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Library
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University of Toronto
Aaa
BYRNE'S EUCLID
THE FIRST
SIX
BOOKS OF
AND SYMBOLS
THE FIRST
SIX
BOOKS OF
BY OLIVER BYRNE
SURVEYOR OF HER MAJESTY'S SETTLEMENTS IN THE FALKLAND ISLANDS
LONDON
WILLIAM PICKERING
1847
TO THE
THIS
WORK
IS
DEDICATED
S
BY HIS LORDSHIP
OBEDIENT
OLIVER BYRNE.
http://www.archive.org/details/firstsixbooksofeOOeucl
SS3
INTRODUCTION.
HE
arts
fo extenfive,
is
that
to
their
as to
acquirement
of
as
much
importance
make
it
more
agreeable.
;
This
to
Work
amuie
we do
not intro
to affift the
mind
of instruction, and
permanent knowledge.
If
we
wanted authorities
of geometry,
days of
was adopted
bafis
In fact,
common
we
confent, the
of mathematical fcience
this will
all
But
this
fublime fcience
fpirit
of inquiry,
to elevate the
mind,
forms
and
but alfo
it
vocations of
human
life.
all
depen
viii
INTRODUCTION.
depends on the
firfr.
Much however
methods
communication of
mod
eafy
fore a fludent,
ing,
is
told
who though having a fufficient understandjuft as much about them on entering at the
him
of
a prepofleffion
this delightful
molt unfavourable
fubjedl
;
to
or
" the
fo oftentatioufly
reality.
Thus an
aver
created in the
mind of
is
memory.
To
and
to
awaken the
liftlefs
emi
The
objecT:
Work
is
to introduce a
try,
men The
and
fenfitive
its
preeminence
imprint
it
fubjecT:
on the mind
is
maxim
expreffed in the
made,
Than what
by the
faithful
eye conveyed.
INTRODUCTION.
figns are
ix
which
effect
their purpofes
with the
purftill
Such
for all
common
are
which
Georelative
which
is
to
fhow the
Demonftration.
on by words,
letters,
have been
Such
is
mode of commu
acquired in
lefs
memory
is
by numerous experiments
made by
his plans.
The
particulars
gram
them
in
the demonftration
made
name
themfelves, for
them
in the demonftration.
adoption,
let
us take a right
INTRODUCTION.
its
properties both by
Some of the properties of the right angled triangle exprejfed by the method generally employed.
1.
ABC,
and
The The
angle
BAC,
BCA
ABC
2.
are equal to
two right
added
ABC.
equal
angle
CAB
ACB will be
to the angle
3.
ABC.
ABC
BCA
is
or the angle
CAB
is
lefs
than the
If
ABC,
is
ACB.
the fquares
AC
equal to the
fum of
AB
and BC.
I.
That
is,
two
Or
in
^ C
The
yellow angle
is
JK*
or
greater
angle.
INTRODUCTION.
xi
4
^B
or
Ml
Zl
is lefs
5
pp minus
made
lefs
+
That
is,
is
equal to the
fum
lines.
we
fame moment,
linear arts
fo
and fciences, in
is
is is
the fyftem
is
propofed, this
Whence
it
the diagram
fure,
naming
likewife con
commit
the demonftration to
memory;
until reafon,
and
fact,
when lecturing on the principles or properties of if we mention the colour of the part or parts re
ferred to, as in faying, the red angle, the blue line, or lines,
fame
inftant
not fo if
we
fay the
fo
angle
ABC,
the triangle
PFQ^the
figure
EGKt, and
on
xii
INTRODUCTION.
mud
be traced one by one before the ftudents
to,
of
fame colours
that
is,
equal, and the learner retains the data throughout the whole
of the reafoning.
the prefent plan, if
it
can always
more permanent
experience of
fadts
retention by the
all
memory.
to
The
prefs
who
im
on
more
eafily
fixed in
the
fentences un
marked by any
ticians
peculiarity.
may
appear,
many modern
which
and
plain
of Euclid,
if there
occafioned
all
be afilgned to
It
him
alfo
like
JEfop
among
may
only
other linear
INTRODUCTION.
arts
xiii
tem
no
lefs
dumb.
Care mult be taken
do with the
to
{how
lines, angles, or
name them.
mathematical
which
is
length with
what
is
meant by
colour,
a mathematical line
is
recoiled:
we
are fpeaking
to
when we
&c.
may
at
firft.
appear a
clumfy method
to
and parts of mathematical figures and magnitudes, however they will be found to afford a
means more
and a
refined and
We
A
fhall
line,
furface,
and
demonftrate apropofition
alfertion.
point
is
is
that
which has
magnitude
or a point
who
is it
red, as
plane, for if
to the blue,
did,
it
would belong
part
yet
it
without magnitude,
with a
June
XIV
tioii
;; ;
INTRODUCTION.
of three colours on a plane, gives a good idea of
a
mathematical point.
A
a line
line
is
With
the afliftance
of colours, nearly
fame manner
:
as before, an idea
of
may
be thus given
is
is it
therefore
only length
readily
line.
is
meant by
illu fixation,
from the colour of the paper, or plane upon which it is drawn, would have been fufficient; hence in future, if we
fay the red line, the blue line, or lines, &c.
tions
it is
the junc
underftood.
Surface
thicknefs.
is
that
When we
(PQ),
we
length,
S
breadth,
and thicknefs
(QR)
which
is
the fame
thing, that
which
without
without thicknefs, and only
lofs
of material, mufr. be
length and breadth
poffeffes
INTRODUCTION.
this plainly appears
xv
from reafoning,
em
line.
The
manner
the
firft
propofition
in
which we have
which the
the fifth of
Book.
In an ifofceles triangle
ACB
AB,
when
AC
BCE,
CBD
Produce
make
and
Draw
and
in
we have
and
^^
common
and
=
in
Again
^ 7^ Z
(B.
,.
pr.
+ .)
xvi
INTRODUCTION.
and
=:
(B.
i. pr. 4).
But
^
Q. E. D.
5y annexing
Let
AB
and
AC
D
extremities
BC, of the
let
BD
of either,
let
any point
other
AE
E
AD
(B.
1.
pr. 3).
fides,
Let
the points
and D,
fo
be con
DC
and
BE
In the triangles
DAC
to
and
angle
the line
AB, and Hence is common to both triangles. DC is equal to BE, the angle ADC
EAB EA and
the fides
DA
(B.
and
AC
the included
1 .
pr. 4.)
to the angle
;
AEB,
ACD
to
the angle
and AC AE the equal be taken, the remainders BD and CE will be equal. Hence in the triangles BDC and CEB, the fides BD and DC are refpectively equal to CE and EB, and the angles D and E
the equal lines
AD
and
ABE fides AB
if
from
Hence
(B.
pr. 4.)
INTRODUCTION.
the angles
xvii
DBC
and
ECB, which
by
BC
fides
AB
and
and
AC
are equal.
DCB
and
EBC
DCA
are
EBA
which
the angles
ABC
and
ACB
be equal.
Therefore in an
ifofceles triangle,
&c.
Q^E. D.
Our
object in this place being to introduce the fyftem
we
inftruclion,
We
are
happy
Elements of Mathematics
of thofe interefted
now forms
cation, therefore
we
to the fucceeding
We
fenfes
and inftanta
would advance the purpofe of education more than any thing that might be named, for it would teach the people how to think, and not what
mathematics with great
to think
;
it is
of education
originates.
XV1U
DEFINITIONS.
I.
A point A
The
is
that
which has no
II.
parts.
line is
A
its
is
that
which
lies
evenly between
extremities.
V.
furface
is
that
only.
The
A A
fame
plane furface
is
that
which
VIII.
lies
evenly between
its
ex
tremities.
plane angle
is
the inclination of
two
lines to
one ano
ther, in a plane,
which meet
direction.
IX.
is
the inclina
tion of
two
which meet
fame
ftraight line.
BOOK
I.
DEFINITIONS.
X.
xix
When
called a right
is
lines
faid to
be
A
a line or lines.
XI.
An obtufe
angle
is
an angle greater
XII.
An
acute angle
is
an angle
lefs
than a
right angle.
XIII.
A A
term or boundary
is
XIV.
figure
is
a furface enclofed
on
all fides
by
XV.
circle
is
a plane figure,
bounded
its
by one continued
line, called
;
cir
cumference or periphery
and havit,
from
to
its
which
all
ftraight lines
drawn
XVI.
This point (from which the equal
called the centre of the circle.
lines are
drawn)
is
xx
BOOK
I.
DEFINITIONS.
XVII.
XVIII.
femicircle
is
by the diameter.
**
XIX.
*
fegment of
a circle
line,
is
a figure contained
cir
by a flraight
J
A
cumference which
cuts off.
XX.
figure contained by flraight lines only,
is
called a recti
linear figure.
XXI.
triangle
is
by three
fides.
XXII.
quadrilateral figure
is
one which
is
by four
and
!.
its
fides.
The
flraight lines
bounded
diagonals.
XXIII.
polygon
is
a rectilinear figure
four fides.
BOOK
I.
DEFINITIONS.
XXIV.
xxi
triangle
whofe three
is
faid to
be equilateral.
XXV.
A
is
triangle
fides
equal
XXVI.
A A
fcalene triangle
is
fides equal.
XXVII.
right angled triangle
is
that
which
XXVIII.
An
is
that
which
XXIX.
An
is
that
which
XXX.
Of fourfided
has
all its fides
which
equal, and
all its
angles right
angles.
XXXI.
rhombus
its
is
that
which has
equal, but
XXXII.
An
oblong
is
that
which has
all its
all
its
xxii
BOOK
1.
POSTULATES.
XXXIII.
rhomboid
fides
is
that
which has
its
op
pofite
but
angles right angles.
XXXIV.
All other quadrilateral figures are called trapeziums.
XXXV.
Parallel flraight lines are fuch as are in
'^^^m^mmm^m^mmi^
would never meet.
which being
both
pro
duced continually
in
directions,
POSTULATES.
I.
Let
it
may
be drawn from
Let
duced
it
be granted that
may
be pro
to
line.
Let
it
may be
AXIOMS.
I.
to
BOOK
If equals be taken
I.
AXIOMS.
III.
xxin
will
be equal.
If equals
equal.
be
added
to
If equals be taken
will be unequal.
The
The
IX.
The whole
is
greater than
its
part.
X.
Two
If
two
ftraight
(
lines
)
Z^ZI
make
meet
third
flraight line
fo as to
the
two
interior
angles
and
on the fame
two
two
meet
if
two
right angles.
XXIV
BOOK
twelfth
I.
ELUCIDATIONS.
in
The
i
.
any of the
fol
lowing ways
Two
to the
2.
fame ftraight
two
parallel
ftraight lines
3.
muft
Only one
drawn through
a given
Geometry has
to
for
its
defined
fubfifts
is
fpace.
Space or magnitude
of three kinds,
ficial, &n&folid.
as a fourth fpecies
confifts
of
A
An
angle
is
quantity
The
tude of an angle
is
affected
by the length
it,
of the ftraight
lines
which include
it is
is
and
the
mea
The
vertex of an angle
legs
the point
of the angle
when
its
which meet
to
gether
at its vertex.
Thus
would be
fame point,
called the
angle A.
lines
meet
was ne
ceffary
by former methods,
in order to
BOOK
the letter
I.
ELUCIDATIONS.
Thus
xxv
meeting together
ufually
FCD
or
DCF
The
lines
is its
FC
and
CD
vertex. In like
the angle
DCB
fo
BCD.
The
HCF added
FCD, make
the angle
HCD
and
of other angles.
When
beyond
its
fides
:
be vertically
each other
Thus
oppofite angles.
Superpojition
is
the procefs by
line
is
faid to
its
be produced,
when
its
it
is
extended, pro
longed, or has
length which
production.
it
receives
called
produced part, or
its
The
figure,
treat
entire length
is
of the
line or lines
which
enclofe a
called
its
perimeter.
The
firft fix
books of Euclid
line
is
of a
lines
The
fide
which include
That
An
defined in the
fix
xxvi
the ufe of
BOOK
which
is
I.
ELUCIDATIONS.
in
permitted
is
To
which
is
of being
eftabliflied
by demonftration.
which
There
are
two
fpecies of
Problem
is
a propofition in
;
which fomething
fome
is
pro
pofed to be done
as a line to
The folution of the problem confifts in fhowing how the thing required may be done by the aid of the rule or ftraightedge and compafies.
The
dicated
Theorem
is
a propofition in
which
the truth of
fome
principle
aflerted.
independently eftablifhed.
demonstration.
To fhow
this
is
the object of
A Problem analogous to a poftulate. A Theorem refembles an axiom. A Pojlulate a problem, the folution of which is
is is
afiumed.
granted
An Axiom
is
which
is
without demonfbration.
A A
Corollary
is
propofition.
Scholium
is
a note or obfervation
on a propofition not
it
pole of efiablifhing
XXV11
exprefies the
word
therefore.
be read equal
to,
becaufe.
equal.
or
is
equal
or are equal to
but
to the introduction
affect the
of the
are,
&c. cannot
geometri
as if the
words
'
not equal'
were written.
r~
greater than.
lefs
33 ...
than.
if ... ~h ....
.
not
lefs
than.
;
j is
when
;
interpofed
fignifies their
fum.
read minus
(lefs),
fignifies
fubtraction
and
when
to
when
angle,
placed between
it is
them
in arithmetic
and algebra
but in geometry
when
placed between
its
" two
fixaight lines
which
alfo
its
contain one of
right angles."
A reclangle
may
fides.
;
thus, if
A, B,
has to
B
is
C
:
has to
D,
the propofition
A B A B
: :
C D, C D, C A
:
:
B=D.
ratio
is
read,
xxviii
or

A A
is is
to B, fo to B, as
is
C
is
to
to
D
D.
_L
perpendicular
angle.
to.
m
Xi x
\
right angle.
two right
angles.
or
>
=,
or
^
2
.
The
In the fame
2
def.
of,
is
expreffed by
fignifies definition.
pos
ax
pojlulate.
axiom.
hypothefis.
It
hyp
may be
is
hypothefis
conft
The
confiruSlion
is
the change
made
by drawing
lines,
making
it
to
problem.
The
conditions
under which
thefe
as indisputable as thofe
con
For
inftance, if
we make
angles are
Q^
E.
Quod
erat demonfirandum.
to
Which was
be demonftrated.
CORRIGENDA.
xxix
Faults
to be
Page
45,
laft line,
54, line 4 from the bottom, /or black and red line read blue
and red
line.
59, line 4, /or add black line fquared read add blue line
fquared.
60, line 17, /or red line multiplied by red and yellow line
line.
r*W
take blue
line.
105, line 11, for yellow black angle add blue angle equal red
angle read yellow black angle add blue angle add red
angle.
129,
laft line,
141, line
1,
for
Draw
Draw
blue
line.
M.
ttcltoBOOK
PROPOSITION
I.
I.
PROBLEM.
given
(
finite
)
Jlraight line
to defcribe
an equila
teral triangle.
Defcribe
and
(poftulate 3.);
draw
and
(port.
1.).
then will
be equilateral.
For
^
(def. 15.);
and therefore
is
Q^E. D.
BOOK I. PROP.
II.
PROB.
),
draw ajiraight
a given
(
line
equal
to
line
finite Jlraight
).
A(pr.
2.),
i.),
produce
(port.
defcribe
(poft. 3.),
and
(poft. 3.)
produce
is
For
and
(ax. 3.), but (def. 15.)
(conft.), ,\
(def.
15.),
)>
Q. E. D.
BOOK
I.
PROP.
III.
PROB.
ROM
(
the
greater
)
.
of
the
lefs (
Draw
(pr.
2.)
defcribe
(port. 3
.),
then
For
and
(def. 15.),
(conft.)
(ax. 1.).
Q. E. D.
BOOK
I.
PROP.
IF.
THEOR.
F two
triangles
one
reJpecJively
to
to
) )
and
//$*
tfW
rf/<?j
and
by
thofe
contained
fides alfo equal ; then their bafes or their
)
equal
ing
i
fdes (
and
and
the remaining
and
their remain
angles
equal fdes
are
refpeSlively
equal
J^
=z
^^
and
^^
f^
) :
and
to
be fo placed, that
or
$
upon
which
to coincide
with
plied
:
then will 
coincide with
confequently
if ap,
or
two
impoflible
>=>
,
and
^L
^L
and
as the triangles
and
/V
coincide,
when
Q. E. D.
BOOK
N
any
I.
PROP.
V.
THEOR.
ifofceles
triangle
and
the
Produce
(poft.
2.),
j
and
take
(P r
3);
draw
Then
in
(conft),
common
to
(hyp.) /.
Jk
= k
(pr.
4.)
but
A = ,A=A
(ax.
3.)
Q.E. D.
BOOK
I.
PROP.
VI.
THEOR.
any triangle
A
(
)if
)
two angles
and j^L
....
alfo
and
equal.
"
' )
oppojite to
them are
For
if the fides
be not equal,
let
one
of them
other
and from
it
cut off
(pr. 3.),
draw
Then
(conft.)
.*.
in
L^A,
(hyp.) and
common,
the triangles are equal (pr. 4.) a part equal to the whole,
is
which
abfurd
is
.'.
neither of the
fides
or
they are
equal
Q. E. D.
BOOK
I.
PROP.
VII.
THEOR.
(>
), and on
two
conterminous
fdes
#</
)
(
and
at both extremities of
When
two
triangles ftand
fide
on the fame
bafe,
of
it,
within
it
or, laflly,
on one of
If
it
be poflible
let
the
two
triangles be con
firucted fo that f
=
and,
(P r
1 then ,
J
draw
0=*
but (pr.
therefore the
fides
5)
and
=>
which
5.)
is
abfurd,
two
conterminous
Q. E. D.
BOOK
I.
PROP.
VIII.
THEOR.
F two
triangles
equal
to
two
fides
of
the
other
and and
=
alfo their bafes
(
),
rr ")>
angles
and
be conceived
__ and
;
______ and
_____,__,_.
fall
be con
on the vertex
of the other
for to fuppofe
laft
contradict the
propofition.
Therefore the
fides
and
being coin
cident with
and
A=A
Q. E. D.
BOOK
I.
PROP.
IX.
PROB.
bifeSl
a given reSlilinear
angle
).
Take
draw
defcribe
,
(P r 3)

upon which
^f
(pr. i.),
draw
Becaufe
and
= ___
to the
(confl:.)
common
two
triangles
and
(confl:.),
P r.
8.)
Q. E. D.
10
BOOK I. PROP.
X.
PROB.
bifefi
line
).
and
common
to the
two
triangles.
is
bifecled.
Qj. E.
D.
BOOK
I.
PROP. XL
PROB.
ii
ROM
point
in
a given
(^')>
a
given
line
Jlraight
(
;
),
to
draw
a perpendicular.
Take any
cut off
point
conftrucl:
draw
and
A
_
(P r
3)
(pr. i.),
it
fhall
be perpendicular to
For
(conft.)
(conft.)
and
common
to the
two
triangles.
Therefore Jj
(pr. 8.)
(def. io.).
Q^E. D.
12
500A:
/.
PROP.
XII.
PROD.
draw
a
line
Jiraight
perpendicular
to
given
line
indefinite
Jiraight
)
(a^_
{point
from a given
)
/Y\
'without.
With
line,
x\
as centre, at
one
fide
of the
capable of extending to
Make
draw
(pr. 10.)
then
and
For
(conft.)
common
and
and
(def. io.).
Q. E. D.
BOOK
I.
PROP.
XIII.
THEOR.
*3
HEN
(
a Jiraight
)
line
Jlanding
it;
they are
If
be
J_
to
then,
and
*=0\
be not JL to
(def. 7.),
But
if
draw
L
;(pr. 11.)
(conft.),
+ jm = mm +
:
V+mk(zx.2.)
Q. E. D.
BOOK
I.
PROP. XIV.
THEOR.
IF
(
two jlraight
lines
and "~*"^),
),
//tf
yZras*
it,
^w/, tfW ^/
it
oppojite fides
of
make with
adjacent angles
and
A
;
equal to
thefe
fraight fraight
For,
if
pomble
let
and not
be the continuation of
then
+
(ax. 3.);
,.
4=A
is
which
is
and
the like
may
except
.*.
^^^
is
the continuation
of
Q. E. D.
BOOK
I.
PROP. XV.
THEOR.
15
F two
and
right lines
)
interfeSl one
gles
and
<4
are equal.
and
<4 +
4
In the fame
manner
it
may be lhown
that
Q^_E. D.
i6
BOO A'
/.
PROP. XVI.
THEOR.
F
a fide of a
trian
is
angle
V..\
remote
angles
A A
"(pr. io.).
it
Make Draw

^*^f
.
and produce
:
until
draw
In
and
4
(conft. pr. 15.),
.'.
^m = ^L
(pr. 4.),
In like manner
it
can be
mown,
that if
^^
be produced,
^
is
IZ
^^
ft
and therefore
which
is
C ^ ft
Q. E. D.
BOOK
I.
PROP. XVII.
THEOR.
17
NY
tiao angles
angle
gether
lefs
of a
tri
^___Jk
are to
Produce
then will
A+
But
=
CZ
D
(pr.
Jk
may
be
16.)
and
in the
fame manner
it
mown
two
Q. E. D.
i8
BOOK
I.
PROP.
XVIII.
THEOR.
any triangle
if one fide
A *
be
greater
than
,
another
to the lefs.
1.
e.
*
(pr. 3.),
Make
draw
Then
will
J/i
J
(pr. 5.);
but
MM d
and
(pr. 16.)
,*.
^ C
,s
much more
^c
>.
Q. E. D.
BOOK I. PROP.
XIX.
THEOR.
*9
in
any triangle
A
be greater
one angle
mm
J
than another
the fide
which
angle,
is
is
If
then mull
If
then
A
which
is
(p r
5)
is
not
than
(pr.
for if
it
were,
8.)
which
is
Q. E. D.
20
BOOK I. PROP.
XX.
THEOR.
4
I NY two fides
and
^^
of
triangle
Z\
')
Produce
and
(P r

3);
draw
Then
becaufe
'
(conft.).
^=4
(pr
*c4 +
and
.'.
(ax. 9.)
(pr. 19.)
+
Q.E.D
BOOK
I.
PROP. XXL
THEOR.
21
om
any point
within a triangle
Jiraight lines be
drawn
(_....
ther
lefs
to
the
),
extremities
of one fide
A
C
it
tnujl contain
a greater angle.
Produce
mmmm
\
f mmmmmm
^
(pr. 20.),
__...
C C

may
be
mown
h
which was
to
be proved.
Again
4c4
(pr. 16.),
and
alfo
c4
(pr. 16.),
QJE.D.
22
BOOK
I.
PROP. XXII.
THEOR.
any
the
fum of
BOOK
I.
PROP. XXIII.
PROB.
23
T
to
a given point
given firaight
line
(^
)
to
in
a
),
(jgKm
Draw
in the legs
Conftruct
fo that
(pr. 22.).
and
Then
(pr. 8.).
Q. E. D.
24
BOOK I. PROP.
XXIV.
THEOR.
F two
the one
triangles
tively
equal
(
and ),
to
and if
one of
the angles
<jl
containbe
ed
by
the
equal fides
( (
^
(
which
is
which
is
oppofte to the
lefs
angle.
Make
and
Becaufe
^ = draw =:
C3 =
(pr. 23.),
(pr. 3.),
and
.
(ax. 1. hyp. conft.)
.'.
^ = ^f
but
(pr
'^^
*
Z2
.*.
/.
but
..
^J
CI
Z]
^'
(pr. 19.)
(p r 4)
Q. E. D.
BOOK
I.
PROP. XXV.
THEOR.
25
two
triangles
have
(
two
Jides
and
and
)
of the
(^
of
be greater
of the
other.
=
for if
CZ
zz =
or
Z2
mk
then
A
^
lefs
>
not equal to
^^
(pr. 4.)
^
is
^^
ss =
which
is
not
than
A
(pr. 24.),
for if
A=A
1=
then
which
is
m*
Q^E. D.
26
BOOK
Case
I.
I.
PROP. XXVI.
THEOR.
two
triangles
two angles of
tlie
other,
and
and afide
a fide of
AA
Case
II.
\),
to
with reJpecJ
the equal
fdes
refpeclively
CASE
....
I.
Let
..!
and
which
lie
between
then
i^BHI
let
MMMMMItM
For
if it
be poffible,
one of them
be
make
draw
In
and
we have
A=A
(pr. 4.)
BOOK
I.
27
but
and therefore
is
abfurd
is
"""" and
and
.*.
.,
and
</]
= ^j
?
(pr< 4.).
CASE
Again,
let
II.
which
it
lie
oppofite
MmL
,
and 4Hk>.
then take
If
be poflible,
let
=:
",
draw
Then
in
*
and
Lm~. we have
and
=
.'.
=
(pr 4)
mk.
but
= Mi Mk = mm
AWL
which
is
(hyp)
.*.
Amk.
or
all
is
be equal.
It
Q. E. D.
28
BOOK
I.
PROP. XXVII.
THEOR.
F
(
ajlraight
)
line
meetother
lines,
ing
two
Jlraight
and
with
makes
them
the
alternate
angles
and
equal,
thefe
two Jlraight
lines
are parallel.
If
be not parallel to
when produced.
If
it
be poffible,
when produced
than
is
^w
is
greater
which
abfurd
in the
fame manner
fide
;
it
may be fhown
that they
.*.
Q. E. D.
BOOK I. PROP.
F aflraight line
ting
XXVIII.
THEOR.
29
two other
lines
),
Jlraight
(
and and
to
internal
oppojite
angle, at the
the cutting
fame
fide of
line
{namely,
A A
),
or
and
^^
or 
^ tfW ^^^)
lines
are parallel.
Firft, if
mL =
if
jik
then
A= W A
Secondly,
J
A W
=
1
(pr'i 5)
(pr. 27.).
}
II 
=
i3)
then
^ + ^F = LJL.J(pr
(ax. 3.)
=
(pr. 27.)
BOOK I. PROP.
XXIX.
THEOR.
STRAIGHT
( )
line
falling
on
and
and
ternal
and
;
oppofite
fame fide
and
angles on the
fame
fide
together
For
and
J^
^ be not equal,
(p r 2 3)
draw
Therefore
fore
, making
Am
is
(pr. 27.)
and there
two
flraight lines
which
fame
ftraight line,
which
Hence
and
are
not
unequal, that
is,
=
M
J m.
(pr. 15);
.*.
J f^
J^
if
^r
be added to
both, then
+
two
That
is
to fay, the
=D
(P "^)1
fame
fide
of
two right
angles.
Q. E. D.
BOOK
I.
PROP. XXX.
THEOR.
TRAlGHT/mes(
mmm"m
)
to the
),
interfed:
(=)
(pr. 29.),
Then,
^^ = Mm
II
(pr. 27.)
Q. E. D.
32
BOOK I. PROP.
XXXI.
PROD.
ROM
point
a given
f
a
to
draw aJlraight
line
parallel
(
to
given
).
Jlraight line
Draw
^
make
then
to
any point
(pr. 23.),
(pr. 27.).
Q, E. D.
BOOK
I.
PROP. XXXII.
THEOR.
33
any fide
of a triangle be produced,
the
external
am 'gle
to the
is
equal
internal
and
oppofite angles
and
^ Rt,
and
Through
the point
II
draw
(pr 3
0
Then
<
^^^
(pr. 29.),
Km*.
= ^^
(ax. 2.),
and therefore
(pr. 13.).
4
O. E. D.
34
BOOK
I.
PROP. XXXIII.
THEOR.
fRAIGHT
and
the
lines
)
(
which join
of
adjacent
extremities
are
them/elves equal
and parallel.
Draw
the diagonal.
(hyp.)
and
common
=
to the
two
triangles
and^J
= ^L
(pr. 27.).
(pr. 4.);
and
.".
Q. E. D.
BOOK
I.
PROP. XXXIV.
THEOR.
35
HE
and
divides
it
oppofite Jides
and angles of
diagonal
into
Since
(pr. 29.)
and
common
/.
\
to the
two
triangles.
>
(pr. 26.)
and
= m
fides
(ax.)
gram
are equal
and
as the triangles
\^
and
\^
two equal
parts.
Q. E. D.
36
ARALLELOGRAMS
on
the
fame
bafe,
and
On
Kpr.
and
'
29.)
(pr 34)
But,
(pr. 8.)
minus
and
minus
\
Q. E. D.
BOOK
I.
PROP. XXXVI.
THEOR.
37
ARALLELO
GRAMS
1 a
equal bafes, and between the
equal.
Draw
and ..
b y (P r
And
therefore
but
!>II
(ax. 1.).
X
and
II
(pr 33)
is
a parallelogram
(P r
35)
Q. E. D.
38
BOOK
I.
PROP. XXXVII.
THEOR.
RIANGLES
k
and
on the
fame
bafe
and
lels
are equal.
Draw
\
(pr 3
1 )
Produce
and
are parallelograms
parallels,
twice
>
(P r
34)
=r twice
i
i
Q.E
D.
BOOK
I.
PROP. XXXVIII.
THEOR.
39
RIANGLES
II
and
f^wrt/ ^rf/^j
on
Draw
and
......
(pf
II
> 
3 ''
AM
but
i
(pr. 36.);
i.
twice cs ,,
^H 1
(pr. 34.),
and
#
^jv
twice
^ i
(pr. 34.),
A A
(ax. 7.).
Q^E. D.
4o
BOOK
I.
PROP. XXXIX.
THEOR.
QUAL
and
(
triangles
W
it,
^ \
which
and on
are
If
of the
draw
triangles,

be not
(pr.3i.)>
.
meeting 
Draw
Becaufe
(conft.)
II
(pr 37):
(hyp.)
which
U
^
is
;
abfurd.
;
and
in the
fame
manner
it
..

O. E. D.
BOOK
I.
PROP. XL.
THEOR.
41
QUAL
gles
trian
and
L
which
1
fame fame
the
parallels.
If
.....
draw
be not

(pr. 31.),
meeting
Draw
Becaufe
(conft.)

=
'
>
whole,
which
1
abfurd.
f
^
:
and
in the
fame manner
it
/.

Q. E. D.
42
BOOK L PROP.
XLI.
THEOR.
a parallelogram
and a
triangle
the fame bafe ^^^^^ and between the fame parallels  and ^^ the parallelogram is double
,
V A
are

upon
the triangle.
Draw
the diagonal
Then
V=J
z= twice
(P r
37)
(P r
34)
^^
twice
.Q.E.D.
BOOK
I.
PROP. XLII.
THEOR.
43
conflruSl
parallelogram
equal to a given
triangle
^ 4
and hav
rectilinear angle
Make
i^^^
Draw
zz
.
(pr. 10.)
Make
"
J^ =
jj
(P n 2 3*)
Draw

~

(pr. 31.)
=
but
twice
4 y
(pr. 41.)
(pr. 38.)
,V.4.
Q. E. D.
44
BOOK I. PROP.
XLIII.
THEOR.
HE
complements
and
^f
of
1
and
(pr 34)
V>
=
(pr. 34)
(ax. 3.)
Q. E. D.
BOOK
O
(
I.
45
Jlraight
)
to
ap
ply a parallelo
gram
angle
( \
),
and
to
a given
reSlilinear
angle
Make
w.
(pr. 42.)
its fides
with
conterminous
.
Produce
^

till it
meets mpptc

draw
draw
prnHnpp
I
it till it
continued
meeting
(pr 43J
but
(conft.)
A=T
Q. E. D.
a parallelogram equal
reftilinear
to
given
figure
and having an
angle
equal to
a given
reftilinear
angle
Draw
and
dividing
tl.
to
Conftruft
having
appiy
(pr. 42.)
*~\
having
mW = AW
man,
apply
#=
=z
(P^ 44)
Q. E. D.
(pr. 44)
having
HF = AW
and
is
having ,fl7
BOOK
I.
PROP. XLVI.
PROB.
47
PON
a given Jlraight
line
(
fquare.
to
confiruB
Draw
(pr.
_L and
1.
and
3.)
Draw
ing
II
and meet
drawn
W
In
~W
1_
M
S3
a right angle (conft.)
(conft.)
=
be equal,
ri
g h t angle
(pr. 29.),
fides
(pr. 34.)
and
.*.
mk
is
Q. E. D.
48
BOOK
I.
PROP. XLVIL
THEOR.
right
angled
triangle
hypotenufe
the fum
thefquare on the
is
equal to
and
On
and
defcribe fquares, (pr. 46.)
Draw
alfo
draw
 and
(pr. 31.)
To
each add

and
Again, becauje
BOOK I. PROP.
XLVII.
THEOR.
49
:= twice
and
twice
In the fame
manner
it
may
be fhown
that
#
Q
E. D.
hence
++
H
BOOK
I.
PROP. XLVIIL
THEOR.
F
of
(
the
fquare
fide
)
one
of
is
triangle
and
),
the angle
)fubtended by that
is
fide
a right angle.
Draw
ind
and
=
alfo.
(prs.11.3.)
draw 
Since
(conft.)
but
+
8
and
+ +
'
= " =
+
'
(P r 47).

(hyp.)
and
.*.
(pr. 8.),
confequently
is
a right angle.
Q. E. D.
BOOK
II.
DEFINITION
I.
RECTANGLE
gram
tained by any
is
or
be conadjacent
two of
or conterminous fides.
Thus
is
faid to
and
may
be briefly defignated by
then
^
J
i.
e.
s """"j
is
which
the expreflion
under
is
and
a fquare, and
or
is
equal to
or
52
DEFINITION
II.
N
the
parallelogram,
figure
compoied
about
the
diagonal,
ments,
is
called a
Gnomon.
Thus
and
are
called
Gnomons.
I.
PROP,.
53
contained
lines,
two Jlraight
is
one of which
into
divided
i
is
+
the rectangles
line,
equal to the
fum of
and
is
to
fay,
Draw
<
......
>
(pr.
31.B.
i.)
=i + l + l
I
I

I
+ +
Q.E. D.
54
II.
THEOR.
divided
*
>
F a
into
Jlraight line be
equal to
the
fum of
the
and
+
Defcribe
(B. i.pr. 46.)
Draw
parallel to

(B. i.pr. 31
I
I
II
Q. E. D.
III.
THEOR.
55
line be di
'
the rectangle
is
equal
to
=
Defcribe
or,
2
+
B.
1.)
(pr. 46,
Complete
(pr. 31,
B.
1.)
Then
I
and
but
I
+
In a limilar manner
it
may
be readily
mown
Q.E.D
56
IV.
THEOR.
a Jlraight
line
be divided
>
into
+
twice
Defcribe
(pr. 46,
B.
1.)
draw
and
(port. 1.),
(pr. 31,
B.
1.)
(pr. 5, B. 1.),
4,4
*,4
BOOK
II.
PROP.
IV.
THEOR.
57
.*.
by (prs.6,29, 34. B.
1.)
E
^^J
I
is
a fquare
m
" B,
is
a fquare
ss
but
e_j
EJ+M+
+ B.
twice
Q. E. D.
58
BOOK
II.
PROP.
V.
PROB.
a Jlraight
divided
line be
into
two equal
two
unequal parts,
the unequal parts, together with the fquare of the line between
the points offeclion,
is
Defcribe
(pr.
46, B.
1.),
draw
and
11
(pr. 3 i,B.i.)
(p. 36,
B.
1.)
I
(ax. 2.
(p.
43, B.
1.)
..
BOOK
II.
PROP.
V.
THEOR.
59
but
(cor. pr. 4.
B. 2.)
and
(conft.)
.*.
(ax. 2.)
H
+
Q. E. D.
6o
BOOK
II.
PROP.
VI.
THEOR.
F
a Jlraight
line be
bifecled
and produced
1 1 1
point
the
to
any
,
^
and
reSlangle
contained by
the
the
equal
to the fquare
of the
line
made up
Defcribe
^
z=
draw
anc
(pr. 31,
B.i.)
but
(cor. 4, B. 2.)
(conft.ax.2.)
t
Q. E. D.
BOOK
F
into
II.
PROP.
line be
VII.
divided
THEOR.
61
a Jiraight
mi
and one of
equal
to
the parts
are
together
wmw
I
""
Defcribe
Draw
=
I
(P r 43> B. 1.),

I
(cor. 4, B. 2.)
+
+
2
I
+
+
Q. E. D.
62
BOOK
II.
PROP.
Fill.
THEOR.
iy
^m
w^
ajlraight
into
line be
divided
any
,
two
parts
the fquare of
line
I iiitiiiiniii
and any
one of
its
parts,
is
equal to
+
Produce
and make
Conftrudt.
(pr. 46,
B. 1.);
draw
(pr. 7, B. 11.)
+
Q. E. D.
IX.
THEOR.
63
into
two equal
parts
mm
,
and
alfo into
two unequal
the
parts
fquares
of the
unequal
of halfthe
line,
and of
+
1
+
or
Make
_L and
=
and
II
Draw
II
9 and draw
rr half
a right angle,
(cor. pr. 32, B. 1.)
(pr. 5, B. 1.)
(pr. 5,
B.
1.)
rs half
a right angle,
a right angle.
(prs. 5, 29, B.
hence
aaa^,
(prs. 6, 34,
B.
t
'.
1.).
1.)
or J
Q. E. D.
64
BOOK
II.
PROP.
X.
THEOR.
a Jlraight
line
thefquaresofthe
line,
whole produced
and of
and of
the line
+
J_ and
"
Make
5
draw
to
alfo.
or
9
in., and
......
and
* i
II
draw
jk
(pr.
5, B. 1.)
=
=
.)
B.
1.)
zz
a right angle.
BOOK
II.
PROP.
X.
THEOR.
65
t =^=i
half a right angle (prs. 5, 32, 29, 34, B.
1.),
and
.___
("prs.
...
...
_.....,
6, 34, B. 1.).
Hence by
Q. E. D.
66
of
its
to
the
mm**
Defcribe
make
take
draw
(pr. 46,
B.
I.),
(pr. 3,
B.
1.),
on
defcribe
(pr.
46, B.
1.),
Produce
(port.
2.).
Then,
(pr. 6, B. 2.)
'
>
*,
or,
ll
>
Q.E. D.
XII.
THEOR.
67
N any
of the
obtufe angled
triangle, thefquare
fide fubtend
fum of
the fquares
of
let
from
angle.
+
By
pr. 4, B. 2.
_j
3
by
..*
=
add
^
2
__ 2
to
both
8
+ +
(pr. 47f
B.i.)
or
+
Therefore,
+
"
=
:
+

+ +
Q. E. D.
hence
by
68
BOOK
II.
PROP.
XIII.
THEOR.
FIRST
SECOND.
any
tri
angle,
the
fqnareofthe
Jide fubtend
is
than the
fum of the
fquares of the Jides containing that angle, by twice the rectangle contained by either
from
and
the
FIRST.
'

by
SECOND.
2
\
by 2
within the
J
^^
add
ZZZ 2
to
2
each
1
^""m
'
<^^^

',
then,
~
^^
.*.
(pr.
47 B
XIII.
THEOR.
69
Next fuppofe
the perpendicular to
fall
without the
add
to

each
{
then
2
''
j
+
_a
'
.=

+ ^ ~
2
/#
(
....
i.),
I i
pr 47 , B.
.
j
i
Q. E. D.
BOOK
II.
O draw
equal to
a right
line
of
fliall be
a given
recJi
linear figure.
fuch that,
*
Make
produce
take
until
(pr. 10,
(pr. 45, B. i.),

B.
i.),
Defcribe
(Pft. 3).
to
and produce
2
~~m
meet

it
draw
I
taamia*
Or
""""
(pr. 5, B. 2.),
but
mm*m*mm
"
zz
ii
f
mm
1
\
>
and
Q. E. D.
BOOK
I.
III.
DEFINITIONS.
QUAL
equal.
circles
are
thofe
II.
right line
it
is
said to
touch a circle
when
meets the
circle,
it.
and being
III.
one another.
IV.
Right
diflant
be equally
a circle
to
when
drawn
them from
72
DEFINITIONS.
V.
And
cular
falls is faid to
VI.
A fegment of a circle is
by a ftraight
ference
it
line
cuts
off.
VII.
An
angle in a fegment
is
tained by
two
ftraight lines
of the ftraight
line
which
VIII.
An
angle
is
faid to ftand
on the part of
IX.
fedtor
of a circle
is
by two
radii
DEFINITIONS.
X.
73
thofe
which
contain
equal angles.
Circles
are
74
BOOK
III.
PROP.
I.
PROB.
O find
circle
o

Draw
draw
biledt
_L
wmmmmm
is it
,
bifecfion
the centre.
For, if
be pofhble,
and
let
,
any other
'
be the centre.
Becaufe in
and
\/
zr
ss

(hyp. and B.
i, def.
15.)
^B.
(conft.)
and
common,
1,
pr. 8.),
angles
but
ym = 2
;
c ft)
yy =
is
it
(ax.
1 1
.)
which
is
abfurd
not the
and
the
in the
fame manner
is is
not on
in
is
'
^
,
can be
is
centre
<
and
the
where
bifecled
is
Q. E. D.
BOOK
III.
PROP.
II.
THEOR.
75
STRAIGHT
joining
line
two points
of a
in
the
circumference
circle
, lies
(B. 3 .pr.i.);
to
any point in
;
draw
and
Then
but
=
or
^

\
(B.
(B. i.pr.
1.
16.)
pr. 19.)
but
.*.
every point in
lies
Q. E. D.
76
BOOK
III.
PROP.
III.
THEOR.
a jlraight
line
it;
drawn through
the centre of a
circle
") which
it is
SifecJs a
chord
the centre,
perpendicular to
it, it bifeSls it.
if perpendicular to
Draw
and
to the centre
of the
circle.
In
^
and
.^S.
common, and
=
JL
KB.
..
i.pr.8.)
and
.'.
Again
let
______ _L
Then
,.
^d  b*>
(B. i.pr. 5.)
(hyp)
and
(B.
1. pr.
26.)
ind
.*.
bifefts
Q. E. D.
IV.
THEOR.
77
in
bath pafs
through the
another.
evident that
it
cannot be
bifedled
pafs
But
if neither
of the
lines
pafs
it
or
to their interfedlion.
If
be bifedled, ........ J_ to
ft
bifefted,
_^
and
if
be
...... J_
3
Pr
3)
and
.*.
j
P^
=
and
a part
is
abfurd
ii
do not
bifect
one another.
Q. E. D.
78
BOOK
III.
PROP.
V.
THEOR.
F two
circles
interfetl, they
fame
centre.
Suppofe
it
poffible that
two interfering
circles
have a
common
to
centre
the
interfering point,
meeting
(B.
1.
def. 15.)
_...
equal to the whole, which
.*.
is
a part
abfurd
circles
Q. E. D.
BOOK
III.
PROP.
VI.
THEOR.
79
F two circles
let
touch
For,
centre
;
if it
be poffible,
to the point
of contact.
Then
and
is
abfurd
is
and
in the
fame manner
no other point
is.
Q. E. D.
8o
BOOK
III.
PROP.
VII.
THEOR.
FIGURE
I.
F from
circle
which
are
is
drawn
to
the circumference
lines is that
is
of the
Of the
FIGURE
II.
others, that
('
which
is
nearer
to
^
Fig. 2.
which
is
more remote.
lines
The two
and
to
there cannot be
drawn a
from
FIGURE
I.
and
=
;
manner
j.1
 C
Again, by (B.
def. 15.)
may
to the circumference.
pr. 20.)
take
from both
it
.*.
(ax.),
is lefs
may
be fhewn that
BOOK
III.
PROP.
VII.
THEOR.
81
than any other line drawn from the fame point to the cir
cumference.
Again, in
**/
and
common,
2
(B.
i.
anc^
pr. 24.)
and
line
may
in like
^m
to the
circumference more
FIGURE
If
II.
^^
take
in
=
I
I
rz
then
....
if
not
s^ ^^
A and
y
draw
,
then
common,
and
(B. i.pr. 4.)
=1 drawn
ence
;
which
is
abfurd
line
is
*..*.;
and no other
to
equal to
the circumfer
for if
it
it
were nearer
greater,
centre
would be
lefs.
and
if it
it
would be
82
BOOK
III.
PROP.
Fill.
THEOR.
The
is
three parts.
F from
lines
a point without a
are
circle,
Jlraight
f:
drawn
to the cir
cumference
of
thofe falling
is
that
(^..)
(
'
which pajfes
"
(
^hich
is
which
is
more remote.
Draw  and
Then,
greateit;
to the centre.
for fince
=

:=z
i.
which
palTes
is
if
^^
**"
?
is
^""
.*.
pr. 20.)
p
greater
than any other line drawn from the fame point to the
concave circumference.
Again
in
and
VIII.
THEOR
^ CZ
common, but
(B.
i. pr.
24.);
may be fhewn
than any
II.
Of thofe
leaf
is
lines
that
()
nearer
to
is
more remote.
For, lince
\~
and
ciiitiifl
'.
And
fo
of others
III.
Alfo the
paff'es
lines
and no third
line
to
to the
For
if
r~
make

?
but making
rr
L
 ,
and draw
84
Fill.
THEOR.
Then
in
>
and
we have
L
and
common, and

alio
^ =
i. pr.
A
,
(B.
4.);
but
.....<>...
is
not :z:
* /. >>
is
which
is
abfurd.
_ of ...___
Neither
is
not
CZ .
~, they are
.*.
"
to
each other.
And
any other
line
to the
circumference mull
lines,
lie at
and be more or
lefs
remote than
it
from the
line pairit.
Q. E. D.
IX.
THEOR.
85
ctrie
wore
than
two
o
is
from which
lines
equal ftraight
can be drawn
For,
in
if it
^
ftraight
lines
point
'
and produce
both ways
to the
circumference.
Then
from
fince
drawn
a point
two of them
at leaft
muft
'j
and
fince
from
A,
?
which
is
and
~
from
is
^
which
is
drawn
to the
circumference
which
paffes
is
nearer to
r~
which
but
more remote
=
/\
(hyp)
which
is
abfurd.
circle,
Q. E. D.
86
BOOK
III.
PROP.
X.
THEOR.
NE
circle I
cannot
interfei another
rv J
For, if
it
in
be poflible,
let it interfedt in
three points
O
I
draw
of interferon
to the points
(B.
i.
def. 15.),
interfec~t,
centre (B.
3. pr. 5.)
.*.
is
O
^
are
J , and
drawn
and
from
prs. 7, 8)
;
but
it
was
mewn
which
is
abfurd
three points.
Q. E. D.
87
F two
I
circles
O
let
it
and
internally,
their
a point of contact.
For, if
it
be poffible,
both
ways
from
a point
of contact draw
11
to the centre of f
of contadl draw
to the centre
of
I.
Becaufe in
k
(B.
1. pr.
+20.),
as
"!,
and
88
but
BOOK
III.
PROP. XL
THEOR.
and
"
away
^ which
^
is
ak e
common,
;
^^ d
but
CZ

O
that a line
a point
and
.*.
whole, which
is
abfurd.
The
joining
contact.
therefore fo placed,
them can
pafs
of
Q. E. D.
BOOK
III.
PROP.
XII.
THEOR.
89
F two
circles
titer
externally,
the
Jlraight
line
 joining
their centres,
of contact.
If
it
be poffible,
let
draw
and
to the centres.
Becaufe
+
(B.
1.
pr. 20.),
and
and
= = +
is
(B.
1.
def. 15.),
(B. i.def.15.),
a part greater
abfurd.
The
joining
contact.
"he
line
them can
pafs
Q. E. D. N
9o
BOOK
III.
PROP.
XIII.
THEOR.
FIGURE
I.
FIGURE
II.
NE
circle
can
externally
internally, in
or
more points
than one.
FIGURE
III.
Fig.
For,
if it
be poffible,
let
and
j touch
one
draw
tres,
...
i.
and produce
until
it
pafs
3. pr. 11.);
draw
But
.*.
^ =
and
~^^
(B.
1.
def. 15.),
if
be added to both,
+
but
and
.*.
+
+
=
(B.
1.
(B.
1. def. 15.),
but
pr. 20.),
which
is
abfurd.
BOOK
Fig. 2.
III.
PROP.
XIII.
THEOR.
ot
But
if the points
mull
be
which
is
abfurd.
Fig. 3.
Next,
if it
be pomble,
let
O
and
1.
1.
and
is
draw
^^^
and
=  + = [Z +
(B.
(B.
def. 15.);
def. 15.):
but
20.),
(B.
1. pr.
which
is
abfurd.
There
therefore no cafe in
which two
circles
can
E. D.
92
BOOK
III.
PROP. XIV.
THEOR.
QUALfraight lines (^
infcribed in
")
e
circle are
lines equally
From
the centre of
to
,
^
B
o
and P r 3)
draw
and >
join
Then
and
hnce
= half = =
1
3
.....
(hyp.)
and
but iince
is
a right
angle
'
+
and
,... 2
'
(B.i.pr.47.)

2
,
for the
fame reafon,
XIV.
THEOR.
t
93
....<.
Alfo,
if
the
lines
.......
and
is
........
be
that
pendiculars
 
+
but
=
"
amuin
^Z
g ,
+
"
=
i.
Q. E. D.
94
BOOK
III.
PROP. XV.
THEOR.
FIGURE
I.
HE
diameter
is
line in
circle
is
that which
FIGURE
I.
The
diameter
>
is
C any
and
line
For draw
<
and
=
i
but
(B.
pr. 20.)
is
is
greater
given lines be
and
winch
are at the
fame
fide
not interfedl
draw s \
BOOK
III.
PROP. XV.
THEOR.
95
In
and
\/
and
I.
and
but
(B.
pr. 24.)
FIGURE
Let the given
lines
II.
FIGURE
and
II.
be
and
which
or interfec~t
and
 _L
make
draw
........
Since
the centre,
and
from
but
i.B.
3. pr. 15.),
Q. E. D.
96
BOOK
III.
PROP. XVI.
THEOR.
HEJlraight
line
drawn
from
ter
the
of a
circle
it falls
perpendicular
*'...
*
.,
without the
Jl.*''*"
drawn from a
i
to
circle.
be
point
within
that perpendi
it
PART
If
it
be poffible,
let
circle
again, be
J_
and draw
Then, becauie
^=^
and
.*.
(B.i.pr.
is
),
acute.
(B.
i.
pr. 17.)
but
=
_____
_j
(hyp.),
which

drawn _L
is
abfurd, therefore
XVI.
THEOR.
07
II.
^
*"
and
let

be
drawn from
circle,
between
and the
which,
Becaufe

_j
;
>
^
...............
circle,
it
is
an acute angle
fuppofe
the centre of the
.*.
m^>
which
is
is
Ik
but
and
.'.
>.
which
C
is
,
abfurd.
part greater
than
the whole,
not
fall
...........
Q.E.D.
98
BOOK
III.
PROP. XVII.
THEOR.
draw a tangent
to
a given
circle
o
, it is
from
its
the cir
cumference,
as at
'
.
plain that
J_
be
gent (B.
3.
pr.
16.)
But
if the
given point
draw
and
from
it
J;
draw
defcribe
concentric with
radius
zz
then
BOOK
III.
PROP. XVII.
THEOR.
99
For
in
__ zz and
zx  A
,
jttk
common,
( ~
.
(B.
i.
pr. 4.)
a right angle,
.*.
is
a tangent to
ioo
BOOK
III.
PROP.
XVIII.
THEOR.
a right
line .....
to
fa
the
a tangent
firaight line
circle,
drawn
to
from
point of contatt,
is
the
centre
the
it.
perpendicular to
For, if
let
it
be pomble,
^"
be
_]_
then becaufe
4=
(B.
i
.
is
acute
pr. 17.)
C
(B.
1. pr.
19.);
and
.*.
which
is
2
is
but
the whole,
abfurd.
.".
it
not
_L

ner
can
is
be
perpendicular to
Q. E. D.
BOOK
III
PROP. XIX.
THEOR.
101
a Jlraight
line
mmKmmmm
^m
be a tangent to a circle,
theJlraight line
drawn perpendicular
to it
from
the centre
of the
circle.
For, if
it
be poifible,
be without
and draw
to the point
Becaufe
(B. 3. pr. 18.)
=
but
a right angle
^^ =
(hyp.), and ,\
=
is
whole, which
abfurd.
is
and
in
manner
it
point without
m mm m
^ ^
the centre.
Q. E. D.
102
XX.
THEOR.
FIGURE
HE
is
double
they
when
FIGURE
Let the centre of the
I.
circle
be on
.....
a fide of
Becaufe
k=\
But
or
(B.
i.
pr. 5.).
+
:= twice
(B.
1.
pr. 32).
FIGURE
11.
FIGURE
Let the centre be within
circumference
;
II.
draw
then
^ ^=A W
a d
1. pr. 5).
XX. THEOR.
103
Hence
_i_
4+
^f =
=
9
twke
But
4+V
twice
and
FIGURE
FIGURE
III.
III.
and
draw
__
the diameter.
Becaufe
=
:= twice
twice
and
(cafe 1.)
ZZ twice
Q. E. D.
io4
BOOK
III.
PROP. XXI.
THEOR.
FIGURE
I.
HE
angles
4&
4^
in
the
fame
fegment of a
FIGURE
I.
4Pt
to the centre.
twice
or twice
;n
4=4
FIGURE
II.
FIGURE
II.
<=4 > = *
draw
01
lefs
than a
draw
(cafe 1.)
Q. E. D.
BOOK
III.
PROP. XXII.
THEOR.
105
FIE
oppofite angles
Afc
and
"/,/
f
ferred
o/~ tfy
in
circle,
two right
angles.
Draw
the diagonals
;
and
and becaufe angles in
^r
JP^
and
^r
=
^^
^f
add
to both.
1.
pr. 32.).
In like manner
it
may
Q. E. D.
io6
BOOK
III.
PROP. XXIII.
THEOR.
PON
and
the
fame
line,
Jlraight
upon
fide of
the
it,
fame
cir
cannot
he
conflrutled
which do not
coincide.
draw any
Q
it
For
if
be poffible,
let
two
fimilar fegments
and
be constructed
cutting both the fegments,
right line
draw
and
but
(Z
abfurd
:
^^
which
is
the fegments
O. E. D.
XXIV.
THEOR.
107
IMILAR
fegments
and
of
cir
cles
upon
(
equal Jlraight
lines
^ and
For, if 'j^^
that
1^^
may
fall
be fo applied to
the
on
the extremities of
may be on
at the
the extremities
^^
and
fame
fide as
becaufe
fegments being
then
upon
it,
the
fame
ftraight
and
at
muft
alfo
coincide
are
and
therefore
Q. E. D.
io8
BOOK
III.
SEGMENT
circle
of a
circle
of which
it
is
the
fegment.
From any
point
in
the
fegment
bifedl
draw
and
L
is
J
^^^
Becaufe
___
by
I.),
is
bifecled
perpendicularly
centre (B. 3. pr.
likewile
_
is
it
paffes
through
paffes
the
through
in the
interferon of
CLE. D.
XXVI.
THEOR.
109
equal circles
Owo
on 'which
at
the arcs
Firft,
let
the
centre,
draw
and
Then
fince
OO
.
an d
^VC...........*,';^
have
and
(B.
1.
pr. 4.).
But
Oo
and
k=k
3. pr. 24.)
no
BOOK
III.
PROP. XXVI.
THEOR.
If therefore
the
equal
lence
(ax. 3.);
and
.*.
But
it
is
if the
of thofe
BOOK
III.
PROP. XXVII.
THEOR.
N equal circles,
the angles
^v
and
oo
which Jland upon equal
let
For
if it
be poflible,
one of them
and make
k=k
.*.
N*_^
.".
3
Pr
26.)
.....,.
(hyp.)
*
a part equal
to the
whole, which
is
is
abfurd
the
.*.
neither angle
greater than
.*.
other,
and
Q.E.D
ii2
BOOK
III.
PROP. XXVIII.
TIIEOR.
oo
cut
off equal
iitil
chords
arches.
From
draw
^^
and
and becaufe
=
alib
(hyp.)
and
.0=0
(ax. 3.)
Q. E. D.
XXIX.
THEOR.
113
N equal circles
the
chords
OO
w
which fubis
and
But
.
if not,
and anu
and
but
(B3.pr.27.);
and
..........
and 
pr. 4.);
(B.
1.
Q. E. D.
ii4
BOOK
III.
bifecl
given
arc
C)
bifedls the arc.
Draw
make
draw

Draw
and
it
and
(conft.),
is
common,
and
(conft.)
(B.
i. pr.
4.)
= ,*%
is
bifedred.
Q. E. D.
115
FIGURE
I.
is
a right
femicircle
is
acute,
and
ment
lefs
than afemicircle
obtufe.
FIGURE
I.
The
angle
^ V
Draw
in a femicircle
is
a right angle.
and
JB =
and
Mk = ^
(B.
1.
pr. 5.)
A= V
=
a right angle.
the half of
two
right angles
(B.
1. pr.
32.)
FIGURE
The
circle
II.
FIGURE
a
II.
angle
^^
in a
femi
is
acute.
Draw
a right angle
is
acute.
n6
XXXI. THEOR.
FIGURE
FIGURE
III.
III.
The
circle
angle
^k
in a
fegment
lefs
than femi
is
obtufe.
Take
in the oppofite
which draw
and
Becaufe
f
m
Q. E. D.
but
a
is
(part 2.),
obtufe.
BOOK
F
III.
PROP. XXXII.
line
THEOR.
a right
be a tangent to a circle,
and from
be
drawn
made by
this line
is
in the alter
it
is
evi
is
a right angle.
not,
from the
pafs
w
Again
+ f =
zLJ
= f
(b. i.pr.32.)
=
(B. 3. pr. 22.)
(ax.).
=Dk=
^m
,
+4
is
= a*
(ax.),
which
the angle in
Q. E. D.
BOOK
III.
N agivenjlraight line
to
dejcribe
circle
^a,
If the given angle be a right angle,
bifedl the
femicircle
on
it,
this
will
evidently
contain a right angle. (B. 3. pr. 31.) If the given angle be acute or obtufe,
make with
,
its
extremity,
draw
and
make
with
^
or
defcribe
is
as radius,
a tangent to
(B.
3. pr.
16.)
two fegments
and
refpedlively equal
o7
Q. E. D.
119
cle
which
Jljall contain
o
I
a fegment
an angle equal
to
given angle
Draw
a
(B.
3.
pr.
17.),
at the
make
V
angle in ingle
contains an angle
:= the given
angle.
Becaufe
is
a tangent,
and
^m
cuts
it,
the
but
(conft.)
Q. E. D.
120
FIGURE
I.
...
.^_
tn
I
circle cir
is
equal to the
FIGURE
I.
If the given right lines pafs through the centre, they are
bifedled in the point of interfedtion, hence the rectangles
FIGURE
II.
Let
not;
FIGURE
draw
II.
__.....
and
Then
or
X
(B. 2. pr. 6.),
X x
=
(B. 2. pr. 5.).
III.
FIGURE
III.
FIGURE
centre,
lines pafs
through the
draw through
and
......
alfo
X X
(Part. 2.),
= =
X X
;
(Part. 2.)
X
Q. E. D.
BOOK
III.
PROP. XXXVI.
THEOR.
121
F from
circle
a point without a
lines
FIGURE
I.
twojiraight
to
it,
be
drawn
mm
one of which
is
a tangent
to
and
the other
and
the
cutting
"
external fegment
is
equal to
FIGURE
Let ."
pafs
I.
draw
2
or
of contact
minus
minus
~~
FIGURE
If
pafs
II.
FIGURE
II.
"
do not
and
"
Then
minus
is,
minus
,*
Q. E. D.
122
BOOK
III.
PROP. XXXVII.
F from
circle
THEOR.
a point out fide of a
twojlraight
^^
its
lines be
line
cutting
the
circle,
it,
the
meeting
and if
ex
cutting
'
ternal fegment

line
and
be equal to
thejquare of the
the latter
<
a tangent
to
the circle.
___
*
Draw from
j
centre
but
___ =
2
....., and

(fi.3pr.36)
(hyp.),
and
.*.
Then
and
in
and
and
.*
is
J
and
(B. 3. pr. 16.).
common,
^=
but
ZS
L_j
a right angle,
and
.'.
is
Q. E. D.
BOOK
IV.
DEFINITIONS.
RECTILINEAR
faid to
figure
is
be infcribedin another,
all
when
which
it is
faid
be infcribed.
II.
A
all
figure
is
faid to
when
III.
rectilinear figure
is
faid
to
be
infcribed in a circle,
when
the vertex
is in
the
circumference of the
circle.
IV.
A
its
rectilinear figure
is
faid
to
be cir
when each of
124
circle
is
faid to
be infcribed
in
a rectilinear figure,
when each
fide
of the figure
circle.
is
a tangent to the
VI.
circle
is
faid to
be circum
when
through the
vertex
of each
VII.
is
circumfcribed.
straight
line
is
faid to be infcribed in
a circle,
when
its
circumference.
is
and circumfcrip
circles.
regular polygon
I.
PROP,.
125
N a given circle
to place
O
line,
(
ajlraight
),
Draw
..i..*
5
the diameter of
and
if
z=
is
then
the problem
folved.
But
if
be not equal to
iz
make
.....
hyp);
1. pr. 3.)
(B.
with
defcribe
as radius,
1, cutting
and
draw
For
which
is
ZZ
(B.
1.
~mmmm^
Q. E. D.
126
BOOK
IF.
PROP.
II.
PROB.
a given
circle
O
to
to
tn
a given
triangle.
To
circle
draw
a tangent
make
A m = ^^
manner
draw
(B.
1. pr.
23.)
and
in like
and
Becaufe
and
J^ = j = ^J
.\
^
(B.
3.
;
(conft.)
pr. 32.)
^^ = ^P
5S
for the
alfo
\/
/.
fame reafon.
equi
Q. E. D.
III.
PROB.
12,7
BOUT
circle
a given
to
angular
to
a given triangle.
Produce any
fide
ways
draw
any radius.
Make
= A
and
(B.
1. pr.
23.)
At
draw
and
tangents to the
given circle.
The
four angles of
Z.
(B.
32.)
128
III.
PROB.
but
and
^^^
(conft.)
but
4 =
and
L_l_Ji
(^
'
Pr
3)
%
.*.
(conft.)
and
In the fame
manner
it
&=a.
4=4
circle
is
Q, E. D.
BOOK
IV.
PROP.
triangle
IV.
PROB.
2Q
fer ibe a
circle.
A
and
a given
to
in
Bifedl
J
draw
^V.
lines
by
and
meet
and

refpectively
pendicular to
per
and
In
common,
.*.
M
~
it
>
A'"'
and
(B.
1.
*
4 and 26.)
pr.
In like manner,
that
may
.....
be
mown

alfo
,
*#
and
it
will pafs
other two
and the
fides
which
is
given circle.
Q. E.
I).
13
BOOK
IV.
PROP.
V.
PROB.
defcribe
circle about
a given triangle.
and
........ (B.
i
.
pr. 10.)
From
tively
_L
(B.
i.
pr.
draw
and
and
refpec
concourfe draw
11.),

,
and defcribe a
it
circle
In
(confl.),
common,
4 a
In like
(conft.),
>
manner
it
may
be fhown that
........
^iz
^^^^^^^
"^^^~
and
them
as a radius
Q. E. D.
BOOK N
IV.
PROP.
VI.
PROP,.
131
a given
circle
O
(
to
infer ibe
afquare.
Draw
circle
the
to
_L
.
is
and
are,
s>
For, fince
a fquare.
and
fl^
each of them, in
and
in like
manner
And
.*.
becaufe
zzz
>
fl
(conft.),
and
def icV
(B.
1.
and
gram
S X
.*.
pr. 34)
and
fquare.
S ^
inferibed in the
given circle,
is
Q. . D.
132
BOOK
IV.
PROP.
VII.
PROB.
a
BOUT
I
given
circle
to
circumfcribe
a fquart
Draw two
circle perpendicular to
each other,
">
^^^
;
and
an d
.Q
alio
II
LbmmJ
is
a fquare.
= LA
5
(conft.),
in the
fame manner
it
can
alfo
be demonftrated that
that
i
and
and
C
becaufe
they are
it is
is
parallelogram, and
all
1. pr.
34)
"9
and
are equal.
,c
is
a fquare.
Q. E. D.
Fill.
PROB.
33
infcribe
circle
in
given fquare.
Make
and
draw
and
(B.


i. pr.
31.)
is
a parallelogram
and
fince
=
(
h yp)
is
equilateral
(B.
1. pr.
34.)
In like manner,
it
and therefore
of thefe
lines
if a circle
will be
Q^E. D.
*3+
IX.
]Q
PROS.
given fquare
Draw
and
other
;
the diagonals
^ ...
interfering each
then,
becaufe
1 k
and
)ave
common
It
or
is
bifedled
in like
manner
it
can be
mown
that
is
bifecled
\
hence
'.
=
their halves,
v =r =
it
(B.
i.
pr. 6.)
them
as radius, a circle
be defcribed,
it
will circumfcribe
Q. E. D.
X.
PROB.
conJiruSi
an
ifofceles
triangle, in
which each of
be double
of the vertical
an
Take any
ftraight line
it
and divide
fo that
4.
x
With
=
1
(B. 2. pr.
1.)
as radius, defcribe
in
it
radius,
and place
draw
Then
For, draw
is
and defcribe
about
.*.
is
a tangent to
= y\
136
BOOK
IF.
PROP.
X.
PROP.
add
^r
to each,
l!
'
+
fince
=
.....
=
(B.
1.
A
(B.

'
P r 5)

1.
pr. 5.)
confequently
J^ = /^
^
1.
= M^
pr. 6.)

pr. 32.)
.*.
" =
.'.
(B.
iz:
.*.
^^^
1.
(conft.)
y\ =
(B.
pr. 5.)
=: twice
the bafe
x\
is
at
BOOK
IV.
PROP. XL PROB.
*37
N a given circle
to
infcribe
o
the given
angular pentagon.
at the bafe
vertex,
and infcribe in
circle a
triangle
equiangular to
it
Bifedt
and
m^
draw
>
the arcs
+k
upon which they
and
A
,
are equal,
.*.
and
i^^
is
and
which fubtend
the pentagon
its
and
as
.*.
alfo equiangular,
each of
angles ftand
upon equal
arcs.
Q^E. D.
38
BOOK
IF.
PROP.
XII.
PROB.
defcribe
an equilateral
O
Draw
vertices
five
pentagon
the
given
o
Thefe
five tangents will
(B.
3. pr.
17).
Draw
f
i
In
and
and
common
,7
=
twice
and
=
and
\A =
^ ^
W =
twice
it
:=
twice
^^
=
and
twice
fe.:
but
BOOK
IF.
PROP.
XII.
PROB.
139
,*,
their halves
&.
alfo
(__
sr
_J,
and
..>>
and
it
common
rr
twice
can be demonftrated
twice
^
In the fame
manner
it
equi*
is
^l
r= twice
flfct.
and
\^^
r= twice
and therefore
'
AHw
\^B
the fame
manner
it
can be
Q.E.D
'1
XIII.
PROB.
infcribe
circle
in
given
equiangular
and
equilateral pentagon.
Let
tx
be a given equiangular
;
it
is
re
it.
Make
=="
Draw
Becaufe
 ,r=A,
to the
&c.
and
common
two
triangles
and
/.A;
=:
Z=
and
J^
(B.
I. pr. 4.)
And
becaufe
=
hence
it
rz
twice
.*.
= twice

is
bifedted
by
In like manner
bifedled by
may be demonftrated
,
that
\^j
is
the polygon
is
bifedted in a fimilar
manner.
XIII.
PROP,.
141
to the
lides
Then
in the
two
triangles
^f
and
A
common,
;
we have
.*.
(conft.),
^^
a right angle
(B.
1. pr.
26.)
In the fame
diculars
way
it
may
be
mown
on the
fides
one
another.
Defcribe
O
and
it
lars as radius,
For
if
it
them, then a
to the
at right
angles
within the
circle,
which
has been
fhown
to be abfurd.
Q^E. D.
H2
BOOK
IV.
PROP. XIV.
PROB.
a
circle
defcribe
about a
angular pentagon.
Bifetf:
by
T
and
and

,
and
fedtion,
draw
:=
.......
(B.
i. pr.
6)
and fince
in
common,
In like manner
it
=:
therefore
nr
may
be proved that
<
:
and
a a
tit
Therefore
if a circle
them
will circumfcribe
Q. E.
I).
H3
gular
hexagon
given circle
OFrom any
the
given
circle
defcribe
through
its
centre, and
O
(
9
pamng
and
...? is
draw
.........
.........
infcribed
required hexagon
circle.
in
Since
paries
of the
circles,
<
and
^v
are equilateral
[
triangles,
hence
^^
'
^r sr
angles;
(B.
i.
pr. 32)
but
^L m
/.
(B.
are
^
1.
=
pr. 32),
= ^W =
which
onethird of
to theie
all
pr. 15),
and ftand on
chords (B.
3.
pr. 29)
hexagon
it is
is
alfo
equiangular.
O E D
i44
BOOK IV PROP.
XVI. PROP.
infcribe
an equilateral and
in
equiangular quindecagon
a given
circle.
and
be
the
given
circle,
and
The
arc fubtended
.
by
of the whole
_6_
1 4
and
_____
by
circumference.
The
arc fubtended
of the whole
1
5 4
circumference.
Their difference
the arc fubtended by
__:
TV
TV difference of
.*.
__:
the
whole circumference.
Hence
if firaight lines
equal to
.
be placed in the
Q. E. D.
BOOK
V.
DEFINITIONS.
LESS magnitude
lefs
is
faid to be
an aliquot part or
is,
when when
the
the
lefs is
II.
greater magnitude
the greater
is
is
faid to be a multiple
lefs
;
of a
is,
lefs,
when
meafured by the
lefs
that
when
a certain
number of times
III.
Ratio
is
the relation
bears to another
IV.
Magnitudes
when
is
not the
The other
definitions will be
where
their aid
ft required,
146
AXIOMS.
QUIMULTIPLES
or equifubmultiples of the
twice
2
3A =
A
A = B, then A := twice B, A = 2 B;
3
that
is,
B;
&c. &c.
II.
is
multiple of a
Let
C B, then
2AC2B;
3
ACZ3B;
A
C 4 B;
III.
is
&c. &c.
That
or, let 3
ACZB;
or, let
mA
C m B, then
ACB.
BOOK
V.
PROP.
I.
THEOR.
i*7
many
of each
is
what
multiple soever
LetQQQQQ
that
that
OOOOO
Then
is
is
WJFW
Q,
of
f
O.
of
evident that
QQQQQ1
the fame multiple of
[Q
4
OQOOQ
which
that
QQQQQ
>
[Q
isofQ
;
many magnitudes
in
as there are in
The fame
nitudes,
.*.
If any
48
BOOK
F
V.
PROP.
II.
THEOR.
fame
multiple of the
oj
of the fourth.
Let
the
firft,
O0>O>
and
let
00^^, OOOOj
it is
)
l
^ e ^ xtn
>
1S
f 0>>
^e
Then
fifth
evident, that
> ,
the
firft
and
together,
is
the fecond,
that
looooj
in
\,
is
of
the fourth
many magnitudes
j
z=
as there are
m
/. If the
firft
looooj 
magnitude, &c.
BOOK
V.
PROP.
III.
THEOR.
149
the jirjl
one of the
fecond,
and
The
First.
The Second.
Let
i
The Third.
The Fourth.
which
I is
of
take
<
which
<;
is
of
'
Then
it is
evident,
The Second.
that
<!
is
jo
BOOK
V.
PROP.
III.
THEOR.
The Fourth.
which
<
is
of
becaufe
<
>
contains
<
>
contains
as
many
times as
contains
>
contains
The fame
.'.
reafoning
is
applicable in
all cafes.
If the
firft
four,
&c.
BOOK
V.
DEFINITION
V.
'5
DEFINITION
Four magnitudes, ,
tionals
,
V.
are laid to he proporfirft
^ ^,
,
when
and third be
of the
firft
of the third
+^
&c.
of the fecond
&c.
of the fourth
&c.
&c.
firft
Then
third,
and
fourth,
=
=
rZ,
o rZ
If
<
SOT"
: :
or or
3 ^ ^
or or or or
;,
then will
^^
:.
;,
= = =
3 3 3
~l
52
BOOK
is,
V.
DEFINITION
V.
That
lefs
be greater,
equal, or
and so on,
as
above exprelfed.
in #
then

will
[ ,
&c.
&c.
firft
c, c, c, d,
1=,
= = ^ = =
or
Zl
or
or or or
Zl Z3
n
Z]
&c.
c=,
c, c,
& c
= = = = =
or or or or or
Zl Zl
^
z: Zl
&c.
be greater, equal,
firft
or, if three
times the
be greater, equal, or
lefs
firft
be greater, equal, or
will three times the third be greater, equal, or lefs than four
Again,
BOOK
V.
DEFINITION
^ or
V.
53
If
<
then
will
[
&c.
&c.
so on, with
firft
tiff # c c :m
cz>
^1
or
__ or ZJ
cz, __ or Z]
or
Z]
&c.
IZ, ^^ or Zl
I L
L~
>
= =
or or or
or
c,
Z] Z] Zl Z3
And
The
ratio to
of four magnitudes
is
faid to
the fecond,
which the
when any
and third
being taken,
if the
multiple of the
firft
is
be
lefs
than
than
alfo lefs
firft
is
of the
be equal
equal
alfo
to that
of the fourth
or, ir
firft
be
alfo greater
In future
we
M# when M
If
C,
= CZ, =
or or
Zl
,
"1 w
154
BOOK
V.
DEFINITION
V.
Then we
to
infer that
the
firft,
ratio
,
:
the fecond,
which
^,
::
^P
the
:
fourth
or thus,
: : V;
:
or thus,
= 9 = :
and
is
read,
"
as
is
to
so
is
to
^.
infer if
And
^ f we mall # then M C, =: or ^]
if
::
:
//;
will
M^
That
is,
;
C=
m
or
Z3
^.
is
if the firft
to the
to,
fourth
then if
tn
M times the
M and
or lefs than
M
m
fourth, in
which
cular
Q, ^,
&c.
to
be confidered
The
BOOK
V.
PROP.
IV.
THEOR.
155
firfi
and third
of
fame
the fecond
and fourth
to that
Let
:2::34:2f,
3
every equimultiple of
and
are equimultiples of

and
and 2 JP
are
equimultiples of 1 1 and
That
ples
is,
M times
and
and
M times ^
3
2 1 1
are equimulti
of
^
I
and
times
and
m
I
2
I
are equi
multiples of 2
and 2
3
.
^
EZ,
or

but
^ W
(hyp);
.*.
if
M
3
=,
or
; 2
/ 2
, then
CZ
=,
:
f
;
(def. 5.)
and therefore
 :: 3
(def. 5.)
The fame
tiple
of the
firft
If the
firft
56
BOOK
V.
PROP.
V.
THEOR.
fame
multiple of another,
thefirjl is
of a mag
nitude taken from the other, the remainder Jhall be the fame multiple of the remainder, that the whole
is
of the whole.
Let
Q OQ = M D
= M'
'
and
= M'.,
minus M'
o <^>Q> O
/.
minus
& = M'
and
.*.
(* minus
),
Jp^ =M'
A.
,*.
BOOK
V.
PROP.
VI.
THEOR.
157
IBg<BI
Km
*
F /wo
/*llo
g\y/^a
P*
's
Hr
^V
t
Mm
Vara
Let
Q = M' o
then
and
QQ = M'
m
m
minus
=
/')
M'
ar>d
* minus
m
'
m
A
OO mmus w
tri)
(M' minus
Hence, (M' minus
multiples of
rri)
a are equi
and a
and equal
to
1
and a
If
58
BOOK
V.
PROP.
A.
THEOR.
to the
to the
fourth,
third
is
a/fo
and
if equal,
equal;
ij
fiefs, lefs.
Let
: :
qp
tion, if
f C
if
H,
EI
then will
then
but
#
and
and
.*.
^ CO, ^C
ff C
[=
##
Similarly, if
z=, or
or
^] , then
.
will
=,
^
.*.
If the
firft
of four, &c.
DEFINITION
tendo," by inverfion,
XIV.
when
and
it is
to the
firft:
as the fourth
to the third.
Let
B
:
C D
:
then, by
" invertendo"
it is
inferred
::
C.
BOOK
V.
PROP.
B.
THEOR.
'59
F four
portionals alfo
when taken
inverfely.
Let
^ Q
:
: :
{
:
then, inverfely,
Q:f
then
::
If
M qp
ID
ot
Q,
MUw
is,ffl[jCMf
,
by the
fifth definition.
Let
Zl
^ O,
;
that
,'.
M1H
or, /
EM;
m
.*.
iffflQCMf
it
then will
EM
may
be
or
mown,
Z3
m
/
Q=
:
then will
M^ ;=, or 13 M

fifth definition,
:
we
infer
Q ^
.*.
160
ROOKV.
PROP.
C.
THEOR.
fame part of
the firjl
is
is
of the fourth
is
to the
to the
fourth.
Let _
Q, the fecond,
that
the third,
is
of
A,
the fourth.
Then
* il *
::
:
'
becaufe J
is
that
is
of Wk (according
to the hypothcfis)
and
is
that
is
of
.*.
that
is
of
BOOK
Therefore, if
V.
PROP.
.
C.
THEOR.
161
be of
m m
is,
then
M
is,
is
a greater multiple of
tnan
is
that
if
M 5
\ be greater
than
w 0,
then
M
it
m
!
in the
fame manner
can be fhewn,
if
be equal
Q.
then
M
And,
will be equal ;
generally, if
f CZ,
=
or
or
ZD
then
M
.*.
will be CZ,
^m 6
by the
fifth definition,
'
Next,
let
that
4k
is
of
::
j
T.
For, becaufe
is
that
is
of
62
BOOK
therefore
J
V.
PROP.
.
C.
THEOR.
is
that
is
of
'" "
.
a
.
and
.*.
::
by proportion B.
/. If the
firft
BOOK
V.
PROP. D.
THEOR.
163
and if
>
and
firft, let
V
Second.
je a
multiple
.
(hall b e the
fame multiple of
First.
Third.
Fourth.
QQ
Take
QQ OO
^L
a _
:
Whatever multiple
take
isofH
,
OO OO
then, becaufe
we have
taken equimultiples,
yT/C>
64
BOOK V. PROP.
:
D.
THEOR.
but(C0nft)>
QQ JJ
::
OO'
QQ
and
( B '5FA)^
4 ^
oc
/Ty\
is
that
is
of .
Next, Id


JP
and
alfo
part of
nverfely (B 5).
"
is
"
.*.

..

;
but
a part
that
is,
i
cafe,
.
is
a multiple of
/. by the preceding
ii fame multiple of
iv^
that
is,
is
that
is
of
.*.
If the
firft
BOOK
V.
PROP.
VII.
THEOR
165
equal
Let
then
$ = 4
:
and
:
=+
# =
Becaufe
=^
..
M =M 4
CZ,
or
or
.\ if
M # M+
:
and
..
= ^w C, = 31 m I =^ 
:
then
I,
From
it is
evident that,
m
m
C>
/.=
= or ^ M 0, then C = Zl M ^ 4
or
66
ROOK
V.
DEFINITION
VII.
DEFINITION
VII.
as in
When
greater than
is
not
then the
firfl is
have
to the
magnitude has
third
is
to the
laid to
have
than the
firfl:
among
com
pared as in the
we
fhould find
####[Z
+
find
,but
fhould
s or
firfl:
Zl
ffff,orifwe
M' of
tri
the
firfl:
a particular multiple
that
M'
tri
times the
is
is
C
tri
M'
or
not
[Z
;
e.
~1
then the
faid to
have to
the fecond a greater ratio than the third has to the fourth
than the
firfl
although feveral
other equimultiples
may
mag
in future
be exprefled thus
or
tri
M'
CI
tri
O,
^P
:
but
then
1= Z Q rZ H
M'
:
M' and
tri
are to be
BOOK
and
V.
DEFINITION
fifth definition,
VII.
167
are in that
introduced in the
which
be taken.
It muff, alio
~J, 1 1
of geometrical magnitudes.
may be
fet forth as
7, i;,
and
Firft.
8
Second.
Third.
10
Fourth. 9
I
16
H
21
24 32
28
40 48
56
35
42 49
5 63
64 72
80 88 96 104
112
20 3 40 5 60 7 80 90
100
27 36 45 54 63 72
8:
70
V 84
9
1
no
120 '3
j
90 99 108 117
126
Sec.
98
40
&C.
&c.
&c we
is
Among
tZ
and
6
find
14 and
that
twice the
firft
is
and
^3
twice the
firft is lefs
is lefs
than
we
firft
is
can find
is
Hi 56 and v
8
IZ
that
is,
9 times the
greater than
Many
other equimul
68
BOOK
might be
?,
V.
DEFINITION
VII.
to fliow that
tiples
selected,
the numbers
not, for
7, 10,
we can
find a multiple
a multiple
of
the fecond, but the fame multiple of the third that has been
taken of the
firft:
not
[Z
is
not
not
CI I0
72
EZ 70, but 90
we
find
9 times the
is
64
C 63, but So
not
When
firft:
(
as thefe
!)is
have
to the
(10)
firft:
is
faid to
3)
BOOK
V.
PROP.
VIII.
THEOR.
169
and
the
fame
it
than
Let
and
I
and
any other.
We
the
firft
prove that
which
is
a greater ratio to
than
,
has to
A
1
that
is,
CZ
A
take
fuch,
M' 1 , /' M' , and m that M' a and M' g mail be each
alfo take
which
will
make
M'
is
=M'
.*.
M' M'
I
I
not
;;/
but
as m'
is
is
~
for,
the
firft
multiple which
fir ft
becomes CZ M'
is
than (m minus
1)
orw'
and
^
not
minus
Q
A,
not
M' 1
1
/.
tri
minus
that
is,
% +
j
is
C M'
muft be Z2 M'
A
 + M' a
muft be
but
it
M'
.'.
M'
is
I
*'
170
BOOK
is
V.
PROP.
VIII.
THEOR.
M'
not
A

has to
the
than
or,
it
has to
%
,
c#
,
and
Take
M'
ni
%,
M'
,
firff.
M'
a and
M'

will be each
CZ
firfr.
ar>d f
the leaft
multiple of
which
becomes greater
.
than
.".
M'
p = M'
is
ot'
not
;
d M'
confequently
is
Zl M'
 + M'
Q
has to 
.'.
z'
is
^ M'
and
.*.
by the feventh
definition,
A
.*.
has to
Of unequal
magnitudes, &c.
The among
tiple
mul
of the
the fame multiple of the third which has been taken of the
firft,
may
be illuftrated numerically
The number
that
is,
has to 7
CI
or, b }
fZ
'7
BOOK V. PROP.
The
is
Fill.
THEOR,
171
multiple of
1,
which
firft
8 times, therefore
8, 9, 10, or
we may
multiply the
;
and third
by
us multiply the
and third by
firft
8,
and
we have 64^8
and
greater
again,
the
is
than 64
10 times;
then,
8 times
the third.
64+
is
8
,
70

70
72,
is
Confequently
8, or
greater than 
but
The above
numbers very
is
merely
manner
becaufe, if
an antecedent contains
confequent, or
for the nu
when
a fraction
its
is
formed of an antecedent
merator, and
its
antecedent to
laft
confequent
its
is
antecedent to
confe
quent.
is
greater than
:
.
Again, 17
19
is
a greater ratio
than
19
9
13:15,
247
,
becaufe
IS
517
17
15
^T>TTi
25,5
isi'
is
and
13
I5
X = T^T = ? hence
13
greater than
..
is
greater than
172
BOOK
V.
PROP.
VIII.
THEOR.
and, according to
a greater, equal,
are as follows
If
A
g
be greater than
C
=,
;
A
A
is
faid to
have to
a greater
ratio than
has to
if ^
be equal to
C
jt,
then
has to
B
c ^,
which
has to
and
than
if
be
lefs
than
is
faid to
have to B a
lefs ratio
has to
D.
The
ftudent
mould underftand
all
up
to this propofition
comthereagain,
We
recommend
this {lowly,
the learner to
commence
at
and read up to
as
each flep,
By
fol
important
book.
BOOK
V.
PROP.
IX.
THEOR.
173
AGNITUDES
thofe to
to the
;
one another
and
Let
:
1
1, then
=f
For, if not,
:
let
C
:
>
then will
C#
.*.
which
is
^
it
is
not
C%
t
'
'
In the fame
manner
may be mown,
is
that
Again,
let

:
:
not
CZ
then will
^ =

?
For
(invert.)
cafe,
therefore,
.*.
by the
firfl
=0.
ratio, 6cc.
:
as follows
for,
ZZZ
'
C> then
Br:C,
as the
fraction
the fraction
and
,
BrC.
:
Again,
if
B muft
= C
=C
A,
= C.
For, as
= ^,
*74
BOOK
V.
PROP.
X.
THEOR.
HAT
the greater
of the two
to
the
lefs
of the two.
Let
jp
C#
if not, let
:
For
then,
^C# W ~l ^
: 1
1, then
or
(
qp
=#
9
:
5
P r 7) or

13
is
which
.*.
^p
.*.
is
not
= ^
or
and
^
let
muftbe CZ
?
:
Again,
then,
#C ^ H V(B.
JP,
For
then
or
if not,
muft be
C =^
or
:^
==
I
:
JP
5. pr. 8)
and
(invert.)
/.
.*.
not
CZ
or
= ^P,
and
muft be 13
has, 6cc.
.*.
BOOK
V.
PROP. XL THEOR.
75
ATI OS
fame
to
each other.
Let
r=
and
:
=A
:
then will
=A
if
M # Cf => or 13 then M C = or 3 p and M C =:, or ^ p then M A CZ, :=, or ^ m , (B. M C, =, or 33 m M A CZ, =, or 3 w and (B. + B = A
For
if
,
if
5. def. 5)
.*.
5. def. 5)
.*.
76
BOOK
V.
PROP.
XII.
THEOR.
be proportionals, as
to its confequent,
Jo Jhall
confequents.
Let
H =U O=
:
:
'
= : = *:;
ss
then will
+D +
For
alfo
+ + *:# + <>+
,
++
,
ifMC m % and M Cm
.
then
Q [Z m >,
,
M Cm
(B. 5. def. 5.)
MaC
M

Therefore, if
CZ
then will
than
J + m 4" w
O+ ++ m C 4" m
"f"
A ) be grater
T "I"
'
or^(#+0+
In the fame
++)
if
way
it
may be mown,
lefs
antecedents be equal to or
fequents,
than
m times
M times
lefs
is
all
be equal to or
together.
than
times
all
Therefore, by the
fifth definition, as
one of the
antecedents
taken together to
.*.
If any
BOOK
V.
PROP.
XIII.
THEOR.
77
fame
ratio
which
to
the
Let
9 Q=
:
>,
but
CO
'
>
then
For, becaufe
tiples
f:OCO:l CO i)
:
t ^iere
are * me
mu ^"
(M' and
ni) of
and
fuch that
but
M'
CZ
ni
M' <^
not
ni
by the feventh
definition.
Let thefe multiples be taken, and take the fame multiples of fM and f^.
/. (B.
5. def. 5.) if
M'
9 C, =, or Z\ Q
ni
,
then will
but
M'
I
IZ,
=,
or
^2
'
M'
..
Cm
m
'
'
(connruclion)
ni
qp tz
CZ
ni
Q,
(conftrudtion)
definition,
;
but
M'
<^>
is
not
.*.
If the
firft
A A
i/8
BOOK
V.
PROP. XIV.
THEOR.
which the
lefs.
Let
firft
fuppofe
#.
For
f OC
:
hypothefis,
U ^ Q=
I
.*.
.pr. i3).
Secondly,
= For * (J =
let
:
then will
^J zz
.
and fl
.\
and ,\
Thirdly, if
becaufe

.*.
(B. 5
pr.
7 ),
(hyp.)
.
(B. 5
P r. n),
JP Z] CI
then will
:
Z]
:
+ =^ O ^ and c O? by ^ft
tne
ca ^"e
is,
that
Zl
'.
If the
firft
BOOK
V.
PROP. XV.
THEOR.
179
A.GNITUDES
to one
another
Let
and
be two magnitudes
::
then,
ft
M'
M'
I.
For
.*.
"
"4
is
(B. 5 P r
I2 )
And
as the
fame reafoning
generally applicable,
we have
.*.
M'
M'
ratio, &,c.
180
BOOK
V.
DEFINITION
XIII.
DEFINITION
The
when
XIII.
permu
tation or alternately,
tionals,
ufed
and
it is
firfl
or that the
:
fecond
is
:
to the
fourth
as
is
ihown
Let
by
'*
+ ::?:'
it is
:
permutando" or "alternando"
inferred
.
::
.
It
,
may
, muft be homogeneous, that is, of the fame nature or fimilitude of kind we muft therefore, in
;
A, M,
lines, furfaces
with furfaces,
will
with
folids,
&c.
Hence
the ftudent
readily
and confequent.
BOOK
V.
PROP. XVI.
THEOR.
81
F four
when taken
alternately.
Let
<p
::
then
::0'#.
(
ForM
and
9 M
:
Q * O
::
:
:
5
Pr
5)>
M:MQ::
alfo
+
:
1 1
m
qp
and
:
;;/
::
,\
.*.
MQ 4 (B. M ^ C = or I] w
::
:
5. pr. 14),
if
then will
Q d, => ^
or
///
v.*.
o:
82
BOOK
V.
DEFINITION
XVI.
DEFINITION
Dividendo, by divifion,
XVI.
when
and
is
it is
is
Let
: :
C
it is
by " dividendo
"
i
inferred
)
:
A
According
B, and
minus B
minus
D.
to the above,
;
is
greater than
if this
greater than
made
to
ftand as antecedents,
"
>
as
then, by "dividendo,"
we
infer
B minus
A A
:
: :
minus
BOOK
V.
183
proportionals
that
is,
to the other
to the
lafi
two has
other of thefe.
Let
f + O:
then will
Q::
+
:
,
Q
:Q:: %
Take
then
but becaufe
(hyp.),
.*.
+^)CI(W + M)4 (B. def. 5 /. M +M + Cm + +M # by taking M + from both M tZ w that when MfC* O, then M Cw^,
.*.
M(
);
fides
is,
In the fame
manner
/
it
may
be proved, that if
^P
= ^
or
Q,
:
then will
:
= or ^ 4
(B. 5. def. 5).
and /.
.*.
^ Q > 4
:
l8 4
BOOK
V.
DEFINITION XV.
DEFINITION XV.
The
term componendo, by compofition,
;
is
ufed
when
firft
there
and
it is
toge
is
to the
is
to the fourth.
Let A
then, by the term "
componendo,"
:
it is
inferred that
A
By "
+B
B
B
::
+D
D
D.
the
firlt
invertion"
and
p may become
and third,
and
A A
: :
then, by "
componendo," we
:
infer that
: .
+A
: :
D+
BOOK V. PROP.
XVIII.
THEOR.
185
that
is,
and fecond
together
together Jliall be
is to
andfourth
the fourth.
Let
then
* O
:
:
*+Q Q ^ Q fuppofing Q
{:
; + :;
not
=^
.'.
W O
but
:
'
.Q::
::
I
:
(hyp.);
5
Pr
9).
JI );
=
which
.*.
is
(B 5
P^
is
that
=1
'.
B B
i86
BOOK
V.
a whole magnitude be
is
to
to
a whole, as a magnitude
the other ; the remainder Jhall be to the remainder, as the whole to the whole.
then will
::
^ + D : +
ivid.),
but
therefore
again
::
(alter.),
".
+
is
hyp.)
If a
whole magnitude be
to a
whole, &c.
DEFINITION
The term "
XVII.
convertendo," by converfion,
made
ufe of
by geometricians, when there are four proportionals, and it is inferred, that the firft. is to its excefs above the fecond,
as the third
is
to its excefs
:
lowing propofition
BOOK
V.
PROP.
E.
THEOR.
187
F four
alfo
is
proportionals by converjion
its excefs
that
is,
the fir Jl
to
to its
ex
cefs
then
lhall
#O
:
>
Becaufe
therefore
1
10:0: :0"B
!;
(divid.),
..
(inver.),
I
::
(compo.).
,*.
DEFINITION
"
XVIII.
Ex
aBquali"
:
(fc. diflantia),
diftance
when
there
is
many
is
when
of the
firft
rank of mag:
is
of the others
" of
this
arife
from the
different order
are taken,
two
and two."
188
BOOK
V.
DEFINITION XIX.
DEFINITION
" Ex
itfelf,
XIX.
is
aequali,"
from equality.
firft
This term
is
ufed
amply by
firft
when
is
the
magnitude
to the
fecond of the
;
and
as
fo is the
:
fecond
to the third
of the other
and
fo
on
in order
ference
this
is
is
as
mentioned
in the
preceding definition
It is
whence
in
demonftrated
Book
22.
Thus,
if there
A, B,
and L,
fuch that
:
:
P, E, F, the
, ,
nrft rank,
M,
:
P, Q, the fecond,
: :
A
:
L M, B
E
: :
::
M
F
: :
P,
: :
we
infer
asquali" that
A F
:
::
Q.
189
DEFINITION XX.
" Ex squali
from equality
term
the
is
in
This
of
ufed
when
the
firft
magnitude
is
is
to the fecond
firft
;
rank
as the laft
but one
is
to the laft
of the fecond
firft
rank
is
and
laft
as the
fecond
to the third
of the
rank, fo
;
the
laft
and
as the third
to the fourth
to the laft
:
of the
firft
rank, fo
is
the
;
third
from the
on
laft
and
fo
in a crofs order
It is
in the
8th
definition.
demonstrated in B.
23.
Thus,
if there
A, B, C, D,
and
fuch that
,
the
,
firft
rank,
::
O,
::
N,
::
::
Q.
190
BOOK V. PROP.
XX. THEOR.
and other
three, which,
;
then,
if'
Jha II
be
and if
equal, equal
and if lefs,
lefs.
fir ft
three magnitudes,
and
fuch that
^,
(3,
Then,
if
an <l
O M
:
''O
'
or
then will
==,
orZ3 t
From
we have
andQ :0
/.
::
t ,
:;
.
::
or
(B. 5
pr.
n);
if
C =.
tlien will
C =,
or3
.*.
BOOK
V.
PROP. XXI.
THEOR.
191
and
if
lefs, lefs.
Let
p,
, be the
firft
three magnitudes,
and
fuch that
\
^,
0>>
O
::
>
and
::
0>
Then,
if
C =,
<
or
Z2
then
will
[=,=,=!
be CI
.
Firft, let
then, becaufe
is
f :iC:i
butO
.*.
M
jfe
:
::
:4
(hyp);
0>
and becaufe
^ O
:
n yp)
.* :A
and
it
O
(in*.).
was fhown
that
'
<
.'.
<
CO
92
BOOK
V.
PROP. XXI.
THEOR.
is
=]
CI
,

{hall
that
^
  ;
Secondly,
let
then
For becaufe
(B.
:
1
,
5F
7);
(hyp.),
..
(B. 5. P r. 11),
'
(B 5
P^
9)
Next,
let
be
Z2
'
then
^
',

fhall
be
^
:
forC
and
it
4fc
=
^j
$,
and
^
that
O;
CZ
/. by the
firft
cafe
is
is,
^ ^
).
BOOK
V.
PROP. XXII.
THEOR.
*93
there be any
others,
number of magnitudes, and as many which, taken two and two in order, have
ratio
;
the
fame
to the laji
of the fame.
N.B.
This
is
words
"ex
trqua/i," or
"ex aquo."
Firft, let there be
magnitudes f^
others
+
)
,
1 1
and
as
many
,(^,
luch that
'
:
"
{
O*
*
and^
then mail

:
:: <^>
:
^ O
Let
thefe
magnitudes, as well
as
any equimultiples
ratios,
and
becaufe
qp
:
:
: :
^
:
0>
.\
fp
+
:
M ^
:
>
(B. 5. p. 4).
m >
c c
94
BOOKV. PROP.
XXII.
THEOR.
M^
CZ,
or
m /\ N
,
ratio
ifMjP
C =>
=, orZlN
,
then will
M+
^N
+
:
by (B.
5. pr.
20)
and ,\
::
(def. 5).
Next,
let
, ^,
>
^,
<2>
A
:
ratio,
to fay,
^p
Q,
and
then mall
for,
: :
^ + ^
:
: :
becaufe
and
^, <2>, 0?
,
other three,
ratio
<p
:
::
^
^>
.,
but
::
firfl
cafe,
^p
and
{o
number of magnitudes
Sec.
be.
.*.
If there be any
number,
BOOK
V.
95
there be any
others,
number of magnitudes, and as many which, taken two and two in a crofs order,
;
lajl
of the
firji
firjl
to the lajl
of the fame.
N.B.
in
be three magnitudes,
;
'
,
'

O
;
in a crofs order,
ratio
O
1
and rj
then fhall
o,
m
then
Q M
::
MQ
but
:Q
::<>
:#
(hyp.),
jo6
BOOK
..
V.
PROP. XXIII.
:
THEOR.
(B. 5. P r.
:
MQ ::<>
O H
:
n);
and becaufe
::
(hyp.),
,\
MQ
::
w >
(B. 5. pr. 4)
,
have
in a crofs order,
M
::
CZ,
or
=,
or
3m
I?
1
then will
M
:
C =, ^ w
:
(B. 5. pr. 2
),
and /.
Next,
let
>p,o,
#1
%,
Hi,
Jk.,
in a crofs order,
have
namely,
:
:D :m
:
D
and
then fhall
^L
:#:
O: +' :0:
,
For, becaufe
BOOKV. PROP.
and
,
XXIII.
THEOR.
197
other three,
crofs order,
have
cafe,
>:!!::#:,
::
but
therefore again, by the
<
>
I
#,
:
firft cafe,
<
::
<^)
and
fo on,
.*.
iq8
BOOK
V.
j]F
ratio
which
fifth to the
to the
fourth,
and fifth
and fix th
fourth.
First.
Second.
Third.
Fourth.
V
Fifth.
D
Sixth.
o
Let jp
:
and <3
then
^+
For
<2>
:
>
:
Q : Q O ::+#:
:
D #
::
:
h yP)'
and
[J
: :
.\ <2>:
qp
::
#:
when
taken jointly,
5 .pr. 18),
5
.'.
V+6'O'but
+= #(B.
:
.'.
D # + O^O +
o>:
firft,
hyp)
,\ If the
&c.
BOOK
V.
199
F four
magnitudes of the fame kind are proporgreat ejl and leaf of them together are
tionals, the

^,

^J, and
is
to fay,
* + 0:
and
let
:iQ:f
5,
is
 (3)
quently by pr.
then will
and 14 of Book
the leaft
JpfQl
becaufe
f
beCB+ + U Q Q
:
j
: :
'
Mbu <
W+O*
1=
*+D
.'
+ C
+
^J
}
(hyp.),
B(B
5prA);
,
to each
of thefe add
*+D+
t=
+D+
.*.
2oo
BOOK
V.
DEFINITION
X.
DEFINITION
X.
firfl is
it
When
to
faid
have
of that which
has
to the fecond.
For example,
that
is,
if
:
A,
C
is
be continued proportionals,
faid to
have
to
the dupli
cate ratio
of
B
or
rz
the fquare
of.
This property will be more readily feen of the quantities a ** > > J for a r"' a
:
.
',
and
ar
rr
1
r*
the fquare of
,
sr
r,
or of
for
ar
sjZ=
'
the fquare
of
= r
DEFINITION
When
firft is
XI.
the
have
of that
which
and
ftill
fo on, quadruplicate,
&c.
by unity,
in
any number
of proportionals.
For example,
tionals, that
to
is,
let
:
i>
A,B, C, D, be :: C :: C
:
D; A
is
faid to
have
D, the
triplicate ratio
of
to B
or
BOOK V. DEFINITION XL
a greater
20I
to
Let a
r'
a r
a,
portion, that
is,
::
'
ar
''
a r
r.
'
<l >
then
=r ~
a
the cube of
=
:
Or,
let
ar5
ar*,
is
:
ar3
portion, that
ar
5
:
ar*
ar*
ar3
::
ar3
ar 1
ar
ar
::
ar
;
a,
r.
ar*
then the ratio
=:
a
, ,
z=
=: ar*
cir
Or,
r
let a,
ar,
;
ar 2 ar3 ar4 be
,
magnitudes
in
continued
proportion r
then
.
ar*
ar
. r
DEFINITION
To know a compound ratio When there are any number
:
A.
kind, the
firfr. is
faid to
have
to the laft
firft
compounded of
and of the
the ratio the
laft
the ratio
which the
ratio
to the third,
;
and of
unto
which the
and
fo on,
magnitude.
if
For example,
kind, the
A, B, C, D,
A B C D
E F G
A
A
is
faid to
have to
the
laft
the ratio
compounded
B and of the
,
MN
to
K.
of the
ratio
ratio
of
to
of B
to
C, and of
the ratio
ofC
of
DD
202
BOOK
1
V.
DEFINITION
A.
'
to
(
'
is
,
faid to
I
to
H to
and
to
>
And B to C
if \ has to
I.
which
has to
(
and
the
has to
H, and
ratios
to
\
fame that
have to
L)
has to
is
said to
the ratio
ratios
is
compounded of
of E to F,
which
are the
to
expreffed by faying,
the ratios of
H, and K to L And be underftood when it is more briefly has to D the ratio compounded of
to
\
to
F,
to
H, and K
to
if
which
to
has to
,
'
faid to
have
to
the ratio
to L.
compounded of
the ratios of
to
F,
H, and K
arith
com
pounded of
ratio
all
which has
compounded, and
all
for
its
the confequents of
compounded.
ratio
:
Thus, the
compounded of
:
the ratios of
,6:11,2:5,
X
:
is
the ratio of
X
32
:
11
5,
or the ratio of 96
11 55, or
385.
And
kind,
is
the ratio
:
compounded of
the ratios of
A
for
:B, B
C,
C: D,
X E
:
E,
v
F;
A X B X
X
X
B X
X E X
of A
:
F,
or
XX xx
xexf
E.
BOOK V. PROP.
F.
THEOR.
203
ATI OS
ratios
Let
A
5
B
(
::
''
F
r
G,
ri
'.
::D::H:K,
and
)
:
A B C D E F G H K L
of
the
:
L.
A
5
ratios
E,
is
fame
:
as
the
:
ratio
compounded of
ratio
the
ratios
of F
G,
H,
K,
L, or the
of
L.
Fori
c
"'
H'
XXX X x
or the ratio of
\
:
I
andE
e
.*.
1'
j
XXX XL'
X
F
and
is
L.
circumftanced.
Next,
let
A B
:
: :
K
i
j
L,
1
_
C
I
K,
rl
'
::
F: G.
2o +
BOOK
the ratio
:
V.
PROP.
is
F.
THEOR.
the ratios of
\
: 1
Then
which
,
compounded of
ratio
ratios
])
E, or the
of
is
the
:
fame
:
as the ratio
:
compounded of the
of
:L,
H, F
For 
'
and
ss
X X
i
I
X X
X X
X X
X X
XF
X
'
= ,
F
:
is
L.
BOOK
V.
PROP.
G.
THEOR.
205
F feveral ratios
be the
fame
is
to
feveral
ratios, each
which
compounded of
ratios
each to each,
each to each.
ABCDEFGH
a
P Q R
S
^
bed
B
: :
W
a
X
:
If \
a
c
e
and
C :D E :F
and
.: ::
:f
then P
A B P Q C:D::Q: R E F R S
: : :
:
b:
w
Y
Z
c:d:
e
W: X
:
:
:
: :
:/:
II
::g:h
G:H
:
::
S
'
T g:h:
T
A I
C
TFor
.7
=
_
7
c
z^z
R
s
3
=:
~~
'
F G H
/
y
h
= =
X X

>
xs x Q x R x
and
J
x x
.*.
rP :T
.*.
 ^ =
p
X X
X X z*
>
Z.
2o6
BOOK
V.
PROP. H. THEOR.
a ratio which
is
compounded offeveral
is
ratios be
conpounded offeveral
other ratios
ratio
and if
which
is
the
fame
to one
of the
which
is
com
more than
maining
la/i, or,
remaining ratios.
A B C D E F G P Q R S T X
Let
:B, B :C,
F,
:
F G, G :H,
:
:
S, S
T,
X,
alfo, let
A H,
:
which
is
compounded of
:
ratios,
be the fame
as the ratio
of P
;
X, which
and,
let
:
is
the ratio
ratio
compounded of
:
the
of A
E, which
is
compounded of
P
the ratios of A
B,
B :C, C :D,
which
is
as the ratio
:
of P
R,
compounded of
the ratio
that
Q^ Qj
R.
Then
firft
which
is,
is
compounded of
the ratio of
is
the remaining
the ratios
ratios,
the ratio
that
is,
:
compounded of
F, F
G,
G H,
:
H,
mail be
R
T,
X, which
compounded of
v
:
BOOK
B ecau fe
B
V.
PROP. H. THEOR.
P
207
k

XEXl XDXEXiXG
X
C
X D X
XG XH
X X
g
<J
X X
X X
S
I
X T X \'
or
B
xiiXiXd
XC X D X E
w *
X
X
B
}
(,
xb
FX(,XH X XH
B
l
DXB
'
w * ^
SXTXX'
and A
X C X_D X D X E
LXS,
O
.
' *
E
F
X F XG X G XH
.
SXTXX*
__
/.
X.
.*.
2o8
BOOK
F
V.
PROP.
K.
THEOR.
there be any
other ratios,
number of ratios, and any number of fuch that the ratio which is comwhich are the fame
to the firji
pounded of
ratios,
which
and
to each, to
compounded of
ratios,
to
feveral of the
lajl ratios,
firft ratios,
compounded of of the
ratios,
fame, each
to each, to feveral
;
lajl ratios
then the
or,
which
is
compounded of
ratios,
or, if there be
more than
which
is
compounded of
remaining
ratios,
fame, each
to each, to thefe
ratios.
m
,
MN,
y,
a b c h k
I
fg
abed
np
f g
Let
firft
be the
,
ratios,
^:W,
the
other ratios
and
let
:B
C :D E :F
G H K L
a :b, b :c,
:,!,
d
e
r
:/,
M :N
:?
BOOK
Then, by the
of a
g'.f,
:
V.
PROP.
K.
THEOR.
209
definition
of a compound
is
compounded of
c : d>
d e*
:
f'gt which are the fame as the ratio of A B> E*: F, G H, K L, N, each to each.
:
:P
QJR
:
:W
:Y
h :k,
k :/,
I: m,
n,
n p.
Then
fame
the ratios of
k,
as the ratios
of
:TV :W>
*Y
each to each.
,*.
by the hypothefis a :
h :p.
the ratios of
which
is
compounded of
B,
C D two
:
of the
firft
for
A
c,
=a
:
and
is
C :D
=
fame
of a
Ci
(,
: ),
ratio
of a
c
d,
which which
compounded of
as
b,
b
>
d,
'
are the
the ratios of
J!
And
ratios
let
the ratios of h
: :
s,
which
n
:
of h k, k m,
firft
n,
s,
the remaining
ratios,
namely,
:
:F
:H>
K
is
=L
M N
:
alfo, let
the ratio of e
e
:
g, be that
which
com
pounded of the
to
[
:
ratios
f,
:W,
Then
:
the ratio of
ratio
of e
or h
h
:
fhall
g.
A
B
XC XE
X:
XK XM
XI,
XD XF XH
XN
X X
b
c
X X
X
X
X eX X/X
/
'
E E
2io
.
BOOK
X X
V.
PROP.
K.
h
THEOR.
X X
XX X
X
e
XmXn JX'XXX?'
X
k
ratios
aX CXcXdX X
or
g
bXcXdXtX/Xg
Xi iXc
k
I
X
X X
kX
X/
__
XmX
k
I
XmX
*
I
,,
Xp ^y p )>
V ^
"
c/
h
k
dX e X/Xg
X X
Xm
w
*>
h *
"
m
n
X Xp'
I
.
but
X X
*
i
r= A X
X = "X BXD
.
'
X b X c __ bXcXti
mX
"
Xk X
X
/
cXdXt
'
dXt X fXs
X
X
k
Xp'
Xc Xt X f Xt x/xg
and
TO
li
X m X
f
X m X n X
n
s
,,
"
X X
/>
e
f
Xg
n
s .
(hyp.),
h
I
Xk XmX X mX r X
"
e f
<V
h
s
.'.
g
'.
If there be any
number, &c.
Book of Euclid
are given in
published by
BOOK
I.
VI.
DEFINITIONS.
ECTILINEAR
figures are faid to
be
fimilar,
when
and the
fides
angles proportional.
II.
Two
fides of
faid to
be reciprocally propor
tional to
two
is
of another figure
when one of
remaining
firft.
the fides
of the
fecond
firft
is
fide
of the
to the
remaining
fide
of the
III.
straight
line
is
faid to be cut in
is
ratio,
when
the
whole
is
to the greater
greater fegment
to the lefs.
IV.
The
its
altitude
of any figure
is
drawn from
vertex perpendicular to
its
2 ;2
BOOK
VI.
PROP.
I.
THEOR.
PUR ANGLES
I
and
parallelo
fame
to one
altitude are
and
common
vertex, and
their bafes
in the
and

fame
ftraight line.
Produce
1
'
produced
lines equal
and on
;
pro
duced
the
it
and draw
lines
from
common
The
to
triangles
one another,
A
4lJZ. wi
and
its
all
equal
multiples of
m i
BOOK
VI.
PROP.
I.
THEOR.
2<
In like
manner
Lk
m
_
of
and
its
bale
are
refpec
tively equimultiples
^ {
~
.*.
Ifwor6times
;
jf
or or
^
Z] 8
n or 5 times
or 5 times
>
,
then
or 6 times
for every
CZ ==
wu
and fland
fifth
definition
mown
when m
equal 6, and n
equal 5, yet
may be
given to m, and to
n.
a
them (Part
1),
(B.
5. def. 5.)
Q. E. D.
2I 4
BOOK VI PROP.
II.
THEOR.
A
*
a Jlraight
line
be
drawn
parallel to any
jide
....
it Jliall
of a
tri
angle,
fides,
portional fegments
And
fides
produced,
it
is
into proportional
feg
ments,
.fide
PART
Let
I.
.,
then fhall
D raw
and
(B.5.pr. 7 );but
V
**
**!
(B. 5 .pr. ii).
HiHtllllB'
BOOK
VI.
PROP.
PART
II.
THEOR.
2] 5
II.
Let
then
becaufe
(B. 6. pr. i);
>
and

*!
but
!**
(hyp),
7

\
3
(
(B.
5
Pr
,7=
fame
II
B 5P>'9);
and
at the

and
of
it,
Q. E. D.
2l6
BOOK VL PROP.
III.
THEOR.
RIGHT
line
of a
into
fegments
 ) proportional
And if a Jlraight
divide the oppofte
into fegments
(
line
triangle
fde
(^
9
)
;
.........)
),
(, ___
PART
I.
Draw 
then,
:=
to
meet
(B.
i. pr.
29),
(B.
1.
pr. 6);
and becaufe
(B. 5. pr. 7 ).
BOOK
VI.
PROP.
PART
III.
THEOR.
217
II.
and
.*.
::
::
.
but
(B.
(hyp)
5. pr.
n).
(B. 5. pr. 9),
and

^f
and
.*.
^
II
(B.
1.
pr. 5);
but fince
m=
1.
and
zr
^f
(B.
pr.
29);
.".
^=
.'.
.ii
T, and
J^.
and
biiedts
J^
Q.E. D.
F F
2l8
BOOK
VI.
PROP.
IF.
THEOR.
equiangular
tri
angles
S
)
and
rt^o/ /7j^
the fides
^^/
the
portional,
^L

oppojite
to
.1
  
homologous
fo
fides
and
^^^
line,
in the
fame ftraight
line;
fame
fide
of that ftraight
may have
i.
e.
jtKk
oppofite to
and
to
Draw
and
Then, becaufe
,.
* *
But
^
... (B.i.pr.28);
is
1 1
a parallelogram.
BOOK
VI.
PROP.
IV.
THEOR.
(B.
1. pr.
219
34),
;
and
fince
:
=
::
^^
:
and by
alternation,
In like
a>
manner
it
may
be
mown,
that
a a
a>
but
it
lamiiiaii
homologous.
Q. E. D.
220
BOOK
VI.
PROP.
V.
THEOR.
F two
::
tional
mm
(
: :
From
the
!
(l
:
........_
)
and
and
gous Jides.
extremities
of
,
draw
and
making
W= M
and confequently
(B.
,.
pr.
23);
^ =
(B.
I. pr.
32),
but
(hyp);
and confequently
(B. 5. pr. 9 ).
In the like
manner
it
may
be
mown
that
BOOK
VI.
PROP.
V.
THEOR.
common
221
bafe
and their
fides equal,
i.
have
op
e.
s\ = ad/l =
,
m W
;
(B.
1.
pr. 8).
But
^F =
z=
^fc
mtk
:=
(conft.)
and
.*.
for the
lame
reafon
mA
(B.
and
confequently
z=
1.
32);
it is
evi
Q. E. D.
22
BOOK
VI.
PROP.
VI.
THEOR.
s\
two triangles
(
^S "
have one
and
Z\
\
\
angle
^Kk
f
angle
to
one
of the other,
and
the fides
^L
,,,,1^
and have
From
the extremities of
^^
about
one of the
fides
of
and
\
and
m
,
draw
making
=
(B.
i.
^F J^

then
^=
(hyp.)
pr. 32),
>>>>>
but
**<
and confequently
VI.
THEOR.
223
z\ = \/
(B.
1.
in
every refpedt.
pr. 4).
But
^J == j^
/
ZZ
(conft.),
and
.*.
J^
and
fince alio
mtk
'
\ =.
(B.
1. pr.
32);
and
.*.
jf.^k and
^
y\
homologous
fides.
Q^E. D.
224
BOOK
VI.
PROP.
VII.
THEOR.
F two
triangles
A
^
),
and
/ .
each equal
Jides about
(
in
equal
to
the
'V
and ^J
right angle
y
4
<^
fides,
and
thofe angles
it
^^
if it
and
lefs
then
be fuppofed
that
itA
and
^A
^^,\ be
make
Becaufe
4=
hyP)> and
^A = ^\
I.
(conft.)
= ^^
(B.
pr.
32);
BOOK
VI.
225
but
::
(hyp)
and
.*.
'^^
= ^^
(B.
1.
pr. 5).
But
.*.
^^
is
is lefs
4^
lefs
and
.*.
mull
it
pr. 13),
but
has been
proved
= ^^
is
and therefore
lefs
which
abfurd.
.*.
^^\
and
^>\
.*.
"^B
(hyp.)
4=4
But
if
(B.
1. pr.
tri
^^B
^ ^
it
to
be each not
lefs
may
fides
about the
Q. E. D.
GG
:26
BOOK
VI.
PROP.
VIII.
THEOR.
a right angled
triangle
a perpendicular
be
)>if
drawn from
^/j^
 j
^
to
on each Jide of
it
triangle
and
each other.
Becaufe
(B.
i.
ax.
1),
and
common
to
and
A=4
and
portional (B. 6. pr.
def. 1).
4),
(B.
i.
pr. 32);
are
equiangular
and
6.
In like
manner
it
may
be proved that
nk L
is
fimilar to
but
to
and L
to
are
fimilar to the
whole and
each other.
Q. E. D.
BOOK
VI.
PROP.
IX.
PROB.
22"
ROM
to
a given jlraight
line
From
given
line
either
extremity
of the
draw "...
*
making any
angle with
and produce
line
till
the
whole produced
"
contains
as often as
Draw
II
>,
and draw
is
For
fince
but
as
" contains
as often
;
Q. E. D.
228
BOOK
VI.
PROP.
X.
PROB.
divide a Jlraight
(
line
to
fimilarly
a
line
given divided
('
)
From
either extremity of
draw ....
take
an(j
..........
to
i.
aa4 equal
and
refpedively (B.
,
pr. 2)
draw
and draw
II

it.
and
Since
j
to

are
or
(conft.),
and
(B. 6. pr. 2),
(conft.),
and
.*.
is
divided
Q.E. D.
BOOK
VI.
PROP.
XI.
PROB.
229
O find a
to
third proportional
lines
At
line
^^^
r=
draw ..
;
making an angle
.........
take
,
and
draw
make ........
and draw
~
31.)
........
(B.
. ujjj
to
is
1. pr.
For
and
fince
...a n..i..
(B.
but
6pr. 2);
(conft.)
Q^E. D.
23
BOOK
VI.
PROP.
XII.
PROB.
O find
given
a fourth proto
portional
lines
three
1
I
* !
Draw
and
take
and
alfo
draw
and
(B.
is
i.
pr. 31);
On
mt
J
{:
jj
Er}( conft
)
*.
Q^E. D.
BOOK
VI.
PROP.
XIII.
PROB.
2 3*
tional between
two given
Jlraight lines
Draw any
ftraight line
make
and
bifecl
as a centre,
draw
is
the
r\
proportional required.
mean
Draw
and
Since
ar>d
*
^ p>
^
is
is
J_ from
a
fide,
^~~^
.*.
is
mean
and
'
proportional between
(B. 6. pr. 8),
and
between
and
(conft.).
QE.D
232
BOOK
VI.
QJJ
AL
parallelograms
\
J
and
in
each equal,
II.
And
and
Let
and and
and
and
.
lines.
It
is
evi
may affume
Complete
Since
V
[B. 5. pr. 7.)
V:\:\
BOOK VI PROP.
XIV.
THEOR.
233
The fame
conftrudtion remaining
(hyp.)
(B. 5. pr.
n.)
and
.*.
^^
Q^E. D.
H H
234
BOOK
VI.
I.
have
equal
angle
in
each
^^
^m
),
have the
fides
proportional
II.
And two
triangles
other,
to
an angle of the
and
I.
fo
^^
fo
and
^B
may
is
that
and
alfo
ftraight line.
Whence
may
be
in
the
lame
and
14.)
muft
i. pr.
Draw
then
>
4
BOOK
VI.
235
II.
A
and
^^^r
A
:
,
But
;:
(hyp.)
A^1
A=A
(B.5
pr. 11);
Q. E. D.
36
BOOK
VI.
PART
I.
F four Jh aight
the reclangle
lines be
proportional
contained
by the extremes,

is
PART
II.
And
angle
if the relcontained
by
are proportional.
PART
I.
From
the extremities of
i
_]_
:
and
draw
o^bb and
and
to
them and
refpe<tively
and
I
(hyp)
(conft.)
And
fince,
BOOK
that
is,
VI.
2 37
PART
II.
becaufe
a a ***
and
vmmwwww
mmmmm
....a......
BH
(B. 6. pr. 14).
But
and
= = 
(conft.)
**
Q. E. D.

238
BOOK
VI.
__
equal
to the fquare
of the mean.
II.
PART
And
PART
I.
A flu me
lince
.,
and
then
X
(B. 6. pr. 16).
But
'9
or
___
X
2
;
X
therefore, if the three ftraight lines are
is
PART Aflume
II.
then
 X
(B. 6. pr. 16), and
Q. E. D.
BOOK
VI.
239
N
to
a given Jlraight
conjlruB a
line
recJilinear figure
drawing the
lines
.
and
At
the
extremities
of
f^V
and
and
^k ^
^\
in like
manner make
* = \/andV =
Th en
It is
is
V
1.
fimilar to
W V
and and
by (B.
6. pr.4),
::
240
BOOK
VI.
PROP.
XVIII.
THEOR.
Again, becaule
^^ ^
._
and md
^B
are equiangular,
ex
aequali,
In like
manner
it
may
fides
..
by (B.
6. def.
i.)
is
fimilar to
line
Q^E. D.
BOOK
VI.
PROP. XIX.
THEOR.
241
IMILAR
trian
gles
and ^fl
B \
are to
one
Let
4Bt Mk
.
and
^^ m
....
and
homologous
and of thefe
lines
^j
take
and on
a
the greater
.......
third
proportional,
fo
that
draw
(B. 6. pr. 4)
(B.
5. pr.
16, alt.),
(conft.),
but
confe
242
BOOK
VI.
PROP. XIX.
THEOR.
quently
A\
=
^*
for they
have the
fides
about
^^
and
4Bt
reciprocally proportional
AAA\
(B.
5P r.
7);
but
A \
^fc
::
..>>.
(B. 6. P r. 1),
that
is
Aa
and
one another
in the dupli
homologous
fides
Q^ E. D.
BOOK
VI.
PROP. XX.
THEOR.
243
[IMILAR
vided
into
poly
fame number of
fimilar triangles, eachfimilar
and
of their
homologous /ides
Draw
and
and
and
refolving
Then
are fimilar,
and
are fimilar,
and
^ ^
but
= w
;
gons
g/^
;;
and
^k
;
are equal
hence
......**
._..___._
triangles,
244
BOOK
:
VI.
PROP. XX.
THEOR.
and ....
_^__.
a
ex
sequali
and
as
M^
and
^^.
In like manner
it
may
triangles
^^
is
and
^W
in
are limilar.
But
.
is
to
to
M^
to
^^
of
in like
manner,
in the duplicate
ratio
to
>>
(B. 5. pr. 11);
Again
M^r M ^^
to
is
to
^^r ^^~
of
and
^r
is
to
^W
in
BOOK
VI.
245
to
and
fo
is
as
is
to
the
fum of
;
all
is
fum of
all
the
confequents
that
have to one
12).
5. pr.
But
is
to
of
to
is
to
WL.
in the duplicate
ratio
of _________
to
_____
E.
246
HOOK
VI.
ECTILINEAR
(
figures
and
to the famefigure
which arefimilar
Since
lar,
Hi
B^. and
arc fimi
fides
(B.
def.
1);
and
fince
the
figures
and
are equiangular,
^^
fides
proportional
therefore
and
fet.
fimilar.
are alio
equiangular, and have the fides about the equal angles proportional (B. 5. pr.
1
1),
Q.E.
D.
BOOK
VI.
247
Yfourfiraight
portional
::
:
(
PART
11.
PART
I.
lines be
:
pro"""
the
),
And
ftraight
if four Jimilar
rectilinear
figures, Jimilarly
lines,
defcribed on
four
the
be proportional,
part
1.
Take
and
a third proportional to
.
to
and
a third proportional
and
::
fince
... ......
: ;
;;
>
(hyp.),
(conft.)
.*.
ex asquali,
but
(B. 6. pr. 20),
and
248
BOOK
VI.
PART
II.
(hyp).
(conft.)
and
.*.
(B.
5. pr.
11).
Q.E. D.
BOOK VI PROP.
XXIII.
THEOR.
249
QUIANGULAR
ograms
)
(
parallel
and
in
their jides.
fides
_m
and
that they
ftraight
line.
Since
^
and
J = f\\
(hyp.),
<
J^ =
4
and /.
11
+
and
(B.
1.
'
form one
ftraight line
P r. 14);
complete
Since
#
(B. 6. pr. 1),
and
#
has to
_.
;B.6. pr.
1),
a ratio
,
compounded of the
ratios
1
of
.
to
and of
K
K.
^a
to
Q^E. D.
25o
BOOK
VI.
PROP. XXIV.
THEOR.
the parallelograms
^j
and
f B:
I
and
each other.
As
and
have
common
but becaufe
and
equal to thofe,
.*.
BJ
and
BLJ
manner
have the
fides
In the fame
it
parallelograms
]_J
rH
to
and
f B
/
are fimilar.
and
is
fimilar to
each
BOOK
VI.
25
defcribe
rectilinear figure,
to
a given
),and
equal
to
another
\wb
Upon
and upon
.
defcribe
defcribe
tB^
45), and then
and having
zz
.......
(B.
i. pr.
and
fame ftraight
line
(B.
1.
Between
and
find
mean
proportional
upon
fimilar to
fituated.
and fimilarly
Then
For
fince
and
..........
(conft.),
252
BOOK
VI.
but
_M (B.6.pr.
;B. 5
i);
.pr.n);
but
(conft.),
and .\
and
=
which
is
(conft.)
consequently,
fimilar to
^^fl Bk
is
alio
Q. E. D.
XXVI. THEOR.
253
and
Jimilarly
pofited parallelograms
and
(/J)
For,
if poffible, let
be the diagonal of
draw
(B.
1. pr.
31
Since
L.*13
fame
diagonal
and have
common,
but
(hyp)
and
.*.
which
is
abfurd.
is
in the
fame manner
line
it
is
=====
Q. E. D.
2 54
BOOK
VI.
contained
by
the
fegments of a given
Jlraight
greatejl
is
line,
the
is
be the
unequal fegments,
equal fegments
For
it
The
Q.E. D.
BOOK
O
(
VI.
255
divide a
given
Jlraight line
)
fo
that the
its
rec
tangle contained by
segments
may
not
exceeding
line.
the fauare
of
half the
=
or
make "*
and
if

the problem
is
iblved.
But
if
then
muft
(hyp.)
Draw
make
with

or
as radius defcribe a circle cutting the
^"
given line
draw
Then
X
(B. 2. pr. 5.;

But
(B.
1. pr.
+
47);
256
..
BOOK
VI.
+
*
'
__
is
But
X
mm
i
i
.*.
(conrt.),
fo divided
and
that
Q^E. D.
BOOK
VI.
257
O produce a givenjlraight
line
),fo
and
it is
pro
duced,
i.
may
e.
Make
draw

draw
*
and
and
defcribe a circle
produced.
Then
X
(B. 2. pr. 6.)
=
_
2
\
(B.
1.
But
......... 9 __
pr.47.)
+
*
+
2
X
=
C^E. D.
L L
258
On
(B.
i.
pr.
46)
and produce
(o that
x
(B. 6. pr. 29);
take
and draw
II
meeting
Then
u
and
is
/.
and
if
be taken the
common
part
,
J
which
is
the fquare of
"
will be
zr II, which
is
is
X
X
mean
ratio.
that
and
is
Q. E. D.
BOOK
VI.
259
any
fimilar
rectilinear
gled triangle
/\
(
),
the figure
)
fub
is
equal to the
From
perpendicular
.
then
but
(B. 6. pr. 20).
asMtm
Hence
+
+
ifiiiuai
but
and ,\
Q. E. D.
260
BOOK
VI.
F two
triangles
A ^
;
tf
/%\
^k
),
\\ \
rallel, the
W^mtSn
::
portionai
;
..........
....
),
and be Jo placed
remaining Jides
and
orm Jl
one right
line.
Since
=
and
alfo fince
(B.
i.
pr. 29)

(B.
1.
pr.
29);
= ^^
and
fince
(hyp).
A=A
but
+ m
+A=+4+A
1.
(B.
pr. 32),
and
.*.
and
1.
lie in
pr. 14).
Q.E. D.
XXXIII.
THEOR.
261
equal circles
00
o

),
angles,
fame
on which
they Jland
L:4.I
fo
alfo
Take
of arcs
in the
circumference of
any number
&c. each 35
and
alfo in
the circumference of
O
I
take
any number of
arcs
&c. each rr
of the equal
"
9
draw
the
arcs.
Then
""
, &c
alfo
the angles
#
is
\,
&c. are
equal (B.
3. pr.
27);
.*.
mwk
which
the
arc
is
of
and
in the
fame manner
4B^
is
4.
ml
which the
arc
,***
is
of the arc
262
BOOK
VI.
PROP. XXXIII.
evident (B.
THEOR.
Then
it is
3. pr. 27),
if
4V
^^
or if
times
EZ>
=, ^
4W
(or times
then
^+
(or
times * )
C>
).;
=^>
(o r times
^^
^^^
1...  ^
(B.
5.
def.
5),
or the ftand
which they
on which they
It is
4; B.
and
def. 9).
Hence,
if the fectors
fame
ratio to
one another
on which they
fland.
Q.E. D.
BOOK
VI.
PROP.
A.
THEOR.
263
an
external
angle
ll
ij/'
the trz
angle
Z
)
fide
),
and its external fegment () will be proportional to the ... #</ fides ( ), w^/'c/i contain the angle
adjacent to the external bifecJed angle.
For
if
be drawn

>* >
/,
(B.
1.
pr. 29)
= ^,(hy P =
and
,
.).
(B.
1. pr.
29);
and
(B. 5. pr. 7);
But
alfo,
IBIIIIEIIII
and therefore
*iaani>f
Q. E. D.
264
BOOK
VI.
PROP.
B.
THEOR.
F an
fecJed by a Jlraight
which
the rec
line
which
Let
be
drawn,
making
=
...
then fhall
+
(B. 4. pr. 5),
o
produce
to
meet the
circle,
and draw
Since 4fl
4Hk
(hyp)>
and
^T
(B.
3.
pr. 21),
,ZL y \
ROOK
VI.
PROP.
R.
X ~~^^~
(B.6.
pr.
THEOR.
265
x
16.)
=
but
X
(B. 2. pr. 3);
+
=
.
X
X
w
h
Q.E. D.
(B. 3. pr. 35 );
MM
266
BOOK
VI.
PROP.
C.
THEOR.
F from
Jlraight line be
drawn perpendi;
angle
is
the perpendicular
and
From
draw
mall
of
>**
*7>
_L
then
=
(B. 4. pr. 5),
Xthe
circle.
Defcribe
is
draw
its
diameter
and draw
3. pr.
then becaufe
>>
(confl.
and B.
3. pr.
31);
and
= /^
(B.
21);
j*.
equiangular to
and
.*.

==
(B. 6. pr. 16).
X
Q.E. D.
BOOK
VI.
PROP. D.
THEOR.
267
HE
rectangle
contained by the
diagonals of a quadrilateralfigure
infcribed in a circle,
is
equal to
Let
be any quadrilateral
figure infcribed in
o
and
;
and draw
then
X
Make
4^ =
W
and
(B.i.pr. 23),
^ =^
and
.*.
X
(B. 6. pr. 16)
;
amiiiiB
again,
becaufe
4 =
(conft.),
268
BOOK
and
VI.
PROP. D. THEOR.
\/ = \y
and /.
<...*
mi
;
from above,
X
(B.
2.
+
pr.
1
X
Q. E. D.
THE END.
cmiswick: PRiNTrn by
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