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Library
of the

University of Toronto

Aaa

BYRNE'S EUCLID

THE FIRST

SIX

BOOKS OF

THE ELEMENTS OF EUCLID


WITH COLOURED DIAGRAMS

AND SYMBOLS

THE FIRST

SIX

BOOKS OF

THE ELEMENTS OF EUCLID


IN

WHICH COLOURED DIAGRAMS AND SYMBOLS


ARE USED INSTEAD OF LETTERS FOR THE
GREATER EASE OF LEARNERS

BY OLIVER BYRNE
SURVEYOR OF HER MAJESTY'S SETTLEMENTS IN THE FALKLAND ISLANDS

AND AUTHOR OF NUMEROUS MATHEMATICAL WORKS

LONDON
WILLIAM PICKERING
1847

TO THE

RIGHT HONOURABLE THE EARL FITZWILLIAM,


ETC. ETC. ETC.

THIS

WORK

IS

DEDICATED
S

BY HIS LORDSHIP

OBEDIENT

AND MUCH OBLIGED SERVANT,

OLIVER BYRNE.

Digitized by the Internet Archive


in

2011 with funding from


University of Toronto

http://www.archive.org/details/firstsixbooksofeOOeucl

SS3

INTRODUCTION.
HE
arts

and fciences have become


facilitate

fo extenfive,
is

that

to

their
as to

acquirement

of

as

much

importance

extend their boundaries. time of

Illuftration, if it does not fhorten the

ftudy, will at leaft

make

it

more

agreeable.
;

This
to

Work
amuie

has a greater aim than mere illuftration

we do

not intro-

duce colours for the purpofe of entertainment, or


by certain cottibinations of tint

and form, but

to affift the

mind

in its refearches after truth, to increafe the facilities


to diffufe to

of instruction, and

permanent knowledge.

If

we

wanted authorities
of geometry,
days of

prove the importance and ufefulnefs


fince the
as in the

we might quote every philofopher Plato. Among the Greeks, in ancient,


as the beft

fchool of Peftalozzi and others in recent times, geometry

was adopted
bafis

gymnaftic of the mind.

In fact,

Euclid's Elements have become, by

common
we

confent, the

of mathematical fcience
this will

all

over the civilized globe.


coniider that

But
this

not appear extraordinary, if


is

fublime fcience

not only better calculated than any

other to call forth the

fpirit

of inquiry,

to elevate the

mind,
forms

and

to ftrengthen the reafoning faculties,

but alfo

it

the beft introduction to moft of the ufeful and important

vocations of

human

life.

Arithmetic, land-furveying, men-

furation, engineering, navigation, mechanics, hydroftatics,

pneumatics, optics, phyfical aftronomy, &c. are


dent on the propofitions of geometry.

all

depen-


viii

INTRODUCTION.
depends on the
firfr.

Much however
methods

communication of

any fcience to a learner, though the beft and


are feldom adopted.

mod

eafy

Propositions are placed be-

fore a fludent,
ing,
is

told

who though having a fufficient understandjuft as much about them on entering at the
him
of
a prepofleffion
this delightful

very threshold of the fcience, as gives

molt unfavourable
fubjedl
;

to

his future fludy

or

" the

formalities and paraphernalia of rigour are

fo oftentatioufly

put forward, as almoft to hide the

reality.

Endlefs and perplexing repetitions, which do not confer


greater exactitude on the reafoning, render the demonftrations involved

and obfcure, and conceal from the view of

the fludent the confecution of evidence."


fion
is

Thus an

aver-

created in the

mind of

the pupil, and a fubjecl fo

calculated to improve the reafoning powers, and give the

habit of clofe thinking,

is

degraded by a dry and rigid

courfe of inftruction into an uninteresting exercife of the

memory.

To

raife the curiofity,

and

to

awaken the

liftlefs

and dormant powers of younger minds mould be the aim


of every teacher
;

but where examples of excellence are


it

wanting, the attempts to attain

are but few, while

emi-

nence excites attention and produces imitation.


of
this

The

objecT:

Work

is

to introduce a

method of teaching geomefcientific

try,

which has been much approved of by many


in this country, as well as in

men The
and

France and America.

plan here adopted forcibly appeals to the eye, the mofl

fenfitive
its

and the moft comprehenfive of our external organs,


to

pre-eminence

imprint

it

fubjecT:

on the mind

is

fupported by the incontrovertible


well

maxim

expreffed in the

known words of Horace


>uam

Segnius irritant animus dcmijfa per aurem


quts funt oculis fubjetta fidelibus.
is

feebler imprefs through the ear


is

made,

Than what

by the

faithful

eye conveyed.

INTRODUCTION.
figns are

ix

All language confifts of reprefentative figns, and thofe


the beft

which

effect

their purpofes

with the
purftill

greateft precifion and difpatch.

Such

for all

common
are

pofes are the audible figns called words,

which

confidered as audible, whether addreffed immediately to the


ear, or

through the medium of

letters to the eye.

Georelative

metrical diagrams are not figns, but the materials of geo-

metrical fcience, the objecl: of

which

is

to

fhow the

quantities of their parts by a procefs of reafoning called

Demonftration.

This reafoning has been generally carried


and black or uncoloured diagrams

on by words,

letters,

but as the ufe of coloured fymbols, figns, and diagrams in


the linear arts and fciences, renders the procefs of reafon-

ing more precife, and the attainment more expeditious, they

have been

in this inftance accordingly adopted.

Such

is

the expedition of this enticing

mode of commu-

nicating knowledge, that the Elements of Euclid can be

acquired in

lefs

than one third the time ufually employed,

and the retention by the

memory

is

much more permanent;


who have
adopted
;

thefe facts have been afcertained

by numerous experiments

made by

the inventor, and feveral others

his plans.

The

particulars

of which are few and obvious

the letters annexed to points, lines, or other parts of a dia-

gram

are in fadl but arbitrary names, and reprefent


;

them

in

the demonftration

inftead of thefe, the parts being differ-

ently coloured, are


to

made

name

themfelves, for

their forms in correfpond-

ing colours represent

them

in the demonftration.

In order to give a better idea

of this fyftem, and Aits

of the advantages gained by

adoption,

let

us take a right

INTRODUCTION.
its

angled triangle, and exprefs fome of


colours and the

properties both by

method generally employed.

Some of the properties of the right angled triangle exprejfed by the method generally employed.
1.

ABC,
and

The The

angle

BAC,

together with the angles

BCA

ABC
2.

are equal to

two right
added

angles, or twice the angle


to the angle

ABC.
equal

angle

CAB

ACB will be

to the angle
3.

ABC.

The angle BAC or BCA. 4. The angle angle ABC.


5.

ABC
BCA

is

greater than either of the angles

or the angle

CAB

is

lefs

than the

If

from the angle


fquare of

ABC,
is

there be taken the angle


to the angle

BAC, the 6. The


of

remainder will be equal

ACB.
the fquares

AC

equal to the

fum of

AB

and BC.

The fame properties expreffed by colouring the different parts.

I.

That

is,

the red angle added to the yellow angle added to

the blue angle, equal twice the yellow angle, equal


right angles.

two

Or

in

words, the red angle added to the blue angle, equal

the yellow angle.

^ C
The
yellow angle
is

JK*

or

greater

than either the red or blue

angle.

INTRODUCTION.

xi

4-

^B

or

Ml

Zl
is lefs

Either the red or blue angle

than the yellow angle.

5-

pp minus
made
lefs

In other terms, the yellow angle

by the blue angle

equal the red angle.

+
That
is,

the fquare of the yellow line

is

equal to the

fum

of the fquares of the blue and red


In oral demonstrations
tant advantage, the eye

lines.

we

gain with colours this imporat the

and the ear can be addreffed

fame moment,
linear arts

fo

that for teaching geometry, and other


claries,

and fciences, in
is
is is

the fyftem

is

the beft ever

propofed, this

apparent from the examples juft given.


evident that a reference from the text to

Whence

it

the diagram

more rapid and

fure,

by giving the forms

and colours of the parts, or by naming the parts and their


colours, than

naming

the parts and letters on the diagram.


is

Befides the fuperior fimplicity, this fyftem

likewife con-

fpicuous for concentration, and wholly excludes the injuri-

ous though prevalent practice of allowing the ftudent to

commit

the demonftration to

memory;

until reafon,

and

fact,

and proof only make impreflions on the underftanding.


Again,
figures,

when lecturing on the principles or properties of if we mention the colour of the part or parts re-

ferred to, as in faying, the red angle, the blue line, or lines,

&c. the part or parts thus named will be immediately feen


by
all

in the clafs at the

fame

inftant

not fo if

we

fay the
fo

angle

ABC,

the triangle

PFQ^the

figure

EGKt, and

on

xii

INTRODUCTION.
mud
be traced one by one before the ftudents
to,

for the letters

arrange in their minds the particular magnitude referred

which often occafions confufion and


time.

error, as well as lofs

of

Alfo if the parts which are given as equal, have the


in

fame colours

any diagram, the mind will not wander


it
;

from the object before


fents

that

is,

fuch an arrangement pre-

an ocular demonstration of the parts to be proved

equal, and the learner retains the data throughout the whole

of the reafoning.
the prefent plan, if

But whatever may be the advantages of


it

be not fubftituted for,

it

can always

be made a powerful auxiliary to the other methods, for the


purpofe of introduction, or of a more fpeedy reminifcence,
or of

more permanent
experience of
fadts

retention by the
all

memory.
to

The
prefs

who

have formed fyftems

im-

on

the understanding, agree in proving that

coloured reprefentations, as pictures, cuts, diagrams, &c. are

more

eafily

fixed in

the

mind than mere


Curious
as
it

fentences un-

marked by any
ticians

peculiarity.

may

appear,

poets feem to be aware of this fadl


;

more than mathema-

many modern

poets allude to this vifible fyftem of

communicating knowledge, one of them has thus expreffed


himfelf
Sounds which addrefs the ear are loft and die In one fhort hour, but thefe which ftrike the eye, Live long upon the mind, the faithful fight
Engraves the knowledge with a beam of
light.

This perhaps may be reckoned the only improvement

which
and

plain

geometry has received

fince the days

of Euclid,

if there

were any geometers of note before that time,

Euclid's fuccefs has quite eclipfed their

memory, and even


to

occafioned

all

good things of that kind

be afilgned to
It

him
alfo

like

JEfop

among

the writers of Fables.

may

be worthy of remark, as tangible diagrams afford the

only

medium through which geometry and

other linear

INTRODUCTION.
arts

xiii

and fciences can be taught


is

to the blind, this vifible fys-

tem

no

lefs

adapted to the exigencies of the deaf and

dumb.
Care mult be taken
do with the
to

{how

that colour has nothing to

lines, angles, or

magnitudes, except merely to


line,

name them.

mathematical

which

is

length with-

out breadth, cannot pofiefs colour, yet the jun&ion of two


colours on the fame plane gives a good idea of

what

is

meant by
colour,

a mathematical line
is

recoiled:

we

are fpeaking

familiarly, fuch a junction

to

be underftood and not the

when we

fay the black line, the red line or lines,

&c.

Colours and coloured diagrams

may

at

firft.

appear a

clumfy method

to

convey proper notions of the properties

and parts of mathematical figures and magnitudes, however they will be found to afford a

means more
and a

refined and

extenfive than any that has been hitherto propofed.

We
A

fhall

here define a point, a


in

line,

furface,

and

demonftrate apropofition
alfertion.

order to fhow the truth of this

point

is
is

that

which has

pofition, but not

magnitude

or a point

pofition only, abfiradled

from the confideration


Perhaps the follow-

of length, breadth, and thicknefs.


ing defcription
is

better calculated to explain the nature of

a mathematical point to thofe


idea, than the

who

have not acquired the

above fpecious definition.

Let three colours meet and cover a


portion of the paper,
is

where they meet


yellow, nor
is it

not blue, nor


it

is it

red, as

occupies no portion of the


it

plane, for if
to the blue,

did,

it

would belong

the red, or the yellow


exifts,

part

yet

it

and has pofition


fo that

without magnitude,

with a

little reflection, this

June-


XIV
tioii

;; ;

INTRODUCTION.
of three colours on a plane, gives a good idea of
a

mathematical point.

A
a line

line

is

length without breadth.


in the

With

the afliftance

of colours, nearly

fame manner
:

as before, an idea

of

may

be thus given

Let two colours meet and cover a portion of the paper

where they meet


blue
pies
;

is

not red, nor

is it

therefore the junction occu-

no portion of the plane, and


it

therefore

cannot have breadth, but


:

only length
readily
line.

from which we can


a mathematical

form an idea of what

is

meant by

For the purpofe of

illu fixation,

one colour differing

from the colour of the paper, or plane upon which it is drawn, would have been fufficient; hence in future, if we
fay the red line, the blue line, or lines, &c.
tions
it is

the junc-

with the plane upon which they are drawn are to be

underftood.
Surface
thicknefs.
is

that

which has length and breadth without

When we
(PQ),

confider a folid body


it

we

perceive at once that


:

has three dimenfions, namely

length,
S

breadth,

and thicknefs

fuppofe one part of this folid (PS)


to

be red, and the other part

(QR)

yellow, and that the colours be


diftincr.

without commingling, the

blue furface (RS) which feparates


thefe parts, or

which

is

the fame

thing, that

which

divides the folid

without
without thicknefs, and only

lofs

of material, mufr. be
length and breadth

poffeffes

INTRODUCTION.
this plainly appears

xv

from reafoning,

limilar to that juft

em-

ployed in defining, or rather defcribing a point and a

line.

The
manner
the
firft

propofition
in

which we have

felefted to elucidate the


is

which the

principles are applied,

the fifth of

Book.

In an ifofceles triangle

internal angles at the bafe

ABC, the ABC,


the fides

ACB
AB,

are equal, and

when

AC

are produced, the exter-

nal angles at the bafe


are alio equal.

BCE,

CBD

Produce

make

and

Draw

and

in

we have

and

^^

common

and

=
in

Again

^ 7^ Z

(B.

,.

pr.

+ .)

xvi

INTRODUCTION.

and

=:

(B.

i. pr. 4).

But

^
Q. E. D.

5y annexing

Letters to the Diagram.

Let

the equal fides

AB

and

AC
D

be produced through the

extremities

BC, of the
let

third fide, and in the produced part

BD

of either,
let

any point

be aflumed, and from the

other

AE
E

be cut off equal to

AD

(B.

1.

pr. 3).
fides,

Let

the points

and D,

fo

taken in the produced

be con-

nected by ftraight lines

DC

and

BE

with the alternate ex-

tremities of the third fide of the triangle.

In the triangles

DAC
to

and

are reflectively equal

angle

the line

AB, and Hence is common to both triangles. DC is equal to BE, the angle ADC

EAB EA and

the fides

DA
(B.

and

AC

the included
1 .

pr. 4.)

to the angle
;

AEB,

and the angle

ACD

to

the angle

and AC AE the equal be taken, the remainders BD and CE will be equal. Hence in the triangles BDC and CEB, the fides BD and DC are refpectively equal to CE and EB, and the angles D and E
the equal lines

AD

and

ABE fides AB

if

from

included by thofe fides are alfo equal.

Hence

(B.

pr. 4.)

INTRODUCTION.
the angles

xvii

DBC

and

ECB, which

are thofe included

by

the third fide

BC

and the productions of the equal


Alfo the angles

fides

AB
and

and

AC

are equal.

DCB

and

EBC

are equal if thofe equals be taken

from the angles

DCA
are

EBA

before proved equal, the remainders,

which

the angles

ABC

and

ACB

oppofite to the equal fides, will

be equal.
Therefore in an
ifofceles triangle,

&c.

Q^E. D.
Our
object in this place being to introduce the fyftem

rather than to teach any particular fet of propofitions,

we

have therefore feledted the foregoing out of the regular


courfe.

For fchools and other public places of

inftruclion,

dyed chalks will anfwer

to defcribe diagrams, 6cc. for private

ufe coloured pencils will be found very convenient.

We

are

happy

to find that the

Elements of Mathematics
of thofe interefted

now forms

a confiderable part of every found female edu-

cation, therefore

we

call the attention

or engaged in the education of ladies to this very attractive

mode of communicating knowledge, and work for its future developement.

to the fucceeding

We
fenfes

fhall for the prefent

conclude by obferving, as the


fo forcibly

of fight and hearing can be

and inftanta-

neously addreffed alike with one thoufand as with one, the


million

might be taught geometry and other branches of


eafe, this

would advance the purpofe of education more than any thing that might be named, for it would teach the people how to think, and not what
mathematics with great
to think
;

it is

in this particular the great error

of education

originates.

XV1U

THE ELEMENTS OF EUCLID.


BOOK
I.

DEFINITIONS.
I.

A point A
The

is

that

which has no
II.

parts.

line is

length without breadth.


III.

extremities of a line are points.


IV.

A
its

ftraight or right line

is

that

which

lies

evenly between

extremities.

V.

furface

is

that

which has length and breadth


VI.

only.

The

extremities of a furface are lines.


VII.

A A
fame

plane furface

is

that

which
VIII.

lies

evenly between

its

ex-

tremities.

plane angle

is

the inclination of

two

lines to

one ano-

ther, in a plane,

which meet

together, but are not in the

direction.

IX.

plane rectilinear angle

is

the inclina-

tion of

two

ftraight lines to one another,

which meet
fame

together, but are not in the

ftraight line.

BOOK

I.

DEFINITIONS.
X.

xix

When

one ftraight line (landing on ano-

ther ftraight line

makes the adjacent angles


is

equal, each of thefe angles


angle,

called a right
is

and each of thefe

lines

faid to

be

perpendicular to the other.

A
a line or lines.

XI.

An obtufe

angle

is

an angle greater

than a right angle.

XII.

An

acute angle

is

an angle

lefs

than a

right angle.

XIII.

A A

term or boundary

is

the extremity of any thing.

XIV.
figure
is

a furface enclofed

on

all fides

by

XV.

circle

is

a plane figure,

bounded
its

by one continued

line, called
;

cir-

cumference or periphery

and havit,

ing a certain point within

from
to
its

which

all

ftraight lines

drawn

circumference are equal.

XVI.
This point (from which the equal
called the centre of the circle.
lines are

drawn)

is


xx

BOOK

I.

DEFINITIONS.
XVII.

A diameter of a circle is a flraight line drawn


through the centre, terminated both ways
in the circumference.

XVIII.

femicircle

is

the figure contained by the

diameter, and the part of the circle cut off

by the diameter.
**

XIX.
*

fegment of

a circle
line,

is

a figure contained
cir-

by a flraight

and the part of the


it

J
A

cumference which

cuts off.

XX.
figure contained by flraight lines only,
is

called a recti-

linear figure.

XXI.

triangle

is

a rectilinear figure included

by three

fides.

XXII.

quadrilateral figure

is

one which

is

by four
and

!.
its

fides.

The

flraight lines

bounded

connecting the vertices of the

oppofite angles of a quadrilateral figure, are


called

diagonals.

XXIII.

polygon

is

a rectilinear figure

bounded by more than

four fides.

BOOK

I.

DEFINITIONS.
XXIV.

xxi

triangle

whofe three

fides are equal,

is

faid to

be equilateral.

XXV.

A
is

triangle

which has only two

fides

equal

called an ifofceles triangle.

XXVI.

A A

fcalene triangle

is

one which has no two

fides equal.

XXVII.
right angled triangle
is

that

which

has a right angle.

XXVIII.

An

obtufe angled triangle

is

that

which

has an obtufe angle.

XXIX.

An

acute angled triangle

is

that

which

has three acute angles.

XXX.

Of four-fided
has
all its fides

figures, a fquare is that

which

equal, and

all its

angles right

angles.

XXXI.

rhombus
its

is

that

which has

all its fides

equal, but

angles are not right angles.

XXXII.

An

oblong

is

that

which has

all its
all
its

angles right angles, but has not


fides equal.

xxii

BOOK

1.

POSTULATES.

XXXIII.

rhomboid
fides

is

that

which has

its

op-

pofite

equal to one another,


are not equal, nor
its

but
angles right angles.

all its fides

XXXIV.
All other quadrilateral figures are called trapeziums.

XXXV.
Parallel flraight lines are fuch as are in

'^^^m^mmm^m^mmi^
would never meet.

the fame plane, and

which being
both

pro-

duced continually

in

directions,

POSTULATES.
I.

Let

it

be granted that a flraight line


to

may

be drawn from

any one point

any other point.


II.

Let
duced

it

be granted that

a finite flraight line

may

be pro-

to

any length in a flraight


III.

line.

Let

it

be granted that a circle

may be

defcribed with any

centre at any diflance from that centre.

AXIOMS.
I.

Magnitudes which are equal


each other.
II.

to

the fame are equal to

If equals be added to equals the

fums will be equal.

BOOK
If equals be taken

I.

AXIOMS.
III.

xxin

away from equals the remainders


IV.

will

be equal.
If equals
equal.

be

added

to

unequals the fums will be unV.

If equals be taken
will be unequal.

away from unequals the remainders


VI.

The

doubles of the fame or equal magnitudes are equal.


VII.

The

halves of the fame or equal magnitudes are equal.


VIII.

Magnitudes which coincide with one another, or exactly


fill

the fame fpace, are equal.

IX.

The whole

is

greater than

its

part.

X.

Two

flraight lines cannot include a fpace.

XI. All right angles are equal.


XII.

If

two

ftraight
(

lines
)

Z^ZI
make

meet

third

flraight line

fo as to

the

two

interior

angles

and

on the fame

fide lefs than

two

right angles, thefe

two

ftraight lines will

meet

if

they be produced on that fide on which the angles


are lefs than

two

right angles.

XXIV

BOOK
twelfth

I.

ELUCIDATIONS.
in

The
i
.

axiom may be expreffed

any of the

fol-

lowing ways

Two

diverging ftraight lines cannot be both parallel


line.

to the
2.

fame ftraight

If a flraight line interfecT: one of the


it

two

parallel

ftraight lines
3.

muft

alfo interfecl the other.

Only one

flraight line can be

drawn through

a given

point, parallel to a given ftraight line.

Geometry has
to

for

its

principal objects the expofition and


is

explanation of the properties of figure, and figure

defined

be the relation which

fubfifts
is

between the boundaries of


linear, Juper-

fpace.

Space or magnitude

of three kinds,

ficial, &n&folid.

Angles might properly be confideret"


of magnitude.
parts,

as a fourth fpecies

Angular magnitude evidently

confifts

of

and muft therefore be admitted to be a fpecies ol

A
An
angle
is

quantity

The

ftudent muft not fuppofe that the magni-

tude of an angle

is

affected

by the length
it,

of the ftraight

lines

which include
it is
is

and

of whofe mutual divergence


fure.

the

mea-

The

vertex of an angle
legs

the point

where the fides or the


meet, as A.

of the angle

often defignated by a fingle letter


legs are the only lines

when

its

which meet

to-

gether

at its vertex.

Thus

the red and

blue lines form the yellow angle, which


in other fyftems

would be
fame point,

called the

angle A.

But when more than two


in the
it

lines

meet

was ne-

ceffary

by former methods,

in order to

avoid confufion, to employ three letters


to defignate an angle

about that point,

BOOK
the letter

I.

ELUCIDATIONS.
Thus

xxv

which marked the vertex of the angle being


the black and red lines
at

always placed in the middle.

meeting together
ufually

C, form the blue angle, and has been

denominated the angle

FCD

or

DCF

The

lines
is its

FC

and

CD

are the legs of the angle; the point

vertex. In like

manner the black angle would be defignated


or

the angle

DCB
fo

BCD.

The

red and blue angles added


to

together, or the angle

HCF added

FCD, make

the angle

HCD

and

of other angles.

When
beyond

the legs of an angle are produced or prolonged


vertex, the angles
faid to

its

made by them on both


oppofite to

fides
:

of the vertex are

be vertically

each other

Thus

the red and yellow angles are faid to be vertically

oppofite angles.
Superpojition
is

the procefs by

which one magnitude may

be conceived to be placed upon another, fo as exactly to


cover
cide.
it,

or fo that every part of each fhall exactly coin-

line

is

faid to
its

be produced,

when
its

it

is

extended, pro-

longed, or has

length increafed, and the increafe of


is

length which
production.

it

receives

called

produced part, or

its

The
figure,
treat

entire length
is

of the

line or lines

which

enclofe a

called

its

perimeter.

The

firft fix

books of Euclid

of plain figures only.

line
is

drawn from the centre


called a radius.

of a
lines

circle to- its circumference,

The
fide

which include

a figure are called its Jides.


is

That

of a right angled triangle, which


angle,
is

oppofite to the right


oblong
is

called the hypotenufe.

An

defined in the

fecond book, and called a rectangle.


are conlideied in the
firft.

All the lines which

fix

books of the Elements are

fuppofed to be in the fame plane.

The Jlraight-edge and

compajfes are the only inftruments,

xxvi
the ufe of

BOOK
which
is

I.

ELUCIDATIONS.
in

permitted
is

Euclid, or plain Geometry.

To

declare this reftriction

the object of the populates.

The Axioms of geometry


the truth of

are certain general propofitions,

which

is

taken to be felf-evident and incapable

of being

eftabliflied

by demonftration.

Propofitions are thofe refults

which

are obtained in geo-

metry by a procefs of reafoning.

There

are

two

fpecies of

propofitions in geometry, problems and theorems.

Problem

is

a propofition in
;

which fomething
fome

is

pro-

pofed to be done

as a line to

be drawn under fome given


figure to be con-

conditions, a circle to be defcribed,


firucted, 5cc.

The folution of the problem confifts in fhowing how the thing required may be done by the aid of the rule or ftraightedge and compafies.

The
dicated

demonjlration confifts in proving that the procefs inin

the folution really attains the required end.


is

Theorem
is

a propofition in

which

the truth of

fome

principle

aflerted.

This principle muft be deduced from

the axioms and definitions, or other truths previously and

independently eftablifhed.
demonstration.

To fhow

this

is

the object of

A Problem analogous to a poftulate. A Theorem refembles an axiom. A Pojlulate a problem, the folution of which is
is is

afiumed.
granted

An Axiom

is

a theorem, the truth of

which

is

without demonfbration.

A A

Corollary

is

an inference deduced immediately from

propofition.

Scholium

is

a note or obfervation

on a propofition not
it

containing an inference of fufficient importance to entitle


to the

name of a corollary. Lemma is a propofition merely

introduced for the pur-

pole of efiablifhing

fome more important propofition.

XXV11

SYMBOLS AND ABBREVIATIONS.


,*.

exprefies the

word

therefore.

be read equal
to,

becaufe.
equal.

This fign of equality may


to,

or

is

equal

or are equal to

but

any difcrepancy in regard


auxiliary verbs
cal rigour.
d\p
Is,

to the introduction
affect the

of the

are,

&c. cannot

geometri-

means the fame


fignifies
.

as if the

words

'

not equal'

were written.

r~

greater than.
lefs

33 ...

than.

if ... ~h ....
.

not greater than.

not

lefs

than.
;

-j- is

vezdplus (more), the fign of addition

when
;

interpofed

between two or more magnitudes,


is

fignifies their

fum.

read minus

(lefs),

fignifies

fubtraction

and

when

placed between two quantities denotes that the latter


is

to

be taken from the former.


product of two or more numbers

this fign exprefies the

when
angle,

placed between
it is

them

in arithmetic

and algebra

but in geometry

generally ufed to exprefs a rect-

when

placed between
its

" two

fixaight lines

which
alfo
its

contain one of

right angles."

A reclangle

may

be reprefented by placing a point between two of conterminous


2

fides.
;

exprefies an analogy or proportion

thus, if

A, B,

and D, reprefent four magnitudes, and

has to

B
is

the fame ratio that

C
:

has to

D,

the propofition

thus briefly written,

A B A B
: :

C D, C D, C A
:
:

B=D.
ratio
is

This equality or famenefs of

read,

xxviii

STMBOLS AND ABBREVIATIONS.


as

or
|

A A

is is

to B, fo to B, as

is

C
is

to
to

D
D.

fignifies parallel to.


.

_L

perpendicular
angle.

to.

m
Xi x
\

right angle.

two right

angles.

or

>

briefly defignates a point.


flgnities greater, equal, or lefs than.
is

=,

or

^
2
.

The

lquare defcribed on a line

concifely written thus,

In the fame
2
def.

manner twice the fquare

of,

is

expreffed by

fignifies definition.

pos
ax

pojlulate.

axiom.
hypothefis.
It

hyp

may be
is

neceffary here to re-

mark, that the

hypothefis

the condition affumed or

taken for granted.

Thus, the hypothefis of the prois

pofition given in the Introduction,


is

that the triangle

ifofceles, or that its legs are equal.


confiriiolion.

conft

The

confiruSlion

is

the change

made

in the original figure,

by drawing

lines,

making
it

angles, defcribing circles, &c. in order to adapt

to

the argument of the demonftration or the folution of the

problem.

The

conditions

under which

thefe

changes are made, are

as indisputable as thofe

con-

tained in the hypothefis.

For

inftance, if

we make
angles are

an angle equal to a given angle, thefe two


equal by confbruction.

Q^

E.

Quod

erat demonfirandum.
to

Which was

be demonftrated.

CORRIGENDA.

xxix

Faults

to be

correSled before reading this Volurne.

Page

13, line 9, for def. 7 read def. 10.

45,

laft line,

for pr. 19 raz^pr. 29.

54, line 4 from the bottom, /or black and red line read blue

and red

line.

59, line 4, /or add black line fquared read add blue line
fquared.

60, line 17, /or red line multiplied by red and yellow line

read red line multiplied by red, blue, and yellow


76, line 11, for def. 7 read def. 10.
81, line 10, for take black line

line.

r*W

take blue

line.

105, line 11, for yellow black angle add blue angle equal red
angle read yellow black angle add blue angle add red
angle.

129,

laft line,

for circle read triangle.

141, line

1,

for

Draw

black line read

Draw

blue

line.

196, line 3, before the yellow magnitude infert

M.

ttcltoBOOK
PROPOSITION
I.

I.

PROBLEM.

given
(

finite
)

Jlraight line
to defcribe

an equila-

teral triangle.

Defcribe

and

(poftulate 3.);

draw

and

(port.

1.).

then will

be equilateral.

For

-^

(def. 15.);

and therefore

is

the equilateral triangle required.

Q^E. D.

BOOK I. PROP.

II.

PROB.

ROM a given point


to

),

draw ajiraight
a given
(

line

equal

to
line

finite Jlraight
).

(port, i.), defcribe

A(pr.
2.),

i.),

produce

(port.

defcribe

(poft. 3.),

and

(poft. 3.)

produce
is

(poft. 2.), then

the line required.

For
and
(ax. 3.), but (def. 15.)
(conft.), ,\

(def.

15.),

drawn from the given point


is

)>

equal the given line

Q. E. D.

BOOK

I.

PROP.

III.

PROB.

ROM
(

the

greater

)
.

of

two given Jiraight


lines, to

cut off a part equal to


)

the

lefs (

Draw

(pr.

2.)

defcribe

(port. 3

.),

then

For
and

(def. 15.),

(conft.)

(ax. 1.).

Q. E. D.

BOOK

I.

PROP.

IF.

THEOR.
F two
triangles

have two Jides


of
the

one

reJpecJively

equal to two Jides of the


other,
(

to
to

) )

and
//$*

tfW

rf/<?j

and
by
thofe

contained
fides alfo equal ; then their bafes or their
)

equal

ing
i

fdes (

and

are alfo equal :


oppofte
to

and

the remaining

and

their remain-

angles

equal fdes

are

refpeSlively

equal

J^

=z

^^

and

^^

f^

) :

and

the triangles are

equal in every reJpecJ.

Let the two triangles be conceived,

to

be fo placed, that
or
$

the vertex of the one of the equal angles,


fliall fall

upon

that of the other, and


9

which

to coincide

with
plied
:

then will -

coincide with

confequently

will coincide with


is

if ap,

or

two

ftraight lines will enclofe a fpace,

impoflible

(ax. 10), therefore

>=>
,

and

^L

^L

and

as the triangles

and

/V

coincide,

when

applied, they are equal in every refpedl:.

Q. E. D.

BOOK
N
any

I.

PROP.

V.

THEOR.

ifofceles

triangle

if the equal fides

be produced, the external

angles at the bafe are equal,

and

the

internal angles at the bafe are alfo


equal.

Produce
(poft.
2.),
j

and
take

(P r

3-);

draw-

Then

in

(conft),

common

to

(hyp.) /.

Jk

= |k

(pr.

4.)

but

A = ,-A=A

(ax.

3.)

Q.E. D.

BOOK

I.

PROP.

VI.

THEOR.

any triangle

A
(

)if
)

two angles

and j^L

are equal\t liefides

....
alfo

and
equal.

"

' )

oppojite to

them are

For

if the fides

be not equal,

let

one

of them
other

be greater than the

and from

it

cut off

(pr. 3.),

draw

Then
(conft.)
.*.

in

L-^A,
(hyp.) and

common,

the triangles are equal (pr. 4.) a part equal to the whole,
is

which

abfurd
is

.'.

neither of the

fides

or

greater than the other, /. hence

they are

equal

Q. E. D.

BOOK

I.

PROP.

VII.

THEOR.

the fame bafe

(>

), and on

the fame fide of it there cannot be triangles having their

two

conterminous

fdes
#</

)
(

and

at both extremities of

the bafe, equal to each other.

When

two

triangles ftand
fide

on the fame

bafe,

and on the fame

of

it,

the vertex of the one

(hall either fall outfide

of the other triangle, or


its fides.

within

it

or, laflly,

on one of

If

it

be poflible

let

the

two

triangles be con-

firucted fo that f

=
and,
(P r

1 then ,
J

draw

0=*
but (pr.
therefore the
fides

5-)

and

=>
which
5.)
is

abfurd,

two

triangles cannot have their

conterminous

equal at both extremities of the bafe.

Q. E. D.

BOOK

I.

PROP.

VIII.

THEOR.

F two

triangles

have two Jides


of the one reflectively

equal

to

two

fides

of

the

other

and and

=
alfo their bafes
(

),

rr ")>
angles

equal ; then the

("^^B and "^^H')

contained by their equalfides

are alfo equal.

If the equal bafes


to
lie

and

be conceived

be placed one upon the other, fo that the triangles fhall


at

the fame fide of them, and that the equal fides


,

__ and
;

______ and

_____,__,_.
fall

be con-

terminous, the vertex of the one muft

on the vertex

of the other

for to fuppofe
laft

them not coincident would

contradict the

propofition.

Therefore the

fides

and

being coin-

cident with

and

A=A
Q. E. D.

BOOK

I.

PROP.

IX.

PROB.

bifeSl

a given reSlilinear

angle

).

Take
draw
defcribe
,

(P r 3-)
-

upon which

^f

(pr. i.),

draw

Becaufe

and

= ___
to the

(confl:.)

common

two

triangles

and

(confl:.),

P r.

8.)

Q. E. D.

10

BOOK I. PROP.

X.

PROB.

bifefi

a given finite Jiraight


(

line

).

and

common

to the

two

triangles.

Therefore the given line

is

bifecled.

Qj. E.

D.

BOOK

I.

PROP. XL

PROB.

ii

ROM
point
in

a given

(^')>
a
given
line

Jlraight
(
;

),

to

draw

a perpendicular.

Take any
cut off

point

conftrucl:

draw

and

A
_

in the given line,

(P r

3-)

(pr. i.),

it

fhall

be perpendicular to

the given line.

For

(conft.)
(conft.)

and

common

to the

two

triangles.

Therefore Jj

(pr. 8.)

(def. io.).

Q^E. D.

12

500A:

/.

PROP.

XII.

PROD.

draw

a
line

Jiraight

perpendicular
to

given
line

indefinite

Jiraight
)

(a^_
{point

from a given
)

/Y\

'without.

With
line,

the given point

x|\

and any diftance

as centre, at

one

fide

of the

capable of extending to

the other fide, defcribe

Make
draw

(pr. 10.)

then

and

For

(pr. 8.) fince

(conft.)

common
and

to both, (def. 15.)

and
(def. io.).

Q. E. D.

BOOK

I.

PROP.

XIII.

THEOR.

*3

HEN
(

a Jiraight
)

line

Jlanding

upon another Jiraight


line
(

makes angles with


either

it;

they are

two right angles or together

equal to two right angles.

If

be

J_

to

then,

and

*=0\
be not JL to

(def. 7.),

But

if

draw

-L

;(pr. 11.)

(conft.),

+ jm = mm +
:

V+mk(zx.2.)

Q. E. D.

BOOK

I.

PROP. XIV.

THEOR.

IF
(

two jlraight

lines

and "~*"^),

meeting a thirdJlr aight


line
(

),

//tf

yZras*
it,

^w/, tfW ^/
it

oppojite fides

of

make with

adjacent angles

and

two right angles

A
;

equal to

thefe

fraight fraight

lines lie in one continuous


line.

For,

if

pomble

let

and not

be the continuation of

then

but by the hypothecs

+
(ax. 3.);

,.

4=A
is

which

is

abfurd (ax. 9.).

not the continuation of

and

the like

may

be demonftrated of any other flraight line


,

except

.*.

^^^

is

the continuation

of
Q. E. D.

BOOK

I.

PROP. XV.

THEOR.

15

F two
and

right lines
)

interfeSl one

another, the vertical an-

gles

and

<4
are equal.

and

<4 +

4
In the fame

manner

it

may be lhown

that

Q^_E. D.

i6

BOO A'

/.

PROP. XVI.

THEOR.
F
a fide of a

trian-

is

produced, the external

angle

V..\
remote

greater than either of the


internal

angles

A A
"(pr. io.).
it

Make Draw

------

^*^f
.

and produce
:

until

draw

In

and

4
(conft. pr. 15.),
.'.

^m = ^L

(pr. 4.),

In like manner

it

can be

mown,

that if

^^

be produced,

^
is

IZ

^^
ft

and therefore

which

is

C ^ ft
Q. E. D.

BOOK

I.

PROP. XVII.

THEOR.

17

NY

tiao angles

angle

gether

lefs

than two right angles.

of a

tri-

^___Jk

are to-

Produce

then will

A+
But

=
CZ

D
(pr.

Jk
may
be

16.)

and

in the

fame manner

it

mown

that any other

two angles of the


right angles.

triangle taken together are lefs than

two

Q. E. D.

i8

BOOK

I.

PROP.

XVIII.

THEOR.

any triangle

if one fide

A *

be

greater

than
,

another

the angle op-

pofite to the greater fide is greater

than the angle oppofite

to the lefs.

1.

e.

*
(pr. 3.),

Make

draw

Then

will

J/i

J|

(pr. 5.);

but

MM d
and

(pr. 16.)

,*.

^ C
,s

much more

^c

>.

Q. E. D.

BOOK I. PROP.

XIX.

THEOR.

*9

in

any triangle

A
be greater

one angle

mm
J

than another

the fide

which
angle,
is

is

oppofite to the greater

greater than the Jide

oppofite the lefs.

If

be not greater than


or

then mull

If

then

A
which
is

(p r

5-)

contrary to the hypothefis.


lefs

is

not

than


(pr.

for if

it

were,

8.)

which

is

contrary to the hypothefis

Q. E. D.

20

BOOK I. PROP.

XX.

THEOR.

4
I NY two fides

and

^^-

of

triangle

Z\
')

taken together are greater than the


third fide

Produce

and
(P r
-

3-);

draw

Then

becaufe

'

(conft.).

^=4

(pr

*c4 +
and
.'.

(ax. 9.)
(pr. 19.)

+
Q.E.D

BOOK

I.

PROP. XXL

THEOR.

21

om

any point

within a triangle
Jiraight lines be

drawn
(_....
ther
lefs

to

the
),

extremities

of one fide

A
C
it

thefe lines tnujl be toge-

than the other twofdes, but

tnujl contain

a greater angle.

Produce

mmmm
-\-

-f- mmmmmm

-^

(pr. 20.),

add ..... to each,

__.-..

C C

-|-

...... (ax. 4.)


that

In the fame manner

may

be

mown
h

which was

to

be proved.

Again

4c4

(pr. 16.),

and

alfo

c4

(pr. 16.),

QJE.D.

22

BOOK

I.

PROP. XXII.

THEOR.

[IVEN three right


lines
<

any

the

fum of

two greater than


the third, to conJlruEl a tri-

angle whoje fides fliall be refpeSlively equal to the given


lines.

BOOK

I.

PROP. XXIII.

PROB.

23

T
to

a given point

given firaight

line

(^
)

to

in

a
),

make an angle equal

given reel ilineal angle

(jgKm

Draw
in the legs

between any two points


of the given angle.

Conftruct
fo that

(pr. 22.).

and

Then

(pr. 8.).

Q. E. D.

24

BOOK I. PROP.

XXIV.

THEOR.
F two
the one
triangles

have two fides of


reflecto

tively

equal
(

two fides of the other


to

and ------),

to

and if

one of

the angles

<jl

containbe

ed

by

the

equal fides

greater than the other (L. m\)> the fide [L \),


oppofite to the greater angle
is

( (

^
(

which

is

greater than thefide

which

is

oppofte to the

lefs

angle.

Make
and

Becaufe

^ = draw =:

C3 =

(pr. 23.),
(pr. 3.),

and

----.
(ax. 1. hyp. conft.)

.'.

^ = ^f
but

(pr

'^^

*
Z2

.*.

/.
but

.-.

^J
CI

Z]

^'
(pr. 19.)

(p r -4-)

Q. E. D.

BOOK

I.

PROP. XXV.

THEOR.

25

two

triangles

have
(

two

Jides

and

and
)

of the

one refpeSlively equal to two


Jides
(
)

of the other, but their bafes unequal, the angle fubtended


by the greater bafe

(-^

of

the one, mujl

be greater

than the angle fubtended by


the lefs bafe
( )

of the

other.

=
for if

CZ
zz =

or

Z2

mk
then

A
^
lefs

>

not equal to

^^
(pr. 4.)

^
is

^^

ss =

which

contrary to the hypothefis

is

not

than

A
(pr. 24.),

for if

A=A
1=

then

which

is

alfo contrary to the hypothefis

m*
Q^E. D.

26

BOOK
Case
I.

I.

PROP. XXVI.

THEOR.

two

triangles

have two angles

of the one refpeflively equal


to

two angles of

tlie

other,

and
and afide
a fide of

AA
Case
II.

\),

of the one equal


the

to

other fimilarly placed


to

with reJpecJ

the equal

angles, the remaining

fdes

and angles are

refpeclively

equal to one another.

CASE
....

I.

Let

..!

and

which

lie

between

the equal angles be equal,

then

i^BHI
let

MMMMMItM

For

if it

be poffible,

one of them

be

greater than the other

make

draw

In

and

we have

A=A

(pr. 4.)

BOOK

I.

PROP. XXVI. THEOR.

27

but

and therefore

JA = Mm &. which ^Bl =


(hyp.
fides
;

is

abfurd
is

hence neither of the

"""" and
and
.*.

greater than the other

they are equal

.,

and

</]

= ^j
?

(pr< 4.).

CASE
Again,
let

II.

which
it

lie

oppofite

the equal angles

MmL
-,

and 4Hk>.
then take

If

be poflible,

let

=:

-",

draw-

Then

in
*

and

Lm~. we have
and

=
.'.

=
(pr- 4-)

mk.

but

= Mi Mk = mm
AWL
which
is

(hyp-)

.*.

Amk.

abfurd (pr. 16.).

Confequently, neither of the fides

or

all

is

greater than the other, hence they muft

be equal.

It

follows (by pr. 4.) that the triangles are equal in


refpedls.

Q. E. D.

28

BOOK

I.

PROP. XXVII.

THEOR.

F
(

ajlraight
)

line

meetother
lines,

ing

two

Jlraight

and
with

makes

them

the

alternate

angles

and

equal,

thefe

two Jlraight

lines

are parallel.

If

be not parallel to

they (hall meet

when produced.

If

it

be poffible,

let thofe lines

be not parallel, but meet

when produced
than
is

then the external angle

^w

is

greater

flftk. (pr. 16), but they are alfo equal (hyp.),


:

which

abfurd

in the

fame manner
fide
;

it

may be fhown

that they

cannot meet on the other

.*.

they are parallel.

Q. E. D.

BOOK I. PROP.
F aflraight line
ting

XXVIII.

THEOR.

29

two other
lines
),

Jlraight
(

and and

makes the external equal


the

to

internal

oppojite

angle, at the
the cutting

fame

fide of

line

{namely,

A A
),

or

or if it makes the two internal angles

at the fame fide

and

^^

or ||

^ tfW ^^^)
lines

together equal to two

right angles, thofe two fraight

are parallel.

Firft, if

mL =
if

jik

then

A= W A
Secondly,
J|

A W
=
1

(pr-'i 5-)

(pr. 27.).

-}-

II |

=
i3-)

then

^ + ^F = LJL.J(pr-

(ax. 3.)

=
(pr. 27.)

BOOK I. PROP.

XXIX.

THEOR.

STRAIGHT
( )

line

falling

on

two parallel Jlraight


lines
),
(

and
and

makes the alternate


;

angles equal to one another


alfo the external

equal to the inangle on the

ternal

and
;

oppofite

fame fide

and

the two internal

angles on the

fame

fide

together

equal to tivo right angles.

For

if the alternate angles

and

J^

^ be not equal,
(p r 2 3)-

draw
Therefore
fore

, making

Am
is

(pr. 27.)

and there-

two

flraight lines

which

interfect are parallel to the

fame

ftraight line,

which

impoffible (ax. 12).

Hence

the alternate angles

and

are

not

unequal, that

is,

they are equal:

=
M

J| m.

(pr. 15);

.*.

J| f^

J^

the external angle equal to the inter-

nal and oppofite on the fame fide

if

^r

be added to

both, then

+
two

That

is

to fay, the

internal angles at the

=D
(P "-^)1

fame

fide

of

the cutting line are equal to

two right

angles.

Q. E. D.

BOOK

I.

PROP. XXX.

THEOR.

TRAlGHT/mes(

mmm"m
)

which are parallel

to the

fame Jlraight line


are parallel to one another.

),

interfed:

(=)
(pr. 29.),

Then,

^^ = Mm
II

(pr. 27.)

Q. E. D.

32

BOOK I. PROP.

XXXI.

PROD.

ROM
point

a given

f
a

to

draw aJlraight
line

parallel
(

to

given
).

Jlraight line

Draw

^
make
then

from the point


in

to

any point

(pr. 23.),

(pr. 27.).

Q, E. D.

BOOK

I.

PROP. XXXII.

THEOR.

33

any fide

of a triangle be produced,
the

external

am 'gle

to the

fum of the two


(

is

equal

internal

and

oppofite angles

and

^ Rt,

and

the three internal angles of

every triangle taken together are

equal to two right angles.

Through

the point
II

draw
(pr- 3

0-

Then

<

^^^

(pr. 29.),

Km*.

= ^^

(ax. 2.),

and therefore

(pr. 13.).

4
O. E. D.

34

BOOK

I.

PROP. XXXIII.

THEOR.

fRAIGHT
and
the

lines
)

(-

which join
of

adjacent

extremities

two equal and parallelJlraight


* ),

are

them/elves equal

and parallel.

Draw

the diagonal.

(hyp.)

and

common
=

to the

two

triangles

and^J

= ^L
(pr. 27.).

(pr. 4.);

and

.".

Q. E. D.

BOOK

I.

PROP. XXXIV.

THEOR.

35

HE
and
divides
it

oppofite Jides

and angles of

any parallelogram are equal,


the

diagonal

into

two equal parts.

Since

(pr. 29.)

and

common
/.
\

to the

two

triangles.

>

(pr. 26.)

and

= m
fides

(ax.)

Therefore the oppofite

and angles of the parallelo-

gram

are equal

and

as the triangles

\^

and

\^

are equal in every refpect (pr. 4,), the diagonal divides

the parallelogram into

two equal

parts.

Q. E. D.

36

BOOK I. PROP. XXXV. THEOR.

ARALLELOGRAMS
on
the

fame

bafe,

and

between the fame parallels,

are [in area) equal.

On

account of the parallels,

Kpr.
and
'

29.)

(pr- 34-)

But,

(pr. 8.)

minus

and

minus

\
Q. E. D.

BOOK

I.

PROP. XXXVI.

THEOR.

37

ARALLELO-

GRAMS

1 a
equal bafes, and between the

fame parallels, are

equal.

Draw

and ---..-

b y (P r

34> and hyp.);

And

therefore

but

!->II
(ax. 1.).

X
and
II

(pr- 33-)

is

a parallelogram

(P r

35-)

Q. E. D.

38

BOOK

I.

PROP. XXXVII.

THEOR.

RIANGLES

k
and
on the

fame

bafe

and
lels

bet-ween the fame paral-

are equal.

Draw
\

(pr- 3

1 -)

Produce

and

are parallelograms
parallels,

on the fame bafe, and between the fame


and therefore equal,
(pr. 35.)

twice
>

(P r

34-)

=r twice

i
i
Q.E
D.

BOOK

I.

PROP. XXXVIII.

THEOR.

39

RIANGLES

II

and

f^wrt/ ^rf/^j

and between "**

on

the fame parallels are equal.

Draw
and

......
(pf
II
> -

3 '-'-

AM
but
i

(pr. 36.);

i.

twice cs ,,

^H 1

(pr. 34.),

and

#
^jv

twice

^ i

(pr. 34.),

A A

(ax. 7.).

Q^E. D.

4o

BOOK

I.

PROP. XXXIX.

THEOR.

QUAL
and
(

triangles

W
it,

^ \
which

on the fame bafe

and on

the fame fide of

are

between the fame parallels.

If

of the

draw

joins the vertices


||

triangles,
||

be not

(pr.3i.)>
.

meeting -------

Draw
Becaufe
(conft.)

II

(pr- 37-):

(hyp.)

a part equal to the whole,

which
-U-

^
is
;

abfurd.
;

and

in the

fame

manner

it

can be demonftrated, that no other line except


is
||

.-.

||

O. E. D.

BOOK

I.

PROP. XL.

THEOR.

41

QUAL
gles

trian-

and

L
which
1

on equal bafes, and on the

fame fame

Jide, are between

the

parallels.

If

.....

joins the vertices of triangles


' ,

draw


be not
||

(pr. 31.),

meeting

Draw
Becaufe
(conft.)

--

=
'

>

a part equal to the


is

whole,

which
1

abfurd.

-f|-

-^
:

and

in the

fame manner

it

can be demonftrated, that no other line except


is
||

/.

||

Q. E. D.

42

BOOK L PROP.

XLI.

THEOR.

a parallelogram

and a

triangle

the fame bafe ^^^^^ and between the fame parallels ------ and ^^ the parallelogram is double
,

V A
are
-

upon

the triangle.

Draw

the diagonal

Then

V=J
z= twice

(P r

37-)

(P r

34-)

^^

twice

.Q.E.D.

BOOK

I.

PROP. XLII.

THEOR.

43

conflruSl

parallelogram
equal to a given

triangle

ing an angle equal to a given

^ 4

and hav-

rectilinear angle

Make

i^^^
Draw

zz

------.

(pr. 10.)

Make
"

J^ =
jj

(P n 2 3*)

Draw
|

~
|
(pr. 31.)

=
but

twice

4 y

(pr. 41.)

(pr. 38.)

,V.4.
Q. E. D.

44

BOOK I. PROP.

XLIII.

THEOR.

HE

complements

and

^f

of

the parallelograms which are about

the diagonal of a parallelogram are


equal.

1
and

(pr- 34-)

V>
=

(pr. 34-)

(ax. 3.)

Q. E. D.

BOOK
O
(

I.

PROP. XLIV. PROB.


given
line

45

Jlraight
)

to

ap-

ply a parallelo-

gram
angle

equal to a given tri-

( \

),

and
to

having an angle equal

a given

reSlilinear

angle

Make

w.
(pr. 42.)
its fides

with

and having one of

conterminous
.

with and in continuation of

Produce

^
|

till it

meets mpptc

---

draw
draw

prnHnpp
I

it till it

continued

meeting

produced, and produce -

(pr- 43-J

but

(conft.)

A=T

(pr.19. and conft.)

Q. E. D.

BOOK I. PROP. XLV. PROB.


O
conjlruSl

a parallelogram equal
reftilinear

to

given

figure

and having an

angle

equal to

a given

reftilinear

angle

Draw

and

dividing

the rectilinear figure into triangles.

tl.
to

Conftruft

having
appiy

(pr. 42.)

*~\

having

mW = AW
man,

apply

#=
=z
(P^ 44-)
Q. E. D.

(pr. 44-)

having

HF = AW

and

is

a parallelogram, (prs. 29, 14, 30.)

having ,fl7

BOOK

I.

PROP. XLVI.

PROB.

47

PON

a given Jlraight

line

(
fquare.

to

confiruB

Draw
(pr.

_L and
1.

and

3.)

Draw
ing

II

and meet-

drawn

W
In

~W

1_

M
S3
a right angle (conft.)

(conft.)

=
be equal,

ri

g h t angle

(pr. 29.),

and the remaining

fides

and angles muft

(pr. 34.)

and

.*.

mk

is

a fquare. (def. 27.)

Q. E. D.

48

BOOK

I.

PROP. XLVIL

THEOR.

right

angled

triangle

hypotenufe
the fum

thefquare on the
is

equal to

of the fquares of the fides,


).

and

On

and
defcribe fquares, (pr. 46.)

Draw
alfo

draw

- and

(pr. 31.)

To

each add

--

and

Again, becauje

BOOK I. PROP.

XLVII.

THEOR.

49

:= twice

and

twice

In the fame

manner

it

may

be fhown

that

#
Q
E. D.

hence

++
H

BOOK

I.

PROP. XLVIIL

THEOR.

F
of
(

the

fquare
fide
)

one

of
is

triangle

equal to the fquares of the


other two fides
(
n

and

),

the angle

)fubtended by that
is

fide

a right angle.

Draw
ind

and

=
alfo.

(prs.11.3.)

draw --

Since

(conft.)

but

+
8

and

+ +

'

= " =

+
'

(P r 47-).
-

(hyp.)

and

.*.

(pr. 8.),

confequently

is

a right angle.

Q. E. D.

BOOK

II.

DEFINITION

I.

RECTANGLE
gram
tained by any
is

or

right angled parallelofaid to


its

be conadjacent

two of

or conterminous fides.

Thus

the right angled parallelogram

be contained by the fides


or
it

is

faid to

and

may

be briefly defignated by

If the adjacent fides are equal;

then

^
J

i.

e.

s ""-""j
is

which

the expreflion

for the redlangle

under
is

and

a fquare, and

or
is

equal to

or

52

BOOK II. DEFINITIONS.

DEFINITION

II.

N
the

parallelogram,
figure

compoied

of one 01 the parallelograms

about

the

diagonal,

together with the two comple-

ments,

is

called a

Gnomon.

Thus

and

are

called

Gnomons.

BOOK II. PROP.


HE
by
reclangle

I.

PROP,.

53

contained
lines,

two Jlraight
is

one of which
into

divided

any number of parts,

i
is

+
the rectangles
line,

equal to the

fum of

contained by the undivided


divided
line.

and

the feveral parts of the

complete the parallelograms, that

is

to

fay,

Draw

<

......

>

(pr.

31.B.

i.)

=i + l + l
I
I
-

I
+ +
Q.E. D.

54

BOOK II. PROP.

II.

THEOR.
divided
*
>

F a
into

Jlraight line be

any two parts

the fquare of the whole line


is

equal to

the

fum of

the

rectangles contained by the whole line

and

each of its parts.

+
Defcribe
(B. i.pr. 46.)

Draw

parallel to

---

(B. i.pr. 31

I
I

II
Q. E. D.

BOOK II. PROP.


F
a jlraight

III.

THEOR.

55

line be di-

vided into any two parts

'

the rectangle

contained by the whole


line

and either of its parts,

is

equal

to

the fquare of that part, together with


the reBangle under the parts.

=
Defcribe

or,
2

+
B.
1.)

(pr. 46,

Complete

(pr. 31,

B.

1.)

Then

I
and

but

I
+
In a limilar manner
it

may

be readily

mown

Q.E.D

56

BOOK II. PROP.

IV.

THEOR.

a Jlraight

line

be divided
>

into

any two parts

the fquare of the whole line


is

equal to the fquares of the

parts, together with twice the rectangle

contained by the parts.

+
twice

Defcribe

(pr. 46,

B.

1.)

draw
and

(port. 1.),

(pr. 31,

B.

1.)

(pr. 5, B. 1.),

4,4

(pr. 29, B. 1.)

*,4

BOOK

II.

PROP.

IV.

THEOR.

57

.*.

by (prs.6,29, 34. B.

1.)

E
^^J
I

is

a fquare

m
" B,

For the fame reafons r

is

a fquare

ss

but

e_j

EJ+M+

|+ B.

twice

Q. E. D.

58

BOOK

II.

PROP.

V.

PROB.

a Jlraight
divided

line be

into

two equal

parts and alfo


into

two

unequal parts,

the rectangle contained by

the unequal parts, together with the fquare of the line between
the points offeclion,
is

equal to the fquare of half that line

Defcribe

(pr.

46, B.

1.),

draw

and

11

(pr. 3 i,B.i.)

(p. 36,

B.

1.)

I
(ax. 2.

(p.

43, B.

1.)

..

BOOK

II.

PROP.

V.

THEOR.

59

but

(cor. pr. 4.

B. 2.)

and

(conft.)

.*.

(ax. 2.)

H
+
Q. E. D.

6o

BOOK

II.

PROP.

VI.

THEOR.
F

a Jlraight

line be

bifecled

and produced
1 1 1

point
the

to

any
,

^
and

reSlangle

contained by

the

whole line fo increafed,

the

part produced, together with the


fquare of half the
line, is

equal

to the fquare

of the

line

made up

l^HHMHHUUHHHmHr ofthe half and the producedpart

Defcribe

^
z=

(pr. 46, B. i.)

draw

anc

(pr. 31,

B.i.)

(prs. 36, 43, B.

but

(cor. 4, B. 2.)

(conft.ax.2.)
t

Q. E. D.

BOOK
F
into

II.

PROP.
line be

VII.
divided

THEOR.

61

a Jiraight

any two parts

mi

the fquares of the whole line

and one of
equal
to

the parts

are

twice the reSlangle contained by

the whole line

and that part,


2

together

with the fquare of the other parts.

wmw

-I-

""

Defcribe

Draw

=
I

(pr. 46, B. i.)(pott. 1.),


(pr. 31, B. i.)-

(P r 43> B. 1.),
-

to both, (cor. 4, B. 2.)

I
(cor. 4, B. 2.)

+
+
2

I
+

+
Q. E. D.

62

BOOK

II.

PROP.

Fill.

THEOR.

iy
^m
w^

ajlraight
into

line be

divided

any
,

two

parts

the fquare of
line

I iiitiiiiniii

thefum of the whole

and any

one of

its

parts,

is

equal to

four times the reclangle contained by


the whole line,

and that part together

with the fquare of the other part.

+
Produce
and make

Conftrudt.

(pr. 46,

B. 1.);

draw

(pr. 7, B. 11.)

+
Q. E. D.

BOOK II. PROP.


F
a ftraight
line be divided

IX.

THEOR.

63

into

two equal

parts

mm
,

and

alfo into

two unequal
the

parts

fquares

of the

unequal

parts are together double


thefquares

of halfthe

line,

and of

the part between the points offeSlion.


-

+
1

+
or

Make

_L and

=
and
II

Draw
II

9 and draw
rr half
a right angle,
(cor. pr. 32, B. 1.)

(pr. 5, B. 1.)

(pr. 5,

B.

1.)

rs half

a right angle,

(cor. pr. 32, B. 1.)

a right angle.

(prs. 5, 29, B.

hence

aaa^,
(prs. 6, 34,

B.

t
'.

1.).

1.)

or -J-

(pr. 47, B. 1.)

Q. E. D.

64

BOOK

II.

PROP.

X.

THEOR.

a Jlraight

line

fec7ed and pro-

duced to any point

thefquaresofthe
line,

whole produced

and of

the produced part, are toge-

ther double of the fquares of


the half line,

and of

the line

made up of the half and produced part.

+
J_ and
"

Make

5
draw

to

alfo.

or
9

in., and

......

and

* i
II

(pr. 31, B. 1.);

draw

jk

(pr.

5, B. 1.)

=
=

half a right angle,


1

(cor. pr. 32, B. (pr.


5,

.)

B.

1.)

half a right angle

(cor. pr. 32, B. 1.)

zz

a right angle.

BOOK

II.

PROP.

X.

THEOR.

65

t =^=i
half a right angle (prs. 5, 32, 29, 34, B.
1.),

and

.___
("prs.

...

...

_..-...,

6, 34, B. 1.).

Hence by

(pr. 47, B. 1.)

Q. E. D.

66

BOOK II. PROP. XL PROB.

O divide a givenJlraight line


in Juch

a manner, that the reft angle

contained by the whole line and one

of

its

parts may be equal

to

the

fquare of the other.

mm**

Defcribe

make
take

draw

(pr. 46,

B.

I.),

(pr. 10, B. 1.),

(pr. 3,

B.

1.),

on

defcribe

(pr.

46, B.

1.),

Produce

(port.

2.).

Then,

(pr. 6, B. 2.)

'

>

*,

or,

l-l
>

Q.E. D.

BOOK II. PROP.

XII.

THEOR.

67

N any
of the

obtufe angled

triangle, thefquare
fide fubtend-

ing the obtufe angle


exceeds the

fum of

the fquares

of the fides containing the obtufe angle,

by twice the rec-

tangle contained by either

of

thefe fides and the produced'parts

of the fame from the obtufe


angle to the perpendicular
fall on
it

let

from

the oppofi'ce acute

angle.

+
By
pr. 4, B. 2.
_j
3

by

-..*

=
add

-^
2

_|_ 2

to

both
8

+ +

(pr. 47f

B.i.)
or

+
Therefore,

+
"

(pr. 47, B. 1.).

=
:

+
-

+ +
Q. E. D.

hence

by

68

BOOK

II.

PROP.

XIII.

THEOR.

FIRST

SECOND.

any

tri-

angle,

the

fqnareofthe
Jide fubtend-

ing an acute angle,


lefs

is

than the

fum of the

fquares of the Jides containing that angle, by twice the rectangle contained by either

of thefe fides, and the part of it intercepted between the foot of


the perpendicular let fall on
it

from

the oppofite angle,

and

the

angular point of the acute angle.

FIRST.
'

-|

by

SECOND.
2

-\

by 2

Firrt, fuppofe the perpendicular to fall

within the

triangle, then (pr. j, B. 2.)


2

-J-

^^
add

ZZZ 2

to
2

each
1

^""m
'

<^^^

-|-

',

then,
~

^^

.*.

(pr.

47 B

BOOK II. PROP.

XIII.

THEOR.

69

Next fuppofe

the perpendicular to

fall

without the

triangle, then (pr. 7, B. 2.)

add

to
-

each
-{-

then
2

'-'

-j-

+
-_a
'

.=

-|-

+ ^ ~
2

/#
(

....
i.),

I i

pr 47 , B.
.

-j-

-i

Q. E. D.

BOOK

II.

PROP. XIV. PROB.

O draw
equal to

a right

line

of

which the fquare

fliall be

a given

recJi-

linear figure.

fuch that,

*
Make
produce
take
until
(pr. 10,
(pr. 45, B. i.),

--

B.

i.),

Defcribe

(Pft. 3-).
to

and produce
2

~~m

meet
--

it

draw
I
taamia*

Or

""""

(pr. 5, B. 2.),

but
mm*m*mm

"

zz

ii

f-

mm

1
-\

- (pr. 47, B. i.);


mm *
ft

>

and

Q. E. D.

BOOK
I.

III.

DEFINITIONS.

QUAL
equal.

circles

are

thofe

whofe diameters are

II.

right line
it

is

said to

touch a circle

when

meets the

circle,
it.

and being

produced does not cut

III.

Circles are faid to touch one an-

other which meet but do not cut

one another.

IV.

Right
diflant

lines are faid to

be equally
a circle
to

from the centre of


the perpendiculars

when

drawn

them from

the centre are equal.

72

DEFINITIONS.
V.

And
cular

the ftraight line on

which the greater perpendi-

falls is faid to

be farther from the centre.

VI.

A fegment of a circle is
by a ftraight
ference
it

the figure contained

line

and the part of the circum-

cuts

off.

VII.

An

angle in a fegment

is

the angle con-

tained by

two

ftraight lines

drawn from any

point in the circumference of the fegment


to the extremities
is

of the ftraight

line

which

the bafe of the fegment.

VIII.

An

angle

is

faid to ftand

on the part of

the circumference, or the arch, intercepted

between the right

lines that contain the angle.

IX.

fedtor

of a circle

is

the figure contained

by two

radii

and the arch between them.

DEFINITIONS.
X.

73

Similar fegments of circles


are

thofe

which

contain

equal angles.

Circles

which have the fame centre

are

called concentric circles.

74

BOOK

III.

PROP.

I.

PROB.

O find
circle

the centre of a given

o
----

Draw
draw
biledt

within the circle any ftraight

_L
wmmmmm
is it
,

and the point of

bifecfion

the centre.

For, if

be pofhble,

point as the point of concourfe of

and

let
,

any other

'

be the centre.

Becaufe in

and

\/

zr

ss

------

(hyp. and B.

i, def.

15.)

-^B.

(conft.)

and

common,

1,

pr. 8.),

and are therefore right

angles

but

ym = 2
;

c ft-)

yy =
is
it

(ax.

1 1

.)

which

is

abfurd

tberefore the afTumed point


;

not the

centre of the circle

and
the

in the

fame manner
is is

proved that no other point which


the centre, therefore

not on
in
is
'

^
,

can be
is

centre
<

and
the

therefore the point


centre.

where

bifecled

is

Q. E. D.

BOOK

III.

PROP.

II.

THEOR.

75

STRAIGHT
joining

line

two points
of a

in

the

circumference

circle

, lies

wholly within the circle.

Find the centre of

from the centre draw

(B. 3 .pr.i.);

to

any point in
;

meeting the circumference from the centre

draw

and

Then
but

=
or

^
-

(B. i.pr. 5.)

\
(B.

(B. i.pr.
1.

16.)

pr. 19.)

but

.*.

every point in

lies

within the circle.

Q. E. D.

76

BOOK

III.

PROP.

III.

THEOR.

a jlraight

line

it;

drawn through

the centre of a

circle

") which
it is

SifecJs a

chord

does not pafs through


or,

the centre,

perpendicular to
it, it bifeSls it.

if perpendicular to

Draw

and

to the centre

of the

circle.

In

-^

and

.^S.
common, and

=
JL

KB.
.--.

i.pr.8.)

and

.'.

(B. i.def. 7.)

Again

let

______ _L

Then

,.

^d - b*>
(B. i.pr. 5.)

(hyp-)

and
(B.
1. pr.

26.)

ind

.*.

bifefts

Q. E. D.

BOOK III. PROP.

IV.

THEOR.

77

in

circle tivojlraight lines

cut one another, which do


not

bath pafs

through the

centre, they do not hifecJ one

another.

If one of the lines pafs through the


centre,
it is

evident that

it

cannot be

bifedled
pafs

by the other, which does not

through the centre.

But

if neither

of the

lines

pafs

through the centre, draw

it

or

from the centre

to their interfedlion.

If

be bifedled, ........ J_ to

(B. 3. pr. 3.)

ft
bifefted,

_^

and

if

be

...... J_

3-

Pr

3-)

and

.*.
j

P^

=
and

a part

equal to the whole, which


.*.

is

abfurd

ii

do not

bifect

one another.
Q. E. D.

78

BOOK

III.

PROP.

V.

THEOR.

F two

circles

interfetl, they

have not the

fame

centre.

Suppofe

it

poffible that

two interfering

circles

have a

common
to

centre

from fuch fuppofed centre draw


and ^-^^^.......

the

interfering point,

meeting

the circumferences of the circles.

(B. i.def. 15.)


......

(B.

1.

def. 15.)

_.--.-.
equal to the whole, which
.*.
is

a part

abfurd

circles

fuppofed to interfedt in any point cannot

have the fame centre.

Q. E. D.

BOOK

III.

PROP.

VI.

THEOR.

79

F two circles

one another internally, they

let

touch

have not the fame centre.

For,
centre
;

if it

be poffible,

both circles have the fame


i

from fuch a fuppofed centre draw

cutting both circles, and

to the point

of contact.

Then
and

(B. i.def. 15.) (B. i.def. 15.)

equal to the whole, which


therefore the afTumed point
cles
;

is

abfurd

is

not the centre of both cirit

and

in the

fame manner

can be demonftrated that

no other point

is.

Q. E. D.

8o

BOOK

III.

PROP.

VII.

THEOR.

FIGURE

I.

F from

any point within a

circle

which
are

is

not the centre, lines

drawn

to

the circumference

the greatejl of thofe

lines is that

(-) which pajfes through the centre,


is

and the leaf


diameter.

the remaining part

is

of the

Of the
FIGURE
II.

others, that

('

which
is

nearer

to

the line pafjing through the centre,


(

^
Fig. 2.

greater than that

which

is

more remote.
lines

The two

and

which make equal angles with that paffing through the


centre, on oppoftefdes

of it, are equal

to

each other; and

there cannot be

drawn a

third line equal to them,

from

the fame point to the circumference.

FIGURE

I.

To the centre of the circle draw ------.then -----(B. i.


vmmwmmmam
in like
M
1

and

=
;

manner

-j.1

- C
Again, by (B.

def. 15.)

(B.I. pr. 20.)

may

be fhewn to be greater than

or any other line

drawn from the fame point


1.

to the circumference.

pr. 20.)

take

from both
it

.*.

(ax.),
is lefs

and in like manner

may

be fhewn that

BOOK

III.

PROP.

VII.

THEOR.

81

than any other line drawn from the fame point to the cir-

cumference.

Again, in

**/

and

common,

2
(B.
i.

anc^

pr. 24.)

and
line

may

in like

manner be proved greater than any other

drawn from the fame point


remote from

^m

to the

circumference more

FIGURE
If

II.

^^

take
in

=
I
I

rz

then

....

if

not

s^ ^^

A and

-y

draw
,

then

common,

and
(B. i.pr. 4.)

=1 drawn
ence
;

a part equal to the whole,

which

is

abfurd
line
is

*..*.;

and no other
to

equal to

from the fame point


to the

the circumfer-

for if
it

it

were nearer
greater,

one paffing through the

centre

would be
lefs.

and

if it

were more remote


Q. E. D.

it

would be

82

BOOK

III.

PROP.

Fill.

THEOR.

The

original text of this propofition

is

here divided into

three parts.

F from
lines

a point without a
are

circle,

Jlraight

f:

drawn

to the cir-

cumference

of

thofe falling
is

upon the concave circum-

ference the greatejl

that

(^.-.)
(
'

which pajfes
"
(

through the centre, and the line


nearer the greatejl
is

^hich

is

greater than that

which

is

more remote.

Draw -- and
Then,
greateit;

to the centre.

for fince

=
-
:=z
i.

which

palTes

through the centre,


--.

is

if

^^
**"
?
is

be added to both, but [Z


(B.

^""
.*.

pr. 20.)

-p

greater

than any other line drawn from the fame point to the

concave circumference.

Again

in

and

BOOK III. PROP.


and
i

VIII.

THEOR
^ CZ

common, but

(B.

i. pr.

24.);

and in like manner


other line

may be fhewn

than any

more remote from

II.

Of thofe
leaf
is

lines

falling on the convex circumference the

that

(-)

which being produced would


is

pafs through the centre, and the line which


the leaf
is lefs

nearer

to

than that which

is

more remote.

For, lince

-\~

and

ciiitiifl

'.

And

fo

of others

III.

Alfo the
paff'es

lines

making equal angles with that which

through the centre are equal, whether falling on


;

the concave or convex circumference

and no third

line

can be drawn equal


circumference.

to

them from the fame point

to the

For

if

r~

make

-
?

but making

rr

L
- ,

and draw

84

BOOK III. PROP.

Fill.

THEOR.

Then

in

>

and

we have

L
and

common, and
-

alio

^ =
i. pr.

A
,

(B.

4.);

but

.....<>...

is

not :z:
* /. >>

is

which

is

abfurd.

nor to any part

--_ of -...-___
Neither
is

not

CZ -----.
~, they are

.*.

"

to

each other.

And

any other

line

drawn from the fame point

to the

circumference mull
lines,

lie at

the fame fide with one of thefe

and be more or

lefs

remote than

it

from the

line pairit.

ing through the centre, and cannot therefore be equal to

Q. E. D.

BOOK III. PROP.

IX.

THEOR.

85

a point b" taken within a

ctrie

wore

than

two

o
is

from which
lines

equal ftraight

can be drawn

to the circumference, that

point mujl be the centre of the circle.

For,
in

if it

be fuppofed that the point

|^

which more than two equal


meet
is

ftraight

lines

not the centre, lbme other

point

'-

mult be; join thefe two points by


it

and produce

both ways

to the

circumference.

Then
from

fince

more than two equal


which

ftraight lines are

drawn

a point

not the centre, to the circumference,


lie at

two of them

at leaft

muft

the fame fide of the diameter


a point

'j

and

fince

from

A,
?

which

is

not the centre, ftraight lines are


the greateft

and

~
from

is

^
which
is

drawn

to the

circumference

which

paffes

through the centre


~

is

nearer to

r~

which
but

more remote

(B. 3. pr. 8.)

=
/\

(hyp-)

which

is

abfurd.

The fame may


ferent

be demonftrated of any other point, dif-

which muft be the centre of the

circle,

Q. E. D.

86

BOOK

III.

PROP.

X.

THEOR.

NE

circle I

cannot

interfei another

rv J
For, if
it

in

more points than two.

be poflible,

let it interfedt in

three points

from the centre of

O
I

draw
of interferon

to the points

(B.

i.

def. 15.),

but as the circles

interfec~t,

they have not the fame

centre (B.

3. pr. 5.)

.*.

the affumed point

is

not the centre of

O
^
are

J , and
drawn

and

from
prs. 7, 8)
;

a point not the centre, they are not equal (B. 3.

but

it

was

mewn

before that they were equal,

which

is

abfurd

the circles therefore do not interfedt. in

three points.

Q. E. D.

BOOK III. PROP. XL THEOR.

87

F two
I

circles

O
let
it

and

touch one another

internally,

the right line joining

their

centres, being produced, jliall pafs through

a point of contact.

For, if

it

be poffible,

join their centres, and produce

both

ways

from

a point

of contact draw

11

to the centre of f

and from the fame point

of contadl draw

to the centre

of

I.

Becaufe in

k
(B.
1. pr.

+20.),
as

"!,

and

they are radii of

88
but

BOOK

III.

PROP. XL

THEOR.

and

-|"

away

^ which
^

is

ak e

common,
;

-^^ d

but

CZ

--

becaufe they are radii of

O
that a line
a point

and

.*.

part greater than the

whole, which

is

abfurd.

The
joining
contact.

centres are not

therefore fo placed,

them can

pafs

through any point but

of

Q. E. D.

BOOK

III.

PROP.

XII.

THEOR.

89

F two

circles

titer

externally,

touch one ano

the

Jlraight

line

-- joining

their centres,

pajfes through the point

of contact.

If

it

be poffible,

let

join the centres, and

not pafs through a point of contact; then from a point of


contact

draw

and

to the centres.

Becaufe

+
(B.
1.

pr. 20.),

and
and

= = +
is

(B.

1.

def. 15.),

(B. i.def.15.),

a part greater

than the whole, which

abfurd.

The
joining
contact.

centres are not therefore fo placed, thai

"he

line

them can

pafs

through any point but the point of

Q. E. D. N

9o

BOOK

III.

PROP.

XIII.

THEOR.

FIGURE

I.

FIGURE

II.

NE

circle

can-

not touch another,


either

externally
internally, in

or

more points

than one.

FIGURE

III.

Fig.

For,

if it

be poffible,

let

and

j touch

one

another internally in two points

draw
tres,

...

i.

joining their cenit

and produce

until

it

pafs

through one of the points of contadl (B.

3. pr. 11.);

draw
But
.*.

^ =

and

~^^
(B.
1.

def. 15.),

if

be added to both,

+
but

and

.*.

+
+


=
(B.
1.

(B.

1. def. 15.),

but

pr. 20.),

which

is

abfurd.

BOOK
Fig. 2.

III.

PROP.

XIII.

THEOR.

ot

But

if the points

of contact be the extremities


this ftraight line
;

of the right line joining the centres,

mull
be-

be bifedled in two different points for the two centres


caufe
it is

the diameter of both circles,

which

is

abfurd.

Fig. 3.

Next,

if it

be pomble,

let

touch externally in two points;


the centres of the circles, and points of contact, and

draw ....-. joining


the

O
and
1.
1.

and

is

pamng through one of

draw

^^^

and

= ------- + = [Z +
(B.
(B.

def. 15.);
def. 15.):

but
20.),

(B.

1. pr.

which

is

abfurd.

There

therefore no cafe in

which two

circles

can

touch one another in two points.

E. D.

92

BOOK

III.

PROP. XIV.

THEOR.

QUALfraight lines (^
infcribed in

")
e-

circle are

qually diji antfrom the centre

and alfo Jiraight


t

lines equally

dijlant from the centre are equal.

From

the centre of

to
,

-^
B

o
and P r -3-)

draw

and ---->

join

Then
and

hnce

= half = =
1

(B. 3. pr. 3.)


(
-

3-

.....

(hyp.)

and

(B. i.def. 15.)

but iince

is

a right

angle
'

+
and
,... 2

'

(B.i.pr.47.)

-|-

2
,

for the

fame reafon,

BOOK III. PROP.

XIV.

THEOR.
t

93

....<.

Alfo,

if

the

lines

.......

and
is

........

be

equally diftant from the centre

that

to fay, if the per-

pendiculars

- --

and .......... be given equal, then

For, as in the preceding cafe,


1

+
but

=
"

amuin

^Z
g ,

+
"

=
i.

and the doubles of thefe


alfo equal.

and _,.... are

Q. E. D.

94

BOOK

III.

PROP. XV.

THEOR.

FIGURE

I.

HE

diameter

is

the greatejl jlraight


:

line in

circle
is

and, of all others,


is

that which

nearejl to the centre

greater than the more remote.

FIGURE

I.

The

diameter

>

is

C any
and

line

For draw

<

and

=
i

but

(B.

pr. 20.)

Again, the line which


than the one more remote.
Firft, let the

is

nearer the centre

is

greater

given lines be

and

winch

are at the

fame

fide

of the centre and do

not interfedl

draw s \

BOOK

III.

PROP. XV.

THEOR.

95

In

and

\/
and
I.

and

but
(B.
pr. 24.)

FIGURE
Let the given
lines

II.

FIGURE
and

II.

be

and

which

either are at different fides of the centre,

or interfec~t

from the centre draw ......

and

------ _L
make
draw
........

zz ---, and J_ > -


are equally diftant

Since
the centre,

and

from

(B. 3. pr. 14.);


[Pt.

but

i.B.

3. pr. 15.),

Q. E. D.

96

BOOK

III.

PROP. XVI.

THEOR.

HEJlraight
line

drawn

from
ter

the

extremity of the diamei

of a

circle
it falls

perpendicular
*'...
*
.,

without the

Jl.*''*"

And if any Jlraight


line

drawn from a
i

to

circle.

be

point

within

that perpendi-

cular to the point of contact,

it

cuts the circle.

PART
If
it

be poffible,

let

which meets the


',

circle

again, be

J_

and draw

Then, becauie

^=^
and
.*.

(B.i.pr.
is

-),

each of these angles

acute.

(B.

i.

pr. 17.)

but

=
_____

_j

(hyp.),

which
-

drawn _L

is

abfurd, therefore

does not meet

the circle again.

BOOK III. PROP.


PART
Let
be J_
a point
if it

XVI.

THEOR.

07

II.

^
*"

and

let

------

be

drawn from
circle,

between

and the

which,

be poflible, does not cut the circle.

Becaufe
|

_j
;

>

^
...............
circle,
it

is

an acute angle

fuppofe
the centre of the

J_ ........ 9 drawn from

mull: fall at the fide of

the acute angle.

.*.

m^>

which

is

fuppofed to be a right angle,

is

Ik

but

and

.'.

-->.
which

C
is

-,
abfurd.

part greater

than

the whole,

Therefore the point does

not

fall

outfide the circle, and therefore the ftraight line

...........

cuts the circle.

Q.E.D.

98

BOOK

III.

PROP. XVII.

THEOR.

draw a tangent

to

a given

circle

given point, either in or outjide of


circumference.

o
, it is

from

its

If the given point be in

the cir-

cumference,

as at
'

.|

plain that

the ftraight line mmm"

J_

be

the radius, will be the required tan-

gent (B.

3.

pr.

16.)

But

if the

given point

outfide of the circumference,

draw

and

from

it

to the centre, cutting

J;

draw

defcribe

concentric with

radius

zz

then

will be the tangent required.

BOOK

III.

PROP. XVII.

THEOR.

99

For

in

__ zz -and

zx - A
,

jttk

common,

( ~

------.

(B.

i.

pr. 4.)

a right angle,

.*.

is

a tangent to

ioo

BOOK

III.

PROP.

XVIII.

THEOR.

a right

line -.....
to

fa
the

a tangent

firaight line

circle,

drawn
to

from
point of contatt,
is

the

centre

the
it.

perpendicular to

For, if
let

it

be pomble,

^"

be

_]_

then becaufe

4=
(B.
i
.

is

acute

pr. 17.)

C
(B.
1. pr.

19.);

and

.*.

which
is

2
is

but

a part greater than

the whole,

abfurd.

.".

it

not

_L

-----

and in the fame man-

ner

can
is

be

demonitrated, that no other line except

perpendicular to
Q. E. D.

BOOK

III

PROP. XIX.

THEOR.

101

a Jlraight

line

mmKmmmm

^m

be a tangent to a circle,

theJlraight line

drawn perpendicular

to it

from

point of the contact, pajfes through

the centre

of the

circle.

For, if

it

be poifible,

let the centre

be without

and draw

from the fuppofed centre


of contact.

to the point

Becaufe
(B. 3. pr. 18.)

=
but

a right angle

^^ =

(hyp.), and ,\

=
is

a part equal to the

whole, which

abfurd.

Therefore the arTumed point


the fame

is

not the centre

and

in

manner

it

can be demonftrated, that no other


is

point without

m mm m

^ ^

the centre.

Q. E. D.

102

BOOK III. PROP.

XX.

THEOR.

FIGURE

HE

angle at the centre of a circle,

is

double
they

the angle at the circumference,

when

have the fame part of the circumference for


their bafe.

FIGURE
Let the centre of the

I.

circle

be on

.....

a fide of

Becaufe

k=\
But
or

(B.

i.

pr. 5.).

+
:= twice
(B.
1.

pr. 32).

FIGURE

11.

FIGURE
Let the centre be within
circumference
;

II.

the angle at the

draw

from the angular


;

point through the centre of the circle

then

^ ^=A W

a d

becaufe of the equality of the fides (B.

1. pr. 5).

BOOK III. PROP.

XX. THEOR.

103

Hence

_i_

4+
^f =

=
9

twke

But

4+V
twice

and

FIGURE

FIGURE
III.

III.

Let the centre be without

and

draw

__

the diameter.

Becaufe

=
:= twice

twice

and

(cafe 1.)

ZZ twice
Q. E. D.

io4

BOOK

III.

PROP. XXI.

THEOR.

FIGURE

I.

HE

angles

4&

4^

in

the

fame

fegment of a

circle are equal.

FIGURE

I.

Let the fegment be greater than a femicircle, and

draw ^^^ and

4Pt

to the centre.

twice

or twice

;n

(B. 3. pr. 20.)

4=4
FIGURE
II.

FIGURE

II.

Let the fegment be a femicircle,


femicircle,

<=4 > = *
draw

01

lefs

than a

the diameter, alfo

draw

(cafe 1.)

Q. E. D.

BOOK

III.

PROP. XXII.

THEOR.

105

FIE

oppofite angles

Afc

and

"/,/

f
ferred

o/~ tfy

quadrilateral figure in-

in

circle,

are together equal to

two right

angles.

Draw
the diagonals
;

and
and becaufe angles in

the fame fegment are equal

^r

JP^

and

^r

=
^^

^f

add

to both.

two right angles (B.


be fhown that,

1.

pr. 32.).

In like manner

it

may

Q. E. D.

io6

BOOK

III.

PROP. XXIII.

THEOR.

PON
and

the

fame
line,

Jlraight

upon
fide of

the
it,

fame

two fimilar fegments of


cles

cir-

cannot

he

conflrutled

which do not

coincide.

draw any

Q
it

For

if

be poffible,

let

two

fimilar fegments

and

be constructed
cutting both the fegments,

right line

draw

and

Becaufe the fegments are fimilar,

(B. 3. def. 10.),

but

(Z
abfurd
:

^^

(B. 1. pr. 16.)

which

is

therefore no point in either of


falls

the fegments

without the other, and

therefore the fegments coincide.

O. E. D.

BOOK III PROP.

XXIV.

THEOR.

107

IMILAR
fegments

and
of
cir-

cles

upon
(

equal Jlraight

lines

^ and

are each equal to the other.

For, if 'j^^
that

1^^
may
fall

be fo applied to

the

on

the extremities of

may be on
at the

the extremities

^-^

and

fame

fide as

becaufe

muft wholly coincide with


and
fimilar
line

fegments being

then

upon
it,

the

fame

ftraight

and

at

the fame fide of


(B. 3. pr. 23.),
equal.

muft

alfo

coincide
are

and

therefore

Q. E. D.

io8

BOOK

III.

PROP. XXV. PROB.

SEGMENT
circle

of a

circle

being given, to defcribe the

of which

it

is

the

fegment.

From any

point

in

the

fegment
bifedl

draw mmmmmmmm and

them, and from the points of bifecfion

draw
and

-L

is

J-

^^^

where they meet

the centre of the circle.

Becaufe

___
by
I.),

terminated in the circle


,

is

bifecled

perpendicularly
centre (B. 3. pr.

likewile

_
is

it

paffes

through
paffes

the

through

the centre, therefore the centre


thefe perpendiculars.

in the

interferon of

CLE. D.

BOOK III. PROP.

XXVI.

THEOR.

109

equal circles

Owo
on 'which
at

the arcs

Jland equal angles, whether at the centre or circumference, are equal.

Firft,

let

the

centre,

draw

and

Then

fince

OO
.

an d

^VC...........*,';^

have

and
(B.
1.

pr. 4.).

But

Oo
and

k=k

(B. 3-pr. 20.);

are fimilar (B. 3. def. 10.)

they are alio equal (B.

3. pr. 24.)

no

BOOK

III.

PROP. XXVI.

THEOR.

If therefore

the

equal

fegments be taken from the


;

equal circles, the remaining fegments will be equal

lence

(ax. 3.);

and

.*.

But
it
is

if the

given equal angles be at the circumference,

evident that the angles at the centre, being double


at the

of thofe

circumference, are alfo equal, and there-

fore the arcs

on which they ftand are equal.


Q. E. D.

BOOK

III.

PROP. XXVII.

THEOR.

N equal circles,

the angles

^v

and

oo
which Jland upon equal
let

arches are equal, whether they be at the centres or at


the circumferences.

For

if it

be poflible,

one of them

be greater than the other

and make

k=k
.*.

N*_^

.".

= Sw* B but V^^ = ^ = V Ljd/


(
,

3-

Pr

26.)

.....,.

(hyp.)

-*

a part equal

to the

whole, which
is

is

abfurd
the

.*.

neither angle

greater than
.*.

other,

and

they are equal.

Q.E.D

ii2

BOOK

III.

PROP. XXVIII.

TIIEOR.

equa N equal circles

o-o
cut
off equal

iitil

chords

arches.

From
draw

the centres of the equal circles,


,

-^^

and

and becaufe

=
alib

(hyp.)

(B. 3. pr. 26.)

and

.0=0

(ax. 3.)

Q. E. D.

BOOK III. PROP.

XXIX.

THEOR.

113

N equal circles
the

chords

OO
w
which fubis

and

tend equal arcs are equal.

If the equal arcs be femicircles the propofition


evident.
let

But
.

if not,

and anu

be drawn to the centres


becaufe
(hyp-)

and
but

(B-3.pr.27.);

and

..........

and -
pr. 4.);

(B.

1.

but thefe are the chords fubtending


the equal arcs.

Q. E. D.

ii4

BOOK

III.

PROP. XXX. PROB.

bifecl

given

arc

C)
bifedls the arc.

Draw
make
draw

-
Draw

and

it

and

(conft.),

is

common,

and

(conft.)

(B.

i. pr.

4.)

= ,*-%

(B. 3. pr. 28.),

and therefore the given arc

is

bifedred.

Q. E. D.

BOOK III. PROP. XXXI. THEOR.

115

FIGURE

I.

a circle the angle in afemicircle

is

a right

angle, the angle in

a fegment greater than a

femicircle

is

acute,

and

the angle in a fegis

ment

lefs

than afemicircle

obtufe.

FIGURE

I.

The

angle

^ V
Draw

in a femicircle

is

a right angle.

and

JB =

and

Mk = ^

(B.

1.

pr. 5.)

A= V
=
a right angle.

the half of

two

right angles

(B.

1. pr.

32.)

FIGURE
The
circle

II.

FIGURE
a

II.

angle

^^

in a

fegment greater than

femi-

is

acute.

Draw

the diameter, and

a right angle

is

acute.

n6

BOOK III. PROP.

XXXI. THEOR.

FIGURE
FIGURE
III.

III.

The
circle

angle

^k

in a

fegment

lefs

than femi-

is

obtufe.

Take

in the oppofite

circumference any point, to

which draw

and

Becaufe

-f-

m
Q. E. D.

(B. 3. pr. 22.)

but

a
is

(part 2.),

obtufe.

BOOK
F

III.

PROP. XXXII.
line

THEOR.

a right

be a tangent to a circle,

and from

the point of con-

tact a right line

be

drawn

cutting the circle, the angle

made by

this line

with the tangent

is

equal to the angle

in the alter-

ate fegment of the circle.

If the chord fhould pafs through the centre,

it

is

evi-

dent the angles are equal, for each of them


(B. 3. prs. 16, 31.)

is

a right angle.

draw point of contact, it muft


But
if

not,

from the
pafs

through the centre of the

circle, (B. 3. pr. 19.)

w
Again

+ f =

zLJ

= f

(b. i.pr.32.)

=
(B. 3. pr. 22.)

(ax.).

=Dk=
^m
,

+4
is

= a-*

(ax.),

which

the angle in

the alternate fegment.

Q. E. D.

BOOK

III.

PROP. XXXIII. PROB.

N agivenjlraight line
to

dejcribe

circle

a fegment of a that Jhall contain an

angle equal to a given angle

^a,
If the given angle be a right angle,
bifedl the

given line, and defcribe a

femicircle

on

it,

this

will

evidently

contain a right angle. (B. 3. pr. 31.) If the given angle be acute or obtufe,

make with
,

the given line, at

its

extremity,

draw

and

make
with

^
or

defcribe

is

as radius,

for they are equal.

a tangent to

divides the circle into

(B.

3. pr.

16.)

two fegments

capable of containing angles equal to

and

which were made


and

refpedlively equal

o7

(B. 3 .pr. 32.)

Q. E. D.

BOOK III. PROP. XXXIV. PROB.


O

119

cut off from a given cir-

cle

which

Jljall contain

o
I

a fegment

an angle equal

to

given angle

Draw
a

(B.

3.

pr.

17.),

tangent to the circle at any point


point of contact

at the

make

the given angle

V
angle in ingle

contains an angle

:= the given

angle.

Becaufe

is

a tangent,

and

^m

cuts

it,

the

(B. 3. pr. 32.),

but

(conft.)

Q. E. D.

120

BOOK III. PROP. XXXV. THEOR.


F two
chords
I

FIGURE

I.

...

.--^_

tn
I

circle cir

interject each other, the recJangle contained

by the fegments of the one

is

equal to the

re El angle contained by the fegments of the other.

FIGURE

I.

If the given right lines pafs through the centre, they are
bifedled in the point of interfedtion, hence the rectangles

under their fegments are the fquares of their halves, and


are therefore equal.

FIGURE

II.

Let

not;

FIGURE
draw

II.

pafs through the 'centre, and

__.....

and

Then
or

X
(B. 2. pr. 6.),

X x

=
(B. 2. pr. 5.).
III.

FIGURE

III.

FIGURE
centre,

Let neither of the given

lines pafs

through the

draw through

their interfection a diameter

and

......
alfo

X X

(Part. 2.),

= =

X X
;

(Part. 2.)

X
Q. E. D.

BOOK

III.

PROP. XXXVI.

THEOR.

121

F from
circle

a point without a
lines

FIGURE

I.

twojiraight
to
it,

be

drawn

mm

one of which

is

a tangent

to

the circle, cuts


it ;

and

the other

and
the

the rectangle under the whole


line

cutting

"

external fegment

the fquare of the tangent

is

equal to

FIGURE
Let .-"
pafs

I.

through the centre;


to the point
2

draw
-2
or

from the centre

of contact

minus

(B. 1. pr. 47),

minus
~~

^HH (Liitf BMMW ^Q

(B. 2. pr. 6).

FIGURE
If
pafs

II.

FIGURE

II.

"

do not

through the centre, draw

and

"

Then
minus

(B. 2. pr. 6), that

is,

minus

,*

(B. 3 .pr. 18).

Q. E. D.

122

BOOK

III.

PROP. XXXVII.
F from
circle

THEOR.
a point out fide of a
twojlraight

drawn, the one


other

^^
its

lines be


line

cutting

the

circle,
it,

the

meeting

and if
ex-

the recJangle contained by the whole

cutting

'

ternal fegment

-
line

and

be equal to

thejquare of the
the latter
<

meeting the circle,


is

a tangent

to

the circle.

___
*

Draw from
j

the given point

tangent to the circle, and draw from the

centre

but

___ =
2

....., and

--

(fi.3-pr.36-)
(hyp.),

and

.*.

Then
and

in

and

and

.*
is

J
and
(B. 3. pr. 16.).

common,

^=
but

(B. i.pr. 8.);

ZS

L_j

a right angle (B. 3. pr. 18.),

a right angle,

and

.'.

is

a tangent to the circle

Q. E. D.

BOOK

IV.

DEFINITIONS.
RECTILINEAR
faid to

figure

is

be infcribedin another,
all

when

the angular points

of the infcribed figure are on


the fides of the figure in
to

which

it is

faid

be infcribed.

II.

A
all

figure

is

faid to

be defcribed about another figure,

when

the fides of the circumfcribed figure pafs through the

angular points of the other figure.

III.

rectilinear figure

is

faid

to

be

infcribed in a circle,

when

the vertex
is in

of each angle of the figure

the

circumference of the

circle.

IV.

A
its

rectilinear figure

is

faid

to

be cir-

cumfcribed about a circle,


fides
is

when each of

a tangent to the circle.

124

BOOK IF. DEFINITIONS.

circle

is

faid to

be infcribed

in

a rectilinear figure,

when each

fide

of the figure
circle.

is

a tangent to the

VI.

circle

is

faid to

be circum-

fcribed about a rectilinear figure,

when

the circumference panes

through the

vertex

of each

angle of the figure.

VII.

is

circumfcribed.

straight

line

is

faid to be infcribed in

a circle,

when

its

extremities are in the

circumference.

The Fourth Book of the Elements

is

devoted to the folution of

problems, chiefly relating to the infcription


tion

and circumfcrip-

of regular polygons and


is

circles.

regular polygon

one whofe angles and

fides are equal.

BOOK IF. PROP.

I.

PROP,.

125

N a given circle
to place

O
line,
(

ajlraight

equal to agivenfiraight line

),

not greater than the diameter of the


circle.

Draw

-..i-..*
5

the diameter of

and

if

z=
is

then

the problem

folved.

But

if

be not equal to

iz

make

-.....-

hyp-);
1. pr. 3.)

(B.

with

-----defcribe

as radius,

1, cutting

and

draw
For

which

is

the line required.

ZZ
(B.
1.

~mmmm^
Q. E. D.

def. 15. conft.)

126

BOOK

IF.

PROP.

II.

PROB.

a given

circle

O
to

to

tn-

fcribe a triangle equiangular

a given

triangle.

To

any point of the given

circle

draw

a tangent

(B. 3. pr. 17.); and at the point of contact

make

A m = ^^
manner
draw

(B.

1. pr.

23.)

and

in like

and

Becaufe

and

J^ = j = ^J
.\

^
(B.
3.
;

(conft.)

pr. 32.)

^^ = ^P
5S
for the

alfo

\/
/.

fame reafon.

(B. i.pr. 32.),


circle
is

and therefore the triangle infcribed in the


angular to the given one.

equi-

Q. E. D.

BOOK IV. PROP.

III.

PROB.

12,7

BOUT
circle

a given

to

circumfcribe a triangle equi-

angular

to

a given triangle.

Produce any

fide

of the given triangle both


circle

ways

from the centre of the given

draw

any radius.

Make

= A
and

(B.

1. pr.

23.)

At

the extremities of the three radii,

draw

and

tangents to the

given circle.

(B. 3. pr. 17.)

The

four angles of

Z.

taken together, are


1. pr.

equal to four right angles.

(B.

32.)

128

BOOK IV. PROP.

III.

PROB.

but

and

^^^

are right angles

(conft.)

two right angles

but

4 =
and

L_-l_Ji

(^-

'

Pr

3-)

%
.*.

(conft.)

and

In the fame

manner

it

can be demonstrated that

&=a-.

4=4
circle
is

(B. i. pr. 32.)

and therefore the triangle circumfcribed about the given


equiangular to the given triangle.

Q, E. D.

BOOK

IV.

PROP.
triangle

IV.

PROB.

2Q

fer ibe a

circle.

A
and

a given

to

in-

Bifedl

J
draw

^V.
lines

(B. i.pr. 9.)

by

and

from the point where thefe

meet
and

---

refpectively

pendicular to

per-

and

In

common,

.*.

M
~
it

>
A'"'

and
(B.
1.

*
4 and 26.)

pr.

In like manner,
that

may

.....-

be

mown
-

alfo
,

*#

hence with any one of thefe

lines as radius, defcribe

and

it

will pafs

through the extremities of the

other two

and the

fides

of the given triangle, being per-

pendicular to the three radii at their extremities, touch the


circle (B. 3. pr. 16.),

which

is

therefore inferibed in the

given circle.
Q. E.
I).

13

BOOK

IV.

PROP.

V.

PROB.

defcribe

circle about

a given triangle.

and
........ (B.
i
.

pr. 10.)

From
tively

the points of bifedtion

_L
(B.
i.

pr.

draw

and

and

refpec-

concourfe draw

11.),

-
,

and from their point of and

and defcribe a
it

circle

with any one of them, and

will be the circle required.

In

(confl.),

common,

4 a
In like

(conft.),

>

(B. i.pr. 4 .)-

manner

it

may

be fhown that

........

^iz

^^^^^^^

"^^^~

and

therefore a circle defcribed

from the concourfe of

thefe three lines with any one of

them

as a radius

will circumfcribe the given triangle.

Q. E. D.

BOOK N

IV.

PROP.

VI.

PROP,.

131

a given

circle

O
(

to

infer ibe

afquare.

Draw
circle

the
to

two diameters of the


each other, and draw
,

_L
.


is

and

are,

s>
For, fince

a fquare.

and

fl^

each of them, in

a femicircle, they are right angles (B. 3. pr. 31),

and

in like

manner

(B. i.pr. 28)


II

And

.*.

becaufe
zzz

>
fl

(conft.),

and
def icV

(B.

1.

(B. i.pr. 4);

and

fince the adjacent fides

and angles of the parallelo-

gram

S X
.*.

are equal, they are all equal (B.

pr. 34)

and

fquare.

S ^

inferibed in the

given circle,

is

Q. . D.

132

BOOK

IV.

PROP.

VII.

PROB.
a

BOUT
I

given

circle

to

circumfcribe

a fquart

Draw two

diameters of the given

circle perpendicular to

each other,

and through their extremities draw


1

">

^^^
;

and

tangents to the circle

an d

.Q
alio
II

LbmmJ

is

a fquare.

a right angle, (B. 3. pr. 18.)

= LA
5

(conft.),

in the

fame manner

it

can
alfo

be demonftrated that
that
i

and

and

C
becaufe
they are
it is

is

parallelogram, and

all

right angles (B.


" 9

1. pr.

34)

alfo evident that

"9

and

are equal.

,c

is

a fquare.

Q. E. D.

BOOK IV. PROP.

Fill.

PROB.

33

infcribe

circle

in

given fquare.

Make
and

draw
and

(B.

||

||

i. pr.

31.)

is

a parallelogram

and

fince

=
(

h yp-)

is

equilateral

(B.

1. pr.

34.)

In like manner,

it

can be ihown that

and therefore
of thefe
lines
if a circle

are equilateral parallelograms

be defcribed from the concourle


as radius,
it

with any one of them

will be

infcribed in the given fquare.

(B. 3. pr. 16.)

Q^E. D.

*3+

BOOK IF. PROP.

IX.
]Q

PROS.

defer ibe a circle about a

given fquare

Draw
and
other
;

the diagonals

-^ ...

interfering each

then,

becaufe

their fides equal,

1 k
and

)ave

and the bafe


to both,

common

It
or

(B. i.pr. 8),

is

bifedled

in like

manner

it

can be

mown

that

is

bifecled

\
hence
'.

=
their halves,

v =r =
it

(B.

i.

pr. 6.)

and in like manner

can be proved that

If from the confluence of thefe lines with any one of

them

as radius, a circle

be defcribed,

it

will circumfcribe

the given fquare.

Q. E. D.

BOOK IF. PROP.

X.

PROB.

conJiruSi

an

ifofceles

triangle, in

which each of

the angles at the bafe fliail


[

be double

of the vertical

an

Take any

ftraight line
it

and divide

fo that

4.

x
With

=
1

(B. 2. pr.

1.)

as radius, defcribe

in

it

from the extremity of the


(B. 4. pr. 1)
;

radius,

and place

draw

Then
For, draw

is

the required triangle.

and defcribe

about

(B. 4. pr. 5.)

.*.

is

a tangent to

) (B. 3. pr. 37.)

= y\

(B. 3. pr. 32),

136

BOOK

IF.

PROP.

X.

PROP.

add

^r

to each,

l!
'

+
fince

=
.....

=
(B.
1.

A
(B.
-|-

'

P r 5)
-

1.

pr. 5.)

confequently

J^ = /^

^
1.

= M^
pr. 6.)
-

pr. 32.)

.*.

" =

.'.

(B.
iz:

.*.

-^^^

1.

(conft.)

y\ =

(B.

pr. 5.)

=: twice
the bafe

x\
is

and confequently each angle

at

double of the vertical angle.


Q. E. D.

BOOK

IV.

PROP. XL PROB.

*37

N a given circle
to

infcribe

an equilateral and equi-

o
the given

angular pentagon.

Conftrud: an ifofceles triangle, in

which each of the angles


ihall

at the bafe

be double of the angle at the

vertex,

and infcribe in

circle a

triangle

equiangular to

it

(B. 4. pr. 2.)

Bifedt

and

m^

B<I 'P r -9-)


and

draw

Becaufe each of the angles

>
the arcs

+k
upon which they

and

A
,

are equal,

.*.

and

i^^

is

ftand are equal,


,

(B. 3. pr. 26.)

and

which fubtend
the pentagon
its

thefe arcs are equal (B.3.pr. 29.)


equilateral,
it is

and
as

.*.

alfo equiangular,

each of

angles ftand

upon equal

arcs.

(B. 3. pr. 27).

Q^E. D.

38

BOOK

IF.

PROP.

XII.

PROB.
defcribe

an equilateral

and equiangular pentagon about a given


circle

O
Draw
vertices
five

tangents through the

of the angles of any regular


infcribed
in

pentagon

the

given

o
Thefe
five tangents will

(B.

3. pr.

17).

form the required pentagon.

Draw

f
i

In

and

(B. i.pr. 47),

and

common

,7

=
twice

and

=
and

(B. i.pr. 8.)

\A =

^ ^
W =

twice

In the fame manner

it

can be demonftrated that

:=

twice

^^
=

and

twice

fe.:

but

(B. 3-pr. 27),

BOOK

IF.

PROP.

XII.

PROB.

139

,*,

their halves

&.

alfo

(__

sr

_J|,

and

..>>

and

it

common
rr

twice

In the fame manner


that

can be demonftrated
twice

^---

In the fame

manner

it

can be demonftrated that the


is

other fides are equal, and therefore the pentagon


lateral,
it

equi*

is

alfo equiangular, for

^l

r= twice

flfct.

and

\^^

r= twice

and therefore

'

AHw

\^B

the fame

manner

it

can be

demonftrated that the other angles of the defcribed

pentagon are equal.

Q.E.D

'1

BOOK IF. PROP.

XIII.

PROB.

infcribe

circle

in

given

equiangular

and

equilateral pentagon.

Let

tx

be a given equiangular
;

and equilateral pentagon

it

is

re-

quired to infcribe a circle in

it.

Make

y=z J^. and


(B. i.pr. 9.)
9

=="

Draw
Becaufe

- ,r=A,
to the

&c.

and

common

two

triangles

and

/.-A;
=:

Z=

and

J^

(B.

I. pr. 4.)

And

becaufe

=
hence
it

rz

twice

.*.

= twice
-

is

bifedted

by

In like manner
bifedled by

may be demonftrated
,

that

\^j

is

and that the remaining angle of

the polygon

is

bifedted in a fimilar

manner.

BOOK IV. PROP.


Draw ^^^^
,

XIII.

PROP,.

141

--.----., &c. perpendicular


of the pentagon.

to the

lides

Then

in the

two

triangles

^f

and

A
common,
;

we have

.*.

= mm and ^^ =41 =r = ..........


^T
1

(conft.),

-^^

a right angle

(B.

1. pr.

26.)

In the fame
diculars

way

it

may

be

mown

that the five perpento

on the

fides

of the pentagon are equal

one

another.

Defcribe

O
and
it

with any one of the perpendicu-

lars as radius,

will be the infcribed circle required.

For

if

it

does not touch the fides of the pentagon, but cut


line

them, then a
to the

drawn from the extremity


fall

at right

angles

diameter of a circle will

within the

circle,

which

has been

fhown

to be abfurd.

(B. 3. pr. 16.)

Q^E. D.

H2

BOOK

IV.

PROP. XIV.

PROB.
a
circle

defcribe

about a

given equilateral and equi-

angular pentagon.

Bifetf:

by

T
and

and
-
,

and

from the point of

fedtion,

draw

:=

.......

(B.

i. pr.

6)

and fince

in

common,

(B. i.pr. 4).

In like manner

it

=:
therefore

nr


may

be proved that

<
:

and

a a

tit

Therefore

if a circle

be defcribed from the point where

thefe five lines meet, with any one of


as a radius,
it

them

will circumfcribe

the given pentagon.

Q. E.

I).

BOOK IV PROP. XV PROP.


O
infcribe

H3

an equilateral and equianin

gular

hexagon

given circle

OFrom any
the

point in the circumference of

given

circle

defcribe

through

its

centre, and

draw the diameters


9

O
(
9

pamng

and
--..-.-? is

draw

.........

.........
infcribed

&c. and the


the given

required hexagon
circle.

in

Since

paries

through the centres

of the

circles,

<

and

^v

are equilateral

[
triangles,

hence

^^

'

^r sr

one-third of two right

angles;

(B.

i.

pr. 32)

but

^L m

(B. 1. pr. 13);

/.
(B.
are

^
1.

=
pr. 32),

= ^W =
which

one-third of

and the angles vertically oppolite


1.

to theie

all

equal to one another (B.

pr. 15),

and ftand on

equal arches (B. 3. pr. 26),

are fubtended by equal

chords (B.

3.

pr. 29)

and fince each of the angles of the

hexagon
it is

is

double of the angle of an equilateral triangle,

alfo

equiangular.

O E D

i44

BOOK IV PROP.

XVI. PROP.

infcribe

an equilateral and
in

equiangular quindecagon

a given

circle.

and

be

the fides of an equilateral pentagon


infcribed
in

the

given

circle,

and

the fide of an inscribed equilateral triangle.

The

arc fubtended
.

by

of the whole
_6_
1 4

and

_____
by

circumference.

The

arc fubtended

of the whole
1

5 4

circumference.

Their difference
the arc fubtended by

__:

TV
TV difference of

.*.

__:

the

whole circumference.

Hence

if firaight lines

equal to

.-

be placed in the

circle (B. 4. pr. 1),

an equilateral and equiangular quincircle.

decagon will be thus infcribed in the

Q. E. D.

BOOK

V.

DEFINITIONS.
LESS magnitude
lefs

is

faid to be

an aliquot part or

fubmultiple of a greater magnitude,

meafures the greater; that


contained a certain

is,

when when

the
the

lefs is

number of times ex-

actly in the greater.

II.

greater magnitude
the greater
is

is

faid to be a multiple
lefs
;

of a
is,

lefs,

when

meafured by the
lefs

that

when

the greater contains the


exactly.

a certain

number of times

III.

Ratio

is

the relation

which one quantity

bears to another

of the fame kind, with refpedl to magnitude.

IV.

Magnitudes

are faid to have a ratio to one another,


;

when

they are of the fame kind

and the one which

is

not the

greater can be multiplied fo as to exceed the other.

The other

definitions will be

given throughout the book


is fir

where

their aid

ft required,

146

AXIOMS.
QUIMULTIPLES
or equifubmultiples of the

fame, or of equal magnitudes, are equal.


If

twice
2

= 4B; &c. &c. and 1 of A = i of B iofA = iofB;


4

3A =
A

A = B, then A := twice B, A = 2 B;
3

that

is,

B;

&c. &c.
II.

multiple of a greater magnitude


lefs.

is

greater than the fame

multiple of a

Let

C B, then

2AC2B;
3

ACZ3B;
A

C 4 B;
III.
is

&c. &c.

That

magnitude, of which a multiple


is

greater than the

fame multiple of another,


Let 2

greater than the other.


2

or, let 3

m B, then ACZB; A C B, then


3

ACZB;
or, let

mA

C m B, then

ACB.

BOOK

V.

PROP.

I.

THEOR.

i*7

any number of magnitudes be equimultiples of as


others, each

many

of each
is

what

multiple soever

any one of the fir Jl

of its part, the fame multiple

Jhall of the fir magnitudes taken together be of all Jl


the others taken together.

LetQQQQQ
that
that

be the fame multiple of


is

OOOOO
Then
is
is

WJFW

Q,

of

f
O.

of

evident that

QQQQQ1
the fame multiple of

[Q
4

OQOOQ
which
that

QQQQQ
>

[Q
isofQ
;

becaufe there are as

many magnitudes

in

as there are in

QQQQQ fffff V OOOOO o QQQQQ = Q


to three.

The fame
nitudes,

demonftration holds in any number of mag-

which has here been applied

.*.

If any

number of magnitudes, &c.

48

BOOK
F

V.

PROP.

II.

THEOR.

the jirjl magnitude be the


is

fame

multiple of the

fecond that the third

of the fourth, and the fifth


is

the fame multiple of the fecond that the fix th

oj

the fourth, then foall the firjl, together with the


fifth,

be the fame multiple of the fecond that the third, together


is

with the fixth,

of the fourth.

Let

the

firft,

be the fame multiple of


tne tnu 'd>
is

the fecond, that

O0>O>

of <j>, the fourth;

and

let

the fecond, that


fourth.

00^^, OOOOj
it is

the fifth, be the fame multiple of


l

)
l

^ e ^ xtn

>

1S

f 0>>

^e

Then
fifth

evident, that

> ,

the

firft

and

together,

is

the fame multiple of

the fecond,

that

looooj
in

\,

the third and fixth together,

is

of

the fame multiple of (J>

the fourth

becaufe there are as

many magnitudes

-j

z=

as there are

m
/. If the
firft

looooj -
magnitude, &c.

BOOK

V.

PROP.

III.

THEOR.

149

the jirjl

offour magnitudes be the fame multiple


is

of the fecond that the third

of the fourth, and

if any equimultiples whatever of the fir and third ft


be taken, thofe Jliall be equimultiples
;

one of the

fecond,

and

the other of the fourth.

The

First.

The Second.

Let

-i

be the lame multiple of

The Third.

The Fourth.

which

I is

of

take

the fame multiple of

<

which

<;

is

of

'

Then

it is

evident,

The Second.

that

<!

is

the fame multiple of

jo

BOOK

V.

PROP.

III.

THEOR.
The Fourth.

which

<

is

of

becaufe

<

>

contains

<

>

contains

as

many

times as

contains

>

contains

The fame
.'.

reafoning

is

applicable in

all cafes.

If the

firft

four,

&c.

BOOK

V.

DEFINITION

V.

'5

DEFINITION
Four magnitudes, ,
tionals
,

V.
are laid to he proporfirft

^ ^,
,

when

every equimultiple of the

and third be

taken, and every equimultiple of the fecond and fourth, as,

of the

firft

of the third

+^

&c.
of the fecond

&c.
of the fourth

&c.

&c.
firft

Then
third,

taking every pair of equimultiples of the

and

and every pair of equimultiples of the fecond and

fourth,
=
=

rZ,
o rZ|

If

<

SOT"
: :

or or

3 ^ ^
or or or or

;,

then will

^^

:.

;,

= = =

3 3 3
~l

52

BOOK
is,

V.

DEFINITION

V.

That
lefs

if twice the firft be greater, equal, or lefs than

twice the fecond, twice the third will be greater, equal, or

than twice the fourth


lefs

or, if twice the firft

be greater,

equal, or

than three times the fecond, twice the third

will be greater, equal, or lefs than three times the fourth,

and so on,

as

above exprelfed.

in #

then
-

will

[ ,
&c.
&c.
firft

c, c, c, d,
1=,

= = ^ = =

or

Zl

or
or or or

Zl Z3

n
Z]
&c.

c=,

c, c,

& c

= = = = =

or or or or or

Zl Zl

^
z: Zl
&c.
be greater, equal,

In other terms, if three times the


or
lefs

firft

than twice the fecond, three times the third will be


;

greater, equal, or lefs than twice the fourth

or, if three

times the

be greater, equal, or

lefs

than three times the

fecond, then will three times the third be greater, equal, or


lefs

than three times the fourth


lefs

or if three times the

firft

be greater, equal, or

than four times the fecond, then

will three times the third be greater, equal, or lefs than four

times the fourth, and so on.

Again,

BOOK

V.

DEFINITION
^ or

V.

53

If

<

then
will

[
&c.
&c.
so on, with
firft

tiff # c c :m
cz>

^1

or

__ or ZJ

cz, __ or Z]
or

Z]
&c.

IZ, ^^ or Zl

I L
L-~

>

= =

or or or
or

c,

Z] Z] Zl Z3

And

any other equimultiples of the four

magnitudes, taken in the fame manner.

Euclid exprefles this definition as follows

The
ratio to

of four magnitudes

is

faid to

have the fame

the fecond,

which the

third has to the fourth,


firft

when any

equimultiples whatfoever of the

and third

being taken,

and any equimultiples whatfoever of the


;

fecond and fourth

if the

multiple of the

firft
is

be

lefs

than
than

that of the fecond, the multiple of the third

alfo lefs
firft
is

that of the fourth


to that

or, it the multiple

of the

be equal
equal

of the fecond, the multiple of the third

alfo

to that

of the fourth

or, ir

the multiple of the

firft

be

greater than that of the fecond, the multiple of the third


is

alfo greater

than that of the fourth.


fhall exprefs this definition generally, thus

In future

we

M# when M
If

C,

= CZ, =

or or

Zl

|,

"1 w

154

BOOK

V.

DEFINITION

V.

Then we
to

infer that

the

firft,

has the fame

ratio

|,
:

the fecond,

which

^,
::

the third, has to

^P

the
:

fourth

expreffed in the fucceeding demonstrations thus

or thus,

: : V;
:

or thus,

= 9 = :

and

is

read,

"

as

is

to

so

is

to

^.
infer if

And

^ f we mall # then M C, =: or ^]
if
::
:

//;

will

M^
That
is,
;

C=
m

or

Z3

^.
is

if the firft

be to the fecond, as the third


firft

to the
to,

fourth

then if
tn

M times the
M and

be greater than, equal

or lefs than

times the fecond, then fhall

M
m

times the times the

third be greater than, equal to, or lefs than

fourth, in

which

are not to be confidered parti-

cular

multiples, but every pair of multiples whatever;

nor are fuch marks as

Q, ^,

&c.

to

be confidered

any more than reprefentatives of geometrical magnitudes.

The

ftudent fhould thoroughly underftand this definition

before proceeding further.

BOOK

V.

PROP.

IV.

THEOR.

155

the fir offour magnitudes have the fame ratio to jl

the fecond, which the third has to the fourth, then

any equimultiples whatever of the


shall have the

firfi

and third
of

fame

ratio to any equimultiples

the fecond

and fourth

viz., the equimultiple of the firfl fliall

have the fame ratio

to that

of the fecond, which the equi-

multiple of the third has to that of the fourth.

Let

:>:.* :^, then 3


3

:2|::34:2f,
3

every equimultiple of

and

are equimultiples of
|

and

and every equimultiple of 2

and 2 JP

are

equimultiples of 1 1 and

(B. 5, pr. 3.)

That
ples

is,

M times
and

and

M times ^
3
2 1 1

are equimulti-

of

^
I

and

times

and

m
I

2
I

are equi-

multiples of 2

and 2
3
.

^
EZ,
or
|

but

^ W

(hyp);

.*.

if

M
3

=,

or
; 2

/ 2

|, then

CZ

=,
:

f
;

(def. 5.)

and therefore

| :: 3

(def. 5.)

The fame
tiple

reafoning holds good if any other equimul-

of the

firft

and third be taken, any other equimultiple

of the fecond and fourth.


.*.

If the

firft

four magnitudes, &c.

56

BOOK

V.

PROP.

V.

THEOR.

one magnitude be the

fame

multiple of another,
thefirjl is

which a magnitude taken from

of a mag-

nitude taken from the other, the remainder Jhall be the fame multiple of the remainder, that the whole
is

of the whole.

Let

Q OQ = M D
= M'

'

and

= M'.,
minus M'

o <^>Q> O
/.

minus

& = M'
and
.*.

(* minus

),

Jp^ =M'

A.

,*.

If one magnitude, &c.

BOOK

V.

PROP.

VI.

THEOR.

157

IBg<BI

Km
*

F /wo
/*llo
g\y/^a

magnitudes be equimultiples of two others,

P*
'-s

Hr

^V
t

Mm
Vara

e and if equimultiples of t lief be taken from the firft

two, the remainders are either equal to thefe others,


or equimultiples of them.

Let

Q = M' o
then

and

QQ = M'
m
m

minus

=
/')

M'
ar>d

* minus

m
'

m
A

OO mmus w
tri)

= (M' minus = M' minus m =


a
a
/')

(M' minus
Hence, (M' minus
multiples of

and (M' minus


,

rri)

a are equi-

and a

and equal

to
1

and a

when M' minus m sr


.'.

If

two magnitudes be equimultiples, &c.

58

BOOK

V.

PROP.

A.

THEOR.

the fir of the four magnitudes has the fame ratio Jl

to the

fecond which the third has

to the

fourth,

then if the firfi be greater than the fecond, the


BfeSSi]

third

is

a/fo

greater than the fourth

and

if equal,

equal;

ij

fiefs, lefs.

Let

: :

qp

therefore, by the fifth defini-

tion, if

|f C
if

H,
EI

then will
then

but

#
and

and
.*.

^ CO, ^C

ff C
[=

##

Similarly, if

z=, or
or

^] ||, then
.

will

=,

^|

.*.

If the

firft

of four, &c.

DEFINITION
tendo," by inverfion,

XIV.

Geometricians make ufe of the technical term " Inver-

when

there are four proportionals,


is

and

it is

inferred, that the fecond

to the

firft:

as the fourth

to the third.

Let

B
:

C D
:

then, by

" invertendo"

it is

inferred

::

C.

BOOK

V.

PROP.

B.

THEOR.

'59

F four

magnitudes are proportionals, they are pro-

portionals alfo

when taken

inverfely.

Let

^ Q
:

: :

{
:

then, inverfely,

Q:f
then

::

If

M qp

ID

ot

Q,

M|Uw
is,ffl[jCMf
,

by the

fifth definition.

Let

Zl

^ O,
;

that

,'.

M1H

or, /

EM|;
m

.*.

iffflQCMf
it

then will

EM|

In the fame manner


that if

may

be
or

mown,
Z3

m
/

Q=
:

then will

M^ ;=, or 13 M
|

and therefore, by the


that

fifth definition,
:

we

infer

Q ^

.*.

If four magnitudes, &c.

160

ROOKV.

PROP.

C.

THEOR.

the jirjl he the fame multiple of the fecond, or the


it,

fame part of
the firjl
is

that the third

is

of the fourth
is

to the

fecond, as the third

to the

fourth.

Let _

the firft,be the fame multiple of

Q, the fecond,

that

the third,

is

of

A,

the fourth.

Then

* il *
::
:

'
becaufe J
is

the fame multiple of

that

is

of Wk (according

to the hypothcfis)

and

is

taken the fame multiple of"

that

is

of

.*.

(according to the third propofition),


_
is

the fame multiple of

that

is

of

BOOK
Therefore, if

V.

PROP.
.

C.

THEOR.

161

be of

a greater multiple than

m m

is,

then

M
is,

is

a greater multiple of

tnan

is

that

if

M 5

\ be greater

than

w 0,

then

M
it

will be greater than

m
!

in the

fame manner

can be fhewn,

if

be equal

Q.

then

M
And,

will be equal ;

generally, if

f CZ,

=
or

or

ZD

then

M
.*.

will be CZ,

^m 6

by the

fifth definition,

'
Next,
let

be the fame part of

that

4k

is

of

In this cafe alfo

::
j

T.

For, becaufe

is

the fame part of

that

is

of

62

BOOK
therefore
J

V.

PROP.
.

C.

THEOR.

is

the fame multiple of

that

is

of

Therefore, by the preceding cafe,

'" "
.

a
.

and

.*.

::

by proportion B.

/. If the

firft

be the fame multiple, &c.

BOOK

V.

PROP. D.

THEOR.

163

the fit-ft be to the fecond as the third to the fourth,

and if

the Jirji be a multiple, or a part of the


is

fecond ; the third

the fame multiple, or the fame

part of the fourth.

>

and

firft, let

V
Second.

je a

multiple

|.

(hall b e the

fame multiple of

First.

Third.

Fourth.

QQ
Take

QQ OO
^L

QQ

a _
:

Whatever multiple
take

isofH
,

OO OO

the fam< ; multiple of

then, becaufe

and of the fecond and fourth, and

we have

taken equimultiples,

yT/C>

therefore (B. 5. pr. 4),

64

BOOK V. PROP.
:

D.

THEOR.
but(C0nft)>

QQ JJ
::

OO'

-QQ
and

( B '5F-A-)^

4 ^

oc

/Ty\

is

the fame multiple of

that

is

of ||.

Next, Id

|
|

JP

and

alfo

part of

then <9 mail be the fame part of

nverfely (B 5-).

"
is

"
.*.
|

-..
|
;

but

a part

that

is,

i
cafe,
.

is

a multiple of

/. by the preceding

ic fr\** is the lorviP

ii fame multiple of
i-v^

that

is,

is

the fame part of

that

is

of

.*.

If the

firft

be to the fecond, &c.

BOOK

V.

PROP.

VII.

THEOR

165

QUAL magnitudes have the fame


t

ratio to the fame


to

magnitude and the fame has the fame ratio


magnitudes.

equal

Let
then

$ = 4
:

and
:

any other magnitude and


:

=+

# =

Becaufe

=^

.-.

M =M 4
CZ,
or
or

.\ if

M # M+
:

and

.-.

= ^w C, = 31 m I =^ |
:

then

I,

(B. 5. def. 5).

From

the foregoing reafoning


if

it is

evident that,

m
m

C>

/.=

= or ^ M 0, then C = Zl M ^ 4
or

(B. 5. def. 5).

/. Equal magnitudes, &c.

66

ROOK

V.

DEFINITION

VII.

DEFINITION

VII.
as in

When

of the equimultiples of four magnitudes (taken


firfl: is

the fifth definition), the multiple of the

greater than
is

that of the fecond, but the multiple of the third

not

greater than the multiple of the fourth


laid to

then the

firfl is

have

to the

fecond a greater ratio than the third


fourth
:

magnitude has
third
is

to the

and, on the contrary, the

laid to

have

to the fourth a lefs ratio

than the

firfl:

has to the fecond.


If,

among

the equimultiples of four magnitudes,


fifth definition,

com-

pared as in the

we

fhould find

####[Z
+
find

,but
fhould

s or
firfl:

Zl

ffff,orifwe
M' of
tri

any particular multiple


tri

the

firfl:

and third, and

a particular multiple

of the fecond and fourth, fuch,

that

M'
tri

times the
is

is

C
tri

times the fecond, but


/.

M'
or

times the third

not

[Z
;

times the fourth,


firfl
is

e.

~1

times the fourth

then the

faid to

have to

the fecond a greater ratio than the third has to the fourth

or the third has to the fourth, under fuch circumftances, a


lefs ratio

than the

firfl

has to the fecond

although feveral

other equimultiples

may

tend to fhow that the four

mag-

nitudes are proportionals.

This definition will


If

in future

be exprefled thus
or
tri

M'

CI

tri

O,
^P
:

but

then

1= Z Q rZ H
M'
:

In the above general exprefllon,

M' and

tri

are to be

confidered particular multiples, not like the multiples

BOOK
and

V.

DEFINITION
fifth definition,

VII.

167
are in that

introduced in the

which

definition confidered to be every pair of multiples that can

be taken.

It muff, alio

be here obferved, that ^P


to

~J, 1 1

and the like fymbols are


fentatives

be confidered merely the repre-

of geometrical magnitudes.

In a partial arithmetical way, this


follows
:

may be

fet forth as

Let us take the four numbers,

7, i;,

and

Firft.
8

Second.

Third.
10

Fourth. 9
I

16

H
21

24 32

28

40 48
56

35

42 49
5 63

64 72
80 88 96 104
112

20 3 40 5 60 7 80 90
100

27 36 45 54 63 72
8:

70

V 84
9
1

no
120 '3
j

90 99 108 117
126
Sec.

98

40

&C.

&c.

&c we
is

Among
tZ
and
6

the above multiples


is,

find

14 and

that

twice the

firft
is

greater than twice the

lecond, and twice the third


i

greater than twice the fourth;


that
is,

and

^3

twice the

firft is lefs
is lefs

than three times the fecond, and twice the third


three times the fourth
;

than

and among the fame multiples

we
firft
is

can find
is

Hi 56 and v
8

IZ

that

is,

9 times the

greater than 8 times the fecond, and 9 times the third

greater than

times the fourth.

Many

other equimul-

68

BOOK
might be
?,

V.

DEFINITION

VII.
to fliow that

tiples

selected,

which would tend


of the

the numbers
not, for

7, 10,

were proportionals, but they are


firft:

we can

find a multiple

a multiple

of

the fecond, but the fame multiple of the third that has been

taken of the

firft:

not

[Z

the fame multiple of the fourth


for inftance, 9 times
is

which has been taken of the fecond;


the
firft:

is

10 times the fecond, but 9 times the third


is,

not
not

CI I0

times the fourth, that


or 8 times the
firft:

72

EZ 70, but 90

we

find

9 times the

fecond, but 8 times the third


the fourth, that
is,

is

not greater than 9 times


is

64

C 63, but So

not

When
firft:
(

any fuch multiples


faid to

as thefe

can be found, the

!)is

have

to the

fecond (7) a greater ratio than the third

(10) has to the fourth

and on the contrary the third


a lefs ratio than the

(10)
firft:

is

faid to

have to the fourth

3)

has to the fecond (7).

BOOK

V.

PROP.

VIII.

THEOR.

169

unequal magnitudes the greater has a greater


:

ratio to the fame than the lefs has

and

the

fame
it

magnitude has a greater


has to the greater.

atio to the lefs

than

Let

and
I

be two unequal magnitudes,

and

any other.

We
the

mail

firft

prove that

which

is

the greater of the

two unequal magnitudes, has


lefs,

a greater ratio to

than

|,

has to

A
1

that

is,

CZ

A
take
fuch,

M' 1 , /' M' , and m that M' a and M' g| mail be each

alfo take

the lean: multiple of


m'

which

will

make

M'
is

=M'

.*.

M' M'
I
I

not

;;/

but
as m'
is

is

|~

for,

the

firft

multiple which

fir ft

becomes CZ M'||
is

than (m minus

1)

orw'
and

^
not

minus

Q
A,

not

M' 1
1

/.

tri

minus
that
is,

% +
j

is

C M'

muft be Z2 M'
A

| + M' a

muft be
but
it

M'

.'.

M'

is
I

*'

has been ftiown above that

170

BOOK
is

V.

PROP.

VIII.

THEOR.

M'

not

C', therefore, by the feventh definition,

A
|

has to

a greater ratio than


that

Next we mall prove


lefs,

has a greater ratio to


the greater;

the

than
or,

it

has to

%
,

c#
,

and

Take

M'

ni

%,

M'

|,

the fame as in the

firff.

cafe, fuch, that


>

M'

a and

M'
|

will be each

CZ
firfr.

ar>d f

the leaft

multiple of

which

becomes greater
.

than
.".

M'

p = M'
is

ot'

% minus and f not C M' minus # + #


ml
is

not
;

d M'

confequently

is

Zl M'

| + M'
Q
has to ||

.'.

z'

is

^ M'

and

.*.

by the feventh

definition,

A
.*.

has to

a greater ratio than

Of unequal

magnitudes, &c.

The among
tiple

contrivance employed in this proportion for finding


the multiples taken, as in the fifth definition, a
firft

mul-

of the

greater than the multiple of the fecond, but

the fame multiple of the third which has been taken of the
firft,

not greater than the fame multiple of the fourth which

has been taken of the fecond,


as follows
:

may

be illuftrated numerically

The number
that
is,

9 has a greater ratio to 7 than


:

has to 7

CI

or, b -}-

fZ

'-7-

BOOK V. PROP.
The
is

Fill.

THEOR,

171

multiple of

1,

which

firft

becomes greater than 7,


firft

8 times, therefore
8, 9, 10, or

we may

multiply the
;

and third

by

any other greater number


firft

in this cafe, let

us multiply the

and third by
firft

8,

and

we have 64^-8

and
greater

again,

the
is

multiple of 7 which becomes


then, by multiplying the
;

than 64

10 times;

fecond and fourth by 10, arranging thefe


8 times
the
first.

we fhall have 70 and 70 multiples, we have


10 times
the second.

then,

8 times
the third.

10 times the fourth.

64+
is

8
,

70
-|-

70
72,
is

Confequently

8, or

greater than -

but

not greater than 70, .\ by the feventh definition, 9 has a


has to illuftrative

greater ratio to 7 than

The above
numbers very

is

merely

of the foregoing demon-

ftration, for this

property could be fhown of thefe or other

readily in the following


its

manner

becaufe, if

an antecedent contains

confequent a greater number of


its

times than another antecedent contains

confequent, or
for the nu-

when

a fraction
its

is

formed of an antecedent

merator, and

confequent for the denominator be greater


is

than another fraction which dent for the numerator and


nator, the ratio of the
firft

formed of another antececonfequent for the denomiits

its

antecedent to
laft

confequent
its

is

greater than the ratio of the

antecedent to

confe-

quent.

Thus, the number 9 has


to 7, for

a greater ratio to 7, than 8 has

is

greater than
:

-.

Again, 17

19

is

a greater ratio

than
19
9

13:15,
247
,

becaufe
IS

517

17

15

^T>TTi

25,5

isi'
is

and

13

I5

X = T^T = ? hence
13

evident that ?|f

greater than

.-.

is

greater than

172

BOOK

V.

PROP.

VIII.

THEOR.

and, according to

what has been above fhown, \j has

to 19 a greater ratio than 13 has to 15.

So that the general terms upon which


or
lefs ratio exifts

a greater, equal,

are as follows

If

A
-g

be greater than

C
=-,
;

A
A

is

faid to

have to

a greater

ratio than

has to

if -^

be equal to

C
jt,

then

has to

B
c ^,

the fame ratio

which

has to

and
than

if

be

lefs

than

is

faid to

have to B a

lefs ratio

has to

D.

The

ftudent

mould underftand

all

up

to this propofition

perfectly before proceeding further, in order fully to

comthereagain,

prehend the following propofitions of this book.


fore ftrongly

We

recommend
this {lowly,

the learner to

commence
at

and read up to
as

and carefully reafon

each flep,

he proceeds, particularly guarding againft the mifchiev-

ous fyflem of depending wholly on the memory.

By

fol-

lowing thefe inftruclions, he will find that the parts which


ufually prefent confiderable difficulties will prefent no difficulties whatever, in profecuting the ftudy of this

important

book.

BOOK

V.

PROP.

IX.

THEOR.

173

AGNITUDES
thofe to

which have the fame ratio


to

to the
;

fame magnitude are equal

one another

and

which the fame magnitude has the fame

ratio are equal to one another.

Let

:
1

1, then

=f

For, if not,
:

let

C
:

>

then will

C#
.*.

(B. 5- pr- 8),

which

is

abfurd according to the hypothecs.

^
it

is

not

C%
t
'

'

In the fame

manner

may be mown,
is

that

Again,
let
|
:
:

not

CZ

then will

^ =
|
?

For

(invert.)

cafe,

therefore,
.*.

by the

firfl

=0.
ratio, 6cc.
:

Magnitudes which have the fame

This may be fhown otherwife,


Let
\
:

as follows
for,

ZZZ

'

C> then

Br:C,

as the

fraction

the fraction

and
,

the numerator of one equal to the *

numerator of the other, therefore the denominator of thefe


fractions are equal, that
is

BrC.
:

Again,

if

B muft

= C-

=C

A,

= C.

For, as

= ^,

*74

BOOK

V.

PROP.

X.

THEOR.

HAT

magnitude which has a greater ratio than


is

another has unto the fame magnitude,

the greater

of the two

and that magnitude


it

to

which the fame

has a greater ratio than


nitude,
is

has unto another mag-

the

lefs

of the two.

Let

jp

C#
if not, let
:

For
then,

^C# W ~l ^
: 1

1, then
or
(

qp

=#
9
:

5-

P r 7) or
-

13
is

(B. 5. pr. 8) and (invert.),

which

abfurd according to the hypothecs.

.*.

^p
.*.

is

not

= ^
or

and

^
let

muftbe CZ
?
:

Again,

then,

#C ^ H V(B.

JP,

For
then
or

if not,

muft be

C =^
or

|:|^
==
I
:

JP

5. pr. 8)

and

(invert.)

(B. 5. pr. 7),


is

which is abfurd (hyp.);

/.

.*.

not

CZ

or

= ^P,

and

muft be 13
has, 6cc.

.*.

That magnitude which

BOOK

V.

PROP. XL THEOR.

75

ATI OS
fame
to

that are the fame to thefame ratio, are the

each other.

Let

r=

and
:

=A
:

then will

=A

if

M # Cf => or 13 then M C = or 3 p and M C =:, or ^ p then M A CZ, :=, or ^ m , (B. M C, =, or 33 m M A CZ, =, or 3 w and (B. + B = A
For
if
,

if

5. def. 5)

.*.

5. def. 5)

.*.

Ratios that are the fame, &c.

76

BOOK

V.

PROP.

XII.

THEOR.

F any number of magnitudes


one of the antecedents
is

be proportionals, as

to its confequent,

Jo Jhall

all the antecedents taken

together be to all the

confequents.

Let

H =U O=
:
:

'

= : = *:;
ss

then will

+D +
For
alfo

+ + *:# + <>+
,

++
,

ifM|C m % and M Cm
.

then

Q [Z m >,
,

M Cm
(B. 5. def. 5.)

MaC
M
|

Therefore, if

CZ

then will

M|+MQ + M +M. + Mi,


or

than

J| + m 4" w

O+ ++ m C 4" m
"f"

A ) be grater
T "I"

'

or^(#+0+
In the fame

++)
if

way

it

may be mown,
lefs

times one of the

antecedents be equal to or
fequents,

than

m times

one of the con-

M times
lefs
is

all

the antecedents taken together, will

be equal to or
together.

than

times

all

the confequents taken

Therefore, by the

fifth definition, as

one of the

antecedents

to its confequent, fo are all the antecedents


all

taken together to

the confequents taken together.

.*.

If any

number of magnitudes, &c.

BOOK

V.

PROP.

XIII.

THEOR.

77

the jirji has to the fecond the

fame

ratio

which

the third has to the fourth, but the third to the

fourth a greater ratio than the fifth has


fixth
;

to

the

the firjijhall alfo have to the fecond a greater

ratio than the fifth to the fixth.

Let

9 Q=
:

>,

but

CO

'-

>

then

For, becaufe
tiples

f:OCO:l CO i)
:

t ^iere

are * me

mu ^"

(M' and

ni) of

and <^, and of


|

and

fuch that
but

M'

CZ

ni

M' <^

not

ni

by the feventh

definition.

Let thefe multiples be taken, and take the fame multiples of fM and f^.
/. (B.
5. def. 5.) if

M'

9 C, =, or Z\ Q
ni
,

then will
but

M'
I

IZ,

=,

or

^2

'

M'
.-.

Cm
m
'

'

(connruclion)
ni

qp tz
CZ
ni

Q,
(conftrudtion)
definition,
;

but

M'

<^>

is

not

and therefore by the feventh

.*.

If the

firft

has to the fecond, &c.

A A

i/8

BOOK

V.

PROP. XIV.

THEOR.

the firji has the fame ratio to the fecond


;

which the

third has to the fourth

then, if the fir be greater j}

than the third, the fecond foall be greater than the

fourth; and if equal, equal ; and if lefs,

lefs.

Let

^ Q + and V CZ |, then will O CZ


:
: :
:

firft

fuppofe

#.

For

f OC
:

hypothefis,

U ^ Q=
I

(B. 5- pr- 8). and by the


:

.*.

.*.: CB:D(B. Zl D orOCf


5

.pr. i3).

(B. S- pr. io.),

Secondly,

= For * (J =
let
:

then will

^J zz
.

and fl
.\

and ,\
Thirdly, if
becaufe
|
.*.

Q=9 ^ :Q= M : Q=+


: :

(B. 5

pr.

7 ),

(hyp.)
.

(B. 5

P r. n),

(B. 5, pr. 9).

JP Z] CI

then will
:

Z]
:

+ =^ O ^ and c O? by ^ft
tne
ca ^"e
is,

that

Zl

'.

If the

firft

has the fame ratio, &c.

BOOK

V.

PROP. XV.

THEOR.

179

A.GNITUDES

have the fame ratio

to one

another

which their equimultiples have.

Let

and

be two magnitudes
::

then,

ft

M'

M'

I.

For

.*.

"

"4

is

(B. 5- P r

I2 )-

And

as the

fame reafoning

generally applicable,

we have

.*.

M'

M'

Magnitudes have the fame

ratio, &,c.

180

BOOK

V.

DEFINITION

XIII.

DEFINITION
The
when

XIII.

technical term permutando, or alternando, by


is

permu-

tation or alternately,
tionals,

ufed

there are four propor-

and

it is

inferred that the

firfl

has the fame ratio to


;

the third which the fecond has to the fourth


tirft
is

or that the
:

to the third as the

fecond

is
:

to the

fourth

as

is

ihown

in the following propofition

Let
by
'*

+ ::?:'
it is
:

permutando" or "alternando"
inferred
.

::

|.

It
,

may

be neceffary here to remark that the magnitudes

||, muft be homogeneous, that is, of the fame nature or fimilitude of kind we muft therefore, in
;

A, M,

fuch cafes, compare lines with


folids

lines, furfaces

with furfaces,
will

with

folids,

&c.

Hence

the ftudent

readily

perceive that a line and a furface, a furface and a folid, or

other heterogenous magnitudes, can never ftand in the relation of antecedent

and confequent.

BOOK

V.

PROP. XVI.

THEOR.

81

F four

magnitudes of the fame kind be proportionals,

they are alfo proportionals

when taken

alternately.

Let

<|p

::

then

::0'#.
(

ForM
and

9 M
:

Q * O
::
:
:

5-

Pr

5)>

M|:MQ::
alfo

+
:

(hyp.) and (B. 5. pr.


(B. 5. pr. 15);
;

1 1

m
qp
and
:

;;/

::

,\

.*.

MQ 4 (B. M ^ C = or I] w
::
:

5. pr. 14),

if

then will

Q d, => ^
or

///

(B. 5. pr. 14)

therefore, by the fifth definition,

v.*.

o:

If four magnitudes of the fame kind, &c.

82

BOOK

V.

DEFINITION

XVI.

DEFINITION
Dividendo, by divifion,

XVI.

when

there are four proportionals,


firfr.

and
is

it is

inferred, that the excefs of the

above the fecond

to the fecond, as the excefs to the fourth.

of the third above the fourth,

is

Let

: :

C
it is

by " dividendo

"
i

inferred
)
:

A
According
B, and

minus B

minus

D.

to the above,
;

is

fuppofed to be greater than

greater than

if this

be not the cafe, but to

have B greater than A, and


can be

greater than

made

to

ftand as antecedents,
"

B and and A and C

>

as

confequents, by " invertion

then, by "dividendo,"

we

infer

B minus

A A
:

: :

minus

BOOK

V.

PROP. XVII. THEOR.

183

jF magnitudes, taken jointly, be proportionals, they


fliall alfo be

proportionals

when taken feparately

that

is,

if two magnitudes together have to one of


to one

them the fame ratio which two others have


of thefe, the remaining one of the fir two foall have ft
the fame ratio

to the other
to the

which the remaining one of the

lafi

two has

other of thefe.

Let

f + O:
then will

Q::

+
:

,
Q

:Q:: %

Take
then

M V IZ m Q to each add M Q, we have M ^ + M U[Z>U + M orM(^ + 0) c ( + M)Q:

but becaufe

+ Q:Q::B + 4:^ andM(^P + 0)EZ(* + M)D;


^P
5.

(hyp.),

.*.

+^)CI(W + M)4 (B. def. 5 /. M +M + Cm + +M # by taking M + from both M tZ w that when MfC* O, then M Cw^,
.*.

M(

);

fides

is,

In the fame

manner
/

it

may

be proved, that if

^P

= ^
or

Q,
:

then will
:

= or ^ 4
(B. 5. def. 5).

and /.
.*.

^ Q > 4
:

If magnitudes taken jointly, &c.

l8 4

BOOK

V.

DEFINITION XV.

DEFINITION XV.
The
term componendo, by compofition,
;

is

ufed

when
firft

there

are four proportionals

and

it is

inferred that the

toge-

ther with the fecond

is

to the

fecond as the third together

with the fourth

is

to the fourth.

Let A
then, by the term "

componendo,"
:

it is

inferred that

A
By "

+B
B
B

::

+D
D

D.
the
firlt

invertion"

and

p may become

and third,

and

the fecond and fourth, as


:

A A

: :

then, by "

componendo," we
:

infer that
: .

+A

: :

D+

BOOK V. PROP.

XVIII.

THEOR.

185

magnitudes, taken feparately, be proportionals,

they Jhall alfo be proportionals

when taken jointly :


is

that

is,

if the firjl be to the fecond as the third

to the fourth, the firjl

and fecond
together

together Jliall be
is to

to the fecond as the third

andfourth

the fourth.

Let
then

* O
:
:

for if not, let

*+Q Q ^ Q fuppofing Q
-{:

; + :;
not

=^

.'.

W O
but
:

'

(B. 5. pr. 17);

-.Q::
::
I
:

(hyp.);

5-

Pr
9).

JI );

=
which
.*.
is

(B- 5-

P^

contrary to the fuppofition not unequal to


is

is

that

=1

'.

If magnitudes, taken feparately, &c.

B B

i86

BOOK

V.

PROP. XIX. THEOR.

a whole magnitude be
is

to
to

a whole, as a magnitude

taken from the firft,

a magnitude taken from

the other ; the remainder Jhall be to the remainder, as the whole to the whole.

then will

::

^ + D :| +
ivid.),

but

therefore

-:(<! G Q W: * + O :+ # .'V "* + U ^J


.\
:

again

::

(alter.),

".

+
is

hyp.)

(B. 5. pr. 11).

If a

whole magnitude be

to a

whole, &c.

DEFINITION
The term "

XVII.

convertendo," by converfion,

made

ufe of

by geometricians, when there are four proportionals, and it is inferred, that the firft. is to its excefs above the fecond,
as the third
is

to its excefs
:

above the fourth.

See the fol-

lowing propofition

BOOK

V.

PROP.

E.

THEOR.

187

F four

magnitudes be proportionals, they are


:

alfo
is

proportionals by converjion
its excefs

that

is,

the fir Jl

to

above the fecond, as the third

to its

ex-

cefs

above the fourth.

then

lhall

#O
:

>

Becaufe
therefore
1

10:0: |:0"B

!;
(divid.),

.-.

(inver.),
I

::

(compo.).

,*.

If four magnitudes, &c.

DEFINITION
"

XVIII.

Ex

aBquali"
:

(fc. diflantia),

or ex zequo, from equality of

diftance

when

there

is

any number of magnitudes more

than two, and as


tionals

many
is

others, fuch that they are proporit


is

when

taken two and two of each rank, and


to the laft to the laft

inferred that the nrft


nitudes, as the
firft

of the

firft

rank of mag:

is

of the others

" of

this

there are the

two following kinds, which


in

arife

from the

different order

which the magnitudes

are taken,

two

and two."

188

BOOK

V.

DEFINITION XIX.

DEFINITION
" Ex
itfelf,

XIX.
is

aequali,"

from equality.
firft

This term
is

ufed

amply by
firft

when
is

the

magnitude

to the

fecond of the
;

rank, as the nrft to the fecond of the other rank


the fecond
to the third
;

and

as

of the hrft rank,

fo is the
:

fecond

to the third

of the other

and

fo

on

in order

and the in;

ference
this
is

is

as

mentioned

in the

preceding definition
It is

whence
in

called ordinate proportion.


5. pr.

demonftrated

Book

22.

Thus,

if there

be two ranks of magnitudes,


1.

A, B,
and L,
fuch that
:
:

P, E, F, the
, ,

nrft rank,

M,
:

P, Q, the fecond,
: :

A
:

L M, B
E
: :

::

M
F

: :

P,

: :

we

infer

by the term " ex

asquali" that

A F
:

::

Q.

BOOKV. DEFINITION XX.

189

DEFINITION XX.
" Ex squali
from equality
term
the
is

in

proportione perturbata feu inordinata,"

in perturbate, or diforderly proportion.

This
of

ufed

when

the

firft

magnitude
is

is

to the fecond

firft
;

rank

as the laft

but one
is

to the laft

of the fecond
firft

rank
is

and
laft

as the

fecond

to the third

of the

rank, fo
;

the

but two to the


is

laft

but one of the fecond rank

and

as the third

to the fourth
to the laft
:

of the

firft

rank, fo

is

the
;

third

from the
on

laft

but two of the fecond rank


is

and

fo

in a crofs order
It is

and the inference


5. pr.

in the

8th

definition.

demonstrated in B.

23.

Thus,

if there

be two ranks of magnitudes,


, ,

A, B, C, D,
and
fuch that
,

the
,

firft

rank,

N O P Q the fecond, A:B::P:Q,B:C::0:P,


,

::

O,

::

N,

::

the term " ex a?quali in proportione perturbata feu inordi-

nata" infers that

::

Q.

190

BOOK V. PROP.

XX. THEOR.

there be three magnitudes,

and other

three, which,
;

taken two and two, have the fame ratio

then,

if'

the Jirjl be greater than the third, the fourth

Jha II

be

greater than the fixth

and if

equal, equal

and if lefs,

lefs.

Let ^P, {^J, ||, be the

fir ft

three magnitudes,

and
fuch that

^,

(3,

be the other three,

Then,

if

V :0 ::+ C> ^ d => ^


:

an <l

O M
:

'-'-O

'

or

then will

==,

orZ3 t

From

the hypothecs, by alternando,

we have

andQ :0
/.

::
t ,

:;
.

::|
or

(B. 5

pr.

n);

if

C =.

tlien will

C =,

or3
.*.

(B. 5. pr. 14).

If there be three magnitudes, 6cc.

BOOK

V.

PROP. XXI.

THEOR.

191

there be three magnitudes,


ratio, taken

and

other three which


in

have the fame


crofs order
;

two and two, but

then if the firjl magnitude be greater

than the third, the fourth Jhall be greater than the


jixth
;

and if equal, equal ; and

if

lefs, lefs.

Let

p,

||, be the

firft

three magnitudes,

and
fuch that
\

^,

0>>

the other three,

O
::

>

and

::

0>

Then,

if

C =,
<

or

Z2

then

will

[=,=,=!
be CI

|.

Firft, let

then, becaufe

is

any other magnitude,


(B. 5. pr. 8);

f :iC|:i
butO
.*.

M
jfe
:

::

:4

(hyp-);

0>

(B. 5. pr. 13);


::

and becaufe

^ O
:

n yp-)

.* :A
and
it

-O

(in*.).

was fhown

that

'

<

.'.

<

CO

(B. s-pr. 13);

92

BOOK

V.

PROP. XXI.

THEOR.

is

=]
CI

,
|
{hall

that

^
| | ;

Secondly,

let

then

For becaufe

(B.
:
1

|,

A * *= but A=O and 4b = O ^ O #= =


:
:

5-F-

7);

(hyp.),

(hyp- and inv.),

.-.

(B. 5. P r. 11),

'

(B- 5-

P^

9)-

Next,

let

be

Z2

'

then

^
',
|

fhall

be

^
:

for|C
and
it

has been fhown that

4fc

=
^j

$,

and

^
that

O;
CZ

/. by the

firft

cafe

is

is,

^ ^

).

/. If there be three, &c.

BOOK

V.

PROP. XXII.

THEOR.

*93

there be any

others,

number of magnitudes, and as many which, taken two and two in order, have
ratio
;

the

fame

the firft Jhall have to the laji of

the fir magnitudes the fame ratio which the fir/I Jl

of the others has

to the laji

of the fame.

N.B.

This

is

ufually cited by the

words

"ex

trqua/i," or

"ex aquo."
Firft, let there be

magnitudes f^
others

+
)
,

1 1

and

as

many

,(^,

luch that

'
:

"
{

-O*
*

and^
then mail

|
:

:: <^>
:

^ O

Let

thefe

magnitudes, as well

as

any equimultiples
ratios,

whatever of the antecedents and confequents of the


ftand as follows
:

and

becaufe

qp
:
:

: :

^
:

0>

.\

fp

+
:

M ^
:

>

(B. 5. p. 4).

For the fame reafon

m >
c c

and becaufe there are three magnitudes,

94

BOOKV. PROP.

XXII.

THEOR.

and other three,

M^
CZ,
or

m /\ N
,

which, taken two and two, have the fame


.*.

ratio

ifMjP
C =>

=, orZlN
,

then will

M+

^N
+
:

by (B.

5. pr.

20)

and ,\

|::

(def. 5).

Next,

let

there be four magnitudes,

, ^,
>

and other four, >,

^,
<2>

A
:

which, taken two and two, have the fame


that
is

ratio,

to fay,

^p

Q,

and
then mall
for,

: :

^ + ^
:

: :

becaufe

and

^, <2>, 0?
,

are three magnitudes,

other three,
ratio

which, taken two and two, have the fame


therefore, by the foregoing cafe,

<p
:

::

^
^>

.,

but

::

therefore again, by the

firfl

cafe,

^p

and

{o

on, whatever the

number of magnitudes
Sec.

be.

.*.

If there be any

number,

BOOK

V.

PROP. XXIII. THEOR.

95

there be any

others,

number of magnitudes, and as many which, taken two and two in a crofs order,
;

have the fame ratio

the firji fliall have to the

lajl

of the
firji

firjl

magnitudes the fame ratio which the

of the others has


This
is

to the lajl

of the fame.

N.B.

ufually cited by the

words "ex cequali

in

proportione perturbatd ;" or

" ex aquo perturbato."

Firft, let there

be three magnitudes,
;
'

,
'

||

and other three, which, taken two and two


have the fame
that
is,
:

O
;

in a crofs order,

ratio

O
1

and rj
then fhall

o,

Let thefe magnitudes and their refpective equimultiples


be arranged as follows
:

m
then

,Mrj, w |,M t,0 w #


*
:

Q M
::

MQ

(B. 5. pr. 15)

and for the fame reafon

but

:Q

::<>

:#

(hyp.),

jo6

BOOK
.-.

V.

PROP. XXIII.
:

THEOR.
(B. 5. P r.
:

MQ ::<>
O H
:

n);

and becaufe

::

(hyp.),

,\

MQ

::

w >

(B. 5. pr. 4)

then, becaufe there are three magnitudes,

,MO,|, and other three, M m >, m


,

,
have

which, taken two and two

in a crofs order,

the fame ratio


therefore, if

M
::

CZ,
or

=,

or

3m

I?
1

then will

M
:

C =, ^ w
:

(B. 5. pr. 2

),

and /.

(B. 5. def. 5).

Next,

let

there be four magnitudes,

>p,o,

#1

and other four, <^>,

%,

Hi,

Jk.,

which, when taken two and two


the fame ratio

in a crofs order,

have

namely,
:

:D :m
:

D
and
then fhall
^L

:#:

O: +' :0:
,

For, becaufe

are three magnitudes,

BOOKV. PROP.
and
,

XXIII.

THEOR.

197

other three,

which, taken two and two in a


the fame ratio,
therefore, by the
firft

crofs order,

have

cafe,

>:!!::#:,
::

but
therefore again, by the

<

>
I

#,
:

firft cafe,

<

::

<^)

and

fo on,

whatever be the number of fuch magnitudes.

.*.

If there be any number, &c.

iq8

BOOK

V.

PROP. XXIV. THEOR.

j]F

the firjl has to the fecond the

the third has to

fame the fourth, and the

ratio

which

fifth to the

fecond the fame which the fixth has


the firjl

to the

fourth,

and fifth

together jhalI have to the fecond

the fame ratio which the third

and fix th

together have to the

fourth.
First.

Second.

Third.

Fourth.

V
Fifth.

D
Sixth.

o
Let jp
:

and <3
then

^+
For
<2>
:

>
:

Q : Q O ::+#:
:

D #
::
:

h yP-)'

and

[J

: :

(hyp-) and (invert.),

.\ <2>:

qp

::

#:
when

(B. 5. pr. 22);

and, becaufe thefe magnitudes are proportionals, they are


proportionals

taken jointly,
5 .pr. 18),
5

.'.

V+6'O'but

+= #(B.
:

.'.

D- # + O^O- +
o>:
firft,

hyp-)

(B. 5. pr. 22).

,\ If the

&c.

BOOK

V.

PROP. XXV. THEOR.

199

F four

magnitudes of the fame kind are proporgreat ejl and leaf of them together are

tionals, the

greater than the other two together.

Let four magnitudes,

-|-

^,

-|-

^J, and
is

of the fame kind, be proportionals, that

to fay,

* + 0:
and
let

:iQ:f
5,
is

-|- (3)

be the greateft of the four, and confe-

quently by pr.
then will

and 14 of Book

the leaft

Jp-f-Q-l-

becaufe

-f-

beCB+ + U Q Q
:

-j-

: :

'

M-bu <

W+O*
1=

*+D
.'

+ C
+
^J
-}-

(B. 5 .pr. 19),

(hyp.),

B(B-

5-pr-A);
,

to each

of thefe add

*+D+

t=

+D+

.*.

If four magnitudes, &c.

2oo

BOOK

V.

DEFINITION

X.

DEFINITION

X.
firfl is
it

When
to

three magnitudes are proportionals, the


to the third the duplicate ratio

faid

have

of that which

has

to the fecond.

For example,
that
is,

if
:

A,

C
is

be continued proportionals,
faid to

have

to

the dupli-

cate ratio

of

B
or

rz

the fquare

of.

This property will be more readily feen of the quantities a ** > > J for a r"' a
:
.

',

and

ar

rr
1

r*

the fquare of
,

sr

r,

or of
for

ar

s-jZ=
'

the fquare

of

= r

DEFINITION
When
firft is

XI.
the

four magnitudes are continual proportionals,


faid to
it

have

to the fourth the triplicate ratio


;

of that

which

has to the fecond

and
ftill

fo on, quadruplicate,

&c.

increafing the denomination

by unity,

in

any number

of proportionals.

For example,
tionals, that
to
is,

let
:

i>

A,B, C, D, be :: C :: C
:

four continued propor:

D; A

is

faid to

have

D, the

triplicate ratio

of

to B

or

- s; the cube of.

BOOK V. DEFINITION XL
a greater

20I
to

This definition will be better underftood, and applied

number of magnitudes than


:

four that are con-

tinued proportionals, as follows

Let a

r'

a r

a,

be four magnitudes in continued proa r3


r
3
:

portion, that

is,

::

'

ar

''

a r
r.

'

<l >

then

=r ~
a

the cube of

=
:

Or,

let

ar5

ar*,
is
:

ar3

ar', ar, a, be fix magnitudes in pro-

portion, that

ar

5
:

ar*

ar*

ar3

::

ar3

ar 1

ar

ar

::

ar
;

a,
r.

ar*
then the ratio

=:
a
, ,

z=

the fifth r power of


five

=: ar*
cir

Or,
r

let a,

ar,
;

ar 2 ar3 ar4 be
,

magnitudes

in

continued

proportion r

then

-.

ar*

=-7 the fourth r power of


r*

ar

-. r

DEFINITION
To know a compound ratio When there are any number
:

A.

of magnitudes of the fame of them the


ratio

kind, the

firfr. is

faid to

have

to the laft
firft

compounded of
and of the
the ratio the
laft

the ratio

which the

has to the fecond,

ratio

which the fecond has

to the third,
;

and of
unto

which the

third has to the fourth

and

fo on,

magnitude.
if

For example,
kind, the

A, B, C, D,

be four magnitudes of the fame


firft

A B C D
E F G

A
A

is

faid to

have to

the

laft

the ratio

compounded
B and of the
,

MN
to

K.

of the
ratio

ratio

of

to

of B

to

C, and of

the ratio

ofC

or, the ratio

of

DD

202

BOOK
1

V.

DEFINITION

A.
'

to
(

'

is
,

faid to
I

be compounded of the ratios of


I

to

H to

and

to

>

And B to C

if \ has to

I.

the fame ratio

which

has to
(

and
the

the fame ratio that

has to

H, and
ratios

to
\

fame that
have to
L)

has to

then by this definition,

is

said to

the ratio
ratios
is

compounded of
of E to F,

which

are the

fame with the


the fame thing

to

expreffed by faying,
the ratios of

H, and K to L And be underftood when it is more briefly has to D the ratio compounded of
to
\

to

F,

to

H, and K

to

In like manner, the fame things being iuppofed


has to
nefs fake,

if

the fame ratio


is

which
to

has to

,
'

then for fhort-

faid to

have
to

the ratio
to L.

compounded of

the ratios of

to

F,

H, and K

This definition may be better underftood from an


metical or algebraical illuftration
;

arith-

for, in fact, a ratio


is

com-

pounded of
ratio
all

feveral other ratios,


for
its

nothing more than a

which has

antecedent the continued product of

the antecedents of the ratios

compounded, and
all

for

its

confequent the continued product of


the ratios

the confequents of

compounded.
ratio
:

Thus, the

compounded of
:

the ratios of

,6:11,2:5,
X
:

is

the ratio of

X
32
:

11

5,

or the ratio of 96

11 55, or

385.

And
kind,

of the magnitudes A, B, C, D, E, F, of the fame


:

is

the ratio
:

compounded of

the ratios of

A
for

:B, B

C,

C: D,
X E
:

E,
v

F;

A X B X

X
X

B X

X E X
of A
:

F,

or

XX xx

xexf

E.

"' or the ratio

BOOK V. PROP.

F.

THEOR.

203

ATI OS

which are compounded of the fame

ratios

are the fame to one another.

Let

A
5

B
(

::
''

F
r

G,
ri

'.

::D::H:K,
and
)
:

A B C D E F G H K L
of
the
:

L.

A
5

Then the ratio which is compounded of the E, or the ratio of A B, B C, C D, I


:
: :
:

ratios

E,

is

fame
:

as

the
:

ratio

compounded of
ratio

the

ratios

of F

G,

H,

K,

L, or the

of

L.

For-i
c

"'

H'

XXX X x
or the ratio of
\
:
I

andE
e
.*.

1'

j-

XXX XL'
X
F

and
is

the fame as the ratio of

L.

The fame may


fo

be demonstrated of any number of ratios

circumftanced.

Next,

let

A B
:

: :

K
i
j

L,

1
_-

C
I

K,
rl

'

::

F: G.

2o +

BOOK
the ratio
:

V.

PROP.
is

F.

THEOR.
the ratios of
\
: 1

Then

which
,

compounded of
ratio
ratios

])

E, or the

of

is

the
:

fame
:

as the ratio
:

compounded of the

of

:L,

H, F

or the ratio of F :L.

For -

'

and

ss
X X
i
I-

X X

X X

X X

X X

XF
X
'

and/. or the ratio of


,*.

= -,
F
:

is

the fame as the ratio of

L.

Ratios which are compounded, 6tc.

BOOK

V.

PROP.

G.

THEOR.

205

F feveral ratios

be the

fame
is

to

feveral

ratios, each

to each, the ratio

which

compounded of

ratios

which are the fame

to the fir Jl ratios,

each to each,

Jhall be the fame to the ratio compounded of ratios

which are the fame

to the other ratios,

each to each.

ABCDEFGH
a

P Q R

S
^

bed
B
: :

W
a

X
:

If \

a
c
e

and

C :D E :F
and

.: ::

:f
then P

A B P Q C:D::Q: R E F R S
: : :
:

b:

w
Y
Z

c:d:
e

W: X
:
:
:

: :

:/:

II

::g:h

G:H
:

::

S
'

T g:h:

T
A I
C

TFor

.7

=
_

7
c

z^z

R
s
3

=:

~~

'

F G H

/
y
h

= =
X X
-

>

xs x Q x R x
and
J

x x
.*.

rP :T
.*.

- ^ =
p

X X

X X z*

>

Z.

If feveral ratios, &c.

2o6

BOOK

V.

PROP. H. THEOR.

a ratio which

is

compounded offeveral
is

ratios be

the fame to a ratio which

conpounded offeveral

other ratios
ratio

and if

one of the firjl ratios, or the

which

is

compounded of feveral of them, be

the

fame

to one

of the

laft ratios, or to the ratio

which

is

com-

pounded ofJeveral of them ; then the remaining ratio ofthefirji,


or, if there be

more than

one, the ratio

compounded of the reremaining ratio of the

maining
la/i, or,

ratios, Jliall be the fame to the

if there be more than one, to the ratio compounded ofthefe

remaining ratios.

A B C D E F G P Q R S T X
Let

:B, B :C,

be the nrft ratios,


the other ratios the
rirft
;

C :D, D E, E and P Q^Qj_R, R


:
:

F,
:

F G, G :H,
:
:

S, S

T,

X,

alfo, let

A H,
:

which

is

compounded of
:

ratios,

be the fame

as the ratio

of P
;

X, which
and,
let
:

is

the ratio
ratio

compounded of
:

the other ratios

the

of A

E, which

is

compounded of
P

the ratios of A

B,

B :C, C :D,
which
is

:E, be the fame


the ratios

as the ratio
:

of P

R,

compounded of
the ratio
that

Q^ Qj

R.

Then
firft

which
is,

is

compounded of
the ratio of
is

the remaining
the ratios

ratios,

the ratio
that
is,
:

compounded of

F, F

G,

G H,
:

H,

mail be

the fame as the ratio of the ratios of


ratios.

R
T,

X, which

compounded of

v
:

X, the remaining other

BOOK
B ecau fe
B

V.

PROP. H. THEOR.
P

207
k
-

XEXl XDXEXi-XG
X
C

X D X

XG XH

X X
g

<J

X X

X X

S
I

X T X \'

or
B

xiiXiXd
XC X D X E

w *
X
X
B

}
(,

xb

FX(,XH X XH
B
l

DXB
'

w * ^

SXTXX'

and A

X C X_D X D X E

LXS,
O

.
' *

E
F

X F XG X G XH
.

SXTXX*
__

/.

X.

.*.

If a ratio which, &c.

2o8

BOOK
F

V.

PROP.

K.

THEOR.

there be any

other ratios,

number of ratios, and any number of fuch that the ratio which is comwhich are the fame
to the firji

pounded of

ratios,

ratios, each to each, is the fame to the ratio


is

which

compounded of ratios, which are the fame, each

the laji ratios


is

and

to each, to

Jl if one of the fir ratios, or the ratio which

compounded of

ratios,

which are the fame

to

feveral of the
lajl ratios,

firft ratios,

each to each, be the fame to one of the


is

or to the ratio which

compounded of of the

ratios,

fame, each

to each, to feveral
;

lajl ratios

then the

which are the


re-

maining ratio of the firji


ratio

or,

if there be tnore than one, the

which

is

compounded of

ratios,

which are the fame, each

to each, to the to the

remaining ratios of the firji, Jhall be the fame


lajl
;

remaining ratio of the

or, if there be

more than

one, to the ratio

which

is

compounded of
remaining

ratios,

which are the

fame, each

to each, to thefe

ratios.

m
,

AB, CD, EF, GH, KL,


p,i
,

MN,
y,

a b c h k
I

fg

abed

np

f g

Let
firft

A:B, C:D, E:F, G:H, K:L, M:N,


and
:

be the
,

ratios,

^:W,

the

other ratios

and

let

:B

C :D E :F

G H K L

a :b, b :c,
:,!,

d
e
r

:/,

M :N

:?

BOOK
Then, by the
of a
g'.f,
:

V.

PROP.

K.

THEOR.

209

definition

of a compound

ratio, the ratio


'-c>
'

is

compounded of

the ratios of a 'b> b

c : d>

d -e*
:

f'gt which are the fame as the ratio of A B> E*: F, G H, K L, N, each to each.
:

:P

QJR
:

:W
:Y

h :k,

k :/,
I: m,

n,

n p.

Then
fame

will the ratio of h :p be the ratio


//
:

the ratios of

k,

compounded of k\l, l\m, m\n, n:p, which are the


:

as the ratios

of

:T-V :W>

*Y

each to each.
,*.

by the hypothefis a :

h :p.
the ratios of

Alfo, let the ratio

which

is

compounded of

B,

C D two
:

of the

firft

ratios (or the ratios

for

A
c,

=a
:

and
is

C :D

=
fame

of a

Ci

(,

: ),

be the fame as the


the ratios of a
1

ratio

of a
c

d,

which which

compounded of
as

b,

b
>

d,
'

are the

the ratios of

J!

three of the other ratios.


:

And
ratios

let

the ratios of h
: :

s,

which
n
:

of h k, k m,
firft

n,

s,

compounded of the which are the fame as


is

the remaining

ratios,

namely,
:

:F

:H>

K
is

=L

M N
:

alfo, let

the ratio of e
e
:

g, be that

which

com-

pounded of the
to
[
:

ratios

f,

f g, which are the fame, each


:

each, to the remaining other ratios, namely,

:W,

Then
:

the ratio of

ratio

of e

or h

h
:

fhall

be the fame as the

g.

A
B

XC XE

X:

XK XM
XI,

XD XF XH

XN

X X

b
c

X X

X
X

X eX X/X

/
'

E E

2io
.

BOOK
X X

V.

PROP.

K.
h

THEOR.

X X

XX X
X
e

XmXn JX'XXX?'
X
k

by the compofition of the

ratios

aX CXcXdX X
or
g

bXcXdXtX/Xg
Xi iXc

k
I

X
X X

kX
X/
__

XmX
k
I

XmX
*
I

,,

Xp ^y p -)>

V ^
"

c/

h
k

dX e X/Xg
X X

Xm

w
*>
h *
"

m
n

X Xp'
I
.

but

X X

*
i

r= A X

X = "X BXD
.
'

X b X c __ bXcXti
mX
"

Xk X
X
/

cXdXt
'

dXt X fXs
X
X
k

Xp'

Xc Xt X f Xt x/xg
and
TO

li

X m X
f

X m X n X

n
s

,,

"

X X

/>

e
f

Xg
n
s .

(hyp.),

h
I

Xk XmX X mX r X

"

e f

<V

h
s

.'.

g-

'.

If there be any

number, &c.

Algebraical and Arithmetical expositions of the Fifth

Book of Euclid

are given in

Byrne's Doctrine of Proportion

published by

Williams and Co. London. 1841.

BOOK
I.

VI.

DEFINITIONS.
ECTILINEAR
figures are faid to

be

fimilar,

when

they have their feveral angles equal, each to each,

and the

fides

about the equal

angles proportional.
II.

Two

fides of

one figure are


fides

faid to

be reciprocally propor-

tional to

two
is

of another figure

when one of
remaining
firft.

the fides

of the
fecond

firft
is

to the fecond, as the

fide

of the

to the

remaining

fide

of the

III.

straight

line

is

faid to be cut in
is

extreme and mean


fegment,
as the

ratio,

when

the

whole
is

to the greater

greater fegment

to the lefs.

IV.

The
its

altitude

of any figure

is

the straight line

drawn from

vertex perpendicular to

its

bafe, or the bafe produced.

2 ;2

BOOK

VI.

PROP.

I.

THEOR.

PUR ANGLES
I

and

parallelo-

grams having the

fame
to one

altitude are

another as their bafes.

Let the triangles have a

and

common

vertex, and

their bafes
in the

and

--

fame

ftraight line.

Produce
1

both ways, take fuccemvely on


to
it
;

'

produced

lines equal

and on
;

pro-

duced
the

lines succeffively equal to

it

and draw

lines

from

common

vertex to their extremities.

The
to

triangles

one another,

fince their bafes are equal. (B. i. pr. 38.)

A
4lJZ. wi
and
its

thus formed are

all

equal

bafe are refpectively equi-

multiples of

m i

and the bafe

BOOK

VI.

PROP.

I.

THEOR.

2<

In like

manner

Lk
m
_
of

and

its

bale

are

refpec-

tively equimultiples

^ {
|~

and the bafe

.*.

Ifwor6times
;

jf

or or

^
Z] 8

n or 5 times
or 5 times

>
,

then

or 6 times
for every

CZ ==

wu

and fland

multiple taken as in the

fifth

definition

of the Fifth Book.

Although we have only

mown

that this property exifts


it is

when m

equal 6, and n

equal 5, yet

evident that the property holds good for

every multiple value that

may be

given to m, and to

n.

a
them (Part
1),

(B.

5. def. 5.)

Parallelograms having the fame altitude are the doubles

of the triangles, on their bafes, and are proportional to

and hence their doubles, the parallelograms,

are as their bafes. (B. 5. pr. 15.)

Q. E. D.

2I 4

BOOK VI PROP.

II.

THEOR.

A
*

a Jlraight

line

be

drawn

parallel to any

jide

....
it Jliall

of a

tri-

angle,
fides,

cut the other

or thofe Jides produced, into pro.

portional fegments

And
fides

if any Jlraight line

divide the fides of a triangle, or thofe

produced,
it
is

into proportional

feg-

ments,

parallel to the remaining

.fide
PART
Let

I.

.,

then fhall

D raw

and

(B. i.pr. 37);

(B.5.pr. 7 );but

V-

**

(B. 6. pr. i),

**!
(B. 5 .pr. ii).

HiHtllllB'

BOOK

VI.

PROP.
PART

II.

THEOR.

2] 5

II.

Let
then

Let the fame conftrudtion remain,

becaufe
(B. 6. pr. i);

>

and

--------

*!

but

!**

(hyp-),

7
-

\
3
(

(B.

5-

Pr

,7=
fame
II

B -5-P>'-9);
and
at the

but they are on the fame bafe


fide

-
and

of

it,

(B- i-pr. 39).

Q. E. D.

2l6

BOOK VL PROP.

III.

THEOR.

RIGHT

line

bifecling the angle

of a

triangle, divides the oppojite Jide

into

fegments

----- ) proportional

to the conterminous Jides (.


)

And if a Jlraight
divide the oppofte
into fegments
(

line

drawn from any angle of a

triangle

fde

(^
9

)
;

...-......)
),

proportional to the conterminous fdes


it

(, ___

bifecls the angle.

PART

I.

Draw --
then,

:=

to

meet

(B.

i. pr.

29),

(B.

1.

pr. 6);

and becaufe

(B. 6. pr. 2);

(B. 5. pr. 7 ).

BOOK

VI.

PROP.
PART

III.

THEOR.

217

II.

and

.*.

Let the fame conftrudlion remain,

::

::

.----

but


(B.

(B. 6. pr. 2);


1

(hyp-)

5. pr.

n).
(B. 5. pr. 9),

and

-
^f

and

.*.

^
II

(B.

1.

pr. 5);

but fince

m=
1.

and

zr

^f

(B.

pr.

29);

.".

^=
.'.
.ii

T, and

J^.

and

biiedts

J^

Q.E. D.

F F

2l8

BOOK

VI.

PROP.

IF.

THEOR.

equiangular

tri-

angles

S
)

and
rt^o/ /7j^

the fides

^^/
the

angles are pro-

portional,

and the Jides which are


equal angles are

^L
-

oppojite

to

.1

- - -

homologous

Let the equiangular triangles be

fo

placed that two

fides

oppofite to equal angles

and

^^^
line,

may be conterminous, and


at the

in the

fame ftraight

line;

and that the triangles lying

fame

fide

of that ftraight

may have

the equal angles not conterminous,

i.

e.

jtKk

oppofite to

and

to

Draw

and

Then, becaufe
,.

* *
But

--^

... (B.i.pr.28);

and for a like reafon,

is

1 1

a parallelogram.

(B. 6. pr. 2);

BOOK

VI.

PROP.

IV.

THEOR.
(B.
1. pr.

219
34),
;

and

fince
:

=
::

-^^
:

and by

alternation,

(B. 5. pr. 16).

In like
a>

manner

it

may

be

mown,

that

and by alternation, that


* *
a

a a

a>

but

it

has been already proved that


am

lamiiiaii

and therefore, ex xquali,

(B. 5. pr. 22),


therefore the fides about the equal angles are proportional,

and thofe which are oppofite


are

to the equal angles

homologous.
Q. E. D.

220

BOOK

VI.

PROP.

V.

THEOR.

F two
::

triangles have their Jides propor-

tional

mm
(

: :

From
the

!
(l
:

........-_
)

and

//z^ art- equiangular,

and

the equal angles are Jubt ended by the homolo-

gous Jides.

extremities

of
,

draw

and

making

W= M
and confequently

(B.

,.

pr.

23);

^ =

(B.

I. pr.

32),

and fince the triangles are equiangular,

(B. 6. pr. 4);

but

(hyp-);

and confequently

(B. 5. pr. 9 ).

In the like

manner

it

may

be

mown

that

BOOK

VI.

PROP.

V.

THEOR.
common

221
bafe

Therefore, the two triangles having a


,

and their

fides equal,
i.

have

alfo equal angles

op-

pofite to equal fides,

e.

s\ = ad/l =
,

m W
;

(B.

1.

pr. 8).

But

^F =
z=

^fc
mtk
:=

(conft.)

and

.*.

for the

lame

reafon

mA
(B.

and

confequently

z=

1.

32);
it is

and therefore the triangles are equiangular, and

evi-

dent that the homologous fides fubtend the equal angles.

Q. E. D.

22

BOOK

VI.

PROP.

VI.

THEOR.

s\
two triangles
(

^S "
have one

and

Z\

\
\

angle

^Kk
f

angle

of the one, equal

to

one

of the other,

and

the fides

^L
,,,,1^

about the equal angles proportional, the


triangles /hall be equiangular,
thofe angles equal

and have

which the homologous

fides fubt end.

From

the extremities of

^^
about

one of the

fides

of

and

\
and

m
,

draw

making

=
(B.
i.

^F J^
--

then

^=
(hyp.)

pr. 32),

and two triangles being equiangular,

>>>>>

(B. 6. pr. 4);

but

**<

(B. 5. pr. 11),

and confequently

(B. 5. pr. 9);

BOOK VI. PROP.

VI.

THEOR.

223

z\ = \/
(B.
1.

in

every refpedt.

pr. 4).

But

^J == j^
/
ZZ

(conft.),

and

.*.

J^

and

fince alio

mtk

'

\ =.

(B.

1. pr.

32);

and

.*.

jf.^k and

-^

y\

are equiangular, with

their equal angles oppoiite to

homologous

fides.

Q^E. D.

224

BOOK

VI.

PROP.

VII.

THEOR.

F two

triangles

A
^|
),

and

/ .
each equal
Jides about
(

have one angle

in

equal

to

the

'V
and ^-J|
right angle
y

two other angles proportional

and each of the remaining angles

4
<^
fides,

either lefs or not lefs than a

the triangles are equiangular,

and

thofe angles

are equal about which the fides are proportional.

Firft let are each

it

be affumed that the angles than a right angle


:

^^
if it

and

lefs

then

be fuppofed

that

itA

and

^A

contained by the proportional

are not equal, let

^^,\ be

the greater, and

make

Becaufe

4=

hyP-)> and

^A = ^\
I.

(conft.)

= ^^

(B.

pr.

32);

BOOK

VI.

PROP. VII THEOR.


M

225

but

(B. 6. pr. 4),


:

::

(hyp-)

(B. 5. pr. 9),

and

.*.

'^^

= ^^

(B.

1.

pr. 5).

But
.*.

^^
is

is lefs

than a right angle (hyp.)

4^

lefs

than a right angle


1
.

and

.*.

mull
it

be greater than a right angle (B.

pr. 13),

but

has been

proved

= ^^
is

and therefore

lefs

than a right angle,

which

abfurd.

.*.

^^\

and

^->\

are not unequal

.*.

they are equal, and fince

"^B

(hyp.)

4=4
But
if

(B.

1. pr.

32), and therefore the

tri-

angles are equiangular.

^^B

^ ^
it

and ^--^ be affumed

to

be each not

lefs

than a right angle,

may

be proved as before, that the

triangles are equiangular,

and have the

fides

about the

equal angles proportional. (B. 6. pr. 4).

Q. E. D.

GG

:26

BOOK

VI.

PROP.

VIII.

THEOR.

a right angled
triangle

a perpendicular
be

)>if

drawn from

the right angle

to the oppojitejide, the triangles

^/j^

| j

|^
to

on each Jide of

it

are fimilar to the whole

triangle

and

each other.

Becaufe

(B.

i.

ax.

1),

and

common

to

and

A=4
and
portional (B. 6. pr.
def. 1).
4),

(B.

i.

pr. 32);

are

equiangular

and

coniequently have their fides about the equal angles pro-

and are therefore fimilar (B.

6.

In like

manner

it

may

be proved that

nk L

is

fimilar to

but

has been lliewn to be fimilar

to

and |L
to

are

fimilar to the

whole and

each other.
Q. E. D.

BOOK

VI.

PROP.

IX.

PROB.

22"

ROM
to

a given jlraight

line

cut off any required part

From
given
line

either

extremity

of the

draw "...
*

making any

angle with

and produce
line

till

the

whole produced
"

contains

as often as

contains the required part.

Draw
II

>,

and draw

is

the required part of

For

fince

(B. 6. pr. 2), and by compofition (B. 5. pr. 18)

but
as

--" contains

as often
;

contains the required part (conft.)


is

the required part.

Q. E. D.

228

BOOK

VI.

PROP.

X.

PROB.

divide a Jlraight
(

line

to

fimilarly

a
line

given divided
('
)

From

either extremity of

the given line

draw -..--..

making any angle


............

take
an(j

..........
to
i.

aa4 equal
and
refpedively (B.
,

pr. 2)

draw

and draw
II

--
it.

and

Since
j

to

--

are

(B. 6. pr. 2),

or

(conft.),

and
(B. 6. pr. 2),
(conft.),

and

.*.

the given line


fimilarly to

is

divided

Q.E. D.

BOOK

VI.

PROP.

XI.

PROB.

229

O find a
to

third proportional
lines

two given Jiraight

At
line

either extremity of the given

-^^^
r=

draw ..-
;

making an angle
.........

take
,

and

draw

make ........
and draw

~
31.)

........

(B.
. uj-jj
to
is

1. pr.

For

the third proportional

and

fince

...a n..i..

(B.

but

6pr. 2);
(conft.)

(B. 5. pr. 7).

Q^E. D.

23

BOOK

VI.

PROP.

XII.

PROB.

O find
given

a fourth proto

portional
lines

three

1
I

* !

Draw
and
take

making any angle

and
alfo

draw
and
(B.
is
i.

pr. 31);

the fourth proportional.

On

account of the parallels,

(B. 6. pr. 2);

mt
J

{:
jj

Er-}( conft

-)

*.

(B. 5. pr. 7).

Q^E. D.

BOOK

VI.

PROP.

XIII.

PROB.

2 3*

find a mean propor-

tional between

two given

Jlraight lines

Draw any

ftraight line

make
and

bifecl
as a centre,

and from the point of bifedtion

and half the

line as a radius, defcribe a femicircle

draw
is

the

r\

proportional required.

mean

Draw

and

Since
ar>d
*

^| p>
^
is

is

a right angle (B. 3. pr. 31),


it

J_ from
a

upon the oppofite

fide,

^~~^
.*.

is

mean
and
'

proportional between
(B. 6. pr. 8),

and

between

and

(conft.).

QE.D

232

BOOK

VI.

PROP. XIV. THEOR.

QJJ

AL

parallelograms

which have one angle

\
J

and

in

each equal,

have the Jides about the equal angles


reciprocally proportional

II.

And
and

parallelograms which have one angle in each equal,

the Jides about

them reciprocally proportional, are equal.

Let
and and

and

and
.

, be (o placed that may be continued right

lines.

It

is

evi-

dent that they


'5-)

may affume

this pofition. (B. i. prs. 13, 14,

Complete

Since

V
[B. 5. pr. 7.)

V:\:\

BOOK VI PROP.

XIV.

THEOR.

233

(B. 6. pr. 1.)

The fame

conftrudtion remaining

(B. 6. pr. 1.)

(hyp.)

(B. 6. pr. 1.)

(B. 5. pr.

n.)

and

.*.

^^

(B. 5. pr. 9).

Q^E. D.

H H

234

BOOK

VI.

PROP. XV. THEOR.

I.

QUAL triangles, which


one

have
equal

angle

in

each

^^

^m

),

have the

fides

about the equal angles reciprocally

proportional

II.

And two

triangles
other,

which have an angle of the one equal

to

an angle of the

and

the Jides about the equal angles reci-

procally proportional, are equal.

I.

Let the triangles be

fo

placed that the equal angles


to fay,

^^
fo

and

^B

may

be vertically oppofite, that

is

that

and

alfo

ftraight line.

Whence

may

be

in

the

lame

and
14.)

muft

be in the fame ftraight line. (B.

i. pr.

Draw

then

>
4

(B. 6. pr. 1.)

(B. 5. pr. 7.)

(B. 6. pr. 1.)

BOOK

VI.

PROP. XV. THEOR.

235

(B. 5. pr. 11.)

II.

Let the fame conftruction remain, and

A
and

^^^r

(B. 6. pr. 1.)

(B. 6. pr. 1.)

A
-:
,

But

;:

(hyp.)

A^1
A=A

(B.5

pr. 11);

(B. 5. pr. 9.)

Q. E. D.

36

BOOK

VI.

PROP. XVI. THEOR.

PART

I.

F four Jh aight
the reclangle

lines be

proportional

contained

by the extremes,

-----

is

equal to the rectangle

contained by the means.

PART

II.

And
angle

if the relcontained

by

the extremes be equal


to the reSlangle con-

tained by the means,


thefourJlraight lines

are proportional.

PART

I.

From

the extremities of
i

_]_
:

and

draw

o^bb and
and

to

them and

refpe<tively

complete the parallelograms

and

I
(hyp-)
(conft.)

And

fince,

(B. 6. pr. 14),

BOOK
that
is,

VI.

PROP. XVI. THEOR.

2 37

the redtangle contained by the extremes, equal to

the redlangle contained by the means.

PART

II.

Let the fame conltrudtion remain

becaufe

a a ***
and

vmmwwww

mmmmm

....a......

BH
(B. 6. pr. 14).

But
and

= = -

(conft.)

**

Q. E. D.
--

(B. 5. pr. 7).

238

BOOK

VI.

PROP. XVII. THEOR.


PART
I

jF three jlraight lines be proportional

__

reSlangle under the extremes


is

equal

to the fquare

of the mean.
II.

PART

And

if the rettangle under the ex-

tremes be equal to the fquare of the mean,


the three Jlraight lines are proportional.

PART

I.

A flu me
lince

.,

and

then

X
(B. 6. pr. 16).

But

'9

or

___

X
2
;

X
therefore, if the three ftraight lines are
is

proportional, the redtangle contained by the extremes

equal to the fquare of the mean.

PART Aflume

II.

then

- X
(B. 6. pr. 16), and

Q. E. D.

BOOK

VI.

PROP. XVIII. THEOR.

239

N
to

a given Jlraight
conjlruB a

line

recJilinear figure

Jimilar to a given one

and Jimilarly placed.

Refolve the given figure into triangles by

drawing the

lines

-.

and

At

the

extremities

of

f^V

and

again at the extremities of

and

^k ^

^\

in like

manner make

* = \/andV =
Th en
It is
is

V
1.

fimilar to

evident from the construction and (B.


;

pr. 32) that

the figures are equiangular

and fince the triangles

W V
and and

are equiangular: then

by (B.

6. pr.4),

::

240

BOOK

VI.

PROP.

XVIII.

THEOR.

Again, becaule

^^ ^
._

and md

^B

are equiangular,

ex

aequali,

(B. 6. pr. 22.)

In like

manner

it

may

be fhown that the remaining

fides

of the two figures are proportional.

.-.

by (B.

6. def.

i.)

is

fimilar to

and fimilarly fituated

and on the given

line

Q^E. D.

BOOK

VI.

PROP. XIX.

THEOR.

241

IMILAR

trian-

gles

and ^fl

B \

are to

one

another in the duplicate ratio

of their homologous Jides.

Let

4Bt Mk
.-

and

^^ m

be equal angles, and


fides

....--

and

homologous

of the fimilar triangles

and of thefe
lines

^j
take

and on
a

the greater

.......

third

proportional,

fo

that

draw

(B. 6. pr. 4)

(B.

5. pr.

16, alt.),
(conft.),

but

confe-

242

BOOK

VI.

PROP. XIX.

THEOR.

quently

A\
=
^*

for they

have the

fides

about

the equal angles

^^

and

4Bt

reciprocally proportional

AAA\
(B.

(B. 6. pr. 15);

5P r.

7);

but

A \

^fc

::

..>>.

(B. 6. P r. 1),

that

is

Aa
and

to fay, the triangles are to

one another

in the dupli-

cate ratio of their

homologous

fides

(B. 5. def. ii).

Q^ E. D.

BOOK

VI.

PROP. XX.

THEOR.

243

[IMILAR
vided
into

poly-

gons may be dithe

fame number of
fimilar triangles, eachfimilar

pair of which are proportional to the polygons


;

and

the polygons are to each other


in the duplicate ratio

of their

homologous /ides

Draw
and
and

and

refolving

the polygons into triangles.

Then

becaufe the polygons

are fimilar,

and

are fimilar,

and

^ ^

but

= w
;

(B. 6. pr. 6);

becaufe they are angles of fimilar poly-

gons

therefore the remainders

g/^
;;

and

^k
;

are equal

hence

......**

._..___._

on account of the fimilar

triangles,

244

BOOK
:

VI.

PROP. XX.

THEOR.

and -.-..-.--

_^__.

a
ex
sequali

on account of the limilar polygons,

(B. 5. pr. 22),

and

as

thefe proportional fides

contain equal angles, the triangles s

M^

and

^^.

are limilar (B. 6. pr. 6).

In like manner

it

may

be fhown that the

triangles

^^
is

and

^W
in

are limilar.

But

.
is

to

the duplicate ratio of

to

(B. 6. pr. 19), and

M^-

to

^^
of

in like

manner,

in the duplicate

ratio

to

>>
(B. 5. pr. 11);

Again

M^r M ^^
to

is

to

^^r ^^~

in the duplicate ratio

of

and

^r

is

to

^W

in

BOOK

VI.

PROP. XX. THEOR.

the duplicate ratio of

245

to

and
fo
is

as

one of the antecedents

is

to

one of the confequents,

the

fum of
;

all
is

the antecedents to the

fum of

all

the

confequents

that

to fay, the fimilar triangles

have to one
12).

another the fame ratio as the polygons (B.

5. pr.

But

is

to

in the duplicate ratio

of

to

is

to

WL.

in the duplicate

ratio

of _________

to

_____

E.

246

HOOK

VI.

PROP. XXI. THEOR.

ECTILINEAR
(

figures

and
to the famefigure

which arefimilar

are fimilar alfo to each other.

Since
lar,

Hi

B^. and

arc fimi-

they are equiangular, and have the

fides

about the equal angles proportional


6.

(B.

def.

1);

and

fince

the

figures

and
are equiangular,

^^
fides

are alfo fimilar, thev

and have the

proportional

therefore

about the equal angles

and

fet.
fimilar.

are alio

equiangular, and have the fides about the equal angles proportional (B. 5. pr.
1

1),

and are therefore

Q.E.

D.

BOOK

VI.

PROP. XXII. THEOR.

247

Yfourfiraight
portional
::
:

(
PART
11.

PART

I.

lines be
:

pro"-""
the

),

fimilar rectilinear figures


Jimilarly described on them are alfo proportional.

And
ftraight

if four Jimilar

rectilinear

figures, Jimilarly
lines,

defcribed on

four
the

be proportional,

firaight lines are alfo proportional.

part

1.

Take
and

a third proportional to
.

to

and

a third proportional

and
::

(B. 6. pr. 11);

fince
... ......

:- ;

;;

>

(hyp.),
(conft.)

.*.

ex asquali,

but
(B. 6. pr. 20),

and

248

BOOK

VI.

PROP. XXII. THEOR.

(B. 5. pr. 11).

PART

II.

Let the fame conftrudlion remain

(hyp-).

(conft.)

and

.*.

(B.

5. pr.

11).

Q.E. D.

BOOK VI PROP.

XXIII.

THEOR.

249

QUIANGULAR
ograms
)
(

parallel-

and

are to one another

in

a ratio compounded of the ratios of

their jides.

Let two of the

fides

_m

and

about the equal angles be placed


fo

that they

may form one

ftraight

line.

Since

^
and

J = f\\
(hyp.),
<

J^ =

4
and /.
11

+
and
(B.
1.

'

form one

ftraight line

P r. 14);

complete

Since

#
(B. 6. pr. 1),

and

#
has to
_.

;B.6. pr.

1),

a ratio
,

compounded of the

ratios
1

of
.

to

and of
K
K.

^a

to

Q^E. D.

25o

BOOK

VI.

PROP. XXIV.

THEOR.

N any parallelogram {ELJ)


(^

the parallelograms

^j

and

f B:
I

which are about

the diagonal are Jtmilar to the whole,


to

and

each other.

As

and

have

common
but becaufe

angle they are equiangular;


I

and

are fimilar (B. 6. pr. 4),

and the remaining oppofite


fides are

equal to thofe,

.*.

BJ

and

B-LJ
manner

have the

fides

about the equal

angles proportional, and are therefore fimilar.

In the fame

it

can be demonftrated that the

parallelograms

]_J

rH
to

and

f B
/

are fimilar.

Since, therefore, each of the parallelograms

and

is

fimilar to

each

BOOK

VI.

PROP. XXV. PROB.

25

defcribe

rectilinear figure,
to

which /hall be fimilar


| rectilinearfigure

a given

),and

equal

to

another

\wb

Upon
and upon
.

defcribe

defcribe

tB^
45), and then

and having

zz
.......

(B.

i. pr.

and

will lie in the


prs. 29, 14),

fame ftraight

line

(B.

1.

Between

and

find

mean

proportional

(B. 6. pr. 13), and


defcribe

upon

fimilar to
fituated.

and fimilarly

Then

For

fince

and

are fimilar, and


j

..........

(conft.),

(B. 6. pr. 20)

252

BOOK

VI.

PROP. XXV. PROB.

but

_M (B.6.pr.
;B. 5

i);

.pr.n);

but

(conft.),

and .\

(B. 5. pr. 14);

and

=
which
is

(conft.)

consequently,

fimilar to

^^fl Bk

is

alio

Q. E. D.

BOOK VI. PROP.


F
fimilar

XXVI. THEOR.

253

and

Jimilarly

pofited parallelograms

have a common angle, they are about


the fame diagonal.

and

(/J)

For,

if poffible, let

be the diagonal of

draw

(B.

1. pr.

31

Since

L.*13

are about the

fame

diagonal

and have

common,

they are fimilar (B. 6. pr. 24)

but
(hyp-)

and

.*.

(B. 5. pr. 9.),

which

is

abfurd.

is

not the diagonal of

in the

fame manner
line

it

can be demonftrated that no other


except

is

=====

Q. E. D.

2 54

BOOK

VI.

PROP. XXVII. THEOR.

all the rectangles

contained

by

the

fegments of a given
Jlraight
greatejl
is

line,

the
is

the fquare which

defcribed on half the line.

be the

unequal fegments,
equal fegments

For

it

has been demonftrated already (B. 2. pr. 5), that


is

the fquare of half the line

equal to the rectangle con-

tained by any unequal fegments together with the fquare

of the part intermediate between the middle point and the


point of unequal fection.
line

The

fquare defcribed on half the

exceeds therefore the rectangle contained by any un-

equal fegments of the line.

Q.E. D.

BOOK
O
(

VI.

PROP. XXVIII. PROB.

255

divide a

given

Jlraight line
)

fo

that the
its

rec-

tangle contained by

segments

may
not

be equal to a given area, m

exceeding
line.

the fauare

of

half the

Let the given area be


Bifedt

=
or

make "*
and
if

-
the problem
is

iblved.

But

if

then

muft

(hyp.)-

Draw
make
with
-

or
as radius defcribe a circle cutting the

^"

given line

draw

Then

X
(B. 2. pr. 5.;
-

But
(B.
1. pr.

+
47);

256
.-.

BOOK

VI.

PROP. XXVIII. PROB.

+
*

'

from both, take


and

__
is

-But

X
mm
i

i
.*.

(conrt.),
fo divided

and
that

Q^E. D.

BOOK

VI.

PROP. XXIX. PROB.

257

O produce a givenjlraight
line

),fo

that the recJangle con-

tained by the fegments

between the extremities of the given


line

and

the point to which

it is

pro-

duced,
i.

may

be equal to a given area,

e.

equal to the fquare on

Make
draw

-
draw
*

and

and

with the radius


meeting

defcribe a circle

produced.

Then

X
(B. 2. pr. 6.)

=
_
2

\
(B.
1.

But

......... 9 _|_

pr.47.)

+
*

+
2

from both take


and
but

X
=

the given area.

C^E. D.
L L

258

BOOK VI. PROP. XXX. PROB.


O
in

cut a given finite jiraight line

extreme and mean ratio.

On
(B.

defcribe the fquare

i.

pr.

46)

and produce

(o that

x
(B. 6. pr. 29);

take

and draw

II

meeting

(B. 1. pr. 31).

Then

u
and
is

/.

and

if

from both thefe equals

be taken the

common

part

,
J

which

is

the fquare of

"

will be

zr II, which
is

is

-X
X
mean
ratio.

that

and

is

divided in extreme and


(B. 6. def. 3).

Q. E. D.

BOOK

VI.

PROP. XXXI. THEOR.

259

any

fimilar

rectilinear

figures be fimilar ly defer ibed


on the fides of a right an-

gled triangle

/\
(

),

the figure
)

defer ibed on the fide

fub-

tending the right angle

is

equal to the

fum of the figures

on the other fides.

From

the right angle drawto

perpendicular

.-

then

(B. 6. pr. 8).

(B. 6. pr. 20).

but
(B. 6. pr. 20).

asMtm

Hence

+
+

ifiiiuai

but

and ,\

Q. E. D.

260

BOOK

VI.

PROP. XXXII. THEOR

F two

triangles

A ^
;

tf

/%\
^k

),

have two Jides pro(

\\ \
rallel, the

W^mtSn
::

portionai
;

..........

....

),

and be Jo placed

at an angle that the homologous Jides are pa(

remaining Jides

and

orm Jl

one right

line.

Since

=
and
alfo fince

(B.

i.

pr. 29)
|

(B.

1.

pr.

29);

= ^^

and

fince

(hyp-).

the triangles are equiangular (B. 6. pr. 6)

A=A
but

+ m

+A=+4+A
1.

(B.

pr. 32),

and

.*.

and
1.

lie in

the fame flraight line (B.

pr. 14).

Q.E. D.

BOOK VI. PROP.

XXXIII.

THEOR.

261

equal circles

whether at the centre or circumference, are


in the

00
o
|

),

angles,

fame

ratio to one another as the arcs

on which

they Jland

L:4-.I

fo

alfo

are feci ors.

Take
of arcs

in the

circumference of

any number

&c. each 35

and

alfo in

the circumference of

O
I

take

any number of

arcs

&c. each rr
of the equal
"
9

draw

the

radii to the extremities

arcs.

Then

fince the arcs

""-

-, &c
alfo

are all equal,

the angles

#
is

\,

&c. are

equal (B.

3. pr.

27);

.*.

mwk

the fame multiple of

which

the

arc

is

of

and

in the

fame manner

4B^

is

the fame multiple of

4.
ml

which the

arc

,***

is

of the arc

262

BOOK

VI.

PROP. XXXIII.
evident (B.

THEOR.

Then

it is

3. pr. 27),

if

4V
^-^

or if

times

EZ>

=, ^|

4W-

(or times

then

^+

(or

times * )

C>
).;

=^>

(o r times

^^

^^^

-1... - ^

(B.

5.

def.

5),

or the ftand

angles at the centre are as the arcs on

which they

but the angles at the circumference being halves of the


angles at the centre (B. 3. pr. 20) are in the fame ratio
(B. 5. pr. 15), and therefore are as the arcs
ftand.

on which they

It is

evident, that fedtors in equal circles, and on equal

arcs are equal (B. 1. pr.

4; B.

3. prs. 24, 27,

and

def. 9).

Hence,

if the fectors

be fubftituted for the angles in the

above demon ftration, the fecond part of the propofition will


be eftablifhed, that
is,

in equal circles the fedlors have the


as the arcs

fame

ratio to

one another

on which they

fland.

Q.E. D.

BOOK

VI.

PROP.

A.

THEOR.

263

F the right line (........),


bifeSling

an

external

angle

ll

ij/'

the trz-

angle

Z
)

meet the oppojite

fide

produced, that whole producedfide

),

and its external fegment (---) will be proportional to the ...- #</ fides ( ), w^/'c/i contain the angle
adjacent to the external bifecJed angle.

For

if

be drawn

||

>*- ->

/,

(B.

1.

pr. 29)

= ^,(hy P =
and
,

.).

(B.

1. pr.

29);

(B. i.pr. 6),

and
(B. 5. pr. 7);

But

alfo,
IBIIIIEIIII-

(B. 6. pr. 2);

and therefore
*iaani>f

(B. 5 .pr. 11).

Q. E. D.

264

BOOK

VI.

PROP.

B.

THEOR.

F an

angle of a triangle be biline,


;

fecJed by a Jlraight

which

likewife cuts the bafe

the rec-

tangle contained by the fides of


the triangle
is

equal to the rectangle con-

tained by the fegments of the bafe, together

with the fquare of the Jlraight


b/fecJs the angle.

line

which

Let

be

drawn,

making

=
...

then fhall

+
(B. 4. pr. 5),

o
produce
to

meet the

circle,

and draw

Since 4fl

4Hk

(hyp-)>

and

^T

(B.

3.

pr. 21),

,ZL y \

are equiangular (B. 1. pr. 32)

(B. 6. pr. 4);

ROOK

VI.

PROP.

R.

X ~~^^~
(B.6.
pr.

THEOR.

265

x
16.)

=
but

-X
(B. 2. pr. 3);

+
=
------.

X
X

w
h
Q.E. D.

(B. 3. pr. 35 );

MM

266

BOOK

VI.

PROP.

C.

THEOR.

F from

any angle of a triangle a

Jlraight line be

drawn perpendi;

cular to the bafe

the reft angle

contained by the fides of the tri-

angle

is

equal to the rectangle contained by

the perpendicular

and

the diameter of the

circle defcribed about the triangle.

From
draw
mall

of

>**
*7->

_L

then

=
(B. 4. pr. 5),

Xthe

diameter of the defcribed

circle.

Defcribe

is

draw

its

diameter

and draw

3. pr.

then becaufe

>>

(confl.

and B.

3. pr.

31);

and

= /^

(B.

21);

j*.

equiangular to

(B. 6. pr. 4);

and

.*.

--

==
(B. 6. pr. 16).

X
Q.E. D.

BOOK

VI.

PROP. D.

THEOR.

267

HE

rectangle

contained by the

diagonals of a quadrilateralfigure
infcribed in a circle,
is

equal to

both the rectangles contained by


its oppojite Jides.

Let

be any quadrilateral

figure infcribed in

o
and
;

and draw

then

X
Make

4^ =

W
and

(B.i.pr. 23),

^ =^
and
.*.

(B. 3. pr. 21);

(B. 6. pr. 4);

X
(B. 6. pr. 16)
;

amiiiiB

again,

becaufe

4 =

(conft.),

268

BOOK
and

VI.

PROP. D. THEOR.

\/ = \y

(B. 3. pr. 21)

(B. 6. pr. 4);

and /.

<--...*

mi
;

(B. 6. pr. 16);


but,

from above,

X
(B.
2.

+
pr.
1

X
Q. E. D.

THE END.

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