Anda di halaman 1dari 68

TRUNG TM VIN THNG G CNG

THO LUN V LP T SA CHA ADSL

DSL

ADSL L G?
ADSL - Asymmetric Digital Subscriber Line

ADSL - tm dch l ng thu bao s bt i xng y l cng ngh kt ni Internet bng thng rng cho php va kt ni Internet 24/24 ng thi thc hin cuc gi trn cng mt ng dy dy in thoi. Cng ngh ADSL cho php ti d liu xung tc 1,5 - 8 Mbit/s, tc ti ln l 64 - 640 Kbit/s.

Nguyn ly truyn dn ADSL

ADSL s dung di tn truyn dn cao cua dy xon i ADSL dng nguyn ly ghp phn tn:
T 0 KHz n 4 KHz: POTS T 25,875 KHz n 138 KHz: Upstream T 138 KHz n 1.104 KHz: Downstream

Vic tach ghp thc hin bng b POTS Splitter co chc nng lc thng thp phia may in thoi

Thoi v ADSL truyn trn cng mt i dy!


Ordinary voice
ADSL signal

0-4KHz

26KHz

Voice

1 Low-pass filter

Twistedpair cable

Voice Low-pass filter Data

PSTN

Data High-pass filter 2

3
High-pass filter

Internet

Splitter at the Remote side

Splitter at the Central Office side

SPLITTER

Line (Tip, Ring)

Mch bo v

Mch lc thng thp

POSTs (Telephone)

Splitter

Mch lc thng cao

Modem
ADSL

Splitter: thit b chia tach tin hiu in thoi v d liu.

Hot ng cua b POTS Splitter

POTS

ADSL Modem ADSL


Up Down

Up

Down Splitter

ng dy PSTN
PC

May in thoi

SNG MANG TN HIU


276KHzDownstream pilot 69KHzUpstream pilot
4.3125KHz

1
Voice band

26KHz

16

31

64

256

1.1MHz Upstream sub carrier Downstream sub carrier

ADSL dng iu ch a tn ri rc DMT (Discrete Multitone Modulation) rng mi bin l 4,3125 KHz. Bin 1: POTS Bin 7 n 32: Upstream Bin 33 n 63, 65 n 255: Downstream Bin 64: pilot Bin 256: Nyquist khng truyn d liu

ADSL2, ADSL2+ Frequency Band

u ti dn MDF (Main Distribution Frame)

Ky hiu ti Block MDF


T tu DSLAM ra co 2 block:

P: l t vit tc cua PSTN


L: line.

Kin truc mng ADSL


voice PSTN data + voice voice

MDF

data

data www data

Customer Premises Equipment

Central Office

Lp t ti nh thu bao

S dng filter

Ni modem vi router

Tt ngun tt c cac thit b Ni card mng cua may tinh vi modem router. Ni adaptor cua modem router vi modem router v cm in adaptor.

Cap Ethernet u ni RJ45

u ni RJ10 RJ11

Chc nng ca modem router ADSL

So Sanh Tc Cac loi DSL

Lp t thay mi Modem ADSL hoc thit lp li mt khu qun tr

Kt ni Modem ADSL vo may tinh Ci Driver cho thit b Cu hnh cac thng s Kim tra & chy th

Lp ModemADSL vo may tnh Cm cap mng RJ45 t Modem vo may tnh Cm Adapter cung cp in cho thit b Cm ng dy in thoi vo cng RJ11

Ci Drive cho thit b may tinh Nu h iu hnh trn


bn t nhn c Modem th tt. Trng hp khng nhn c th bn cn a a driver i km ci t. Cng vic ny tng t nh bn ci t cho modem thng thng

Chun b kt ni LAN cho may tnh ci WinXP


Start\My Computer\My Network Places\ Set up a home or small office network\ Next\Next. Chn This computer connects to the Internet through a residential gateway or through another computer on my network\Next\ ghi m t may tinh v tn may tinh tun t vo 2 khung vn bn ri n Next. Chn tn workgroup vi mt nh l MSHOME ri n Next. Chn Turn on the file and printer sharing v n Next\Next. Chn Just finish the wizard; I dont need to run the wizard on other computers\Next\Finish. Khi c hi xac nhn reset may tinh th chn Yes.

Chn My Computer- Chn My Network Places

Set up a home or small office network - Chn Next

This computer connects to the Internet through a residential gateway or through another computer on my network\Next - Ghi m t may tinh v tn may tinh tun t vo 2 khung vn bn ri n Next

Chn tn workgroup vi mt nh l MSHOME ri n Next - Chn Turn on the file and printer sharing v n Next\Next

Chn Just finish the wizard; I dont need to run the wizard on other computers\Next\Finish

Khi c hi xac nhn reset may tinh th chn Yes.

Khng c biu tng Local Area Connection

Khi gn card mng, vo trang web cu hnh modem khng c, trong Network Connections khng c biu tng Local Area Connection: hy kim tra tra xem driver cua card mng ci ung cha bng cach click phi chut vo My Computer, chn Properties\Hardware\Device Manager. Double click vo Network Adapters xem cu hnh.

Li card mng
1/ Khng co muc Network Adapter hay khng thy co g l may khng nhn ra card mng: shut down may, g dy ngun, lp card mng li cho ung v tri. Xong khi ng li. 2/ Nu trong muc Network Adapter m thy co du hi l may nhn ra card mngnhng driver khng ung,dng a ci c card mng ci driver cho no hay tm trn mng Internet, a ch cua nh sn xut.

Kt ni LAN khng thnh cng

Kt ni qua USB

Ngun in cho modem Router ADSL

Bc 01: ng nhp vo Home Gateway ca Modem ADSL


Chng trnh qun tr thng s ca Modem ADSL thng c vit c dng 1 trang web (HTML) v c lu li trn chip nh ca modem. V th, cu hnh bn m 1 trnh duyt web, t thanh a ch trnh duyt nhp vo a ch IP mc nh m nh sn xut thit lp sn cho tng loi Modem ADSL. Thng a ch ny s dng cc IP c gi tr 192.168.1.1. Xut hin mn hnh ng nhp vo Home Gateway. Bn s dng ti khon v mt khu mc nh ca nh sn xut. V d: UserName : Admin ; Password : conexant

a ch, User v Password mt nh

Nu khng bit IP cua modem th sao?

Bc 02: Kim tra v khai bo


Cc thng s ny c thit lp gi tr mc nh nh: Gi tr ..VPI l 0, VCI l 32 Encapsulation l PPPoE LLC Nhp Username v Password do ISP cung cp. nh du check cho Automatic Reconnect Chn SUBMIT - Save Configuration - SUBMIT Sau khi click chn Submit, tn hiu trn Modem ADSL s b ngt tm thi khi ng li, sau khi tn hiu ADSL ngng hn, bn click chn HOME trn ca s menu tri.

Khng vo c Router

May tinh khng vo c trang web cua Modem

Chnh mc bo mt

Nu qun Password cua modem th th phi reset li, sau o dng user v password mt nh cua modem

reset dng modem SpeedTouch 500

Bc 1: Tt ngun modem (nhn v gi nut bt ngun trong vng 10 giy n khi no tt n ngun). Bc 2: Bt ngun (nhn v gi nut bt ngun trong vng 6 giy cho n khi n ngun sang ri bung ra) k n quan sat n ngun sau 6 ~ 10 giy n ngun s chp chp (lp loe) ta nhn vo nut bt ngun ri bung ra lin, luc ny quan sat s thy n ngun khng chp na, sau 6 ~ 10 giy n ngun li chp chp, ta n vo nut bt ngun 1 ln na ri bung ra lin. Quan sat ta thy tt c cac n u sang loe ln tc l reset thnh cng.

Khng lu sau khi ci t

Li kt ni PPP

PPP Connection b li: c 2 trng hp PPP Connection b li l tham s PPP b sai v username hay password b sai. - Trng hp th nht kim tra PPP phi co dng ong goi PPPoE/SNAP LLC, thng s ATM tng ng VPI/VCI l 0/32. - Trng hp th hai l phi nhp li cho ung username v password. Mt trng hp na l thu bao n tin cc nn b ngn kt ni PPP.

Trng hp PPP b li

Xac nh PPP b li:


Kt ni ADSL tt Kt ni Internet khng c

Khc phuc:
Kim tra li thng s
ATM: VPI/VCI = 0/32 (MegaVNN) Encapsulation (ong goi): PPPoE/SNAP LLC

Kim tra username v password Kim tra tnh trng ong cc cua thu bao

Ci t DNS server

Nhp chinh xac User Password

4 cu hi c bn phi tr li trc khi khc phc s c ADSL

Khc phuc s c
Loi li Khng ng b Hay rt mng My tnh Modem Splitter Kim tra Splitter Kim tra Splitter Khng lin quan ng dy

Khng lin quan Khng lin quan

Thay Modem kim tra


Xem System Log Khng lin quan

o c lp li Kim tra thng s Khng lin quan

Khng vo c Internet

Kim tra phn mm, NIC

Cac tnh hung trn ng dy

Cac tnh hung trn ng dy (tt)

Thc hin mt s ng tac nhc gac may, quay s bng xung, nu hay rt kt ni ADSL l b POTS splitter khng tt.

MODEM khng co tn tui th phi lm sao? Theo kinh nghim cua tui th qua nhiu loi th modem ADSL v cac loi router thng ph bin 3 loi: 1. l cac loi co lin quan n hng Cisco nh D-link, Linksys,... th username v password mc nh u l admin. 2. Ph bin nht l dng chip conexant, loi ny c bit co cac thng hiu thng thng nh Planet, Cnet hay nh 2 cai modem bn tui kim c xach t v, th username mc nh l admin cn password l epicrouter. Loi ny co cai hay l nu nh no co port usb, khi ta ni vo may th Windows s nhn ra thit b mi v yu cu ci driver. Nu dng Windows XP th cho no t tm th s c thi, nu 1 ln cha c th lm li nn ta Khng cn CD. 3. L loi do cac hng t lm tt c Khng dng chip cua hng khac nh Zoom chng hn th username v password th tu theo hng. Nu gp loi ny th ta nn v trang web cua hng tm kim file manual v download driver cho usb.

Cn v a ch IP setup modem th co 2 cai thng dng l 10.0.0.2 v 192.168.1.1. Bn co th v ln lt tng cai xem cai no m no i username v password l ung. Cn nu nh bn mun bit chinh xac khi mt cng th th khi may c cp a ch t modem, bn click vo biu tng kt ni ri chn tab support xem a ch cua may. Nu a ch l 10.0.0.x th a ch cua modem l 10.0.0.2 cn nu a ch may l 192.168.1.x th modem co a ch l 192.168.1.1. V nu nh mua my loi modem second hand nh vy bn nn cm in, ri ly 1 cai g nh nhn vo nut reset phia sau modem a v thng s mc nh v co khi ngi chu c thay i thng s. Trn y l mt vi kinh nghim cua mnh. Hy vng l s giup ich nhiu cho cac bn. V by gi gia gn ADSL r nhiu, ngi dng ch lo ngi chi phi cho modem. Nu bn kim c cac loi modem xach t bn nc ngoi v gia s r hn nhiu, c bit l hng Khng hp, Khng co phu kin km theo th gia s r hn. Tuy nhin bn cng nn test trc khi mua. Cn nu no Khng co adaptor hoc adaptor dng in 110V th ra ch Nht To mua cuc khac.

Cc lnh chun on kt ni
Click Start-->Run---> type cmd ---> press enter

Ca s lnh CMD
Cac lnh thng dng chun oan kt ni ADSL

Lnh IPCONFIG

ipconfig /all

Cng dung: + Lnh ny s cho php hin th cu hnh IP cua may tinh bn ang s dung, nh tn host, a ch IP, mt n mng...

Lnh Ping

ping ip/host
- ip: a ch IP cua may cn kim tra; host l tn cua may tinh cn kim tra. Ngi ta co th s dung a ch IP hoc tn cua my tnh. Cng dung : + Lnh ny c s dung kim tra xem mt may tinh co kt ni vi mng khng. Lnh Ping s gi cac goi tin t may tinh bn ang ngi ti may tinh ich. Thng qua gia tr m may tinh ich tr v i vi tng goi tin, bn co th xac nh c tnh trng cua ng truyn (chng hn: gi 4 goi tin nhng ch nhn c 1 goi tin, chng t ng truyn rt chm (xu)). Hoc cng co th xac nh may tinh o co kt ni hay khng (Nu khng kt ni,kt qu l Unknow host)....

Lnh Tracert

tracert ip/host
Cng dung : + Lnh ny s cho php bn "nhn thy" ng i cua cac goi tin t may tinh cua bn n may tinh ich, xem goi tin cua bn vng qua cac server no, cac router no... Qua hay nu bn mun thm d mt server no o.

Suy hao trn cp


Ngi ta thng so snh truyn dn tn hiu in vi li xe hi. Tc xe hi cng nhanh cng tn nhiu nhin liu v cng mau phi xng. Vi tn hiu in truyn trn cp ng th s dng tn s cng cao s cng lm gim c ly thng tin. iu ny l do tn hiu tn s cao truyn qua cp kim loi suy hao nhanh hn tn hiu tn s thp. Mt phng php ti thiu ho suy hao l s dng dy tr khng thp. Dy c ln c tr khng nh hn dy c nh nn lm suy hao tn hiu t hn v tn hiu c th truyn c n khong cch ln hn. D nhin s dng dy c ln s lm tng nhanh chi ph cho mng cp tnh trung bnh trn tng metre dy.

Suy hao trn ng dy ADSL


Tc Mb/s 25 20 15 10 5 8,1 Mb/s 6 Mb/s 2 Mb/s km 1 2 3 4 di ng dy 5 6

Khong cach Thu bao

Ch tiu cap ng
Suy hao chn: < 41dB (6M), < 47dB(2M), < 49 (1M) 300 Khz. Chi tit: T1.413 in tr vng < 1300 Ohm in tr cach in: > 1MOhm lch in dung: C < 2% Cn bng dc (LCL): > 40 dB ti 40Khz v gim 5 dB/decade Nhanh r: cng ngn cng tt
o th, anh gia ADSL
67

Mun bit c nhiu cua ng dy ta vo Modem tab Statistics/ADSL SNR >15 l tt, ti a l 31, trng hp cn thit chung ta co th nh bn cp port gii hn Rate bng vi tc goi cc m tbao ng ky th cung ci thin c i chuc!