θ=2π
r=0
! µZ ¶
r=r0
= ρ0 cos2 (θ) dθ r3 dr
θ=0 r=0
µ ¶
1 4 π
= ρ0 (π) r = ρ0 r04 .
4 0 4
13.4. APPLICATIONS OF DOUBLE INTEGRALS 87

The moment of inertia of the plate about the origin is

π π π
I0 = Ix + Iy = ρ r4 + ρ r4 = ρ0 r04 .
4 0 0 4 0 0 2

4. The moment of inertia of the plate about the x-axis is


Z Z Z Z ³ p ´
Ix = y 2 ρ (x, y) dxdy = y 2 81 − x2 + y 2 dxdy.
D D

We transform to polar coordinates:

Z Z ³ p ´ Z θ=π Z r=3
2
y 4 − x2 + y 2 dxdy = r2 sin2 (θ) (4 − r) rdrdθ
D
Ãθ=0
Z θ=π
r=0
! µZ ¶
r=3 ¡ ¢
2
= sin (θ) dθ 4r3 − r4 dr
θ=0 r=0
µ ¶µ ¶
1 162
= π = 16.2π
2 5

The moment of inertia of the plate about the y-axis is


Z Z Z Z ³ p ´
2
Iy = x ρ (x, y) dxdy = x2 81 − x2 + y 2 dxdy
D D

We transform to polar coordinates:

Z Z ³ p ´ Z θ=π Z r=3
2
x 81 − x2 + y 2 dxdy = r2 cos2 (θ) (4 − r) rdrdθ
D
Ãθ=0
Z θ=π
r=0
! µZ ¶
r=3 ¡ ¢
2
= cos (θ) dθ 4r3 − r4 dr
θ=0 r=0
µ ¶µ ¶
1 162
= π = 16.2π
2 5

The moment of inertia of the plate about the origin is

I0 = Ix + Iy = 16.2π + 16.2π = 32.4π

5. Since X and Y are independent, their joint density function is


½ 1 −−x/6 −y/2
f (x, y) = f1 (x) f2 (y) = 12 e e if x ≥ 0 and y ≥ 0,
0 otherwise.

Therefore, the probability that X + Y < 8 is


Z Z
1 −x/6 −y/2
e e dxdy,
D 12
88 CHAPTER 13. MULTIPLE INTEGRALS

where D is the triangular region in the first quadrant below the line x + y = 8. We have

Z Z Z x=8 Z 8−x
1 −−x/6 −y/2 1 −−x/6 −y/2
e e dxdy = e e ydx
D 12 x=0 y=0 12
Z x=8 µZ 8−x ¶
1
= e−x/6 e−y/2 dy dx
12 x=0 y=0
Z x=8 ³ ´
1
= e−x/6 2 − 2ex/2−4 dx
12 x=0
Z x=8 ³ ´
1
= 2e−x/6 − 2ex/3−4 dx
12 x=0
1 ³ −4 ´
= 6e − 18e−4/3 + 12
12
1 −4 3 −4/3 ∼ 0.613 762.
= e − e +1=
2 2

6. The density functions of X and Y are

1 2 1 2
f1 (x) = √ e−(x−3) /0.08 and f2 (y) = √ e−(y−5) /0.02 ,
0.2 2π 0.1 2π

respectively. Therefore,

P (2.5 < X < 3.5 and 4.5 < Y < 5.5)


Z y=5.5 Z x=3.5
= f1 (x) f2 (y) dxdy
y=4.5 x=2.5
µZ y=5.5 ¶ µZ x=3.5 ¶
= f2 (y) dy f1 (x) dx
y=4.5 x=2.5
µZ y=5.5 ¶ µZ x=3.5 ¶
1 2 1 2
= √ e−(y−5) /0.02 dy √ e−(x−3) /0.08 dx
y=4.5 0.1 2π x=2.5 0.2 2π
∼ ∼
= (0.999 999 ) (0.987 581 ) = 0.987 58.

13.5 Triple Integrals

1. The surfaces intersect when

x2 + y 2 = 18 − x2 − y 2 ⇔ x2 + y 2 = 9.

This is a circle of radius 3 centered at the origin. The volume in question is

Z Z ÃZ z=18−x2 −y2
!
dz dxdy
R z=x2 +y2
13.5. TRIPLE INTEGRALS 89

where R is the disk that is enclosed by the circle x2 + y 2 = 9. Let’s use polar coordinates:

Z Z ÃZ z=18−x2 −y 2
! Z θ−2π Z r=3
ÃZ
z=18−r2
!
dz dxdy = dz rdrdθ
R z=x2 +y2 θ=0 r=0 z=r2
Z θ−2π Z r=3 ¡ ¢
= 18 − 2r2 rdrdθ
θ=0 r=0
Z r=3
¡ ¢
= 2π 18r − 2r3 dr
Ãr=0 ¯3 !
2 1 4 ¯¯
= 2π 9r − r ¯
2 0
µ ¶
81
= 2π = .81π.
2

2. The volume in question is

Z Z µZ z=1−x−y ¶
dz dxdy,
R z=−10

where R is the disk that is enclosed by the circle of radius 2 centered at the origin. Let’s use
polar coordinates:

Z Z µZ ¶ Z Z ÃZ !
z=1−x−y θ=2π r−2 z=1−r(cos(θ)+sin(θ))
dz dxdy = dz rdrdθ
R z=−10 θ=0 r−0 z=−10
Z θ=2π Z r−2
¡ ¢
= 11r − r2 cos (θ) − r2 sin (θ) drdθ
θ=0 r−0
Z θ=2π Ã ¯r=2 !
11 2 1 3 1 3 ¯
= r − r cos (θ) − r sin (θ)¯¯ dθ
θ=0 2 3 3 r=0
Z θ=2π µ ¶
8 8
= 22 − cos (θ) − sin (θ) dθ
θ=0 3 3
¯2π
8 8 ¯
= 22θ − sin (θ) + cos (θ)¯¯ = 44π.
3 3 0

3.

Z Z Z Z z=1 Z y=1 Z x=1


2
x dxdydz = x2 dxdydz
D z=0 y=0 x=0
Z z=1 Z y=1 Ã ¯1 !
1 3 ¯¯
= x dydz
z=0 y=0 3 ¯0
Z Z
1 z=1 y=1 1
= dydz = .
3 z=0 y=0 3
90 CHAPTER 13. MULTIPLE INTEGRALS

4.

Z Z Z Z z=1 Z y=1 Z x=1


e−xy ydxdydz = e−xy ydxdydz
D z=0 y=0 x=0
Z Z ³
z=1 y=1 ¯x=1 ´
= −e−xy ¯x=0 dydz
z=0 y=0
Z z=1 Z y=1 ¡ −y ¢
= −e + 1 dydz
z=0 y=0
Z ³
z=1 ¯y=1 ´
= e−y + y ¯y=0 dz
z=0
Z z=1 ¡ ¢ 1
= e−1 + 1 − 1 dz = .
z=0 e

5.

Z Z Z Z z=2 Z y=1 Z x=1


zex+y dxdydz = zex+y dxdydz
D z=0 y=0 x=0
Z z=2 Z y=1 µZ x=1 ¶
y x
= ze e dx dydz
z=0 y=0 x=0
Z z=2 Z y=1
= zey (e − 1) dydz
z=0 y=0
Z z=2 Z y=1
= (e − 1) zey dydz
z=0 y=0
Z z=2 Z y=1
= (e − 1) z ey dydz
z=0 y=0
Z z=2
= (e − 1) z (e − 1) dz
z=0
à ¯z=2 !
2 1 2 ¯¯
= (e − 1) z
2 ¯z=0
= 2 (e − 1)2 .

Remark: One can also note that

Z z=2 Z y=1 Z x=1 Z z=2 Z y=1 Z x=1


zex+y dxdydz = zex ey dxdydz
z=0 y=0 x=0 z=0 y=0 x=0
µZ z=2 ¶ µZ y=1 ¶ µZ 1 ¶
y x
= zdz e dy e dx
z=0 y=0 x=0

at the beginning.
13.5. TRIPLE INTEGRALS 91

6.
Z Z Z Z z=π/2 µZ 1 µZ ¶ ¶
x=1−y
x2 cos (z) dxdydz = x2 cos (z) dx dy dz
D z=0 y=0 x=0
Z z=π/2 ÃZ Ã ¯1−y ! !
y=1
1 3 ¯¯
= cos (z) x dy
z=0 y=0 3 ¯x=0
Z z=π/2 µZ y=1 ¶
1
= cos (z) (1 − y)3 dy dz
z=0 y=0 3
Z z=π/2 µ ¶
1
= cos (z) dz
z=0 12
1 ³ ´ 1
= sin (z)|π/2
0 = .
12 12
7. Z Z Z Z µZ Z ¶ Z Z
z=1
1
zdxdydz = z dxdy dz = dxdy,
D z=0 R 2 R
where
R = {(x, y) : x2 + y 2 ≤ 1, x ≥ 0 and y ≥ 0.
Therefore, Ã
Z Z Z Z ¯1 !
θ=π/2 1
π 1 2 ¯¯ π
dxdy = rdrdθ = r =
R θ=0 r=0 2 2 ¯0 4
(merely the area of the part of the unit disk in the first quadrant).
Thus, Z Z Z Z Z
1 π
zdxdydz = dxdy = .
D 2 R 8

8. Part of the boundary of the tetrahedron is the plane that passes trough the points (1, 0, 0) , (0, 1, 0) , (0, 0, 1).
That plane is the graph of an equation of the form is
ax + by + cz = d.
You can confirm that a = b = c = d = 1, so that the equation is
x + y + z = 1,
so that z = 1 − x − y = 1 − y − x. The projection of that plane onto the xy-plane is the line
x + y = 1.
Thus, Z Z Z Z Z µZ ¶
z=1−x−y
x2 dxdydz = x2 dz dxdy,
D R z=0
where R is the triangular region bounded by the x and y axes and the line x + y = 1, as in the
picture:

1
y

1
x
92 CHAPTER 13. MULTIPLE INTEGRALS

Therefore,

Z Z µZ z=1−x−y ¶ Z x=1 Z 1−x µZ z=1−x−y ¶


x2 dz dxdy = x2 dz dydx
R z=0 x=0 y=0 z=0
Z x=1 Z 1−x
= x2 (1 − x − y) dydx
x=0 y=0
Z x=1 Z 1−x
¡ 2 ¢
= x − x3 − x2 y dydx
x=0 y=0
Z x=1 Ã ¯1−x !
2 3 1 2 2 ¯¯
= x y−x y− x y ¯ dx
x=0 2 0
Z x=1 µ ¶
1 4 1
= x − x3 + x2 dx
x=0 2 2
¯1
1 5 1 4 1 3¯ ¯
= x − x + x ¯
10 4 6 0
1
=
60

9.

Z Z Z Z Z µZ z=x+y ¶
xydxdxydz = xydz dxdy,
D R z=0

where R is the region in the xy-plane that is bounded by y = x2 and x = y 2 .


13.5. TRIPLE INTEGRALS 93

Thus,

Z Z µZ z=x+y ¶ Z Z µZ z=x+y ¶
xydz dxdy = xy dz dxdy
R z=0 R z=0
Z Z
= xy (x + y) dxdy
Z ZR
¡ 2 ¢
= x y + xy 2 dxdy
R
Z x=1 Z √
y= x ¡ 2 ¢
= x y + xy 2 dydx
x=0 y=x2
Z Ã ¯y=√x !
x=1
x2 y 2 xy 3 ¯¯
= + dx
x=0 2 3 ¯y=x2
Z x=1 µ 3 ¶
x x5/2 x6 x7
= + − − dx
x=0 2 3 2 3
¯1
x4 2 7/2 x7 x8 ¯¯
= + x − −
8 21 14 24 ¯0
1 2 1 1 3
= + − − =
8 21 14 24 28

10.

Z Z Z Z Z µZ z=5−y ¶
x2 dydxdz = x2 dz dxdy,
D R z=1

where R is the region inside the circle x2 + y 2 = 9. Thus,

Z Z µZ z=5−y ¶ Z Z
2
x dz dxdy = x2 (4 − y) dxdy
R z=1 R
Z θ=2π Z 3
= r3 cos2 (θ) (4 − r sin (θ)) drdθ
θ=0 r=0
Z θ=2π Ã ¯3 !
r 5 ¯
= cos2 (θ) r4 − sin (θ)¯¯ dθ
θ=0 5 r=0
Z θ=2π µ ¶
2 243
= cos (θ) 81 − sin (θ) dθ
θ=0 5
Z θ=2π µ ¶
243
= 81 cos2 (θ) − cos2 (θ) sin (θ) dθ
θ=0 5
Z θ=2π Z
81 243 2π
= (1 + cos (2θ)) dθ − cos2 (θ) sin (θ) dθ
2 θ=0 5 0
à ¯2π ! à ¯2π !
81 1 ¯ 243 cos 3
(θ) ¯
= θ + sin (2θ)¯¯ + ¯
2 2 0 5 3 ¯0
= 81π
94 CHAPTER 13. MULTIPLE INTEGRALS

13.6 Triple Integrals in Cylindrical and Spherical Coordi-


nates
1.
Ã√ !
³π´ 2 √
x = 2 cos =2 = 2,
4 2
Ã√ !
³π ´ 2 √
y = 2 sin =2 = 2,
4 2
z = 1.

2.
Ã√ !
³π ´ 3 √
x = 4 cos =4 = 2 3,
6 2
³π´ µ ¶
1
y = 4 sin =4 = 2,
6 2
z = 2.

3.
µ µ ¶ ¶
2π 1 3
x = 3 cos =3 − =− ,
3 2 2
µ ¶ Ã√ ! √
2π 3 3 3
y = 3 sin =3 = ,
3 2 2
z = 4.

4.
Ã√ !
³ π´ 3 √
x = 2 cos − =2 = 3,
6 2
³ π´ µ ¶
1
y = 2 sin − =2 − = −1,
6 2
z = 4.

5.
√ √
r = 1 + 1 = 2,
µ ¶
1 π 3π
θ = arccos − √ =π− = ,
2 4 4
z = 4.

6.
√ √
r = 4 + 12 = 16 = 4,
µ ¶ µ ¶
2 1 π
θ = − arccos = − arccos =− ,
4 2 3
z = −1
13.6. TRIPLE INTEGRALS IN CYLINDRICAL AND SPHERICAL COORDINATES 95

7.
√ √
r = 1+1= 2
µ ¶
1 π
θ = − arccos √ =− ,
2 4
z = 2
8.
√ √
r = 1 + 3 = 4 = 2,
µ ¶
1 π
θ = arccos = ,
2 3
z = 2
9. We have
x2 + y 2 = 16 ⇔ r2 = 16 ⇒ r = 4.

0
z

-5
5

5
0
0
y
x
-5-5

Thus,
Z Z Z p Z Z µZ z=4 p ¶
2 2
x + y dxdydz = 2 2
x + y dz dxdy,
D R z=−5
where R is the disk of radius 4 centered at the origin in the xy-plane. Thus,
Z Z µZ z=4 p ¶ Z Z p µZ z=4 ¶
x2 + y 2 dz dxdy = x2 + y 2 dz dxdy
R z=−5 R z=−5
Z Z p
= 9 x2 + y 2 dxdy
R
Z θ=2π Z r−4
= 9 r2 drdθ
θ=0 r=0
à ¯4 ! µ ¶
r3 ¯¯ 64
= 9 (2π) ¯ = 9 (2π) = 384π
3 0 3
10. We have
z = 1 − x2 − y 2 = z = 1 − r2 ,
and
z = 0 ⇒ 1 − r2 = 0 ⇒ r = 1.
Thus, the intersection of the paraboloid with the xy-plane is the unit circle.

0
0
1

x y
1 0
96 CHAPTER 13. MULTIPLE INTEGRALS

Therefore,
Z Z Z Z Z ÃZ 1−x2 −y 2
!
¡ 3 ¢ ¡ 3 ¢
x + xy 2 dxdydz = 2
x + xy dz dxdy,
D R z=0

where R is the part of the unit disk in the first quadrant. Thus,
Z Z ÃZ 1−x2 −y2 !
¡ 3 2
¢
x + xy dz dxdy
R z=0
Z Z ÃZ !
θ=π/2 r=1 1−r2 ¡ 3 ¢
3 3 2
= r cos (θ) + r cos (θ) sin (θ) dz rdrdθ
θ=0 r=0 z=0

We have
¡ ¢
r3 cos3 (θ) + r3 cos (θ) sin2 (θ) = r3 cos (θ) cos2 (θ) + sin2 (θ) = r3 cos (θ) .

Therefore,
Z Z ÃZ !
θ=π/2 r=1 1−r2 ¡ 3 ¢
3 3 2
r cos (θ) + r cos (θ) sin (θ) dz rdrdθ
θ=0 r=0 z=0
Z Z ÃZ !
θ=π/2 r=1 1−r2
4
= r cos (θ) dz drdθ
θ=0 r=0 z=0
Z Z ÃZ !
θ=π/2 r=1 1−r2
4
= r cos (θ) dz drdθ
θ=0 r=0 z=0
Z θ=π/2 Z r=1 ¡ ¢
= r4 cos (θ) 1 − r2 drdθ
Ãθ=0
Z θ=π/2
r=0
! µZ ¶
r=1 ¡ ¢
= cos (θ) dθ r4 − r6 dr
θ=0 r=0
à ¯1 !
³ ´ 1 5 1 7 ¯¯
π/2
= sin (θ)|0 r − r ¯
5 7 r=0
µ ¶
2 2
= (1) = .
35 35

11.

0
y 2
-2 0
-2
x

We have
Z Z Z Z Z ÃZ z=1+x2 +y 2
!
z z
e dxdydz = e dz dxdy,
D R z=0
13.6. TRIPLE INTEGRALS IN CYLINDRICAL AND SPHERICAL COORDINATES 97

where R is√the disk that is bounded by the circle x2 + y 2 = 5 in the xy-plane. This is the circle
of radius 5 centered at the origin. Thus,
Z θ=2π Z r=√5 ÃZ z=1+r2 ! Z θ=2π Z r=√5 ³ ´
1+r2
ez dz rdrdθ = ez |0 rdrdθ
θ=0 r=0 z=0 θ=0 r=0
Z Z √
θ=2π r= 5 ³ 2
´
= e1+r − 1 rdrdθ
θ=0 r=0
Z √
r= 5 ³ ´
2
= 2π e1+r r − r dr.
r=0
2
We set u = 1 + r so that du = 2rdr. Therefore,
Z Z
2 1 1 1 2
e1+r rdr = eu du = eu = e1+r .
2 2 2
Thus,
Z r=√5 ³ à ¯√5 !
´ 1 1+r2 1 2 ¯¯
1+r2
2π e r − r dr = 2π e − r ¯
r=0 2 2 0
¡ 6 ¢
= π e −5−e
12. In cylindrical coordinates,
x2 + y 2 = 1 ⇔ r2 = 1 ⇔ r = 1,
and p p
z= 4x2 + 4y 2 ⇔ z = 2 x2 + y 2 ⇔ z = 2r.

0
1

1
0
0
y
-1 -1 x

We have
Z Z Z Z Z µZ z=2r ¶
2 2 2
x dxdydz = r cos (θ) dz dxdy
D R z=0
Z θ=2π Z r=1 µZ z=2r ¶
= r2 cos2 (θ) dz rdrdθ
θ=0 r=0 z=0
Z θ=2π Z r=1 µZ z=2r ¶
= r3 cos2 (θ) dz drdθ
θ=0 r=0 z=0
Z θ=2π Z r=1
= 2r4 cos2 (θ) drdθ
Ãθ=0
Z θ=2π
r=0
! µZ ¶
r=1
= cos2 (θ) dθ 2r4 dr
θ=0 r=0
ÃZ ¯r=1 ! !Ã
θ=2π
1 + cos (2θ) 2 5 ¯¯
= dθ r
θ=0 2 5 ¯r=0
à ¯θ=2π !
2 θ 1 ¯ 2
= + sin (2θ)¯¯ = π.
5 2 4 θ=0 5
98 CHAPTER 13. MULTIPLE INTEGRALS

13.

0
z
-1

-2

2
1
0
2
y -1 1
0
-2 -1
-2 x

The volume of the region is


Z Z ÃZ √ !
z= 4−x2 −y2
√ dz dxdy,
R z=− 4−x2 −y2

where R is the disk in the xy-plane that is bounded by the circle x2 + y 2 = 1. Thus,
Z Z ÃZ z=√4−x2 −y2 ! Z θ=2π Z r=1 ÃZ z=√4−r2 !
√ dz dxdy = √ dz rdrdθ
R z=− 4−x2 −y 2 θ=0 r=0 z=− 4−r2
Z θ=2π Z r=1 ³ p ´
= 2 4 − r2 rdrdθ
θ=0 r=0
Z r=1 p
= 4π 4 − r2 rdr.
r=0

We set u = 4 − r2 so that du = −2rdr. Therefore,


Z r=1 p Z u=3
4π 2
4 − r rdr = −2π u1/2 du
r=0
Ãu=4 ¯ !
3
2 3/2 ¯¯
= −2π u ¯
3 4
4π ³ ´
= 8 − 33/2
3
14.

x = ρ sin (φ) cos (θ) = 1 sin (0) cos (0) = 0,


y = ρ sin (φ) sin (θ) = 1 sin (0) sin (0) = 0,
z = ρ cos (φ) = 1 cos (0) = 1.

Thus, the point is (0, 0, 1) in Cartesian coordinates.


15.
Ã√ ! µ ¶ √
³π ´ 2 1 2 ³π ´
x = ρ sin (φ) cos (θ) = 2 sin cos =2 = ,
4 3 2 2 2
Ã√ ! Ã√ ! √
³π´ ³π´ 2 3 6
y = ρ sin (φ) sin (θ) = 2 sin sin =2 = ,
4 3 2 2 2
Ã√ !
³π´ 2 √
z = ρ cos (φ) = 2 cos =2 = 2.
4 2
13.6. TRIPLE INTEGRALS IN CYLINDRICAL AND SPHERICAL COORDINATES 99

Thus, the point is Ã√ √ !


2 6 √
, , 2
2 2
in Cartesian coordinates.
16.
³π´
x = ρ sin (φ) cos (θ) = 5 sin cos (π) = 5 (1) (−1) = −5,
³ π2 ´
y = ρ sin (φ) sin (θ) = 5 sin sin (π) = 5 (1) (0) = 0,
³π ´ 2
z = ρ cos (φ) = 5 cos = 5 (0) = 0.
2
Thus, the point is (−5, 0, 0) in Cartesian coordinates.
17.
µ ¶ Ã√ ! à √ !
³π ´ 3π 3 2 √
x = ρ sin (φ) cos (θ) = 4 sin cos =4 − = − 6,
3 4 2 2
µ ¶ Ã√ ! Ã√ !
³π´ 3π 3 2 √
y = ρ sin (φ) sin (θ) = 4 sin sin =4 = 6,
3 4 2 2
³π´ µ ¶
1
z = ρ cos (φ) = 4 cos =4 = 2.
3 2
¡ √ √ ¢
Thus, the point is − 6, 6, 2 in Cartesian coordinates.
18.
√ √
ρ = 1 + 3 + 12 = 16 = 4,
µ ¶ à √ ! Ã√ !
z 2 3 3 π
φ = arccos = arccos = arccos = ,
ρ 4 2 6
à ! µ ¶ µ ¶
x 1 1 π
θ = arccos p = arccos √ = arccos =
2
x +y 2 1+3 2 3

(since y = 3 > 0).
Thus, the point is ³ π π´
4, ,
3 6
in spherical coordinates.
19.
√ √
ρ = 0 + 1 + 1 = 2,
µ ¶ µ ¶
z 1 π 3π
φ = arccos = arccos − √ =π− = ,
ρ 2 4 4
à !
x π
θ = − arccos p = − arccos (0) = −
2
x +y 2 2
(since y = −1 < 0).
Thus, the point is µ ¶
√ π 3π
2, − ,
2 4
100 CHAPTER 13. MULTIPLE INTEGRALS

in spherical coordinates.

20.

√ √
ρ = 0 + 3 + 1 = 4 = 2,
µ ¶ µ ¶
z 1 π
φ = arccos = arccos = ,
ρ 2 3
à !
0 π
θ = arccos p = arccos (0) =
x2 + y 2 2
(since y = 1 > 0).

Thus, the point is


³ π π´
2, ,
2 3

in spherical coordinates.

21.

√ √ √
ρ = 1 + 1 + 6 = 8 = 2 2,
µ ¶ à √ ! Ã√ !
z 6 3 π
φ = arccos = arccos √ = arccos = ,
ρ 2 2 2 6
à ! µ ¶ µ ¶
x 1 1 3π
θ = arccos p = arccos − √ = arccos − √ =
2
x +y 2 1+1 2 4
(since y = 1 > 0).

Thus, the point is


µ ¶
√ 3π π
2 2, ,
4 6

in spherical coordinates.

22.

z
1

0 2
y 0
-2 x
-2

Since ρ = 3 on the sphere x2 + y 2 + z 2 = 9, and 0 ≤ φ < π/2 above the xy-plane,


13.6. TRIPLE INTEGRALS IN CYLINDRICAL AND SPHERICAL COORDINATES 101

Z Z Z
¡ ¢
9 − x2 − y 2 dxdydz
D
Z θ=2π Z π/2 Z ρ=3 ¡ ¢
= 9 − ρ2 sin2 (φ) cos2 (θ) − ρ2 sin2 (φ) sin2 (θ) ρ2 sin (φ) dρdφdθ
θ=0 φ=0 ρ=0
Z θ=2π Z π/2 Z ρ=3
¡ ¢
= 9 − ρ2 sin2 (φ) ρ2 sin (φ) dρdφdθ
θ=0 φ=0 ρ=0
Z θ=2π Z π/2 Ã ¯ρ=3 !
1 ¯
= 3ρ3 − ρ5 sin2 (φ)¯¯ sin (φ) dφdθ
θ=0 φ=0 5 ρ=0
Z θ=2π Z π/2 µ ¶
243 2
= 81 − sin (φ) sin (φ) dφdθ
θ=0 φ=0 5
Z θ=2π Z π/2 Z Z
243 θ=2π π/2 3
= 81 sin (φ) dφdθ − sin (φ) dφdθ
θ=0 φ=0 5 θ=0 φ=0

We have
Z θ=2π Z π/2 Z θ=2π ³ ´
81 sin (φ) dφdθ = 81 − cos (φ)|π/2
0 dθ
θ=0 φ=0 θ=0
Z θ=2π
= 81 dθ = 81 (2π) = 162π
θ=0

We also have
Z Z Z
3 2
¡ ¢
sin (φ) dφ = sin (φ) sin (φ) dφ = 1 − cos2 (φ) sin (φ) dφ.

If we set u = cos (φ) then du = − sin (φ) dφ so that


Z Z
¡ ¢ ¡ ¢
1 − cos2 (φ) sin (φ) dφ = − 1 − u2 du
1 1
= −u + u3 = − cos (φ) + cos3 (φ) .
3 3
Thus,
Z ¯π/2
π/2
1 ¯ 1 2
sin3 (φ) dφ = − cos (φ) + cos3 (φ)¯¯ =1− = .
φ=0 3 0 3 3
Therefore,
Z Z Z Z θ=2π Z π/2 Z θ=2π Z π/2
¡ ¢ 243
9 − x2 − y 2 dxdydz = 81 sin (φ) dφdθ − sin3 (φ) dφdθ
D θ=0 φ=0 5 θ=0 φ=0
µ ¶
Z θ=2π
243 2
= 162π − dθ
5 θ=0 3
162 486
= 162π − (2π) = π
5 5
23.
102 CHAPTER 13. MULTIPLE INTEGRALS

z 1

0
0
2

1 1
x y
2 0

Z Z Z Z θ=π/2 Z φ=π/2 Z ρ=2


zdxdydz = ρ cos (φ) ρ2 sin (φ) dρdφdθ
D θ=0 φ=0 ρ=1
Z θ=π/2 Z φ=π/2 Z ρ=2
= ρ3 cos (φ) sin (φ) dρdφdθ
θ=0 φ=0 ρ=1
ÃZ ! ÃZ ! µZ ¶
θ=π/2 φ=π/2 ρ=2
= dθ cos (φ) sin (φ) dφ ρ3 dρ
θ=0 φ=0 ρ=1
à ¯π/2 ! à ¯2 !
³π´ 1 ¯ 1 ¯
= sin2 (φ)¯¯ ρ4 ¯¯
2 2 0 4 1
³ π ´ µ 1 ¶ µ 24 1 ¶ 15
= − = π
2 2 4 4 16

24.

z
1

0 3
0 2
1
1 y
2
x
3 0

Z Z Z √ 2 2 2 Z θ=π/2 Z φ=π/2 Z ρ=3


e x +y +z dxdydz = eρ ρ2 sin (φ) dρdφdθ
D θ=0 φ=0 ρ=0
ÃZ ! ÃZ ! µZ ¶
θ=π/2 φ=π/2 ρ=3
ρ 2
= dθ sin (φ) dφ e ρ dρ
θ=0 φ=0 ρ=0
³π´ ³ ´Z ρ=3
= − cos (φ)|π/2
0 eρ ρ2 dρ
2 ρ=0
Z ρ=3
π
= eρ ρ2 dρ.
2 ρ=0

In order to evaluate the last integral, let’s apply integration by parts by setting u = ρ2 and
dv = eρ dρ. Thus, Z
du = 2ρdρ and v = eρ dρ = eρ .
13.6. TRIPLE INTEGRALS IN CYLINDRICAL AND SPHERICAL COORDINATES 103

Therefore,
Z Z Z
2 ρ
ρ e dρ = udv = uv − vdu
Z
= ρ2 eρ − 2 eρ ρdρ.

Now we apply integration by parts by setting u = ρ and dv = eρ . Therefore,


Z Z Z
ρ
ρe dρ = udv = uv − vdu
Z
= ρeρ − eρ dρ = ρeρ − eρ .

Thus,
Z Z
ρ2 eρ dρ = ρ2 eρ − 2 eρ ρdρ = ρ2 eρ − 2 (ρeρ − eρ )

= ρ2 eρ − 2ρeρ + 2eρ .

Therefore,
Z
π ρ=3
π³ 2 ρ ¯ρ=3 ´
eρ ρ2 dρ = ρ e − 2ρeρ + 2eρ ¯ρ=0
2 ρ=0 2
π¡ 3 ¢ π¡ 3 ¢
= 5e − 2 = 5e − 2
2 2
25.

z 0

-2

-4
-4
-2
0
x 2 4
2
4 0
y

The spheres have radius 3 and 4, respectively, and y > 0 in the region. Therefore,
Z Z Z Z θ=π Z φ=π Z ρ=4
x2 dxdydz = ρ2 sin2 (φ) cos2 (θ) ρ2 sin3 (θ) dρdφdθ
D θ=0 φ=0 ρ=3
ÃZ ! ÃZ ! µZ ¶
θ=π φ=π ρ=4
= cos2 (θ) dθ sin3 (φ) dφ ρ4 dρ
θ=0 φ=0 ρ=3
µ ¯π ¶ ÃZ φ=π !Ã ¯4 !
1 1 ¯ 1 ¯
= θ + sin (2θ)¯¯ sin3 (φ) dφ ρ5 ¯¯
2 4 0 φ=0 5 3
à !µ ¶
³ π ´ Z φ=π 781
= sin3 (φ) dφ .
2 φ=0 5

We have Z Z Z
¡ ¢
sin3 (φ) dφ = sin2 (φ) sin (φ) dφ = 1 − cos2 (φ) sin (φ) dφ.
104 CHAPTER 13. MULTIPLE INTEGRALS

We set u = cos (φ):


Z Z
¡ ¢ ¡ ¢
1 − cos2 (φ) sin (φ) dφ = − 1 − u2 du
1 1
= −u + u3 = − cos (φ) + cos3 (φ) .
3 3
Therefore,
Z ¯π
φ=π
1 ¯
sin (φ) dφ = − cos (φ) + cos (φ)¯¯
3 3
φ=0 3 0
1 1 4
= 1− +1− =
3 3 3
Thus, Ã !µ
³π´ Z φ=π ¶ ³ π ´ µ 4 ¶ µ 781 ¶
3 781 1562
sin (φ) dφ = = π
2 φ=0 5 2 3 5 15
26.

2
z

0
y 2 4
-2 0
-4
x

Z Z Z Z θ=2π Z φ=π/3 Z ρ=4


2
x zdxdydz = ρ2 sin2 (φ) cos2 (θ) ρ cos (φ) ρ2 sin (φ) dρdφdθ
D θ=0 φ=0 ρ=2
Z θ=2π Z φ=π/3 Z ρ=4
= ρ5 sin3 (φ) cos (φ) cos2 (θ) dρdφdθ
θ=0 φ=0 ρ=2
ÃZ ! ÃZ ! µZ ¶
θ=2π φ=π/3 ρ=4
= cos2 (θ) dθ sin3 (φ) cos (φ) dφ ρ5 dρ
θ=0 φ=0 ρ=2
à ¯2π ! à ¯π/3 ! à ¯4 !
1 1 ¯ 1 ¯ 1 5 ¯¯
= ¯
θ + sin (2θ)¯ 4
sin (θ)¯¯ ρ
2 4 0 4 0 5 ¯2
⎛ Ã ⎞
√ !4 µ ¶
1 3 ¡ ¢
= (π) ⎝ ⎠ 1 45 − 25 =
279
π
4 2 5 10

27.

z 2

0
4
2

0
y -2
4
2
0
-4 -2
-4 x
13.6. TRIPLE INTEGRALS IN CYLINDRICAL AND SPHERICAL COORDINATES 105

Z Z Z Z θ=2π Z φ=π/3 Z ρ=3


dxdydz = ρ2 sin (φ) dρdφdθ
D θ=0 φ=π/6 ρ=0
ÃZ ! ÃZ ! µZ ¶
θ=2π φ=π/3 ρ=3
2
= dθ sin (φ) dφ ρ dρ
θ=0 φ=π/6 ρ=0
à ¯3 !
³ ´ 1 3 ¯¯
π/3
= (2π) − cos (φ)|π/6 ρ
3 ¯ 0
√ !µ ¶Ã
1 3 1 ¡ 3¢ ³√ ´
= (2π) − + 3 =9 3 − 1 π.
2 2 3
28.

2
z

0
y
2 4
-2 0
-4
x

Z Z Z Z θ=2π Z φ=π/3 Z ρ=4 cos(φ)


zdxdydz = ρ cos (φ) ρ2 sin (φ) dρdφdθ
D θ=0 φ=0 ρ=0
Z Z ÃZ !
θ=2π φ=π/3 ρ=4 cos(φ)
= cos (φ) sin (φ) ρ3 dρ dφdθ
θ=0 φ=0 ρ=0
Z Ã ¯4 cos(φ) !
φ=π/3
ρ4 ¯¯
= 2π cos (φ) sin (φ) dφ
φ=0 4 ¯0
Z φ=π/3 ¡ ¢
= 2π cos (φ) sin (φ) 64 cos4 (θ) dφ
φ=0
Z φ=π/3
= 128π cos5 (φ) sin (φ) dφ
φ=0
à ¯π/3 !
1 ¯
= 128π − cos (φ)¯¯
6
6 0
à µ ¶6 !
128π 1
= 1− = 21π
6 2
29.

z 1

0
2 2

0 0
y x

-2 -2
106 CHAPTER 13. MULTIPLE INTEGRALS

The sphere is the graph of ρ = 2. We have


p q
z= x2 + y 2 ⇒ ρ cos (φ) = ρ2 sin2 (φ) cos2 (θ) + ρ2 sin2 (φ) sin2 (θ)
⇒ ρ cos (φ) = ρ sin (φ) ⇒ cos (φ) = sin (φ) ,

so that the cone is the graph of φ = π/4. Therefore,


Z Z Z Z θ=2π Z φ=π/2 Z ρ=2
dxdydz = ρ2 sin (φ) dφdθ
θ=0 φ=π/4 ρ=0
ÃZ ! ÃZ ! µZ ¶
θ=2π φ=π/2 ρ=2
2
= dθ sin (φ) dφ ρ dρ
θ=0 φ=π/4 ρ=0
à ¯2 !
³ ´ 1 3 ¯¯
π/2
= (2π) − cos (θ)|π/4 ρ
3 ¯ 0
Ã√ ! µ ¶ √
2 8 8 2
= 2π = π
2 3 3
Chapter 14

Vector Analysis

14.1 Vector Fields, Divergence and Curl


1.
a)
∂ ∂ ¡ 2 ¢
∇ · F (x, y, z) = (xyz) − x y = yz
∂x ∂z
b)
¯ ¯
¯ i j k ¯¯
¯
∇ × F (x, y, z) = ¯¯ ∂x ∂y ∂z ¯¯
¯ xyz 0 −x2 y ¯
¯ ¯ ¯ ¯ ¯ ¯
¯ ∂y ∂z ¯¯ ¯ ∂x ∂z ¯¯ ¯ ∂x ∂y ¯
= ¯¯ i−¯¯ j+¯ ¯ ¯k
0 −x2 y ¯ xyz −x2 y ¯ xyz 0 ¯
µ ¶ µ ¶ µ ¶
∂ ¡ 2 ¢ ∂ ¡ 2 ¢ ∂ ∂
= −x y i − −x y − (xyz) j + − (xyz) k
∂y ∂x ∂z ∂y
= −x2 i − (−2xy − xy) i − xzk = −x2 i + 3xyi − xzk

2.
a)
∂ ¡ −x 2 ¢ ∂ ¡ −x 2 ¢
∇ · F (x, y, z) = e xy + e x y
∂x ∂y
¡ ¢ ¡ ¢
= −e−x xy 2 + e−x y 2 + e−x x2 = e−x −xy 2 + y 2 + x2

b)
¯ ¯
¯ i j k ¯¯
¯
∇ × F (x, y, z) = ¯¯ ∂x ∂y ∂z ¯¯
¯ e−x xy 2 e−x x2 y 0 ¯
¯ ¯ ¯ ¯ ¯ ¯
¯ ∂y ∂z ¯¯ ¯ ∂x ∂z ¯¯ ¯ ∂ ∂y ¯
¯
= ¯ −x 2 ¯
i − ¯ −x 2 j + ¯¯ −x x 2 ¯k
e x y 0 ¯ e xy 0 ¯ e xy e−x x2 y ¯
∂ ¡ −x 2 ¢ ∂ ¡ −x 2 ¢
= e x y − e xy
∂x ∂y
= −e−x x2 y + 2xe−x y − 2ye−x x = −e−x x2 y

3.

107
108 CHAPTER 14. VECTOR ANALYSIS

a)
∂ ∂
∇ · F (x, y, z) = cos (xz) − sin (xy) = 0.
∂y ∂z
b)
¯ ¯
¯ i j k ¯
¯ ¯
∇ × F (x, y, z) = ¯ ∂x ∂y ∂z ¯
¯ ¯
¯ 0 cos (xz) − sin (xy) ¯
¯ ¯ ¯ ¯ ¯ ¯
¯ ∂y ∂z ¯ ¯ ¯ ¯ ¯
= ¯ ¯ i − ¯ ∂x ∂z ¯ j + ¯ ∂x ∂y ¯k
¯ cos (xz) − sin (xy) ¯ ¯ 0 − sin (xy) ¯ ¯ 0 cos (xz) ¯
µ ¶
∂ ∂ ∂ ∂
= − sin (xy) − cos (xz) i + sin (xy) j + cos (xz) k
∂y ∂z ∂x ∂x
= (−x cos (xy) + x sin (xz)) i + y cos (xy) j − z sin (xz) k

4.
a)
³y´ µ ¶
∂ ∂ x
∇ · F (x, y, z) = arctan + arctan
∂x x ∂y y
⎛ ⎞
⎛ ⎞
1 ³ y´ ⎜ 1 ⎟µ x ¶
⎜ ⎟ ⎜ ⎟
= ⎝ ³ y ´2 ⎠ − 2 + ⎜ µ ¶2 ⎟ − 2
x ⎝ x ⎠ y
1+ 1+
x y
µ ¶³ µ ¶µ ¶
x2 y´ y2 x
= − 2 + − 2
x2 + y 2 x x2 + y 2 y
y x x+y
= − 2 − 2 =− 2
x + y2 x + y2 x + y2

b)

∇ × F (x, y, z)
¯ ¯
¯ i j k ¯¯
¯
= ¯ ∂x ∂y ∂z ¯¯
¯
¯ arctan (y/x) arctan (x/y) 0 ¯
¯ ¯ ¯ ¯ ¯ ¯
¯ ∂y ∂z ¯¯ ¯ ∂x ∂z ¯¯ ¯ ∂x ∂y ¯
= ¯ ¯ ¯ ¯k
¯ arctan (x/y) 0 ¯ i − ¯ arctan (y/x) 0 ¯ i + ¯ arctan (y/x) arctan (x/y) ¯
µ µ ¶ ³ y ´¶
∂ x ∂
= arctan − arctan k
∂x y ∂y x
⎛⎛ ⎞ ⎞
⎛ ⎞
⎜⎜ 1 ⎟µ1¶ 1
µ ¶⎟
⎜⎜ ⎟ ⎜ ⎟ 1 ⎟
= ⎜⎜ µ ¶2 ⎟ +⎝ ³ y ´2 ⎠ ⎟k
⎝⎝ x ⎠ y x ⎠
1+ 1+
y x
µµ ¶ µ ¶ µ ¶ µ ¶¶
y2 1 x2 1
= + k
x2 + y 2 y x2 + y 2 x
µ ¶
x+y
= k
x2 + y 2

5.
14.2. LINE INTEGRALS 109

a)
∂ ∂ ¡ 2 ¢ ∂ 2
∇ · F (x, y, z) = (2xy) + x + 2yz + y = 2y + 2z
∂x ∂y ∂z
b)
¯ ¯
¯ i j k ¯¯
¯
∇ × F (x, y, z) = ¯¯ ∂x ∂y ∂z ¯¯
¯ 2xy x2 + 2yz y 2 ¯
¯ ¯ ¯ ¯ ¯ ¯
¯ ∂y ∂z ¯¯ ¯ ∂x ∂z ¯¯ ¯ ∂x ∂y ¯
¯
= ¯ 2 ¯
2 ¯i − ¯
¯
2 ¯j + ¯
¯k
x + 2yz y 2xy y 2xy x + 2yz ¯
2

= (2y − 2y) i − (0) j + (2x − 2x) k = 0

6.
a)
∂ ∂ ∂
∇ · F (x, y, z) = ln (x) + ln (xy) + ln (xyz)
∂x ∂y ∂z
1 1 1
= + +
x y z
b)
¯ ¯
¯ i j k ¯
¯ ¯
¯
×F (x, y, z) = ¯ ∂x ∂y ∂z ¯
¯
¯ ln (x) ln (xy) ln (xyz) ¯
¯ ¯ ¯ ¯ ¯ ¯
¯ ∂y ∂z ¯ ¯ ¯ ¯ ¯
= ¯¯ ¯ i − ¯ ∂x ∂z ¯ j + ¯ ∂x ∂y ¯k
ln (xy) ln (xyz) ¯ ¯ ln (x) ln (xyz) ¯ ¯ ln (x) ln (xy) ¯
1 1 1
= i− j+ k
y x x

14.2 Line Integrals


¡ ¢
1. We have σ 0 (t) = 3t2 , 1 so that
p
ds = ||σ 0 (t)|| dt = 9t4 + 1dt

Therefore, Z Z 2 p
y 3 ds = t3 9t4 + 1dt.
C 0
4 3
We set u = 9t + 1 so that du = 36t dt. Thus,
Z 2 p Z 145
1
t3 9t4 + 1dt = u1/2 du
0 36 1
à ¯145 !
1 2 3/2 ¯¯ 1 ³ 3/2 ´
= u ¯ = 145 − 1
36 3 1 54

2. We have
σ0 (t) = (−2 sin (t) , 2 cos (t))
so that q
ds = ||σ 0 (t)|| dt = 4 sin2 (t) + 4 cos2 (t) = 2dt.
110 CHAPTER 14. VECTOR ANALYSIS

Therefore,
Z Z π/2 Z π/2
2
xy 2 ds = (2 cos (t)) (2 sin (t)) (2) dt = 16 sin2 (t) cos (t) dt.
C −π/2 −π/2

We set u = sin (t) so that du = cos (t) dt. Thus,


Z π/2 Z 1
2
16 sin (t) cos (t) dt = 16 u2 du
−π/2 −1
à ¯1 !
1 3 ¯¯ 16 32
= 16 u = (1 + 1) =
3 ¯−1 3 3

3. We can paramterize C by

σ (t) = (2, 1) + t (4 − 2, 5 − 1) = (2, 1) + t (2, 4) = (2 + 2t, 1 + 4t) ,

where 0 ≤ t ≤ 1. Thus,
√ √ √
σ 0 (t) = (2, 4) ⇒ ||σ 0 (t)|| = 4 + 16 = 20 = 2 5

Therefore, Z Z Z Z
1 1 1
xey ds = (2 + 2t) e1+4t dt = 2e e4t dt + 2e te4t dt.
C 0 0 0
We have Z Ã ¯1 !
1
1 4t ¯¯ e¡ 4 ¢ e5 e
2e e4t dt = 2e e ¯ = e −1 = −
0 4 0 2 2 2

We evaluate the other integral by setting u = t and dv = e4t dt. Thus


1 4t
du = dt and v = e .
4
Therefore,
Z Z Z
te4t dt = udv = uv − vdu
µ ¶ Z
1 4t 1
= t e − e4t dt
4 4
t 4t 1
= e − e4t .
4 16
Thus,
Z Ã ¯1 !
1
t 4t 1 4t ¯¯
2e te4t dt = 2e e − e ¯
0 4 16 0
µ ¶
1 4 1 1 1 3
= 2e e − e4 + = e + e5
4 16 16 8 8
Therefore,
Z Z 1 Z 1
y 4t
xe ds = 2e e dt + 2e te4t dt
C 0 0
e5 e 1 3 7 3
= − + e + e5 = e5 − e
2 2 8 8 8 8
14.2. LINE INTEGRALS 111

4. We can parametrize C by
σ (θ) = (4, 3) + 2 (cos (θ) , sin (θ))
= (4 + 2 cos (θ) , 3 + 2 sin (θ)) , 0 ≤ θ ≤ π.
Thus,
σ 0 (θ) = 2 (− sin θ) , cos (θ) ,
so that
ds = ||σ 0 (θ)|| = 2.
Therefore,
Z Z π
y−3 2 sin (θ)
2 2 ds = (2) dθ
C (x − 4) + (y − 3) 0 4 cos2 (θ) + 4 sin2 (θ)
Z π
π
= sin (θ) dθ = − cos (θ)|0 = 2.
0

5. We can parametrize C by
σ (t) = (2, 3, 4) + t (1, 2, 3) = (2 + t, 3 + 2t, 4 + 3t) , 0 ≤ t ≤ 1.
Thus, √
ds = ||σ 0 (t)|| dt = ||(1, 2, 3)|| dt = 14dt.
Therefore,
Z Z 1 √ √ Z 1 6t2
(x − 2) e(y−3)(z−4) ds = te(2t)(3t) 14dt = 14 te dt
C 0 0
à ¯1 !
√ 1 6t2 ¯¯
= 14 e ¯
12 0

14 ¡ 6 ¢
= e −1 .
12
6. We can parametrize C by
σ (t) = (1, 2) + t (3 − 1, 4 − 2) = (1, 2) + t (2, 2) = (1 + 2t, 2 + 2t) ,
where 0 ≤ t ≤ 1. Thus,
σ 0 (t) = 2i + 2j,
and
F (σ (t)) = F (1 + 2t, 2 + 2t) = (1 + 2t)2 i + (2 + 2t)2 j
Therefore,
³ ´
F (σ (t)) · σ 0 (t) = (1 + 2t)2 i + (2 + 2t)2 j · (2i + 2j)
2 2
= 2 (1 + 2t) + 2 (2 + 2t)
= 16t2 + 24t + 10.
Thus,
Z Z 1 Z 1
0
¡ 2 ¢
F·d σ = F (σ (t)) · σ (t) dt = 16t + 24t + 10 dt
C 0 0
¯1
16 3 ¯
= t + 12t + 10t¯¯
2
3 0
16 82
= + 12 + 10 =
3 3
112 CHAPTER 14. VECTOR ANALYSIS

7. We can parametrize C by
π
σ (θ) = (cos (θ) , sin (θ)) , ≤ θ ≤ π.
2
Thus,
σ 0 (θ) = − sin (θ) i + cos (θ) j
and
F (σ (θ)) = F (cos (θ) , sin (θ)) = sin (θ) i − cos (θ) j
Therefore,

F (σ (θ)) · σ 0 (θ) = (sin (θ) i − cos (θ) j) · (− sin (θ) i + cos (θ) j)
= − sin2 (θ) − cos2 (θ) = −1.

Thus
Z Z π
F·dσ = F (σ (θ)) · σ 0 (θ) dθ
C π/2
Z ³
π
π´ π
= (−1) dθ = − π − =− .
π/2 2 2

8. We have
1
σ 0 (t) = i + 3t2 j
t
and ¡ ¢ ¡ ¢
F (σ (t)) = F ln (t) , t3 = ln t3 i − eln(t) j = 3 ln (t) i − tj
Therefore,
µ ¶
0 1
F (σ (t)) · σ (t) = (3 ln (t) i − tj) · i + 3t2 j
t
ln (t)
= 3 − 3t3
t
Thus,
Z Z e Z e µ ¶
0 ln (t) 3
F·d σ = F (σ (t)) · σ (t) dt = 3 − 3t dt
C 1 1 t
¯e
ln2 (t) 3 4 ¯¯
= 3 − t ¯
2 4 1
3 3 4 3 9 3
= − e + = − e4
2 4 4 4 4
9. We have
σ 0 (t) = − sin (t) i + j + k
and
F (σ (t)) = F (cos (t) , t, t) = cos (t) i + sin (t) j + cos (t) k
Therefore,

F (σ (t)) · σ 0 (t) = (cos (t) i + sin (t) j + cos (t) k) · (− sin (t) i + j + k)
= − cos (t) sin (t) + sin (t) + cos (t)
14.2. LINE INTEGRALS 113

Thus
Z Z π/2
F·dσ = F (σ (t)) · σ 0 (t) dt
C π/4
Z π/2
= (− cos (t) sin (t) + sin (t) + cos (t)) dt
π/4
¯π/2
1 ¯
= − sin (t) − cos (t) + sin (t)¯¯
2
2 π/4
µ ¶2 √ √
1 1 1 2 2 3
= − +1+ √ + − =
2 2 2 2 2 4
10. We have Z Z Z Z
F·d σ = F·d σ = F·dσ + F·dσ.
C C1 +C2 C1 C2

We can parametrize C1 by
σ 1 (x) = (x, 0) , 0 ≤ x ≤ 2
and C2 by
σ 2 (t) = (2, 0) + t (3 − 2, 2 − 0) = (2, 0) + t (1, 2) = (2 + t, 2t) ,
where 0 ≤ t ≤ 1.
On C1 ,
σ 01 (x) = i
and
F (σ 1 (x)) = xj
Thus, Z Z Z
2 2
F·d σ = F (σ 1 (x)) · σ 01 (x) dx = (xj) · idx = 0
C1 0 0

On C2 ,
σ 02 (t) = i + 2j
and

F (σ 2 (t)) = F (2 + t, 2t) = (2 + t) 2ti + (2 + t − 2t) j


¡ ¢
= 4t + 2t2 i + (2 − t) j

Thus,
Z Z 1 Z 1 ¡¡ ¢ ¢
F·d σ = F (σ 2 (t)) · σ 02 (t) dt = 4t + 2t2 i + (2 − t) j · (i + 2j) dt
C2 0 0
Z 1 ¡ ¢
= 4t + 2t2 + 4 − 2t dt
0
Z 1 ¡ ¢
= 2t + 2t2 + 4 dt
0
¯1
2 3 ¯ 17
= t + t + 4t¯¯ =
2
3 0 3

Therefore, Z Z Z
17 17
F·d σ = F·dσ + F·dσ = 0 + = .
C C1 C2 3 3
114 CHAPTER 14. VECTOR ANALYSIS

11. We have Z Z
F · Tds = − F · Tds,
C C2

where C2 is the part of the circle of radius 2 centered at the origin traversed from (0, 2) to (−2, 0).
We can parametrize C2 by
π
σ (θ) = (2 cos (θ) , 2 sin (θ)) , ≤ θ ≤ π.
2
Thus,
σ 0 (θ) = −2 sin (θ) i + 2 cos (θ) j,
so that ||σ 0 (θ)|| = 2,
σ 0 (θ)
T (θ) = = − sin (θ) i + cos (θ) j
||σ 0 (θ)||
and q
ds = ||σ 0 (θ)|| dθ = 4 sin2 (θ) + 4 cos2 (θ)dθ = 2dθ.
We have

F (σ (θ)) = −2 (2 cos (θ)) (2 sin (θ)) i + (2 sin (θ) + 1) j


= −8 cos (θ) sin (θ) i + (2 sin (θ) + 1) j

Thus,

( F · T) (θ) = (−8 cos (θ) sin (θ) i + (2 sin (θ) + 1) j) · (− sin (θ) i + cos (θ) j)
= 8 cos (θ) sin2 (θ) + 2 sin (θ) cos (θ) + cos (θ) .

Therefore,
Z Z π ¡ ¢
− F · Tds = − 8 cos (θ) sin2 (θ) + 2 sin (θ) cos (θ) + cos (θ) 2dθ
C2 θ=π/2
Z π ¡ ¢
= − 16 cos (θ) sin2 (θ) + 4 sin (θ) cos (θ) + 2 cos (θ) dθ
θ=π/2
à ¯π !
16 ¯
= − sin (θ) + 2 sin (θ) + 2 sin (θ)¯¯
3 2
3 π/2
16 28
= +2+2=
3 3
12. We can parametrize C by

σ (t) = (1, 2, 3) + t (−1 − 1, −2 − 2, −3 − 3)


= (1, 2, 3) − t (2, 4, 6) = (1 − 2t, 2 − 4t, 3 − 6t) ,

where 0 ≤ t ≤ 1.
Thus,
σ 0 (t) = −2i − 4j − 6k
so that √ √
||σ 0 (t)|| = 4 + 16 + 36 = 2 14
Thus,
σ 0 (t) 1
T (t) = 0
= √ (−2i − 4j − 6k)
||σ (t)|| 2 14
14.2. LINE INTEGRALS 115

and √
ds = ||σ 0 (t)|| dt = 2 14dt.
We have

F (σ (t)) = F (1 − 2t, 2 − 4t, 3 − 6t)


= e1−2t+2−4t i + (1 − 2t) (3 − 6t) j + (2 − 4t) k
¡ ¢
= e3−6t i + 12t2 − 12t + 3 j + (2 − 4t) k

Therefore,

F (σ (t)) · T (t)
µ ¶
¡ ¡ ¢ ¢ 1
= e3−6t i + 12t2 − 12t + 3 j + (2 − 4t) k · √ (−2i − 4j − 6k)
2 14
1 ¡ ¡ ¢ ¢
= √ −2e3−6t − 4 12t2 − 12t + 3 − 6 (2 − 4t)
2 14
1 ¡ ¢
= √ −2e3−6t − 48t2 + 72t − 24
2 14
Thus,
Z Z 1
F · Tds = F (σ (t)) · T (t) ds
C 0
Z 1
1 ¡ ¢ √
= √ −2e3−6t − 48t2 + 72t − 24 2 14dt
0 2 14
Z 1
¡ ¢
= −2e3−6t − 48t2 + 72t − 24 dt
0
¯1
1 3 −6t ¯
= e e − 16t3 + 36t2 − 24t¯¯
3 0
1 3 −6 1 3 1 −3 1 3
= e e − 16 + 36 − 24 − e = e − e − 4
3 3 3 3
13.
a) Z Z
1
F·d σ = −xydx + dy.
C C x2 + 1
b)
Z Z µ−1 ¶
1 dx 1 dy
−xydx + 2
dy = −xy + 2 dt
C x +1 −4 dt x + 1 dt
Z −1 µ ¶
¡ ¢ d 1 d ¡ 2¢
= −t t2 (t) + 2 t dt
−4 dt t + 1 dt
Z −1 µ ¶
3 2t
= −t + 2 dt
−4 t +1
¯
1 ¡ ¢¯−1
= − t4 + ln t2 + 1 ¯¯
4 −4
µ ¶
1 3 2 255
= − + ln (2) + 4 − ln (17) = ln +
4 17 4
14.
116 CHAPTER 14. VECTOR ANALYSIS

a) Z Z
F·d σ = ydx − xdy
C C

b) We can parametrize C by
π π
σ (θ) = (cos (θ) , sin (θ)) , − ≤θ≤ .
2 2
Thus,
Z Z µ π/2 ¶
dx dy
ydx − xdy = y (θ) − x (θ) dθ
C −π/2 dθ dθ
Z π/2
= (sin (θ) (− sin (θ)) − cos (θ) cos (θ)) dθ
−π/2
Z π/2 ¡ 2 ¢
= − sin (θ) + cos2 (θ) dθ
π/2
Z π/2 ³ ´
π/2
= − dθ = − θ|−π/2 = −π
π/2

15. We can parametrize C by


π
σ (θ) = (cos (θ) , sin (θ)) , 0 ≤ θ ≤ .
2
Thus,
Z Z π/2 ¡ ¢
2 3
3x dx − 2y dy = 3 cos2 (θ) (− sin (θ)) − 2 sin3 (θ) cos (θ) dθ
C 0
Z π/2 ¡ ¢
= − 3 cos2 (θ) sin (θ) + 2 sin3 (θ) cos (θ) dθ
Ã0 ¯π/2 !
1 ¯
= − − cos3 (θ) + sin4 (θ)¯¯
2 0
µ ¶
1 3
= − +1 =−
2 2

16. The equation of the ellipse can be written as

x2
+ y 2 = 1.
4
This suggests that we set
σ (θ) = (2 cos (θ) , sin (θ)) .
Indeed
(2 cos (θ))2
+ sin2 (θ) = cos2 (θ) + sin2 (θ) = 1.
4
Thus, −C is parametrized by
π
σ (θ) = (2 cos (θ) , sin (θ)) , 0 ≤ θ ≤
2
(since C is from (0, 1) to (2, 0).
14.2. LINE INTEGRALS 117

Therefore,
Z Z π/2 ³ ´
x y
e dx + e dy = − e2 cos(θ) (−2 sin (θ)) + esin(θ) cos (θ) dθ
C 0
Z π/2 Z π/2
= e2 cos(θ) 2 sin (θ) dθ − esin(θ) cos (θ) dθ
0 0
µ ¯π/2 ¶ µ ¯π/2 ¶
2 cos(θ) ¯ sin(θ) ¯
= −e ¯ − e ¯
0 0
¡ ¢
= −1 + e2 − (e − 1) = e2 − e

17. We can parametrize C by


¡ ¢
σ (x) = x, x2 , 0 ≤ x ≤ 2.

Thus,
Z Z π
− sin (x) dx + cos (x) dy = (− sin (x) + cos (x) (2x)) dx
C 0
Z π Z π
= − sin (x) dx + 2 x cos (x) dx
0 0
Z π
= cos (x)|π0 + 2 x cos (x) dx
0
Z π
= −2 + 2 x cos (x) dx
0

In order to evaluate the last integral, we set u = x and dv = cos (x) dx. Thus,
Z
du = dx and v = cos (x) dx = sin (x) .

Therefore, Z Z
π π
x cos (x) dx = x sin (x)|π0 − sin (x) dx = cos (x)|π0 = −2.
0 0

Thus,
Z Z π
− sin (x) dx + cos (x) dy = −2 + 2 x cos (x) dx
C 0
= −2 + 2 (−2) = −6.

18. We can parametrize C by

σ (t) = t (2, 3, 4) = (2t, 3t, 4t) , 0 ≤ t ≤ 1.

Thus,
Z Z 1 ³ ´
3 2
x3 dx + y 2 dy + zdz = (2t) (2) + (3t) (3) + (4t) (4) dt
C 0
Z 1 ¡ 3 ¢
= 16t + 27t2 + 16t dt
0
¯1
= 4t4 + 9t3 + 8t2 ¯0 = 4 + 9 + 8 = 21.
118 CHAPTER 14. VECTOR ANALYSIS

14.3 Line Integrals of Conservative Vector Fields


1.
a)
∂ ∂
(2x − 3y) = −3 and (−3x + 4y − 8) = −3.
∂y ∂x
Since the above partial derivatives are equal F may be conservative.
b) We need to have

∂f
(x, y) = 2x − 3y,
∂x
∂f
(x, y) = −3x + 4y − 8
∂y

From the first equation,


Z
f (x, y) = (2x − 3y) dx = x2 − 3yx + g (y) .

Therefore,
∂f dg (y)
−3x + 4y − 8 = (x, y) = −3x +
∂y dy
Thus, Z
dg (y)
= 4y − 8 ⇒ g (y) = (4y − 8) dy = 2y 2 − 8y + K,
dy
where K is an arbitrary constant.
Therefore,
f (x, y) = x2 − 3yx + g (y) = x2 − 3yx + 2y 2 − 8y + K
is a potential for F (you can check that ∇f = F).
2.
a) We have
∂ x
(e cos (y)) = −ex sin (y)
∂y
and
∂ x
(e sin (y)) = ex sin (y) .
∂x
We have
−ex sin (y) = ex sin (y) ⇔ sin (y) = 0 ⇔ y = nπ, n = 0, ±1, ±2, . . .
Since the necessary conditions for the existence of a potential function are satisfied only at
isolated points, F is not conservative.
3.
a) We have
∂ x
(e sin (y)) = ex cos (y)
∂y
and
∂ x
(e cos (y)) = ex cos (y) .
∂x
Since the abve partial derivatives are equal everywhere, F may be conservative.
14.3. LINE INTEGRALS OF CONSERVATIVE VECTOR FIELDS 119

b) We need to have
∂f
(x, y) = ex sin (y) ,
∂x
∂f
(x, y) = ex cos (y) .
∂y
From the first equation,
Z
f (x, y) = ex sin (y) dx = ex sin (y) + g (y)


∂f dg (y)
ex cos (y) = (x, y) = ex cos (y) +
∂y dy

dg (y)
= 0 ⇒ g (y) = K,
dy
where K is an arbitrary constant. Thus,

f (x, y) = ex sin (y) + K

is a is a potential for F (confirm).


4.
a)
¯ ¯
¯ i j k ¯
¯ ¯
¯
∇ × F (x, y, z) = ¯ ∂x ∂y ∂z ¯
¯
¯ − cos (z) e−x−y − cos (z) e−x−y − sin (z) e−x−y ¯
¯ ¯
¯ ∂y ∂z ¯
¯
= ¯ −x−y
¯
−x−y ¯ i
− cos (z) e − sin (z) e
¯ ¯
¯ ∂x ∂z ¯
−¯¯ −x−y
¯
−x−y ¯ j
− cos (z) e − sin (z) e
¯ ¯
¯ ∂x ∂y ¯
+ ¯¯ −x−y −x−y ¯ k
¯
− cos (z) e − cos (z) e
¡ ¢
= −∂y sin (z) e−x−y + ∂z cos (z) e−x−y i
¡ ¢
− −∂x sin (z) e−x−y + ∂z cos (z) e−x−y j
¡ ¢
+ −∂x cos (z) e−x−y + ∂y cos (z) e−x−y k
¡ ¢ ¡ ¢
= sin (z) e−x−y − sin (z) e−x−y i − sin (z) e−x−y − sin (z) e−x−y j
¡ ¢
+ cos (z) e−x−y − cos (z) e−x−y k
= 0

Thus, F may be conservative.


b) We need to have
∂f
(x, y, z) = − cos (z) e−x−y ,
∂x
∂f
(x, y, z) = − cos (z) e−x−y ,
∂y
∂f
(x, y, z) = − sin (z) e−x−y .
∂z
120 CHAPTER 14. VECTOR ANALYSIS

From the first equation,


Z Z
f (x, y, z) = − cos (z) e−x−y dx = − cos (z) e−y e−x dx

= cos (z) e−y e−x + g (y, z)


= cos (z) e−x−y + g (y, z) .

From the second equation,


∂f ∂g
− cos (z) e−x−y = (x, y, z) = − cos (z) e−x−y + (y, z)
∂y ∂y

∂g
(y, z) = 0
∂y

g (y, z) = h (z) .
Therefore,
f (x, y, z) = cos (z) e−x−y + h (z) .
From the third equuation,

∂f dh (z)
− sin (z) e−x−y = (x, y, z) = − sin (z) e−x−y +
∂z dz

dh (z)
= 0 ⇒ h (z) = K,
dz
where K is an arbitrary constant. Thus,

f (x, y, z) = cos (z) e−x−y

is a is a potential for F (confirm).


5.
a) We need to have
∂f ∂f
(x, y) = xy 2 and (x, y) = x2 y.
∂x ∂y
From the first equation, Z
1 2 2
f (x, y) = xy 2 dx = x y + g (y) .
2
Therefore,
∂f dg (y)
(x, y) = x2 y + .
∂y dy
From the second equation,
∂f dg (y)
x2 y = (x, y) = x2 y +
∂y dy

dg (y)
= 0 ⇒ g (y) = K,
dy
where K is an arbitrary constant. We can set K = 0. Thus,
1 2 2
f (x, y) = x y
2
14.3. LINE INTEGRALS OF CONSERVATIVE VECTOR FIELDS 121

is a potential for F (confirm by differentiation).


b) Z
F · dσ = f (2, 1) − f (0, 1) = 2 − 0 = 2.
C
6.
a) We need to have
∂f ∂f
(x, y) = yexy − 1 and (x, y) = xexy
∂x ∂y
From the first equation,
Z
f (x, y) = (yexy − 1) dx = exy − x + g (y)

Therefore,
∂f dg (y)
(x, y) = xexy +
∂y dy
From the second equation,
∂f dg (y)
xexy = (x, y) = xexy +
∂y dy

dg (y)
= 0 ⇒ g (y) = K.
dy
We can set K = 0. Thus,
f (x, y) = exy − x
is a potential for F.
b)
Z
F · dσ = f (4, ln (2)) − f (0, 1)
C
³ ´
= e4 ln(2) − 4 − 1 = 24 − 5 = 11

7.
a) We need to have
∂f ∂f ∂f
(x, y, z) = yz, (x, y, z) = xz, (x, y, z) = xy + 2z.
∂x ∂y ∂z
From the first equation, Z
f (x, y, z) = yzdx = xyz + g (y, z) .

Thus,
∂f ∂g
(x, y, z) = xz + (y, z) .
∂y ∂y
From the second equation,
∂f ∂g
xz = (x, y, z) = xz + (y, z)
∂y ∂y

∂g
(y, z) = 0 ⇒ g (y, z) = h (z) .
∂y
122 CHAPTER 14. VECTOR ANALYSIS

Thus,
f (x, y, z) = xyz + h (z) .
Therefore,
∂f dh (z)
(x, y, z) = xy + .
∂z dz
From the third equation,

∂f dh (z)
xy + 2z = (x, y, z) = xy +
∂z dz

dh (z)
= 2z ⇒ h (z) = z 2 + K.
dz
Thus, we can set
f (x, y, z) = xyz + z 2 .
b)
Z
F · dσ = f (4, 6, 3) − f (1, 0, −2)
C
¡ ¢
= (4) (6) (3) + 32 − (4) = 77

8. We have
∂f ∂f y x
df = (x, y) dx + (x, y) dy = 2 2
dx − 2 dy
∂x ∂y x +y x + y2

∂f y ∂f x
(x, y) = 2 and (x, y) = − 2 .
∂x x + y2 ∂y x + y2
From the first equation,
Z Z µ ¶
y 1 1
f (x, y) = dx = 2 dx
x2 + y 2 (x/y) + 1 y

We set u = x/y so that du = dx/y. Thus,


Z µ ¶ Z
1 1 1
f (x, y) = 2 dx = 2
du
(x/y) + 1 y u +1
= arctan (u) + g (y) = arctan (x/y) + g (y) .

Therefore, µ ¶
∂f 1 x dg (y) x dg (y)
(x, y) = − + =− 2 + .
∂y x2 y2 dy x + y2 dy
1+ 2
y
From the second equation,

x ∂f x dg (y)
− = (x, y) = − 2 +
x2 +y 2 ∂y x +y 2 dy

dg (y)
= 0 ⇒ g (y) = K.
dy
We can set K = 0 and set µ ¶
x
f (x, y) = arctan .
y
14.3. LINE INTEGRALS OF CONSERVATIVE VECTOR FIELDS 123

Since we have y > 0 on C and C joins (0, 1) to (1, 1) we have


Z Z µ ¶
y x x
2 2
dx − dy = d arctan
C x +y x2 + y 2 C y
π
= arctan (1) − arctan (0) = .
4
9. We have
∂f ∂f y2
df = (x, y) dx + (x, y) dy = dx + 2y arctan (x) dy
∂x ∂y 1 + x2

∂f y2 ∂f
(x, y) = and (x, y) = 2y arctan (x) .
∂x 1 + x2 ∂y
From the first equation,
Z
y2
f (x, y) = dx = y 2 arctan (x) + g (y) .
1 + x2
Therefore,
∂f dg (y)
(x, y) = 2y arctan (x) + .
∂y dy
From the second equation,

∂f dg (y)
2y arctan (x) = (x, y) = 2y arctan (x) +
∂y dy

dg (y)
= 0 ⇒ g (y) = K.
dy
Thus, we can set K = 0 and
f (x, y) = y 2 arctan (x) .
Therefore,
Z Z
y2
dx + 2y arctan (x) dy = df
C 1 + x2 C
= f (1, 2) − f (0, 0)
³π ´
= 4 arctan (1) = 4 = π.
4
10. We have
∂f ∂f ∂f
df = dx + dy + = y 2 cos (z) dx + 2xy cos (z) dy − xy 2 sin (z) dz
∂x ∂y ∂z

∂f ∂f ∂f
= y 2 cos (z) , = 2xy cos (z) , = −xy 2 sin (z)
∂x ∂y ∂z
From the first equuation,
Z
f (x, y, z) = y 2 cos (z) dx = xy 2 cos (z) + g (y, z) .

Therefore,
∂f ∂g (y, z)
(x, y, z) = 2xy cos (z) + .
∂y ∂y
124 CHAPTER 14. VECTOR ANALYSIS

From the second equation,


∂f ∂g (y, z)
2xy cos (z) = (x, y, z) = 2xy cos (z) +
∂y ∂y

∂g (y, z)
= 0 ⇒ g (y, z) = h (z) .
∂y
Thus,
f (x, y, z) = xy 2 cos (z) + h (z) .
Therefore,
∂f dh (z)
(x, y, z) = −xy 2 sin (z) + .
∂z dz
From the third equation,
dh (z) dh (z)
−xy 2 sin (z) = −xy 2 sin (z) + ⇒ = 0.
dz dz
Therefore, we can set h (z) = 0 and
f (x, y, z) = xy 2 cos (z)
Then
Z Z
2 2
y cos (z) dx + 2xy cos (z) dy − xy sin (z) dz = df
C C
= f (1, 1, π) − f (0, 0, 0)
= cos (π) = −1.

14.4 Parametrized Surfaces and Tangent Planes


1.
a) We have
∂Φ
(u, v) = −3 sin (u) j + 3 cos (u) k,
∂u
∂Φ
(u, v) = i
∂v
Therefore, √
∂Φ ³ π ´ ³π´ ³π ´ 3 3 3
, 1 = −3 sin j + 3 cos k=− j+ k,
∂u 6 6 6 2 2
and
∂Φ ³ π ´
, 1 = i.
∂v 6
Thus,
³π ´ ∂Φ ³ π ´ ∂Φ ³ π ´
N ,1 = ,1 × ,1
6 Ã∂u 6 ∂v
! 6

3 3 3
= − j+ k ×i
2 2
¯ ¯
¯ i j k ¯
¯ √ ¯
= ¯¯ 0 − 32 3 2 3 ¯¯
¯ 1 0 0 ¯
¯ √ ¯ ¯ √ ¯ ¯ ¯ √
¯ −3 3 3 ¯ ¯ 0 3 3 ¯ ¯ 3 ¯
= ¯¯ 2 2 ¯ i−¯¯ 2 ¯ j + ¯ 0 −2 ¯ k = 3 3j + 3k
0 0 ¯ 1 0 ¯ ¯ 1 0 ¯ 2 2
14.4. PARAMETRIZED SURFACES AND TANGENT PLANES 125

b) We have à !
³π ´ ³ ³π´ ³ π ´´ √
3 3 3
P0 = Φ , 1 = 1, 3 cos , 3 sin = 1, , .
6 6 6 2 2

Therefore, the required tangent plane is the set of points P = (x, y, z) such that
³ π ´ −−→
N , 1 · P0 P = 0
6
⇔ Ã √ ! Ã Ã √ ! µ ¶ !
3 3 3 3 3 3
j + k · (x − 1) i + y − j+ z− k =0
2 2 2 2
⇔ √ Ã √ ! µ ¶
3 3 3 3 3 3
y− + z− =0
2 2 2 2
2.
a) We have
∂Φ
(u, v) = 2ui + cos (v) j + sin (v) k
∂u
and
∂Φ
(u, v) = −u sin (v) j + u cos (v) k.
∂v
Therefore, √
∂Φ ³ π ´ 1 3
3, = 6i + j + k
∂u 3 2 2
and Ã√ ! µ ¶ √
∂Φ ³ π ´ 3 1 3 3 3
3, = −3 j+3 k=− j+ k
∂v 3 2 2 2 2
Thus,
³ π´ ∂Φ ³ π ´ ∂Φ ³ π ´
N 3, = 3, × 3,
3 Ã∂u 3 ∂v ! à 3 !
√ √
1 3 3 3 3
= 6i + j + k × − j+ k
2 2 2 2
¯ ¯
¯ i j k ¯
¯ √ ¯
¯ 1 3 ¯
= ¯ 6 2√ 2 ¯¯
¯
¯ 0 −323 3 ¯
2
¯ √ ¯ ¯ √ ¯ ¯ ¯
¯ 1 3 ¯ ¯ 3 ¯ ¯ 6 1 ¯
¯ 2 ¯¯ i − ¯ 6 2 ¯j + ¯ 2√ ¯k
= ¯ 32√3 ¯ 3 ¯ ¯ 3 3 ¯
¯ − 2 3
2
¯ 0 2 0 − 2

= 3i−9j − 9 3k.

b) We have Ã
³ π´ ³ ³π ´ ³ π ´´ √ !
3 3 3
P0 = Φ 3, = 9, 3 cos , 3 sin = 9, ,
3 3 3 2 2

Therefore, the required tangent plane is the set of points P = (x, y, z) such that
³ π ´ −−→
N 3, · P0 P = 0
3
126 CHAPTER 14. VECTOR ANALYSIS

⇐⇒ Ã µ ¶ Ã √ ! !
³ √ ´ 3 3 3
3i−9j − 9 3k · (x − 9) i + y − j+ z− k =0
2 2
⇐⇒ µ ¶ Ã √ !
3 √ 3 3
3 (x − 8) − 9 y − −9 3 z− = 0.
2 2
3.
a) We have
∂Φ
(r, θ) = 3 cos (θ) i + 2rj + 2 sin (θ) k
∂r
and
∂Φ
(r, θ) = −3r sin (θ) i + 2r cos (θ) k.
∂θ
Therefore, √
∂Φ ³ π ´ 3 2 √
2, = i + 4j + 2k
∂r 4 2
and
∂Φ ³ π ´ √ √
2, = −3 2i + 2 2k.
∂θ 4
Thus,
³ π´ ∂Φ ³ π ´ ∂Φ ³ π ´
N 2, = 2, × 2,
4 Ã∂r 4 ∂θ ! 4
√ ³ √
3 2 √ √ ´
= i + 4j + 2k × −3 2i + 2 2k
2
¯ ¯
¯ i j k ¯¯
¯ √ √
= ¯¯ 3 2 2 4 √2 ¯¯
¯ −3 0 2 2 ¯
¯ √ ¯ ¯ √ ¯ ¯ √ ¯
¯ 4 ¯ ¯ 3 2 √ ¯ ¯ 3 2 4 ¯
¯ √ 2 ¯ ¯ √2 ¯ ¯ 2 ¯k
= ¯ i − ¯ 2 ¯ j +
0 2 2 ¯ ¯ −3 2 2 ¯ ¯ −3 0 ¯
√ ³ √ ´
= 8 2i − 3 2 + 6 j + 12k

b) We have ³ π´ ³ √ √ ´
Φ 2, = 3 2, 4, 2 2
4
Therefore, he required tangent plane is the set of points (x, y, z) such that
³ √ ³ √ ´ ´ ³³ √ ´ ³ √ ´ ´
8 2i − 3 2 + 6 j + 12k · x − 3 2 i + (y − 4) j + z − 2 2 k = 0

⇔ √ ³ √ ´ ³ √ ´ ³ √ ´
8 2 x − 3 2 − 3 2 + 6 (y − 4) + 12 z − 2 2 = 0.
4.
a) We have
∂Φ
(u, v) = sinh (u) cos (v) i + cosh (u) j + sinh (u) sin (v) k
∂u
and
∂Φ
(u, v) = − cosh (u) sin (v) i + cosh (u) cos (v) k.
∂v
14.4. PARAMETRIZED SURFACES AND TANGENT PLANES 127

Therefore,
∂Φ ³ π ´
1, = cosh (1) j + sinh (1) k
∂u 2
and
∂Φ ³ π ´
1, = − cosh (1) i.
∂v 2
Thus,
³ π´ ∂Φ ³ π ´ ∂Φ ³ π ´
N 1, = 1, × 1,
2 ∂u 2 ∂v 2
= (cosh (1) j + sinh (1) k) × (− cosh (1) i)
¯ ¯
¯ i j k ¯
¯ ¯
= ¯¯ 0 cosh (1) sinh (1) ¯
¯
¯ − cosh (1) 0 0 ¯
¯ ¯ ¯ ¯ ¯ ¯
¯ cosh (1) sinh (1) ¯ ¯ 0 sinh (1) ¯ ¯ 0 cosh (1) ¯
= ¯¯ ¯i − ¯
¯ ¯ − cosh (1)
¯j + ¯
¯ ¯ − cosh (1)
¯k
¯
0 0 0 0
= − sinh (1) cosh (1) j+ cosh2 (1) k.
b) We have ³ π´
P0 = Φ 1, = (0, sinh (1) , cosh (1)) .
2
Therefore, he required tangent plane is the set of points (x, y, z) such that
¡ ¢
− sinh (1) cosh (1) j+ cosh2 (1) k · (xi + (y − sinh (1)) j + (z − cosh (1)) k) = 0

− sinh (1) cosh (1) (y − sinh (1)) + cosh2 (1) (z − cosh (1)) = 0.
5.
a) We have √
∂Φ 1 1 3
(ρ, θ) = cos (θ) i + sin (θ) j + k
∂ρ 2 2 2
and
∂Φ 1 1
(ρ, θ) = − ρ sin (θ) i + ρ cos (θ) j.
∂θ 2 2
Therefore, √ √
∂Φ ³ π ´ 1 3 3
2, = i+ j+ k
∂ρ 3 4 4 2
and √
∂Φ ³ π ´ 3 1
2, =− i+ j
∂θ 3 2 2
Thus,
à √ √ ! à √ !
³ π´ 1 3 3 3 1
N 2, = i+ j+ k × − i+ j
3 4 4 2 2 2
¯ ¯
¯ i j k ¯
¯ √ √ ¯
¯ 1 3 3 ¯
= ¯ 4√ 4 2 ¯¯
¯
¯ − 23 1
2 0 ¯
¯ √ √ ¯ ¯ √ ¯ ¯ √ ¯
¯ 3 3 ¯ ¯ 1 3 ¯ ¯ 1 3 ¯
¯ 2 ¯ j + ¯¯
¯ ¯
= ¯¯ 14 2 ¯i − ¯ 4√ 4√ 4 ¯k
2 0 ¯ ¯ − 23 0 ¯ ¯ − 23 1
2
¯

3 3 1
= − i− j + k
4 4 2
128 CHAPTER 14. VECTOR ANALYSIS

b) We have à !
³ π´ √
1 3 √
Φ 2, = , , 3
3 2 2
Therefore, he required tangent plane is the set of points (x, y, z) such that
à √ ! õ ¶ à √ ! !
3 3 1 1 3 ³ √ ´
− i− j + k · x− i+ y− j+ z− 3 k =0
4 4 2 2 2
⇐⇒ √ µ ¶ Ã √ !
3 1 3 3 1³ √ ´
− x− − y− + z − 3 = 0.
4 2 4 2 2
6. We have
∂Φ 1
(φ, θ) = 2 cos (φ) cos (θ) i + cos (φ) sin (θ) j − sin (φ) k
∂φ 3
and
∂Φ
(φ, θ) = −2 sin (φ) sin (θ) i + sin (φ) cos (θ) j
∂θ
Therefore, √
∂Φ ³ π π ´ 2 1
, = j− k
∂φ 4 2 2 3
and
∂Φ ³ π π ´ √
, = − 2i
∂θ 4 2
Thus,
Ã√ !
³π π ´ 2 1 ³ √ ´
N , = j − k × − 2i
4 2 2 3
¯ ¯
¯ i j k ¯¯
¯ √
= ¯¯ √ 0 2
2
− 13 ¯¯
¯ − 2 0 0 ¯
¯ √ ¯ ¯ ¯ ¯ √ ¯
¯ 2 −1 ¯ ¯ 0 ¯ ¯ ¯
¯ ¯ − 13 ¯ j + ¯¯ √0 2
¯
= ¯ 2 3
¯ i − ¯¯ √ ¯
2 ¯k
0 0 − 2 0 ¯ − 2 0 ¯

2
= j+k
3
b) We have à !
³π π ´ √
2
Φ , = 0, ,0
4 2 2
Therefore, he required tangent plane is the set of points (x, y, z) such that
Ã√ ! à à √ ! !
2 2
j + k · xi + y − j + zk = 0
3 2
⇐⇒ √ Ã √ !
2 2
y− +z =0
3 2
7.
14.4. PARAMETRIZED SURFACES AND TANGENT PLANES 129

a) We have
∂Ω
(x, θ) = i + ex sin (θ) j + ex cos (θ) k
∂x
and
∂Ω
(x, θ) = ex cos (θ) j − ex sin (θ) k.
∂θ
Therefore, √
∂Ω ³ π ´ 1 3
1, = i + ej + ek
∂x 6 2 2
and √
∂Ω ³ π ´ 3 1
1, = ej − ek
∂θ 6 2 2
Thus,
à √ ! Ã√ !
³ π´ 1 3 3 1
N 1, = i + ej + ek × ej − ek
6 2 2 2 2
¯ ¯
¯ i j k ¯ ¯
¯ √
¯ 1 3 ¯
= ¯ 1 √2 e 2 e ¯¯
¯
¯ 0 23 e − 12 e ¯
¯ √ ¯ ¯ √ ¯ ¯ ¯
¯ 1 ¯ ¯ 1 e ¯¯ ¯ 1 ¯
3 1
¯ √2 e e ¯ ¯
3 e
= ¯ 3 2 ¯i − ¯ 2
1 ¯ j + ¯¯ √2
3
¯k
¯
¯ 2 e − 12 e ¯ 0 −2e 0 2 e

1 3
= −e2 i + ej + k
2 2
b) We have Ã
³ π´ √ !
1 3
Ω 1, = 1, e, e .
6 2 2

Therefore, he required tangent plane is the set of points (x, y, z) such that
à √ ! à µ ¶ à √ ! !
2 1 3 1 3
−e i + ej + k · (x − 1) i + y − e j + z − e k =0
2 2 2 2

⇐⇒ µ ¶ √ Ã √ !
2 1 1 3 3
−e (x − 1) + e y − e + z− e = 0.
2 2 2 2
8.
a) We have
∂Ω
(x, θ) = cos (θ) i + sin (θ) j + ex k
∂x
and
∂Ω
(x, θ) = −x sin (θ) i + x cos (θ) j.
∂θ
Therefore,
∂Ω ³ π ´
1, = j + ek
∂x 2
and
∂Ω ³ π ´
1, = −i
∂θ 2
130 CHAPTER 14. VECTOR ANALYSIS

Thus,
³ π´
N 1, = (j + ek) × (−i)
2 ¯ ¯
¯ i j k ¯¯
¯
= ¯¯ 0 1 e ¯¯
¯ −1 0 0 ¯
¯ ¯ ¯ ¯ ¯ ¯
¯ 1 e ¯ ¯ 0 e ¯ ¯ ¯
= ¯¯ ¯ i − ¯¯ ¯j + ¯ 0 1 ¯k
0 0 ¯ −1 0 ¯ ¯ −1 0 ¯
= ej + k

b) We have ³ π´
Ω 1, = (0, 1, e) .
2
Therefore, he required tangent plane is the set of points (x, y, z) such that

(ej + k) · (xi + (y − 1) j + (z − e) k) = 0

⇐⇒
e (y − 1) + (z − e) = 0

14.5 Surface Integrals


1 (a cylinder)

Φ (u, v) = (v, 3 cos (u) , 3 sin (u)) , −4 ≤ v ≤ 4, 0 ≤ u ≤ 2π.

\We have

∂Φ
(u, v) = −3 sin (u) j + 3 cos (u) k,
∂u
∂Φ
(u, v) = i
∂v
Therefore,
∂Φ ∂Φ
N (u, v) = (u, v) × (u, v)
∂u ∂v
= (−3 sin (u) j + 3 cos (u) k) × i
¯ ¯
¯ i j k ¯
¯ ¯
= ¯ 0 −3 sin (u) 3 cos (u) ¯¯
¯
¯ 1 0 0 ¯
¯ ¯ ¯ ¯ ¯ ¯
¯ −3 sin (u) 3 cos (u) ¯ ¯ ¯ ¯ ¯
= ¯¯ ¯ i − ¯ 0 3 cos (u) ¯ j + ¯ 0 −3 sin (u) ¯k
0 0 ¯ ¯ 1 0 ¯ ¯ 1 0 ¯
= −3 cos (u) j + 3 sin (u) k

Thus, q
||N (u, v)|| = 9 cos2 (u) + 9 sin2 (u) = 3.
Therefore the area of the surface is
Z 2π Z 4
3dvdu = 3 (8) (2π) = 48π.
u=0 v=−4
14.5. SURFACE INTEGRALS 131

2 (a paraboloid)
¡ ¢
Φ (u, v) = u2 , u cos (v) , u sin (v) , 0 ≤ u ≤ 3, 0 ≤ v ≤ 2π.

We have
∂Φ
(u, v) = 2ui + cos (v) j + sin (v) k
∂u
and
∂Φ
(u, v) = −u sin (v) j + u cos (v) k.
∂v
Therefore,

∂Φ ∂Φ
N (u, v) = (u, v) × (u, v)
∂u ∂v
= (2ui + cos (v) j + sin (v) k) × (−u sin (v) j + u cos (v) k)
¯ ¯
¯ i j k ¯
¯ ¯
= ¯ 2u cos (v) sin (v) ¯
¯ ¯
¯ 0 −u sin (v) u cos (v) ¯
¯ ¯ ¯ ¯ ¯ ¯
¯ cos (v) sin (v) ¯¯ ¯ 2u sin (v) ¯ ¯ 2u cos (v) ¯
= ¯ ¯ ¯ ¯ ¯k
¯ −u sin (v) u cos (v) ¯ i − ¯ 0 u cos (v) ¯ j + ¯ 0 −u sin (v) ¯
¡ ¢
= u cos2 (v) + u sin2 (v) i−2u2 cos (v) j − 2u2 sin (v) k
= ui−2u2 cos (v) j − 2u2 sin (v) k.

Thus, q p
||N (u, v)|| = u2 + 4u4 cos2 (v) + 4u4 sin2 (v) = u2 + 4u4
Therefore, the area of the surface is
Z 3 Z 2π p Z 3 Z 2π p
u2 + 4u4 dudv = u 1 + 4u2 dudv
u=0 v=0 u=0 v=0
Z 3 p
= 2π u 1 + 4u2 du.
u=0

We set w = 1 + 4u2 so that dw = 8udu. Thus,


Z 3 p Z w=37
π
2π u 1 + 4u2 du = w1/2 dw
u=0 4
Ãw=1 ¯ !
π ³ 3/2 ´
37
π 2 3/2 ¯¯
= w ¯ = 37 − 1 .
4 3 1 6

3 (a cone) Ã √ !
1 1 3
Φ (ρ, θ) = ρ cos (θ) , ρ sin (θ) , ρ
2 2 2
where 0 ≤ ρ ≤ 4 and 0 ≤ θ ≤ 2π.
We have √
∂Φ 1 1 3
(ρ, θ) = cos (θ) i + sin (θ) j + k
∂ρ 2 2 2
and
∂Φ 1 1
(ρ, θ) = − ρ sin (θ) i + ρ cos (θ) j.
∂θ 2 2
132 CHAPTER 14. VECTOR ANALYSIS

Therefore,
à √ ! µ ¶
1 1 3 1 1
N (ρ, θ) = cos (θ) i + sin (θ) j + k × − ρ sin (θ) i + ρ cos (θ) j
2 2 2 2 2
¯ ¯
¯ i j k ¯
¯ √ ¯
= ¯ 1 cos (θ) 1 3 ¯
¯ 2 2 sin (θ) 2 ¯
¯ − 1 ρ sin (θ) 1 ρ cos (θ) 0 ¯
2 2
¯ √ ¯ ¯ √ ¯ ¯ 1 ¯
¯ 1 sin (θ) 3 ¯ ¯ 1 cos (θ) 3 ¯ ¯ 1 ¯
= ¯ 2 2 ¯i − ¯ 2 2 ¯j + ¯ 2 cos (θ) 2 sin (θ) ¯k
¯ 1 ρ cos (θ) 0 ¯ ¯ − 1 ρ sin (θ) 0 ¯ ¯ − 1 ρ sin (θ) 1 ρ cos (θ) ¯
2 2 2 2
√ √ µ ¶
3 3 1 1
= − ρ cos (θ) i+ ρ sin (θ) j + ρ sin2 (θ) + ρ cos2 (θ) k
4 4 4 4
√ √
3 3 1
= − ρ cos (θ) i+ ρ sin (θ) j+ ρk.
4 4 4
Thus,
r
3 2 3 1 1p 2 1
||N (ρ, θ)|| = ρ cos2 (θ) + ρ2 sin2 (θ) + ρ2 = 4ρ = ρ.
16 16 16 4 2
Therefore, the area of the surface is
Z Z µZ ¶ Ã ¯4 !
θ=2π ρ=4
1 ρ=4
1 1 2 ¯¯
ρdρdθ = 2π ρdρ = 2π ρ = 8π.
θ=0 ρ=0 2 ρ=0 2 4 ¯0

4 (an ellipsoid)
µ ¶
1
Φ (φ, θ) = 2 sin (φ) cos (θ) , sin (φ) sin (θ) , cos (φ) ,
3
where 0 ≤ φ ≤ π and 0 ≤ θ ≤ 2π.
We have
∂Φ 1
(φ, θ) = 2 cos (φ) cos (θ) i + cos (φ) sin (θ) j − sin (φ) k
∂φ 3
and
∂Φ
(φ, θ) = −2 sin (φ) sin (θ) i + sin (φ) cos (θ) j
∂θ
Therefore,
µ ¶
1
N (φ, θ) = 2 cos (φ) cos (θ) i + cos (φ) sin (θ) j − sin (φ) k × (−2 sin (φ) sin (θ) i + sin (φ) cos (θ) j)
3
¯ ¯
¯ i j k ¯
¯ ¯
= ¯ 2 cos (φ) cos (θ) cos (φ) sin (θ) − 3 sin (φ) ¯¯
1
¯
¯ −2 sin (φ) sin (θ) sin (φ) cos (θ) j 0 ¯
¯ ¯ ¯ ¯
¯ cos (φ) sin (θ) − 1 sin (φ) ¯ ¯ 1 ¯
= ¯ 3 ¯ i − ¯ 2 cos (φ) cos (θ) − 3 sin (φ) ¯ j
¯ sin (φ) cos (θ) j 0 ¯ ¯ −2 sin (φ) sin (θ) 0 ¯
¯ ¯
¯ 2 cos (φ) cos (θ) cos (φ) sin (θ) ¯¯
+ ¯¯ k
−2 sin (φ) sin (θ) sin (φ) cos (θ) j ¯
1 2 ¡ ¢
= sin2 (φ) cos (θ) i − sin2 (φ) sin (θ) j + 2 sin (φ) cos (φ) cos2 (θ) + 2 sin (φ) cos (φ) sin2 (θ) k
3 3
1 2
= sin2 (φ) cos (θ) i − sin2 (φ) sin (θ) j+2 sin (φ) cos (φ) k.
3 3
14.5. SURFACE INTEGRALS 133

Thus,
r
1 4
||N (φ, θ)|| = sin4 (φ) cos2 (θ) + sin4 (φ) sin2 (θ) + 4 sin2 (φ) cos2 φ
9 9
s µ ¶
4 1 4 2
= sin (φ) cos (θ) + sin (θ) + 4 sin2 (φ) cos2 φ
2
9 9
s µ ¶
1 4
= sin (φ) sin2 (φ) cos2 (θ) + sin2 (θ) + 4 cos2 (φ)
9 9

Therefore, the area of the surface is


Z Z s µ ¶
θ=2π φ=π
1 4
sin (φ) sin2 (φ) cos2 (θ) + sin2 (θ) + 4 cos2 (φ)dφdθ
θ=0 φ=0 9 9

5 (a surface of revolution)

Ω (x, θ) = (x, ex sin (θ) , ex cos (θ)) ,

where 0 ≤ x ≤ 2, 0 ≤ θ ≤ 2π.
We have
∂Ω
(x, θ) = i + ex sin (θ) j + ex cos (θ) k
∂x
and
∂Ω
(x, θ) = ex cos (θ) j − ex sin (θ) k.
∂θ
Therefore,

N (x, θ) = (i + ex sin (θ) j + ex cos (θ) k) × (ex cos (θ) j − ex sin (θ) k)
¯ ¯
¯ i j k ¯
¯ ¯
= ¯¯ 1 ex sin (θ) ex cos (θ) ¯¯
¯ 0 ex cos (θ) −ex sin (θ) ¯
¯ x ¯ ¯ ¯ ¯ ¯
¯ e sin (θ) ex cos (θ) ¯ ¯ 1 ex cos (θ) ¯ ¯ 1 ex sin (θ) ¯
¯
= ¯ x ¯ i − ¯ ¯ j + ¯ ¯k
e cos (θ) −e sin (θ) ¯
x ¯ 0 −e sin (θ) ¯
x ¯ 0 ex cos (θ) ¯
¡ 2x 2 ¢
= −e sin (θ) − e2x cos2 (θ) i + ex sin (θ) j + ex cos (θ) k
= −e2x i + ex sin (θ) j + ex cos (θ) k

Thus,
q p p
||N (x, θ)|| = e4x + e2x sin2 (θ) + e2x cos2 (θ) = e4x + e2x = ex e2x + 1.

Therefore, the area of the surface is


Z θ=2π Z x=2 p Z x=2 p
ex e2x + 1dxdθ = 2π ex e2x + 1dx
θ=0 x=0 x=0

We have Z p 1 p 1
ex e2x + 1dx = ex e2x + 1 + arcsinh (ex )
2 2
134 CHAPTER 14. VECTOR ANALYSIS

(you can set u = ex so that the integrand takes the form 1 + u2 du: Then set u = sinh (v)).
Therefore,
Z x=2 p à ¯2 !
x 2x
1 x p 2x 1 ¯
x ¯
2π e e + 1dx = 2π e e + 1 + arcsinh (e )¯
x=0 2 2 0
µ ¶
1 2 p 1 ¡ 2¢ 1 √ 1
= 2π 4
e (e + 1) + arcsinh e − 2 − arcsinh (1)
2 2 2 2

6. The radius of the sphere is 3. As in the lecture notes,

N (φ, θ) = 9 sin (φ) (sin (φ) cos (θ) i + sin (φ) sin (θ) j + cos (φ) k)

and
||N (φ, θ)|| = 9 sin (φ) .
Therefore,
Z Z Z π Z π
¡ 2 ¢ ¡ ¢
x + y 2 dS = 9 sin2 (φ) cos2 (θ) + 9 sin2 (φ) sin2 (θ) ||N (φ, θ)|| dφdθ
S θ−0 φ=0
Z π Z π ¡ ¢
= 9 sin2 (φ) cos2 (θ) + sin2 (θ) 9 sin (φ) dφdθ
θ−0 φ=0
Z π Z π
= 81 sin3 (φ) dφdθ
θ−0 φ=0
Z π
3
= 81π sin (φ) dφ
φ=0

Now, Z Z Z
¡ ¢
sin3 (φ) dφ = sin2 (φ) sin (φ) dφ = 1 − cos2 (φ) sin (φ) dφ.

We set u = cos (φ) so that du = − sin (φ) dφ. Thus,


Z Z
¡ 2
¢ ¡ ¢ 1 1
1 − cos (φ) sin (φ) = − 1 − u2 du = −u + u3 = − cos (φ) + cos3 (φ) .
3 3
Therefore,
Z Z Z π
¡ 2 ¢
x + y 2 dS = 81π sin3 (φ) dφ
S φ=0
à ¯φ=π !
1 ¯
= 81π − cos (φ) + cos (φ)¯¯
3
3 φ=0
µ ¶ µ ¶
1 1 4
= 81π 1 − + 1 − = 81π = 108π.
3 3 3

7. We have
¯ ¯
¯ i j k ¯
¯ ¯
N (u, v) = ¯¯ 0 −2 sin (u) 2 cos (u) ¯¯
¯ 1 0 0 ¯
¯ ¯ ¯ ¯ ¯ ¯
¯ −2 sin (u) 2 cos (u) ¯¯ ¯ 0 2 cos (u) ¯ ¯ ¯
= ¯¯ ¯ ¯ j + ¯ 0 −2 sin (u) ¯k
0 0 ¯i − ¯ 1 0 ¯ ¯ 1 0 ¯
= 2 cos (u) j + 2 sin (u) k.
14.5. SURFACE INTEGRALS 135

Therefore,
q
||N (u, v)|| = 4 cos2 (u) + 4 sin2 (u) = 2.

Thus,

Z Z Z v=4 Z u=π Z u=π


2 2
y dS = cos (u) 2dudv = 16 cos2 (u) du
S v=−4 u=0 u=0
Z u=π
1 + cos (2u)
= 16 du
u=0 2
Z π
= 8π + 8 cos (2u) du
µ0 ¯π ¶
1 ¯
= 8π + 8 sin (2u)¯¯ = 8π
2 0

8. We have
¯ ¯
¯ i j k ¯¯
¯
N (r, θ) = ¯¯ cos (θ) sin (θ) 0 ¯¯
¯ −r sin (θ) r cos (θ) 1 ¯
¯ ¯ ¯ ¯ ¯ ¯
¯ sin (θ) 0 ¯ ¯ 0 ¯¯ ¯ cos (θ) ¯
= ¯¯ ¯ i − ¯ cos (θ) j + ¯ sin (θ) ¯k
r cos (θ) 1 ¯ ¯ −r sin (θ) 1 ¯ ¯ −r sin (θ) r cos (θ) ¯
¡ ¢
= sin (θ) i − cos (θ) j + r cos2 (θ) + r sin2 (θ) k
= sin (θ) i − cos (θ) j+rk.

Thus,
q p
||N (r, θ)|| = sin2 (θ) + cos2 (θ) + r2 = 1 + r2 .

Therefore,

Z Z p Z θ=2π Z r=4 q
x2 + y 2 dS = r2 cos2 (θ) + r2 sin2 (θ) ||N (r, θ)|| drdθ
S θ=0 r=0
Z θ=2π Z r=4 p
= r 1 + r2 dr
θ=0 r=0
Z r=4 p
= 2π r 1 + r2 dr.
r=0

We set u = 1 + r2 so that du = 2rdr. Thus,

Z Z Ã ¯17 !
r=4 p
2
2π u=17 1/2 2 3/2 ¯¯ 2π ³ 3/2 ´
2π r 1 + r dr = u du = π u ¯ = 17 − 1 .
r=0 2 u=1 3 1 3

9. S is the part of the graph of x = g (y, z) = 1 − y −z over the triangular region D in the
136 CHAPTER 14. VECTOR ANALYSIS

yz-plane that is bounded by the axes and the line z + y = 1. We have


Z Z Z Z

xdS = (1 − y − z) 1 + 1 + 1dzdy
S D
√ Z y=1 Z z=1−y
= 3 (1 − y − z) dzdy
y=0 z=0
à ¯1−y !
√ Z y=1
1 2 ¯¯
= 3 z − yz − z ¯ dy
y=0 2 0
µ ¶
√ Z y=1
1 2
= 3 (1 − y) − y (1 − y) − (1 − y) dy
y=0 2
Z y=1 µ ¶
√ 1 2 1√
= 3 (y − 1) dy = 3
y=0 2 6

10. The surface S is the graph of


p
z= 1 − x2 − y 2

over the region D that is the part of the unit circle x2 + y 2 = 1 in the first quadrant. Thus,
s µ ¶2 µ ¶2
Z Z Z Z
¡ ¢ ∂z ∂z
z 2 dS = 1 − x2 − y 2 1+ + dxdy
S D ∂x ∂y
v à !2 à !2
Z Z u
¡ ¢ u x y
2 2 t
= 1−x −y 1 + −p + −p dxdy
D 1 − x2 − y 2 1 − x2 − y 2
Z Z s
¡ 2 2
¢ x2 + y 2
= 1−x −y 1+ dxdy
D 1 − x2 + y 2
Z Z p
= 1 − x2 − y 2 dxdy.
D

In polar coordinates,
Z Z p Z θ=π/2 Z r=1 p
1 − x2 − y 2 dxdy = 1 − r2 rdrdθ
D θ=0
µ ¶ r=0
π 1 π
= =
2 3 6

(via the substitution u = 1 − r2 ).


11. Let D be the rectangle [0, π] × [−2, 2] in the uv-plane. We have
¯ ¯
¯ i j k ¯
¯ ¯
N (u, v) = ¯¯ − sin (u) 0 cos (u) ¯¯
¯ 0 1 0 ¯
¯ ¯ ¯ ¯ ¯ ¯
¯ 0 cos (u) ¯ ¯ ¯ ¯ ¯
= ¯¯ ¯ i − ¯ − sin (u) cos (u) ¯ j + ¯ − sin (u) 0 ¯ k
1 0 ¯ ¯ 0 0 ¯ ¯ 0 1 ¯
= − cos (u) i − sin (u) k.

(Note that N is multiplied by −1 if we interchange the order of u and v).


14.5. SURFACE INTEGRALS 137

Therefore,
Z Z Z Z
(xi + zk) · dS = (cos (u) i + sin (u) k) · N (u, v) dudv
S D
Z Z
= (cos (u) i + sin (u) k) · (− cos (u) i − sin (u) k) dudv
Z ZD
¡ ¢
= − cos2 (u) − sin2 (u) dudv
Z DZ
= − dudv = −4π.
D

12. Let D be the rectangle [0, 3] × [0, 4] in the yz-plane. We have


¯ ¯
¯ i j k ¯
¯ ¯
N (y, z) = ¯¯ 0 1 0 ¯¯ = i.
¯ 0 1 1 ¯

(Note that N is multiplied by −1 if we interchange the order of y and z).


Therefore,
Z Z Z Z
(yi + xj + zk) · dS = (yi + 2j + zk) · N (y, z) dydz
S D
Z Z
= (yi + 2j + zk) · idydz
Z ZD
= ydydz
D
Z z=4 Z y=3
= ydydz
z=0 y=0
à ¯3 !
1 2 ¯¯
= 4 y = 18.
2 ¯0

13. As in the lecture notes, we have

N (φ, θ) = 9 sin (φ) (sin (φ) cos (θ) i + sin (φ) sin (θ) j + cos (φ) k) = 3 sin (φ) Φ (φ, θ) ,

Therefore,
Z Z π Z π
xi + yj + zk Φ (φ, θ)
· dS = · N (φ, θ) dφdθ
S (x2 + y 2 + z 2 ) θ=0 φ=0 9
Z π Zπ
Φ (φ, θ)
= · 3 sin (φ) Φ (φ, θ) dφdθ
θ=0 φ=0 9
Z π Zπ
1
= sin (φ) Φ (φ, θ) · Φ (φ, θ) dφdθ
θ=0 φ=0 3
Z π Zπ
1 2
= sin (φ) ||Φ (φ, θ)|| dφdθ
θ=0 φ=0 3
Z 2π Zπ
1
= sin (φ) (9) dφdθ
θ=0 φ=0 3
Z π
= 3 (2π) sin (φ) dφ
φ=0
= 6π (2) = 12π
138 CHAPTER 14. VECTOR ANALYSIS

14. We have
1 1
1 − x − y = 0 ⇔ x + y = 2.
2 2
Therefore, the projection of S onto the xy-plane is the triangular region D that is bounded by
the coordinate axes and the line x + y = 2. Thus,
Z Z Z Z µ µ ¶ ¶ µ ¶
1 1 ∂z ∂z
(xi − zk) ·dS = xi − 1 − x − y k · − i − j + k dxdy
S D 2 2 ∂x ∂y
Z Z µ µ ¶ ¶ µ ¶
1 1 1 1
= xi − 1 − x − y k · i + j + k dxdy
D 2 2 2 2
Z Z µ µ ¶¶
1 1 1
= x− 1− x− y dxdy
D 2 2 2
Z Z µ ¶
1
= x + y − 1 dxdy
D 2
Z x=2 Z y=2−x µ ¶
1
= x + y − 1 dydx
x=0 y=0 2
Z x=2 Ã ¯y=2−x !
1 2 ¯
= xy + y − y ¯¯ dx
x=0 4 y=0
Z x=2 µ ¶
1
= x (2 − x) + (2 − x)2 − (2 − x) dx
x=0 4
Z x=2 µ ¶
3
= − x2 + 2x − 1 dx = 0
x=0 4

15. The projection of S onto the xy-plane is the disk D of radius 2 centered at the origin. We
have

∂z ∂z
N (x, y) = − i− j+k
∂x ∂y
x y
= p i+ p j + k.
4−x −y2 2 4 − x2 − y 2

Thus,
Z Z
(xi+yj + zk) · dS
Z ZS ³ p ´
= xi+yj + 4 − x2 − y 2 k · N (x, y) dxdy
D
Z Z ³ Ã !
p ´ x y
= xi+yj + 4 − x2 − y 2 k · p i+ p j + k dxdy
D 4 − x2 − y 2 4 − x2 − y 2
Z Z Ã p
!
x2 y2
= p +p + 4 − x2 − y 2 dxdy
D 4 − x2 − y 2 4 − x2 − y 2
Z Z Ã 2 !
x + y 2 + 4 − x2 − y 2
= p dxdy
D 4 − x2 − y 2
Z Z
1
= 4 p dxdy.
D 4 − x2 − y 2
14.5. SURFACE INTEGRALS 139

We transform to polar coordinates:


Z Z Z 2π Z 2
1 r
4 p dxdy = 4 √ drdθ
D 4 − x2 − y 2 θ=0 r=0 4 − r2
Z 2
r
= 8π √ dr
r=0 4 − r2
= 16π
(via the substitution u = 4 − r2 ).
16. The projection of S onto the xy-plane is the unit disk D. We have
Z Z Z Z
(yj + k) · dS = (yj + k) · N (x, y) dxdy
S D
Z Z
= (yj + k) · (2xi + 2yj + k) dxdy
Z ZD
¡ 2 ¢
= 2y + 1 dxdy
D
Z θ=2π Z r=1 ¡ 2 2 ¢
= 2r sin (θ) + 1 rdrdθ
θ=0 r=0
Z θ=2π Z r=1 Z θ=2π Z r=1
= 2r3 sin2 (θ) drdθ + rdrdθ
θ=0 r=0 θ=0 r=0
µZ r=1 ¶ ÃZ θ=2π
! µ ¶
3 2 1
= 2r dr sin (θ) dθ + 2π
r=0 θ=0 2
µ ¶
1 1
= (π) + π = π
2 2
(you can make use of the identity sin2 (θ) = (1 − cos (θ)) /2).
17. We have
Z Z Z Z Z Z
(yzi + xzj + xyk) · dS = (yzi + xzj + xyk) · dS+ (yzi + xzj + xyk) · dS.
S S1 S2

We will evaluate the integrals separately.


As in Problem 10, on S1 ,
∂z ∂z x y
N (x, y) = − i− j+k= p i+ p j + k,
∂x ∂y 4 − x2 − y 2 4 − x2 − y 2
and D is the disk of radius 2 centered at the origin. We have
Z Z
(yzi + xzj + xyk) · dS
S1
Z Z ³ p à !
p ´ x y
= y 4 − x − y i + x 4 − x − y j + xyk · p
2 2 2 2 i+ p j+k
D 4 − x2 − y 2 4 − x2 − y 2
Z Z
= 3xydxdy
D
Z θ=2π Z 2
= 3 (r cos (θ)) (r sin (θ)) rdrdθ
θ=0 r=0
µZ r=2 ¶ µZ 2π ¶
3
= 3 r dr cos (θ) sin (θ) dθ
r=0 0
= 3 (4) (0) = 0.
140 CHAPTER 14. VECTOR ANALYSIS

The outward unit normal to S2 is -k. Therefore,


Z Z Z Z
(yzi + xzj + xyk) · dS = (yzi + xzj + xyk) · kdxdy
S2 D
Z Z
= xydxdy = 0
D

Thus,
Z Z
(yzi + xzj + xyk) · dS = 0.
S

14.6 Green’s Theorem


1.
a) Let D be the disk that is bounded by the circle x2 + y 2 = 4. Then
Z Z Z µ ¶
3 3 ∂ ¡ 3¢ ∂ ¡ 3¢
y dx − x dy = −x − y dxdy
C ∂x ∂y
Z ZD
¡ ¢
= −3x2 − 3y 2 dxdy
ZD Z
¡ 2 ¢
= −3 x + y 2 dxdy.
D

b) We transform the double integral to polar coordinates:


Z Z Z 2π Z 2
¡ 2 ¢
−3 x + y 2 dxdy = −3 r2 rdrdθ
D θ=0 r=0
à ¯2 !
1 ¯

= −6π r = −24π
4 ¯0

2.
a) Let D be the triangular region with vertices (0, 0) , (2, 0) and (2, 4). Then
Z Z Z µ ¶
∂ ¡ 2 ¢ ∂ ¡ 2¢
xy 2 dx + 2x2 ydy = 2x y − xy
C ∂x ∂y
Z ZD
= (4xy − 2xy) dxdy
Z ZD
= 2xydxdy
D

b) Since the equation of the line that joins (0, 0) to (2, 4) is y = 2x,
Z Z Z µZ ¶ Z ³
x=2 2x x=2 ¯y=2x ´
2xydxdy = 2xydy dx = xy 2 ¯y=0 dx
D x=0 y=0 x=0
Z x=2 ¯2
= 4x3 dx = x4 ¯0 = 16.
x=0

3.
14.6. GREEN’S THEOREM 141

a) Let D be the rectangular region with vertices (0, 0) , (5, 0) , (5, π) and (0, π). Then
Z Z Z µ ¶
∂ ¡ 2 ¢ ∂
cos (y) dx + x2 sin (y) dy = x sin (y) − cos (y) dxdy
C ∂x ∂y
Z ZD
= (2x sin (y) + sin (y)) dxdy
Z ZD
= (2x + 1) sin (y) dxdy.
D

b)
Z Z Z x=5 Z y=π
(2x + 1) sin (y) dxdy = (2x + 1) sin (y) dydx
D x=0 y=0
µZ x=5 ¶ µZ y=π ¶
= (2x + 1) dx sin (y) dy
x=0 y=0
³ ¯5 ´
= x2 + x¯0 ( − cos (y)|π0 )
= 30 (2) = 60.

4.
a) Let D be annular region bounded by the circles x2 + y 2 = 1 an x2 + y 2 = 4. Then
Z Z Z µ µZ ¶¶
¡ ¢ ∂ ¡ 4 ¢ ∂
xe−2x dx + x4 + 2x2 y 2 dy = x + 2x2 y 2 − xe−2x dxdy
C D ∂x ∂y C
Z Z Z Z
¡ 3 ¢ ¡ ¢
= 4x + 4xy 2 dxdy = 4 x x2 + y 2 dxdy
D D

b) Let’s transform the double integral to polar coordinates:


Z Z Z θ=2π Z r=2
¡ ¢
4 x x2 + y 2 dxdy = 4 r4 cos (θ) drdθ
D
Ãθ=0
Z θ=2π
r=1
! µZ ¶
r=2
4
= 4 cos (θ) dθ r dr
θ=0 r=1
à ¯2 !
³ ´ 1 5 ¯¯
= 4 sin (θ)|2π r
0
5 ¯1
µ ¶
25 − 1
= 4 (0) = 0.
5
5.
a) Let D be the triangular region with vertices (0, 0) , (2, 6) and (2, 0). Note that C is the
negatively oriented boundary of D. Thus,
Z Z
¡ ¢
F · dσ = y 2 cos (x) dx + x2 + 2y sin (x) dy
C C
Z Z µ ¶
∂ ¡ 2 ¢ ∂ ¡ 2 ¢
= − x + 2y sin (x) − y cos (x) dxdy
∂x ∂y
Z ZD
= − (2x + 2y cos (x) − 2y cos (x)) dxdy
Z ZD
= − 2xdxdy
D
142 CHAPTER 14. VECTOR ANALYSIS

b) Since the line that joins (0, 0) to (2, 6) is y = 3x,


Z Z Z x=2 Z 3x
− 2xdxdy = − 2xdydx
D x=0 y=0
Z x=2 µZ y=3x ¶
= − 2x dy dx
x=0 y=0
Z x=2
= − 2x (3x) dx
x=0
Z 2 Ã ¯2 !
2 x3 ¯¯
= −6 x dx = −6 = −16.
0 3 ¯0

6.
a) Let D be the disk bounded by the circle x2 + y 2 = 25. Then
Z Z
¡ x ¢ ¡ ¢
F · dσ = e + x2 y dx + ey − xy 2 dy
C
Z Z µ ¶
∂ ¡ y 2
¢ ∂ ¡ x 2
¢
= e − xy − e + x y dxdy
∂x ∂y
Z ZD Z Z
¡ 2 ¢ ¡ 2 ¢
= −y − x2 dxdy = − x + y 2 dxdy
D D

b) We transform the double integral to polar coordinates:


Z Z Z 2π Z 5
¡ 2 ¢
− x + y 2 dxdy = − r3 drdθ
D θ=0 r=0
µZ 2π ¶ µZ 5 ¶
3
= − dθ r dr
θ=0 r=0
µ 4¶
5 625
= −2π =− π
4 2
7. Let C2 be the positively oriented circle of radius a centered at the origin, and let D be the
region between C1 and C2 . By Greens theorem,
Z Z Z Z µ µ ¶ µ ¶¶
∂ y ∂ x
F · dσ − F · dσ = − dxdy
C1 C2 D ∂x x2 + y 2 ∂y x2 + y 2
Z Z Ã !
2xy 2xy
= − 2 + 2 dxdy = 0.
D (x2 + y 2 ) (x2 + y 2 )

Thus, Z Z
F · dσ = F · dσ.
C1 C2

We can parametrize the circle C2 by

σ (θ) = (cos (θ) , sin (θ)) , 0 ≤ θ ≤ 2π.

Therefore,

= − sin (θ) i + cos (θ) j

and
F (σ (θ)) = F (cos (θ) , sin (θ)) = cos (θ) i + sin (θ) j
14.7. STOKES’ THEOREM 143

Thus,

F· = (cos (θ) i + sin (θ) j) · (− sin (θ) i + cos (θ) j)

= − cos (θ) sin (θ) + sin (θ) cos (θ) = 0

Therefore, Z Z
F · dσ = F · dσ = 0.
C1 C2

8. Let D be the triangular region with vertices (0, 0) , (1, 0) and (1, 2). We have

∂ ¡ 2 3¢ ∂
∇ · F (x, y) = x y − (xy) = 2xy 3 − x.
∂x ∂y
Therefore,
Z Z Z
F · nds = ∇ · F (x, y) dxdy
C
Z ZD
¡ ¢
= 2xy 3 − x dxdy
D
Z x=1 Z y=2x
¡ ¢
= 2xy 3 − x dydx
x=0 y=0
Z x=1 Ã ¯2x !
1 4 ¯
= xy − xy ¯¯ dx
x=0 2 0
Z x=1
¡ ¢
= −2x2 + 8x5 dx
x=0
¯1
2 4 ¯ 2
= − x3 + x6 ¯¯ =
3 3 0 3

9. Let D be the disk bounded by the circle x2 + y 2 = 4. We have


∂ ¡ 3¢ ∂ ¡ 3¢
∇ · F (x, y) = x + y = 3x2 + 3y 2
∂x ∂y
Therefore, Z Z Z Z Z
¡ ¢
F · nds = ∇ · F (x, y) dxdy = 3 x2 + y 2 dxdy.
C D D
We transform the double integral to polar coordinates:
Z Z Z θ=2π Z r=2
¡ ¢
3 x2 + y 2 dxdy = 3 r3 drdθ
D θ=0 r=0
à ¯2 !
1 4 ¯¯
= 3 (2π) r ¯
4 0
= 24π

14.7 Stokes’ Theorem


1. Z Z Z
(∇ × F) · ndS = F · dσ.
M C
144 CHAPTER 14. VECTOR ANALYSIS

We can parametrize C by

σ (θ) = (4 cos (θ) , 4 sin (θ) , 0) , 0 ≤ θ ≤ 2π.

Thus,

= −4 sin (θ) i + 4 cos (θ) j,

and
F (σ (θ)) = 4 sin (θ) i + 8 cos (θ) j
Therefore

F (σ (θ)) · = (4 sin (θ) i + 8 cos (θ) j) · (−4 sin (θ) i + 4 cos (θ) j)

= −16 sin2 (θ) + 32 cos2 (θ)

Thus Z Z Z
2π 2π
F · dσ = −16 sin2 (θ) dθ + 32 cos2 (θ) dθ = −16π + 32π = 16π.
C 0 0

2. Z Z Z
(∇ × F) · ndS = F · dσ.
M C

We can parametrize C by

σ (θ) = (cos (θ) , sin (θ) , 1) , 0 ≤ θ ≤ 2π.

Thus,

= − sin (θ) i + cos (θ) j,

and
F (σ (θ)) = sin (θ) i − cos (θ) j + k
Therefore

F (σ (θ)) · = (sin (θ) i − cos (θ) j + k) · (− sin (θ) i + cos (θ) j)

= − sin2 (θ) − cos2 (θ) = −1.

Thus Z Z 2π
F · dσ = − dθ = −2π.
C 0

3. Z Z Z
F · dσ = (∇ × F) · ndS
C M

We have
¯ ¯
¯ i j k ¯
¯ ¯
∇ × F (x, y, z) = ¯¯ ∂x ∂y ∂z ¯
¯
¯ z x3 y2 ¯
¯ ¯ ¯ ¯ ¯ ¯
¯ ∂y ∂z ¯¯ ¯ ∂ ∂z ¯¯ ¯ ∂ ∂y ¯¯
= ¯¯ i − ¯¯ x j + ¯¯ x k
x3 y2 ¯ z y2 ¯ z x3 ¯
= 2yi − j + 3x2 k
14.7. STOKES’ THEOREM 145

We also have n = k. Thus


Z Z Z
¡ ¢
(∇ × F) · ndS = 2yi − j + 3x2 k · kdS
M
Z ZM
= 3x2 dS.
M

M can be parametrized by
Φ (x, y) = (x, y, 4) , (x, y) ∈ D,
where D is the circle of radius 3 centered at the origin in the xy-plane. Therefore
Z Z Z Z Z θ=2π Z r=3
2 2
3x dS = 3x dxdy = 3r2 cos2 (θ) rdrdθ
M D
Ãθ=0
Z θ=2π
r=0
! µZ ¶
r=3
= cos2 (θ) dθ 3r3 dr
θ=0 r=0
µ ¶
243 243
= (π) = π
4 4

4. Z Z Z
F · dσ = (∇ × F) · ndS
C M

We have
¯ ¯
¯ j i k ¯¯
¯
∇ × F (x, y, z) = ¯¯ ∂y ∂z ¯¯
∂x
¯ −x 2y ¯
z
¯ ¯ ¯ ¯ ¯ ¯
¯ ∂y ∂z ¯¯ ¯ ∂ ∂z ¯¯ ¯ ∂ ∂y ¯
= ¯¯ i − ¯¯ x j + ¯¯ x ¯k
−x 2y ¯ z 2y ¯ z −x ¯
= 2i + j − k

M can be parametrized by

Φ (x, y) = (x, y, y + 2) , (x, y) ∈ D,

where D is the circle of radius 2 centered at the origin in the xy-plane. Therefore

N = −j + k

Thus,
Z Z
(∇ × F) · ndS = (∇ × F) · Ndxdy
M
ZDZ
= (2i + j − k) · (−j + k) dxy
Z ZD
= −2dxdy
D
= −2 (area of the disk of radius 2 )
= −2 (4π) = −8π.
146 CHAPTER 14. VECTOR ANALYSIS

14.8 Gauss’ Theorem


1. We have
∂ ∂ ∂
∇ · F (x, y, z) = ∇ · (xi + yj + zk) = (x) + (y) + (z) = 3.
∂x ∂y ∂z
Therefore
Z Z Z Z Z
F · ndS = ∇ · FdV
M W
Z Z Z
= 3dV
W
µ ¶
4 ¡ 3¢
= 3 (volume of W ) = 3 π 4 = 44 π = 256π
3
2. We have
¡ ¢ ∂ ¡ 3¢
∇ · F (x, y, z) = ∇ · z 3 k = z = 3z 2
∂z
Therefore Z Z Z Z Z Z Z Z
F · ndS = ∇ · FdV = 3z 2 dV
M W W
We transform to spherical coordinates:
Z Z Z Z θ=2π Z φ=π Z ρ=2
2 2
3z dV = 3 (ρ cos (φ)) ρ2 sin (φ) dρdφdθ
W θ=0 φ=0 ρ=0
ÃZ ! ÃZ ! µZ ¶
θ=2π φ=π ρ=2
2 3
= 2 dθ cos (φ) sin (φ) dφ ρ dρ
θ=0 φ=0 ρ=0
µ ¶
2 32
= 2 (2π) (4) = π
3 3
3. We have
∂ ∂ ∂
∇ · F (x, y, z) = ∇ · (xi + yj + zk) = (x) + (y) + (z) = 3.
∂x ∂y ∂z
Therefore
Z Z Z Z Z
F · ndS = ∇ · FdV
M
Z Z ZW
¡ ¢
= 3dV = 3 (volume of W ) = 3 43 = 192
W

4. We have
¡ ¢ ∂ ¡ 2¢
∇ · F (x, y, z) = ∇ · x2 i = x = 2x
∂x
Therefore
Z Z Z Z Z Z Z Z
F · ndS = ∇ · FdV = 2xdV
M W W
Z x=1 Z y=1 Z z=1
= 2xdzdydx
x=0 y=0 z=0
Z x=1
= 2xdx = 1.
x=0