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UNIT 3 OUTCOME 2

THE MECHANISMS RESPONSIBLE FOR THE ACUTE RESPONSES TO EXERCISE IN THE CARDIOVASCULAR, RESPIRATORY AND MUSCULAR SYSTEMS
Assessment descriptor: Comprehensive and detailed analysis of collected data, thorough and insightful understanding of the mechanisms responsible for acute effects of the cardiovascular, respiratory and muscular systems of the body.

KEY KNOWLEDGE 1 WHAT YOU NEED TO UNDERSTAND


Mechanisms responsible for the acute responses to exercise in the cardiovascular system. Mechanisms responsible for the acute responses to exercise in the respiratory system. Mechanisms responsible for the acute responses to exercise in the muscular system.

KEY SKILLS
APPLICATION OF YOUR KNOWLEDGE

Participate in data collection, analyse and report on the acute responses occurring at the cardiovascular, respiratory and muscular systems in response to exercise.

What does mechanism mean?


It is what has made the change occur. For example:

What has made your heart rate increase? What has made your respiratory rate increase?

WHAT IS AN ACUTE RESPONSE?


The bodys immediate, short term responses that last only for the duration of the training or exercise session and for a short time afterwards during the recovery period. An acute physiological responses occur upon the commencement of exercise, during exercise and at the cessation of exercise.

WHAT MAKES UP THE CV


SYSTEM

CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM
Heart

Blood

vessels (arteries, arterioles, capillaries, venules and veins) Blood (RBC, WBC, platelets, plasma)

LIST ALL THE PHYSIOLOGICAL VARIABLES THAT COULD CHANGE IN THE CV WITH EXERCISE!

CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM
The CV system regulates the delivery of 02, and fuel to the body cells. The CV system also removes waste products from cells including CO2 and lactic acid and H+ As we begin exercising the CV assists us to meet the additional demands that the exercise is placing on the body. They assist to deliver more 02 to the working muscles.

CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM
HR
Blood flow

SV

AV02 diff BP

HEART
RATE

HEART RATE (HR)


HR is the simplest measure to gauge how hard the CV system is working it measures the hearts function. Measured in beats per minute - bpm There is a direct link between HR and exercise intensity. HR can be affected by variables such as fatigue, hydration, ambient temp, illness, fitness levels and altitude. Resting HR ranges from 60 to 80bpm! However, endurance athletes have HRs recorded as low as 28bpm. Lance Armstrongs resting HR is 32-34 with a MHR of 201.

HEART RATE
Just before beginning exercise you often get an increase in HR this is as a result as anticipating the exercise. This occurs because of a release of hormones such as epinephrine (adrenaline). HR will increase linearly with exercise intensity, so as exercise intensity gets harder heart rate will increase. This continues until a person reaches their max HR (MHR) and then it will plateau (even if exercise intensity continues to increase) We use this MHR to set athletes training zones.

HR VS INTENSITY

MAX HEART RATE

The general rule for working out a persons max HR is

MHR = 220 - age

For example a 20 year old will have a MHR of 22020 = 200bpm This is only an estimate and is based on MHR slowly declining with age. HR will vary for each individual

MECHANISMS CONTROLLING HR

HR is controlled by the parasympathetic an sympathetic nervous system as well as the endocrine system (hormones).

HR CONTROL VIA THE THE AUTONOMIC NERVOUS SYSTEM


PARASYMPATHETIC NERVOUS SYSTEM
We have no conscious control over the parasympathetic NS This system originates in the brain stem and extends to the heart via the vagus nerve Impulses that reach the heart via the vagus nerve cause a decrease in HR It also decreases the force of contractions of the cardiac muscle At rest it the parasympathetic NS is dominant when HR is less than 100bpm

HR CONTROL VIA THE

SYMPATHETIC

NS

Is the opposite side of the autonomic NS It has the opposite effect of the parasympathetic NS It stimulates the heart causing and increase in HR and an increase in the force of contractions It is dominant when HR is over 100bpm

HR CONTROL VIA THE


ENDOCRINE SYSTEM
Influences HR by the release of hormones epinephrine (adrenaline) and norepinephrine(noradrenaline) Both these hormones stimulate the heart increasing HR and force of contraction, usually during times of stress or pre-exercise. The sensation of butterflies in your stomach prior to a sporting event is a sign of adrenaline and norepinephrine being released into your blood and causing the heart rate/stroke volume and ventilation(RR X TV) to increase.

STROKE VOLUME

STROKE VOLUME
Stroke volume is the amount of blood ejected by the heart per beat (measured in millilitres ml) Stroke volume will increase with exercise to assist with the increased energy demands (increase O2 supplies to working muscles); i.e. More blood is pumped from the heart with each beat) Stroke volume is controlled during exercise by:

Volume of venous blood return (blood returning to the heart) Capacity of the ventricle to expand (distensibility) elasticity Capacity of the ventricle to contract (contractility) The pressure the ventricles have to contract against

STROKE VOLUME

STROKE VOLUME

Active untrained person

SV at rest 60-70ml/beat SV during max exercise 80-110ml/beat

Trained athlete
SV at rest 80-110ml/beat SV during max exercise 160-200ml/beat

Stroke volume will reach its maximum value between 40-60% of a persons VO2 max.

MECHANISMS RESPONSIBLE FOR INCREASES IN SV

There are 3 main factors that account for the increase in SV during exercise

How much the ventricle fills and stretches during diastole (relaxation period) Increase in neural stimulation Decrease in peripheral resistance as a result of vasodilation of the vessels (arterioles) supplying blood to the exercising muscles An increased force of contraction of the ventricles during systole (contraction period)

FRANK-STARLING MECHANISM
During exercise venous blood flow increases This causes the ventricle to stretch more as it fills more fully with blood This results in a more forceful contraction as a result of the greater elastic recall This is known as the Frank Starling mechanism = an increased amount of blood in the ventricle results in a stronger contraction of the ventricle, thereby increasing the amount of blood ejected (increased SV) Has the greatest effect at lower intensities

NEURAL STIMULATION
Increased neural stimulation can also lead to increases in SV, thus increasing the force of contractility of the ventricles during systole. The effect of this increases as exercise intensity increases

DECREASE IN PERIPHERAL RESISTANCE


As a result of vasodilatation (increase opening of the blood vessels) during exercise, there is a decrease in peripheral resistance of the blood being supplied to the working muscles This decrease means it is easier for the heart to empty blood from the ventricle and increases SV

CARDIAC OUTPUT

CARDIAC OUTPUT (Q)


Cardiac output = the total volume of blood ejected from the heart per minute Measured in litres per min L/min Changes in HR and SV lead to changes in Q Q = SV x HR Q(L/min) = SV(mL/beat) x HR (bpm) Cardiac output = stroke volume x heart rate

CARDIAC OUTPUT (Q)


At the beginning of exercise and up until approx 60% VO2 max, the increase in Q comes from the increase in HR and SV. However, after approx 60% VO2max what causes the increase in Q? SV has stopped increasing so it is the increase in HR that allows Q to continue to rise

CARDIAC OUTPUT (Q)

CARDIAC OUTPUT
Subject REST Untrained male HR SV Q

72

70

5.0

Untrained female
Trained male Trained female

75 50 55 200 200 190 190

x x x x x x x

60 100 80 110 90 180 125

= = = = = = =

4.5 5.0 4.4 22.0 18.0 34.2 23.8

MAX EXERCISE Untrained male


Untrained female Trained male

Trained female

CARDIAC OUTPUT CALCULATE


Exercise Condition HR (bpm) SV (ml/beat) Q (L/min)

Rest
60% Max HR 100% Max HR
Note: 1000ml = 1 Litre

60
100 200 120

4.2

40.0

BLOOD
PRESSURE

Systolic = the contraction or pumping phase of the heart Diastolic = the relaxation or filling phase of the heart Systolic BP = the pressure in the arteries following contraction of ventricles as blood is pumped out of the heart Diastolic BP = pressure in the arteries when the heart relaxes and the ventricles fill with blood

BLOOD PRESSURE
BP increases with exercise During exercise when we are using large muscles groups such as running, swimming and cycling affects the systolic BP more than the diastolic BP During max exercise systolic BP can increase from 120mmHg to 200mmHg Upper body exercises often see a greater increases in BP than lower body exercises Doing resistance activities (weight training) can cause even greater increases to systolic BP

BLOOD PRESSURE

REDISTRIBUTED BLOOD FLOW

BLOOD FLOW
At rest only about 15-20% of total blood flow is directed to the skeletal muscles with the majority of the remaining 80-85% being distributed to the organs of the body. During exercise blood flow redistributes known as redistributed blood flow A person of average fitness, during maximal exertion has blood flow greater than water from a kitchen tap! As soon as exercise begins blood flow is redistributed WHY? To increase the blood flow to the working muscles and a reduction the blood flow to organs This occurs to meet the bodies needs for increased O2 and nutrients

REDISTRIBUTED BLOOD FLOW


Redistributed blood flow occurs as a result of vasoconstriction and vasodilation (mechanism) Vasodilation = widening of the blood vessels causing an increase in blood flow (Primarily arterioles) Vasoconstriction = narrowing of the blood vessels causing a decrease in blood flow (Primarily arterioles) The blood vessels in regions requiring increases in 02 and nutrient delivery vasodilate The blood vessels in regions requiring decreases in 02 and nutrient delivery vasoconstrict These adjustments occur according to intensity

REDISTRIBUTED BLOOD FLOW


This also allows for increases in the surface area of capillaries This increases the area over which gaseous exchange occurs The redistribution of blood occurs because we need to increase blood supply up to 20 times greater than at rest; this can not solely be achieved by Q (Cardiac Output SV x HR) alone. Up to 80-90% of blood flow may be redirected to the working skeletal muscles during exercise.

REDISTRIBUTED BLOOD FLOW


This also allows for increases in the surface area of capillaries This increases the area over which gaseous exchange occurs The redistribution of blood occurs because we need to increase blood supply up to 20 times greater than at rest; this can not solely be achieved by Q (Cardiac Output SV x HR) alone.

REDISTRIBUTED BLOOD FLOW

VENOUS RETURN
Increases in Q (Cardiac Output) can only be accompanied by an increase in VENOUS RETURN During exercise Venous Return is increased using 3 mechanisms:

1.The

muscle pump 2.The respiratory pump 3.Venoconstriction of veins

VENOUS RETURN
The muscle pump

A mechanical pumping action caused by repetitive muscular contractions When the muscles around the veins contract, the veins are squashed together and the blood in them is forced towards the heart. VALVES in the veins prevent the blood from flowing backwards; i.e. the valves only allow blood to flow in 1 direction, back towards the heart. When the muscles relax, the veins re-fill with blood until the next contraction. & the process continues resulting in a pumping action.

VENOUS RETURN
The Respiratory Pump

During inhalation, the diaphragm contracts, moves downward, increasing abdominal pressure. The veins in the thorax & abdomen are squeezed & emptied towards the heart. During expiration, the process is reversed, allowing the veins to refill as the abdominal pressure decreases while the diaphragm relaxes. During exercise when venous return needs to increase, Respiration Rate increases thus increasing venous return.

VENOUS RETURN
Venoconstriction

Venoconstriction is a reflex controlled by the CNS It assists venous return by decreasing the capacity of the venous system forcing blood to be pushed towards the heart. Dont be confused between: VASOCONSTRICTION and VENOCONSTRICTION

ARTERIOVENOU S DIFFERENCE A-VO2 DIFFERENCE

ARTERIOVENOUS OXYGEN DIFFERENCE


A-VO2 diff is the measure of the difference in the concentration of O2 in the arterial blood and the concentration of oxygen in the venous blood Measured in millilitres per 100millilitres of blood Approximately 25% of 02 is extracted from the arterial blood at rest. During exercise the working muscles can extract up to 100% of the available O2 from the blood. therefore increasing the a-VO2 difference i.e. the difference between 02 levels in the arteries compared with the 02 levels in the veins

ARTERIOVENOUS OXYGEN DIFFERENCE

ARTERIOVENOUS OXYGEN DIFFERENCE