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Adapted from L. Miriello by S.

Sharp

AP Biology Chapter 12 Guided Reading Assignment

Name Niki Sepanj

1. Compare and contrast the role of cell division in unicellular and multicellular organisms. -In a unicellular organism, cell division creates an entire new organism, but in multicellular organisms, it creates offspring. Additionally, in multicellular organisms, cell division enables sexually producing organisms to develop from a single cell (zygote), and it can also allow renewal and repair of cells. 2. Define the following terms: a. Genome: A cells genetic information. b. Chromosomes: DNA molecules are packaged inside of here. c. Somatic cells: All body cells except for reproductive cells. d. Gametes: reproductive cells. e. Chromatin: They make up eukaryotic chromosomes; they are a complex of DNA and protein molecules. f. Sister chromatids: A duplicated chromosome is made up to two chromatids that are exactly alike, thus the name sister chromatids. g. Centromere: The point at which two chromatids meet to form a chromosome. h. Mitosis: The division of the nucleus. i. Cytokinesis: The division of the cytoplasm. j. Meiosis: A cell division in which gametes are formed. 3. List the activities of the cell cycle: a. Mitotic phase: The phase in which the nucleus undergoes division. b. Interphase: The part of the cell cycle in which the cell grows, copies its DNA, and copies organelles. c. G1 phase: The first stage of interphase in which the cell grows. d. G2 phase: The third stage of interphase in which the cell copies the organelles and finishes its growth.

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Adapted from L. Miriello by S. Sharp

e. S phase: The second phase of interphase in which the cell copies its DNA for when mitosis occurs. 4. Define the following terms: a. Mitotic spindle: It forms in the cytoplasm during prophase and it pulls the chromosmes apart. b. Centrosome: This an organelle that assembles the microtubule spindle fibers. c. Microtubule organizing center: Part of centrosome that organizes the microtubule spindle fibers. d. Aster: an array of short microtubules that extends from each centrosome. e. Kinetochore: a structure of proteins associated with specific sections of chromosomal DNA at the centromere. 5. Describe the experiment concerning the movement of microtubules during mitosis and its results. -During interphase, the centromere replicates to make two centromeres and they move apart inside of prophase and prometaphase. Inside of metaphase, asters, short microtubules, form and extend from the centrosomes. Kinetochores of chromosomes and microtubules attach, making kinetochore microtubules, which will allow for the sister chromatids to be pulled apart from eachother. 6. Contrast cytokinesis in plant and animal cells. -Inside of animal cells, cytokenisis occurs by cleavage. Cleavage is first apparent because of a cleavage furrow, which is a groove on the old metaphase plate. Microfilaments allow the cleavage furrow to pinch and open, creating two separated cells. However, plants have a cell wall so the process is different. There is no cleavage furrow, so instead during telophase, vesicles from the golgi apparatus move along the microtubules and form a cell plate, which enlarges and surrounds the membrane, and separates the two daughter cells by coming in between them. 7. Define binary fission. -Binary fission is a cell division that prokaryotic cells undergo. The DNA begins to replicate in an area called the origin of replication, therefore, making two origins of replication. When the chromosomes are replicating, the cell elongates to about twice its original size, and the plasma membrane move inward, dividing the cell into two daughter cells.

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Adapted from L. Miriello by S. Sharp

8. Discuss the hypothetical evolution of mitosis. -It is said that two of the proteins involved in binary fission are related to eukaryotic tubulin and actin proteins. As eukaryotes evolved, binary fission must have given rise to mitosis. Also, two types of nuclear division in certain unicellular organisms have been unchanged over evolutionary time. In both of these cases, the nuclear membrane is intact. 9. What is the cell cycle control system and how do checkpoints play into this? -The cell control system is a cyclically operating set of molecules in the cell that both triggers and makes major events inside of the cell. Checkpoints are related to this because they are the parts of the cell cycle control system that check if the processes in the previous steps were done correctly so that the next step can continue. 10. What is a cyclin and what does it activate? -Cyclin is a protein whose concentration fluctuates cyclically (highest during mitosis). 11. What are Cdks? -Cdk is a cyclin dependent kinase, which is only active when it is attached to a cyclin. 12. What does MPF stand for and what does it promote? -MPF stands for Mitosis promoting factor. It promotes mitosis. 13. What is a growth factor? -A growth factor is a protein released by certain cells that stimulates other cells to divide. It is an external signal. 14. What is density-dependent inhibition? -It is an external signal. It is when cells stop dividing when they are crowded and cover a certain surface. 15. What is anchorage dependence? -It is also an external factor. It is when cells divide when they are attached to a certain substance, such as when a rock candy hardens onto a string. 16. Define the following terms: a. Transformation -The process that converts a normal cell into a cancer cell. b. Benign tumor -A tumor that is caused by abnormal cells remaining in the original site; a lump.

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Adapted from L. Miriello by S. Sharp

c. Malignant tumor -It is a tumor that becomes invasive and can impair the functions of one or more organs. d. Metastasis -The spread of cancer cells to locations distant from their original site.

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