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Anatomi Batang

Anatomi Batang

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Published by: A Biologist Uad on Mar 09, 2013
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10/05/2013

Anatomi Batang

STRUKTUR INTERNAL BATANG
epidermis, cortex,

and vascular cylinder or stele. A. Epidermis
Terdiri dari satu lapis sel-sel hidup yang tersusun rapat. Dindingnya menebal dan tertutup oleh suatu lapisan anti air yang disebut kutikula. Stomata dan guard cell dijumpai dalam epidermis ini. Pada beberapa batang dapat dijumpai dedivat epidermis lain berupa rambut-rambut (trikoma)
Functions : Melidungi jaringan yang ada di bawahnya. Kuticula mencegah pengeringan jaringan di sebelah dalam dan mencegah hilangnya air. Stomata berfungsi untuk pertukaran selama proses respirasi dan fotosintesis

B. Cortex
- Area

ini tersusun oleh jaringan dasar : Kolenkima, parenkima, sklerenkima dan endodermis. - Area ini berada di sebelah dalam epidermis.
Collenchyma

Jaringan ini terletak di sebelah bawah (dalam) epidermis dan tersusun oleh tiga sampai empat lapis sel dengan penebalan sel di sudut-sudut dinding sel. Mungkin selsel kolenkim mengandung chloroplasts Functions of the Collenchyma
◦Sebagai penguat batang muda. ◦ Adanya kloroplas berperan untuk sintesis senyawa organik.

C. Stele

Terdiri atas jaringan atau berkas pengangkut, empulur ditambah dg dan jari-jari empulur (utk gol tbn ttt)  Berkas pengangkut : bervariasi dlm ukuran, susunan dan tipenya. Tipe berkas : kolateral, bikolateral, konsentris (amfivasal, amfikribral)  Empulur : tdr atas jar parenkim, mempunyai ruang antar sel, mubngkin mengandungminyak, kristal, atau sklereid, mungkin juga saluran getah.

Jari-jari empulur : berupa pita radier, tdr atas sel yg berderet-deret, mulai dari empulur sampai ke floem.  Fungsinya : melangsungkan pengaliran makanan kearah radial. Sering kelihatan adanya amilum atau kristal di selnya.

Batang Dikotil

Pada irisan melintang, susunan anatomis batang tbn dikotil terdiri dari jaringan : - epidermis, - kortek, dan - silinder pembuluh atau stele. - empulur

Epidermis

Terdiri dari satu lapis sel-sel hidup yang tersusun secara rapt. Dinding tebal dan terlapisi lapisan tipis tahan air yang disebut kutikula. Stomata dg guard cells dapat ditemukan pada epidermis. Pada beberapa batang tbn struktur dpt ditemukan adanya trikoma
Fungsi : - Melindungi jaringan yang di sebelah dalamnya. - Kutikula mencegah pengeringan jaringan di sebelah dalamnya dan juga mencegah hilangnya air. - Stomata memungkinkan tjd peetukaran gas utk proses respirasi & fotosintesis.

Kortek

 

Daerah ini tersusun oleh : kolenkima, parenkima, sklerenkima dan endodermis. Berada di sebelah dalam epidermis dan di sebelah luar stele. Kolenkima terletak tepat di sblh dlm epidermis, dpt tdr dari 3 atau 4 lapis sel dg penebalan dinding si sudut sel. Sel-sel kolenkim dpt mengandung chloroplasts Fungsi Kolenkim :
◦ Sebagai penguat pada batang muda. ◦ Kloroplas untuk fotosintesis (sintesis senyawa organik).

 

. . .

Parenkim : terletak di bawah kolenkim, tersusun oleh bbrp lapis sel, banyak ruang antar sel. Parenkim penyususn utama kortek Fungsi Parenkim : - Menyimpan cadangan makanan, khsusnya pati - Adanya ruang antar sel memungkinkan tjd pertukaran gas. Sklerenkim : tdr dari sel-sel mati, dg ddg sekunder, lumen sel kecil. Dapat berupa serabut sklerenkim (membtk berkas) atau sklereid. Fungsi : sebagai penguat. Endodermis : dkenal juga sbg sarung tepung (floeterma). Merupakan lapisan terdalam korteks. Terdudun oleh selapis sel yang terdusun rapat mengelilinmgi stele batang. Fungsi Endodermis : - Menyimpan pati - memungkinkan transport larutan dari berkas pengankut ke kortek

Silinder Pembuluh (Stele)

Daerah ini tdr dari : perisikel (perikambium), berkas penggkut, dan empulur (medula). Perisikel (tidak begitu jelas). Tersusun oleh sel-sel sklerenkim yang terlignifikasi, tdr dr sel-sel serabut mati. Sel-sel tebal, dinding berkayu dan ujung runcing. Fungsi Perisikel ◦ Penguat batang. ◦ Melindungi berkas pengangkut.
Berkas Pengangkut : Membentuk cincin, di sebelah dalam perisikel. Tersusun oleh 3 lapisan : floem, kambium, dan xilem. Floem terletak di sebelah luar berkas, xilem di sblh dalam berkas, diantaranya terdapat kambium vaskuler. Fungsi : - Xylem untuk transport air dan ion terlarut dari akar ke daun - Xylem berfungsi untuk penguat dan penegak batang. - Phloem utk transport senyawa organik dr daun ke seluruh bagian. - Kambium,membelah menghasilkan floem sekunder (ke arah luar) dan xilem sekunder (ke arah dalam). Responsibel utk pertumbuhan secender.

Pith (Medulla)
Empulur menempati bagian tengah batang. Tdr dari sel-sel parenkim dg ddg sel tipis dg ruang antar sel. DIantara berkas-2 pengangkut tdp garis pita parenkim yang disebut jari-jari empulur (medula), memanjang dari kortek ke empulur.  Fungsi empulur (medula) - menyimpan air dan pati - adanya ruang antar sel memungkinkan tjd pertukaran gas. - jari-jari mepulur mentransport substansi dari xilem dan floem ke bagian dalam dan luar batang.

BATANG

Monokotil

Dikotil

Stem of Medicago

Stem x.s. of Helianthus

Stem x.s. of Phaseolus

Medicago Stem Cross Section

Secondary Thickening in Dicotyledonous Stems In herbaceous dicots a limited amount of secondary thickening occurs, while it is more evident in perennial, woody dicots. The stem increases in thickness as it grows older. In the vascular bundle of a young dicot stem the xylem and phloem are separated by cambium. Secondary thickening begins when mature parenchyma cells in the medullary rays which lie between the adjacent vascular bundles become meristematic and form the fascicular cambium. The fascicular cambium forms a continuous ring of cambium as it joins up with the fascicular cambium. This cambium ring undergoes division to form secondary phloem to the outside and secondary xylem to the inside. The secondary xylem and secondary phloem are laid down in the form of concentric cylinders on either side of the cambium ring. At certain points the cambium forms parenchyma, which radiates from the middle of the stem through the secondary xylem and secondary phloem to form vascular rays. As a result of these changes the stem increases in thickness. The primary xylem and phloem are pushed further and further apart. The pith remains alive. Some of the parenchyma cells between the vascular bundles continue to exist to form radially directed vascular rays. Annual rings develop in the secondary xylem, each consisting of a layer of spring wood and a layer of autumn wood. A cylindrical meristem develops in the cortex, the cork cambium (phellogen). The cork cambium gives rise to the cork cells (phellem) on the outside and the secondary cortex (phelloderm) on the inside. Together this is known as the periderm. Opposite the stomata the cork cells (phellem) give rise to lenticells for gaseous exchange.

Two-year-old stem of Tilia

Three-year-old stem of Tilia

Kulit Kayu
-Periderm dan
-Floem sekunder Sap Wood

Heart Wood

Lingkaran tahun (xilem sekunder)

PERTUMBUHAN SEKUNDER

Kayu Dikotil

Stem of a Monocotyledonous Plant: Internal Structures

Secara umum terdiri atas lapisan : epidermis, ground tissue and vascular tissue .

Epidermis
The epidermis consists of a single layer of living cells which are closely packed.  The walls are thickened and covered with a thin waterproof layer called the cuticle.  Stomata with guard cells are found in the epidermis.  In some stems either unicellular or multicellular hair-like outgrowths, trichomes, appear from the epidermis. Functions :  The epidermis protects the underlying tissues.  The cuticle prevents the desiccation of inner tissues and thus prevents water loss .  The stomata allows gaseous exchange for the processes of respiration and photosynthesis.

Ground Tissue
This region is composed of small, thickwalled sclerenchyma on the inside of the epidermis. These layers of cells are followed by larger thin-walled parenchyma cells. Intercellular air spaces are found in the parenchyma. A cortex or pith is absent.  Functions

◦ Sclerenchyma tissue strengthens the stem. ◦ Parenchyma tissue stores synthesised organic food such as starch. ◦ Intercellular air spaces allow the exchange of gases.

Vascular Bundles
The vascular bundles are found scattered throughout the ground tissue. The vascular bundles occurring nearer the rind of the stem are smaller and are closer to one another. The vascular bundles contain no cambium and consequently secondary thickening does not occur. The vascular bundle is composed of the following parts:  Sarung Sclerenchyma : Thick-walled sclerenchyma fibres surround the vascular bundle.  Function of the Sclerenchyma sheath - Sclerenchyma sheaths protect the vascular bundles and give strength to the stem.

Xilem
Large xylem vessels are found within an irregular intercellular air space called the lysigenous cavity. This space is surrounded by thin-walled parenchyma cells.  Functions of the Xylem - Xylem transports water and dissolved ions from the root system to the stem. - The lignified thick-walled xylem cells strengthen the stem.

Floem
Phloem is composed of thin-walled cells, viz. sieve tubes and companion cells.  Function of the Phloem : - The phloem transports synthesized organic food such as carbohydrates from the leaves to other parts of the plant.

Stem x.s. of Asparagus

Differences between Monocot and Dicot Stems
Monocotyledon
1. A large number of vascular bundles. 2. The vascular bundles are scattered in the ground tissue.

Dicotyledon
1. A limited number of vascular bundles. 2. The vascular bundles are arranged in a ring.

3. No cambium occurs between the xylem and phloem.
4. There is no distinction between the cortex and pith. 5. No Secondary thickening.

3. Cambium occurs between the xylem and phloem.
4. The cortex and pith can be clearly distinguish. 5. Secondary thickening can occur. 6. Annual rings are formed due to secondary thickening.

6. No annual rings are formed.

Pembagian Area

Detail Perubahannya

Contoh Anatomi Batang

Batang

Akar

Stem x.s. of Cucumis

Stem x.s. of Lycopersicon

1. Name the tissue shown by line one. 2. What is the function of the tissue shown by line one? 3. Name the tissue shown by line three. 4. Name the tissue shown by line four. 5. Name the structure shown by bracket five. 6. Name the cell type shown by line six. 7. Is this stem woody or herbaceous? 8. Is this stem taken from a monocot of a dicot?

1. Name the tissue shown by line one. 2. Name the tissue shown by line two. 3. 3. Name one function of the tissue shown by line two. 4. What name is given to the region of the stem shown by bracket three. 5. Name the tissue shown by line four. 6. Name the tissue shown by line five. 7. Name the tissue shown by line six. 8. Is the stem shown woody or herbaceous? 9. Is the stem a monocot or a dicot? 10. Approximately, how old is the stem? 1-2 years, 4-6 years, 10-15 years

1. Name the tissue shown by line one. 2. Name the tissue shown by line 4. 3. Name the tissue shown by line three. 4. What is the function of the cells shown by line four. 5. How are these cells modified to fit their function? 6. Name the type of cell shown by line five. 7. What is the function of the tissue shown by line five. 8. Name the tissue shown by line two. 9. Which of the tissues shown are part of vascular bundles?

1. Name the tissue identified by line one. 2. Name the tissue identified by line two. 3. What is the function of the tissue shown by line two? 4. What is the tissue identified by line three? 5. What is the tissue identified by line four? 6. What is the function of the tissue identified by line four? 7. What is the tissue identified by line five? 8. What is the tissue identified by line six? 9. What is the function of the tissue identified by line six? 10. What is the tissue shown by line seven? 11. Is this a dicot or monocot stem? 12. Is this stem woody or herbaceous?

13. Name the tissue shown by line one. 14.Name the structure shown by line two. include all of the tissues within the bracket. 15. Name the tissue shown by line three. 16. Name the type of cells located at the end of line four. 17 What is the function of cells of this type? 18 Name the type of cell shown by line five. 19 Name the type of cell shown by line six. 20 Name the tissue composed of cells shown by line seven. 21.Name the tissue composed of cells shown by line eight. 22. What is the function of the tissue shown by line seven? 23. What is the function of the tissue shown by line eight?

24. Name the tissue shown by line one. 25. Name the tissue shown by line two. 26. Name the tissue shown by line three. 27. What is the function of the tissue hown by line three. 28. What name is given to the section of stem shown by bracket four. 29. Name the tissue shown by line five. 30. Name the tissue shown by line six. 31. What name is given to the section of stem shown by bracket seven. 32. What name is given to the section of stem shown by bracket eight. 33. Bracket nine? 34. How old is the stem?

Myriophyllum stem cross sectio

Perbedaan Antara Akar dan Batang
Akar 1. Tipe berkas 2. Letak berkas xilem primer 3. Endodermis 4. Jar Dasar 5. Trikoma Radial Eksarch Jelas Tdk ada kolenkim Perluasan plasma Batang Kolateral, Bikolateral, Konsentris Endarc Tidak jelas Sering dijumpai kolenkim Satu sel utuh atau lebih

PERBEDAAN AKAR DAN BATANG

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