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Discovering Albanian 1 Textbook

Discovering

Albanian 1
TEXTBOOK

Linda Mniku and Hctor Campos The University of Wisconsin Press

The University of Wisconsin Press 1930 Monroe Street, 3rd Floor Madison, Wisconsin 53711-2059 uwpress.wisc.edu 3 Henrietta Street London WC2E 8LU, England eurospanbookstore.com Copyright 2011 The Board of Regents of the University of Wisconsin System All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted, in any format or by any means, digital, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise, or conveyed via the Internet or a Web site without written permission of the University of Wisconsin Press, except in the case of brief quotations embedded in critical articles and reviews. 5 4 3 2 1

Printed in the United States of America

Library of Congress Cataloging- in-Publication Data Mniku, Linda. Discovering Albanian I textbook / Linda Mniku and Hctor Campos. p. cm. ISBN 0-299-25084-3 (pbk. : alk. paper) ISBN 0-299-25083-6 (e-book) 1. Albanian languageTextbooks for foreign speakersEnglish. I. Campos, Hctor. II. Title. PG9527.5.E5M46 2011 491.99182421dc23 2011021822

CONTENTS

Preface Acknowledgments Introduction The Albanian Alphabet The Pronunciation of Albanian Letters The Alphabet and Some Common Albanian Names Msimi 1: Prezantimi dhe prshndetjet (Introductions and greetings) 1 Subject pronouns in Albanian 2 The verb jam to be in the present indicative 3 The numbers from 0 to 12 4 Telling time (part 1) 5 Negative and interrogative sentences Msimi 2: Nga jeni? gjuh isni? (Where are you from? What language do you speak?) 6 The six classes of verbs and the verb as to speak in the present indicative 7 Countries, nationalities, and languages 8 Basic cases in Albanian; nga from to express origin and the nominative denite form of countries 9 Addressing someone by name 10 The numbers from 13 to 99 11 Telling time (part 2) Msimi 3: Ku banoni? (Where do you live?) 12 The verb punoj to work and class 1 verbs 13 The particle po 14 The preposition n in, at 15 Sa vje? Sa vjee? (How old?) 16 The verb kam to have in the present indicative 17 The verb vij to come in the present indicative 18 The preposition te(k) to, at (a place) 19 The numbers from 100 to 1 000 and the basic mathematical operations

xi xv 3 3 3 4 6 7 8 9 9 12

17 18 21 21 23 27 28 31 32 33 34 34 38 38 38 38

Msimi 4: far profesioni keni? (What is your profession? lit., What profession do you have?) 20 Masculine, feminine, singular, and plural professions and nationalities 21 The demonstrative forms 22 The days of the week and other time expressions 23 The irregular verbs jap to give, dua to want, and them to say 24 Inviting someone: a plus the present indicative 25 N or? N far ore? (What time?) 26 The numbers from 1 000 to 10 000 Msimi 5: N shtpi (At home) 27 Nominative singular denite nouns: feminine nouns 28 Nominative singular denite nouns: masculine nouns 29 Ka there is, there are 30 The prepositions mbi on and nn under 31 Class 2 adjectives: the linking article with singular denite nouns 32 Class 2 adjectives: adjective agreement (singular forms) 33 Class 2 adjectives with nominative singular indenite nouns 34 The weather 35 The seasons and the months of the year Msimi 6: Prsritje (Review) Msimi 7: far ka sonte n televizor? (Whats on TV tonight?) 36 The verbs njoh to know and shoh to see in the present indicative 37 Nominative/accusative plural indenite nouns: masculine nouns 38 Nominative/accusative plural denite nouns: masculine nouns 39 Nationality and class 1 adjectives 40 Nominative/accusative plural indenite nouns: feminine nouns 41 Nominative/accusative plural denite nouns: feminine nouns 42 Class 2 adjectives: the linking article with plural denite nouns 43 Class 2 adjectives: adjective agreement (plural forms) 44 Class 2 adjectives with nominative/accusative plural indenite nouns 45 Some irregular class 2 adjectives in the plural Msimi 8: N dyqan (At the store) 46 Class 2 verbs 47 Superlative constructions 48 Comparative constructions 49 The present subjunctive 50 The modal verbs duhet must and mund can and the present subjunctive 51 Other basic constructions that require the present subjunctive 52 The future indicative

45 47 48 49 55 55 55 56 62 64 65 66 66 73 74 75 76 77 85 90 92 92 94 95 100 101 102 103 104 105 114 116 117 119 122 124 125 126

vi Contents

Msimi 9: Shtpi dhe hotel (House and hotel) 53 Accusative singular nouns 54 Accusative plural nouns 55 Prepositions and the accusative case 56 The demonstrative forms in the accusative case 57 The interrogative pronouns kush who and cili which 58 Class 2 adjectives: the linking article with accusative denite nouns 59 Class 2 adjectives: the linking article with accusative indenite nouns 60 Ordinal numbers 61 Class 3 and 4 verbs Msimi 10: Festat zyrtare n Shqipri (Ofcial holidays in Albania) 62 Genitive singular denite nouns 63 Genitive plural denite nouns 64 Basic uses of the genitive case 65 Asking questions with whose 66 Modifying the genitive denite form 67 The genitive indenite form 68 The genitive forms of cili which 69 The genitive forms of the demonstratives ky this and ai that Msimi 11: Rrobat (Clothes) 70 Class 6 verbs: the present indicative of verbs that end in -(h)em 71 Passive constructions 72 Negative, progressive, subjunctive, and future of class 6 verbs 73 Dative pronouns: strong and weak forms 74 Basic uses of the dative case 75 Dative case on nouns 76 Position of the dative clitic pronouns 77 Dative demonstratives 78 Dative forms of kush who and cili which Msimi 12: Prsritje (Review) Msimi 13: Pushime dhe libra (Vacations and books) 79 The simple past indicative of class 1 verbs 80 The simple past indicative of class 3 verbs 81 The simple past indicative of class 2 verbs 82 The simple past indicative of irregular verbs 83 Accusative pronouns: strong and weak forms 84 Basic uses of the accusative clitic pronouns 85 T plus accusative clitic pronouns

133 135 137 137 138 139 144 146 147 148 155 157 161 163 164 165 170 172 172 180 182 184 184 189 189 191 192 192 193 199 205 207 209 209 210 215 215 216

Contents

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Msimi 14: Kinema, imejl dhe internet (Movies, e-mail, and the Internet) 86 The simple past indicative of class 6 verbs 87 Possessive adjectives: nominative forms 88 Possessive adjectives: accusative forms Msimi 15: far dshironi? (How can I help you?) 89 Attributive ablative singular indenite nouns 90 Attributive ablative plural indenite nouns 91 Basic uses of the ablative indenite case 92 far versus 93 The imperative 94 Negative imperative clitic pronouns 95 Ablative singular denite nouns 96 Basic uses of the ablative case 97 The ablative forms of kush who and cili which 98 The ablative forms of ky this and ai that 99 The ablative forms of the personal pronouns Msimi 16: Pushime dhe histori (Vacations and history) 100 The imperfect indicative of active verbs 101 The imperfect indicative of class 6 verbs 102 The imperfect subjunctive 103 The genitive, dative, and ablative forms of possessive adjectives Msimi 17: Shndeti (Health) 104 The present perfect of class 1 through class 5 verbs 105 The present perfect of class 6 verbs 106 Uses of the present perfect 107 The future perfect and present perfect subjunctive 108 The pluperfect Msimi 18: Prsritje (Review) Appendix 1: Personal pronouns and clitic pronouns Appendix 2: Demonstrative pronouns and adjectives Appendix 3: Possessive adjectives Appendix 4: The interrogative and relative pronouns cili which and kush who Appendix 5: Masculine nouns Appendix 6: Feminine nouns Appendix 7: Linking articles with class 2 adjectives

223 224 229 230 239 241 243 243 244 245 247 252 253 254 254 255 263 265 267 268 271 280 282 284 285 289 290 298 305 306 307 309 310 312 314

viii Contents

Appendix 8: Present and imperfect verb forms Appendix 9: Most common regular and irregular verbs Appendix 10: Past tense of regular and irregular verbs Appendix 11: Answers to selected exercises Vocabulary List Grammatical Index

315 318 320 325 341 367

Contents

ix

PREFACE

THE ALBANIAN LANGUAGE About seven million people speak Albanian as their native language. It is the ofcial language of Albania and Kosovo as well as of some municipalities in Macedonia and Montenegro.1 It is also the rst language for numerous minorities in other Balkan countries such as Greece, Serbia, and Bulgaria, even though some of these countries may not ofcially recognize these minorities as such. It is also spoken natively by different communities in southeastern Italy, all the way from Abruzzi to the island of Sicily. There is also a diaspora of Albanian speakers in the United States, Canada, Australia, New Zealand, Turkey, Germany, Russia, and Ukraine, among other countries. In Albanian the language is called shqip [cip], but until the fteenth century it was known as Arbrisht or Arbnisht, which is still the name given to the dialects spoken in Italy. Already in the second century A.D., Ptolemy, the Alexandrian astronomer, geographer, and mathematician, used the name Albanoi to refer to an Illyrian tribe that lived in what is now central Albania. Modern Greeks refer to the variety of Albanian spoken in Greece as Arvanitika. Albanian belongs to the Indo-European family, where it forms a branch of its own. Although there is no agreement as to its origin, most scholars would claim today that it is a descendant of the Illyrian language. However, another group of scholars would support the claim that it is a descendant of Thracian, while yet others would argue that it is related to Dacian. Albanian is a Balkan language, together with Greek, Romanian, Aromanian, Serbian, Croatian, Bulgarian, and Macedonian, among others.2 Albanian exhibits many of the Balkan Sprachbund properties,3 among them enclitic denite articles (where the denite article follows, rather than precedes, the noun) (Lesson 5), object reduplication (where the direct and the indirect objects may co- occur with the corresponding object clitic pronoun) (Lessons 11 and 13), dative and genitive merged into one case (Lessons 10 and 11), loss of the innitive (Lesson 8), innitive clauses replaced by a subjunctive clause (Lesson 8), future tense originating from the equivalent of the verb to want (Lesson 8), conditional formed with a future marker followed by an imperfect (Lesson 16), evidentials (see volume 2), and so on. Albanian has a literary tradition that goes back to the Middle Ages. Father Brocardus, a Dominican friar, observed in a leaet published in 1332 that the Albanians have a language quite

1. The name Kosovo is feminine in Albanian, so a better name in English might have been Kosova rather than Kosovo. 2. For a recent discussion of the Balkan Sprachbund properties, see Olga Mieska Tomi, Balkan Sprachbund Morpho-syntactic Features (Dordrecht: Springer, 2006). 3. Sprachbund is a group of languages that share linguistic features because of geographical proximity or because of language contact. It must be noted that while Romanian and Aromanian are Romance languages, Serbian, Croatian, Bulgarian, and Macedonian are Slavic languages.

xi

other than the Latins and that they use the Latin letters in all their books.4 Unfortunately, the rst written record only dates from 1462 and is a fragmentary document published by Pal Engjlli (Paulus Angelus), archbishop of Durrs. The rst book in Albanian, the Meshari (Missal), was written by Dom Gjon Buzuku in 1555 and is a compendium of church rituals. The rst known Latin Albanian dictionary, Dictionarium latinoepiroticum, was published in 1635 by Frang Bardhi. Regarding the study of Albanian grammar, Newmark, Hubbard, and Prifti have observed that the study of Albanian grammar has a tradition of 350 years and includes the work by Bardhi (1606 43), Bogdani (16001685), and Katalanos (163794), among others.5 Albanian is divided into two major dialects: Gheg, spoken north of the river Shkumbini, and Tosk, spoken south of it. The differences between these two dialects are mainly phonological, though some morphological, syntactic, and lexical differences are also evident. Typical characteristics of Gheg are distinctive vowel length and nasal vowels. Gheg speakers preserve n, while Tosk speakers have replaced n with r. Tosk speakers use diphthongs, while Gheg speakers have preserved the original monophthongs. There are a few morphological and syntactic differences between the two dialects as well. Gheg has a form equivalent to the innitive using the preposition me + past participle, while Tosk uses the preposition pr in a similar construction. The imperfect in Gheg is formed with the endings -sha and -she, while in Tosk it is formed with -nja and -nje. Tosk has borrowed many words from Greek, while Gheg has borrowed more extensively from Turkish and Slavic. The Albanian spoken in Italy and Greece suggests a Tosk origin, while that spoken in Serbia, Macedonia, and Kosovo reects a Gheg origin. The current conventions of using the Latin alphabet as well as a near phonetic system of writing were agreed upon in 1908, when a group of inuential scholars met at the Congress of Manastir (now Bitola, in Macedonia). In 191617 the Literary Commission of Shkodr, Albania, ratied the necessity that the orthography should be as phonetic as possible and proposed that a national literary language be adopted. This literary language was to preserve the literary elements that all the dialects had in common while discarding at the same time the more stigmatized regional forms. The commissions proposal was that the dialect of Elbasan (a southern Gheg dialect and perhaps the closest to Tosk) be adopted. This proposal was adopted by the Educational Congress of Lushnje in 1920. However, the commissions efforts to create a unied orthography and a unied standard language did not succeed. When the Communists took power in 1944, there was no standard form of the language that Albanians from all the regions would accept. However, over time, Tosk (the southern dialect) started to dominate and permeate writings in the political as well as in the cultural arena. In 1968, and in spite of the fact that they spoke the Gheg variety, members of the Konsulta Gjuhsore e Prishtins (Linguistic Conference of Prishtina), which took place in Kosovo (then in the former Yugoslavia), ofcially adopted the Standard Albanian in use in Albania as their literary language as well. In November 1972 the Kongresi i Drejtshkrimit t Gjuhs Shqipe (Congress of Albanian Orthography) took place in Tirana. In 1976, and under the auspices of the Academy of Science and the Institute of Language and Literature of the University of Tirana, the Fjalori drejtshkrimor i gjuhs

4. In L. Newmark, P. Hubbard, and O. Prifti, Standard Albanian: A Reference Grammar for Students (Stanford, Calif.: Stanford University Press, 1982), 3. 5. Ibid.

xii Preface

shqipe (Dictionary of Albanian Orthography) was published. This dictionary established the standard form and regulated the morphological and syntactic use of these words as well. It must be pointed out that the Tosk elements prevail in Standard Albanian, although, in principle, Standard Albanian is neither Tosk nor Gheg but a mixture of the two dialects.

ABOUT THIS TEXTBOOK This textbook is an introduction to Standard Albanian, although reference will be made to the Gheg and Tosk dialects when the dialectal forms differ drastically from the standard form. This textbook is accompanied by a CD that contains all the dialogues and readings. It is also accompanied by a workbook, Discovering Albanian 1 Workbook, in which additional grammar and vocabulary exercises can be found. This material is intended to be covered in sixty to eighty hours. We hope to supplement this textbook and workbook with two additional volumes, one dedicated to intermediate students and another dedicated to advanced students. This rst volume, entitled Discovering Albanian 1 Textbook, consists of eighteen lessons, including three review lessons.6 Each lesson is centered on a communicative topic that the learner is likely to encounter if he or she travels to an Albanian- speaking country or community. These topics teach the basic functions and vocabulary necessary to achieve a level A2/B1 in the scale provided by the Common European Framework of Reference (CEFR).7 Each lesson has more or less the following structure:8 Dialogue 1: grammar explanations, comprehension questions, grammar exercises Dialogue 2: grammar explanations, comprehension questions, grammar exercises Reading: comprehension questions The dialogues are intended to introduce the grammatical structures as well as the vocabulary to be treated in each lesson. Brief grammatical explanations follow the introductory dialogue(s). Full translations have been provided for all the examples discussed in the grammar sections so that this book can also serve as a descriptive grammar of Standard Albanian for someone who does not wish to learn the language per se. Technical linguistic terms have been kept to a minimum, and where their introduction has been unavoidable, they have been duly explained. We follow both an inductive as well as a deductive method of introducing the grammar: sometimes the student is given the rule, other times he or she is asked and guided to discover the rule. There is a constant review of the structures. An ample cross- reference system throughout the text allows the student to compare and expand structures. Exercises follow the grammar explanations. These exercises are divided into two categories. First, there are exercises that test the students comprehension of the introductory dialogues. In these exercises the student is asked to recognize and mimic the structures and the vocabulary being
6. This volume basically concentrates on the internal structure of the noun phrase, the system of case, and the most basic tenses and moods needed for communication: the present indicative, the present subjunctive, the imperative, the simple past, the imperfect indicative, and the imperfect subjunctive. Volume 2 will expand some of these issues in more depth and will nish the description of the complex verbal system of Albanian. 7. See http://www.coe.int/T/DG4/Linguistic/Source/Framework_EN.pdf. 8. Some lessons may contain an extra reading instead of a dialogue. The format for the grammar and exercises, however, remains the same.

Preface

xiii

taught while answering questions about the dialogues and readings. Second, there are exercises that allow the student to actively practice and generate the different grammatical points and vocabulary items. These exercises are carefully graded, starting with mechanical exercises and ending with more generative and productive exercises at the end of each section. Additional exercises to practice and master the structures can be found in the accompanying workbook. The vocabulary from previous lessons is also systematically reviewed in later lessons. An appendix with solutions to the more mechanical exercises is provided at the end of both the textbook and the workbook. All chapters end with a reading related to the topic under discussion. The reading is followed by comprehension exercises in which the grammar that has been introduced in the lesson is actively practiced. From Lesson 6 on, a crossword puzzle closes each lesson in the workbook. Students are highly encouraged to try solving these crosswords (solutions are given in the workbook), which include the active grammar and vocabulary from the current and previous lessons. Most lessons in the textbook end with a cultural note that discusses issues raised in the lesson as they relate to Albania or Kosovo. These cultural notes also discuss some basic differences between Standard Albanian and the northern and southern dialects. The textbook includes appendixes with charts of the most important constructions or forms presented in this volume. There is also an appendix with the answers to selected exercises and a grammatical index. The book ends with a vocabulary list of the words and expressions used in this book. For reasons of space, we have not included an EnglishAlbanian lexicon. For a bidirectional AlbanianEnglish, EnglishAlbanian dictionary, we refer the student to Ramazan Hysas Albanian, Standard Dictionary (Hippocrene Books, 2003). For a very good EnglishAlbanian dictionary, we recommend Pavli Qeskus Fjalor Anglisht Shqip (Botime EDFA, 2007), and for Albanian English, Leonard Newmarks AlbanianEnglish Dictionary (Oxford University Press, 1999). There are also some good sources online that you can access to help you with your translation exercises, both from English to Albanian and from Albanian to English: translate.google.com and www .argjiro.net/fjalor. For an excellent reference book for verb forms, we recommend Rozeta Stefanllari and Bruce Hintzs 541 Albanian Verbs (BookSurge, 2008).

xiv Preface

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

These materials were tested at Arizona State Universitys Critical Languages Institute (CLI) during the summers of 2008, 2009, and 2010 as well as at the University of Tirana during the Faculty of History and Philologys Albanian summer course. We would like to thank CLIs director, Dr. Steven Batalden, for letting us test these materials and for his continuing support for the Albanian language (along with many other less- studied languages) at CLI. We would also like to thank the students who participated in those classes and helped us make these two books more user- friendly. Special thanks to Yujun Mei for her thorough comments and suggestions on a previous version of this work. We are grateful to Lori Amy, Michael Kosse, Cynthia Lujan-Jenkins, Kimberly Kalaja, Jonathan Deaton, Tyson Sadler, Loren Paschke, Michael Mcintyre, Marco Purpura, Zachary Yentzer, and Kay K. New Win as well as to Ellen Johnson, Robert Laws, Charles Nagle, and Ariel Zachman from Georgetown University, all of whom helped with different aspects of the production of these volumes. We are deeply grateful to Violeta Librazhdi and Danko Sipka for their professional comments, suggestions, and support. Finally, our gratitude to Gwen Walker, all the production staff at the University of Wisconsin Press, and two anonymous reviewers for their encouragement and constructive suggestions to improve our presentation. The mistakes in the text remain, of course, only ours.

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Discovering Albanian 1 Textbook

Albania

Kosovo

INTRODUCTION

THE ALBANIAN ALPHABET A a I i Rr rr B b J j S s C c K k Sh sh L l T t D d Ll ll Th th Dh dh M m U u E e N n V v Nj nj X x F f O o Xh xh G g P p Y y Gj gj Q q Z z H h R r Zh zh

THE PRONUNCIATION OF ALBANIAN LETTERS Vowels Letter a e i o u y Consonants Letter b c d dh f g gj h j k l ll m Read As b c d dh f g gj h j k l ll m Pronunciation [b] [ts] [] [d] [] [f] [g] [] [h] [y] [k] [l] [] [m] English Equivalent boy pants child day they fine go gene1 hot yacht scooter light bull many Pronunciation [a] [e] [] [i] [o] [u] [] Approximate English Equivalent father pest around; not pronounced at the end of a word elite more roof vacuum, French tu

1. Pronounce like the g in gene, but with the tongue retracted toward the palate.

n nj p q r rr s sh t th v x xh z zh

n nj p q r rr s sh t th v x xh z zh

[n] [] [p] [] [, r] [] [s] [] [t] [] [v] [] [] [z] []

nothing canyon spot chin2 city (when pronounced as a ap; Spanish pero) Spanish perro sun show stop thought vow ads jar zone vision

THE ALPHABET AND SOME COMMON ALBANIAN NAMES Females Albana Bora Cuca iljeta Donika Dhurata Era ngjllushe Fatbardha Genta Gjenovefa3 Hotiana Ilira Jona Klesta Linda Llamburi Mimoza Nevila Njomza Olta Pranvera Qetim Rozafa Males Arbr Bledi Cemtar lirim Dardan Dhurim Ermal ngjll Fisnik Gzim Gjergj Hekuran Indrit Jetmir Kreshnik Lek Llesh Mentor Neritan Njomzak Oltion Plarent Qershina Redon

A B C D Dh E F G Gj H I J K L Ll M N Nj O P Q R

2. Pronounce like the ch in chin, but with the tongue retracted toward the palate. 3. Originally not an Albanian name.

4 Discovering Albanian 1

Rr S Sh T Th U V X Xh Y Z Zh

Rrezarta Sidita Shpresa Teuta Thllza Ulpiana Vesa Xixa Xhina4 Yllka Zana Zhuljeta

Rron Saimir Shklzen Taulant Thanor Urim Vullnet Xixllim Xhevahir5 Ylli Zamir Zhani6

4. Originally not an Albanian name. 5. Originally not an Albanian name. 6. Originally not an Albanian name.

Introduction

MSIMI 1
Prezantimi dhe prshndetjet
Introductions and greetings In this lesson you will learn: the basic greetings in Albanian the numbers from 1 to 12 how to tell time (part 1) You will learn the following grammatical points: the subject pronouns the verb jam to be in the present indicative afrmative, negative, and interrogative sentences with the verb jam to be

DIALOGU 1.1: PREZANTIMI A. Iliri: Mirmngjes! Un jam Iliri. Kush je ti? Teuta: Un jam Teuta. B. Iliri: Mirmngjes! Un jam Iliri. Kush jeni ju? Teuta: Un jam Teuta. C. Albana: Mirdita! Un quhem Albana. Si quhesh ti? Arjani: Un quhem Arjan. Po ai, si quhet? Adi: Ai quhet Adi. D. Iliri: Mirmbrma, Teuta! Si je? Teuta: Mir, faleminderit. Po ti? Iliri: ka. E. Brizi: Mirmbrma, Eanda! Si sht Trimi? Eanda: Mir, faleminderit. Po Vesa, si sht? Brizi: Shum mir.

F. Bora: Mirmbrma, Bledi! Bledi: Mirmbrma, Bora! Bora: Si jan Iliri dhe Teuta? Bledi: Iliri dhe Teuta jan shum mir. Po ju, si jeni? Bora: Ne jemi shum mir. Po Doruntina dhe Vesa, si jan? Bledi: Shum mir. Bora: Mirupafshim! Bledi: Mirupafshim, Bora!

FJALOR 1 ai ai qhet ka Dtn e mr! sht Falemindrit! jam jn je ti? jni jni ju? ju ju jni keq kush mr Mirdta! he he is called (his name is) so- so Good- bye! (lit., [Have] a good day!) he, she is Thank you! (I) am (they) are are you? (you) are are you? you (formal sing., formal/ informal pl.) you are bad who well Good afternoon! Mirmbrma! Mirmngjs! Mirupfshim! Ntn e mr! prshndtje po prezantm si Si qheni ju? Good evening! Good morning! Good- bye! Good night! greetings and (in questions) introduction how What is your name? (lit., How are you called? [formal sing.]) very very well you are (informal sing.) you are called (your name is) I I am I am called (my name is)

shm shm mr ti je ti qhesh n un jm un qhem

GRAMATIK 1 Subject pronouns in Albanian The subject pronouns are:


Singular Plural

un I ti you (informal)

ne ju

we you (informal)

1. Albanian does not use accent marks to indicate stress. We have bolded and written an accent mark on the stressed syllable in all vocabulary lists so that you know where to stress the new words.

Msimi 1: Prezantimi dhe Prshndetjet

ju you (formal) ai he ajo she Notice some important differences from English:

ju you (formal) ata they (masc.) ato they (fem.)

In the singular, the second- person pronoun (you) is distinguished for formality. Ti is the informal form (equivalent to the French tu), while ju is the formal form (equivalent to the French vous). In the plural form only ju is used, and it can be either informal or formal (again, equivalent to the French vous). Following tradition, we will always list ju as a plural form. There is no equivalent pronoun for the English it. All nouns will be either masculine or feminine, and the pronouns ai and ajo, respectively, can be used in place of the nouns. Remember, however, that pronouns are used mostly for emphasis. As a general rule, avoid the pronoun, since the verbal form clearly indicates the person. Ato is used when referring to a group of women exclusively. Ata can refer either to an exclusive group of men or to a mixed group of men and women. Kush jan ata? Ata jan Agroni dhe Sokoli. Ata jan Agroni dhe Teuta. Kush jan ato? Ato jan Bora dhe Albana. Who are they? They are Agroni and Sokoli. They are Agroni and Teuta. Who are they? They are Bora and Albana.

The third- person pronouns ai, ajo, ata, and ato can also be used as demonstrative adjectives or pronouns equivalent to English that or those (see 21). Thus, the following example is ambiguous: Ata jan Agroni dhe Sokoli. They are Agroni and Sokoli. Those are Agroni and Sokoli.

The pronoun kush who is typically used with the verb conjugated in the third- person singular (as in English; cf. Who speaks Albanian?). Lately, however, and most often with the verb to be, as in the examples below, it is used with the verb conjugated in the third- person plural if we know that the answer will be more than one person: Kush sht ajo? Ajo sht Vesa. Kush jan ato? Ato jan Vesa dhe Bora. Who is she? She is Vesa. Who are they? They are Vesa and Bora.

2 The verb jam to be in the present indicative These are the forms of the verb jam to be in the present indicative: un jam ti je ai sht ajo sht I am you are he is she is ne jemi ju jeni ata jan ato jan we are you are they are (masc.) they are (fem.)

8 Discovering Albanian 1

In Standard Albanian there is no innitive; thus, the form of the rst- person singular in the present indicative ( jam in our example) is the form used to refer to the verb or the form found in dictionaries.2 3 The numbers from 0 to 12 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 zero nj dy tre/tri katr pes gjasht shtat tet nnt dhjet njmbdhjet dymbdhjet

Notice that the number 3 has two forms, tre and tri. Tre is used with masculine nouns, while tri is used with feminine nouns. To form the numbers 11 and 12, simply add -mbdhjet (lit., on ten) to the basic unit. 4 Telling time (part 1) Sa sht ora? Ora sht katr. 1:00 2:00 3:00 8:00 9:00 12:00 What time is it? Its four oclock. Ora sht nj. Ora sht dy. Ora sht tre. Ora sht tet. Ora sht nnt. Ora sht dymbdhjet. Its one oclock. Its two oclock. Its three oclock. Its eight oclock. Its nine oclock. Its twelve oclock.

Notice that when you say Ora sht dy (Its two oclock), you are literally saying The hour is two.

2. Albanian has two major dialects: the northern dialect (called Gheg) and the southern dialect (called Tosk). In Gheg, verbs do have an innitival form, which is the form listed in dictionaries. The innitival form of the verb to be is me qen()/me ken()/me kan, depending on the region.

Msimi 1: Prezantimi dhe Prshndetjet

USHTRIMI 1.1 Complete the following sentences with the appropriate subject pronoun. Remember that proper names that end in -i are typically masculine, while proper names that end in -a are typically feminine. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. __________ jam Sokoli. ________ je Albana. __________ jemi mir. __________ jeni mir. ________ jam shum mir. __________ sht Albana, ________ sht Sokoli. __________ jan Albana dhe Agroni. __________ jan Albana dhe Teuta. __________ jan Sokoli dhe Agroni.

USHTRIMI 1.2 Complete the following sentences with the appropriate form of the verb jam in the present indicative. 1. Un ________ Gzimi. 2. Ju _________ mir, ne ________ keq. 3. Gzimi dhe Iliri _______ shum mir. 4. Mirmngjes! Un ____ Iliri. Po ti, kush _____? Un ______ Teuta. 5. Ai _________ Arjani. 6. Iliri dhe un __________ mir. 7. Albana dhe Vesa ___________ keq. 8. Ajo dhe ai __________ shum mir. 9. Ata _____ mir. 10. Ajo _____ Albana dhe ai _____ Sokoli.

USHTRIMI 1.3 Introduce yourself to a classmate and inquire how he or she is. Do this exercise in a formal style rst and then in an informal style.

USHTRIMI 1.4 Tell the time. 8:00 Ora sht tet. 1. 2. 3. 4. 7:00 10:00 9:00 11:00 5. 6. 7. 8. 12:00 5:00 3:00 1:00 9. 10. 11. 12. 2:00 4:00 6:00 8:00

10 Discovering Albanian 1

USHTRIMI 1.5 Read these numbers as fast as possible. Read them forward and backward. 1 3 5 7 9 11 2 4 6 8 10 5 7 6 9 10 12 9 4 2 12 1 5 7 9 10 9 8 7

DIALOGU 1.2: PRSHNDETJE D. Zonja Lira: Mirmngjes, zoti Agim! Si jeni? Zoti Agim: Mir, faleminderit! Po ju, si jeni zonja Lira? Zonja Lira: Shum mir. Mirupafshim, zoti Agim! Zoti Agim: Mirupafshim! E. Zonja Besa: Mirdita, zoti Dritan! Zoti Dritan: Mirdita, zonja Besa! Zonja Besa: Si jeni me shndet? Zoti Dritan: Mir, faleminderit. Po ju? Zonja Besa: Mir, n prgjithsi. Ditn e mir! Zoti Dritan: Ditn e mir! F. Beni: Mirmbrma! Si je Idlir? Idliri: Jo keq. Po ti? Beni: Mir. Natn e mir, Idlir! Idliri: Natn e mir!

FJALOR dt Dtn e mr! dhe jo j kq me shndt Mirupfshim! nt Ntn e mr! n prgjiths prshndtje day Good- bye! (lit., Have a good day!) and no, not not bad with health Good- bye! night Good night! (lit., Have a good night!) in general greetings Po t? si Si j? Si jni? Si jni me shndt? shndt shm Shm mr! ti ti j znja zti And you? (informal) how How are you? (informal) How are you? (formal) How are you? (lit., How are you with your health?) health very Very well! you (informal) you are (informal) Miss or Mrs. Mr.

Msimi 1: Prezantimi dhe Prshndetjet

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GRAMATIK 5 Negative and interrogative sentences Look at the following examples and then answer the questions below: Declarative sentence: Ju jeni Agimi. Negative sentence: Ju nuk jeni Agimi. Ju sjeni Agimi. Interrogative sentence: Jeni ju Agimi? A jeni ju Agimi? Are you Agimi? You are not Agimi. You are Agimi.

What are the two ways to form a negative sentence? _______________________________________________________________ What are the two ways to form an interrogative sentence? _______________________________________________________________ As we can see in the examples above, a negative sentence is made by adding nuk or s in front of the verb. There is no difference between nuk and s. An interrogative sentence is made by inverting the subject and the verb. You can also use the interrogative particle a in front of the inverted verb. There is no difference in meaning between the two interrogative sentences above. To answer a question, you can use po yes or jo no: Jeni ju Drita? Po, un jam Drita. Jeni ju Agimi? Jo, un nuk jam Agimi. Un jam Genci. Jo, un sjam Agimi. Un jam Genci. Are you Drita? Yes, I am Drita. Are you Agimi? No, Im not Agimi. Im Genci. No, Im not Agimi. Im Genci.

To answer a question afrmatively, use po yes. To answer a question negatively, use jo no. Po is also used to introduce the topic of a question. The closest English equivalent to this use is and. Un jam mir. Po ti? Ne jemi mir. Po ju, si jeni? I am well. And you? We are well. And you, how are you?

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USHTRIMI 1.6 Follow the model and answer the questions afrmatively (indicated here as +) using the formal form ju. Remember that masculine names typically end in -i, while feminine names typically end in -a. Practice with a classmate. Albani (+) (A) jeni ju Albani? Po, un jam Albani. Kush jeni ju? Un jam _________. 6. Edoni (+) 7. Besmiri (+) 8. Entela (+) 9. Kaltrina (+) 10. Ermali (+)

1. Drini (+) 2. Genta (+) 3. Iliri (+) 4. Arbri (+) 5. Vesa (+)

USHTRIMI 1.7 Do Ushtrimi 1.6 again, but now use the informal form ti, as in the example: Albani (+) (A) je ti Albani? Po, un jam Albani. Kush je ti? Un jam _________.

USHTRIMI 1.8 Follow the model and answer the questions negatively (indicated here as ). Practice with a classmate. Albani (), Arbi (+) or Eva (), Edlira (+) or 1. Drini (), Brizi (+) 2. Drita (), Persida (+) 3. Dhurata (), Manjola (+) 4. Kastrioti (), Shptimi (+) 5. Genci (), Mondi (+) (A) sht ai Albani? Jo, ai nuk sht Albani. Ai sht Arbi. Jo, ai ssht Albani. Ai sht Arbi. (A) sht ajo Eva? Jo, ajo nuk sht Eva. Ajo sht Edlira. Jo, ajo ssht Eva. Ajo sht Edlira.

Msimi 1: Prezantimi dhe Prshndetjet

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USHTRIMI 1.9 Follow the model and answer the questions negatively (indicated here as ). Practice with a classmate. Albani dhe Arbi (), Ervini dhe Iliri (+) (A) jan ata Albani dhe Arbi? Jo, ata nuk jan Albani dhe Arbi. Ata jan Ervini dhe Iliri. (A) jan ato Lura dhe Bardha? Jo, ato sjan Lura dhe Bardha. Ato jan Ilda dhe Arlinda.

Lura dhe Bardha (), Ilda dhe Arlinda (+)

1. Artani dhe Beni (), Edi dhe Arditi (+) 2. Qndresa dhe Lirza (), Flaka dhe Kaltrina (+) 3. Liridoni dhe Trimi (), Amli dhe Kevini (+) 4. Manjola dhe Alma (), Dhurata dhe Andra (+) 5. Lura dhe Jonida (), Eni dhe Kristina (+)

USHTRIMI 1.10 Hold miniconversations with your classmates, as in the example. Pay attention to the proper pronunciation of the names. Genci, 8:00 Mirmngjes, Genci! Mirmngjes _________. Genci, sa sht ora? Ora sht tet.

1. 10:00, iljeta 2. 9:00, Erjon 3. 8:00, Agron 4. 12:00, Gzim 5. 6:00, Jehona

INFORMACIONE KULTURORE The most common Albanian greetings are mirmngjes good morning, mirdita good afternoon, and mirmbrma good evening. In Shkodr (northwestern Albania) nadja e mir is also used for good morning. In Gheg- speaking populations, mirmngjes is pronounced like mirmjes. In northern Albania and in Kosovo, mirmbrma is pronounced mirmrama, and in central Albania, it is pronounced mirmroma. The word natn alone is often used for natn e mir. Tungjatjeta (lit., May your life become longer!) used to be a common equivalent to English hello. Nowadays this form is used only sporadically. However, its short form, tung, has be-

14 Discovering Albanian 1

Tirana (photo: Afrdita Koi)

come common for good- bye, especially in Kosovo. In Albanian- speaking populations in Macedonia, tung is also used for hello. Another common greeting that Albanians use when they greet one another informally is kemi (or in popular speech among young people, kena?), which is the equivalent of the English Whats up? (lit., What do we have?). In Kosovo, ka bone? is used instead. ao, an adaptation of the Italian ciao, is an informal farewell greeting, and it is especially popular among young people. Another word that is used for Mr. both in Standard Albanian and in Tosk is zotri. In Gheg, zotni is used instead. Zonjush is the equivalent for English Miss. In Gheg, this is often pronounced zojush.3 Zonj Mrs. was used to refer to the marital status of a woman (married, single). Nowadays, however, it is used also to address a woman who does not look young or to show respect. Zonj, especially in Gheg- speaking populations, is often pronounced zoj. During the Communist period zoti, zonj, and zonjush were not used. Instead, people addressed one another by using the word shok comrade (masc.) and shoqe comrade (fem.). Nowadays these words are used to mean friend. Albanian- speaking people usually shake hands when greeting someone or when saying goodbye. When joining or leaving a group of people, they shake the hand of everyone present. The

3. Nowadays, a reduced form of zojushzysh is colloquially used to address female teachers: zysh Mira Teacher Mira.

Msimi 1: Prezantimi dhe Prshndetjet

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handshake is quick and relaxed. Albanian- speaking people also stand very close to each other when talking. Speakers of Albanian move their hands a great deal while talking. Use ju when you talk to someone you address using a title such as zoti Agim, zonja Dea. Use the informal ti when you refer to a person using his or her rst name. Although ju is considered formal and ti informal, the use of ti for both situations is becoming more common among Albanians. Faleminderit thank you has two forms: falemnderit and faleminderit. Both of them are used interchangeably. Rrofsh! (lit., May you live!) is also used for thank you.

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MSIMI 2
Nga jeni? gjuh isni?
Where are you from? What language do you speak? In this lesson you will learn to say: where you are from what language(s) you speak what time it is the names of different countries, nationalities, and languages

You will learn the following grammatical points: the verb as to speak in the present indicative agreement between noun and adjective the denite and indenite forms of the names of countries the use of nga + the nominative denite form

DIALOGU 2.1: NGA JENI? Drini: Zonja Paola, nga jeni ju? Zonja Paola: Un jam nga Italia. Un jam italiane. Drini: Po ju, nga jeni, zoti Pjer? Zoti Pjer: Un jam nga Franca. Un jam francez. Drini: far gjuhe isni ju, zonja Paola?1 Zonja Paola: Un as italisht. Drini: Po ju, zoti Pjer? Zoti Pjer: Un as frngjisht. Zonja Paola: Po ju, Drini, nga jeni? Drini: Un jam nga Shqipria. Jam shqiptar dhe as shqip. Zoti Pjer: A isni ju frngjisht? Drini: Jo, un nuk as frngjisht, por as pak anglisht.

1. Notice that in the title we used the form gjuh, while in the dialogue we used the form far gjuhe to mean what language. Both constructions can be used interchangeably. As we will learn later, is used with the object case, while far is used with the ablative case, hence the different forms gjuh and gjuhe, respectively.

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FJALOR In this lesson you will learn that nouns have an indenite as well as a denite form. We will list both forms in that order here. We will also list adjectives in their masculine and feminine singular forms. a fr fr gjhe gjh as sni Frnc/, -a francz, -e frngjsht gjh interrogative particle what what what language what language (I) speak (you) speak France French (masc., fem.) (nationality) French (language) language Ital, -a italin, -e italsht nga Nga jni j? pak por shqip Shqipr, -a shqiptr, -e Italy Italian (masc., fem.) (nationality) Italian (language) from, from where Where are you from? a little but Albanian (language) Albania Albanian (masc., fem.) (nationality)

GRAMATIK 6 The six classes of verbs and the verb as to speak in the present indicative In Standard Albanian there is no innitive. Verbs are classied according to the form that the rst person singular (un) takes. There are six classes of verbs: Class 1: verbs that end in -j (msoj to learn) Class 2: verbs that end in a consonant (hap to open) Class 3: verbs that end in a vowel (ha to eat) Class 4: a few verbs that end in -i (hipi to get on) Class 5: irregular verbs (jap to give) Class 6: verbs that end in -(h)em (quhem to be called)

In this section we will start with the verb as, which, as we will see later, is a subtype of class 2: un as ti et ai et ajo et I speak you speak he speaks she speaks ne asim ju isni ata asin ato asin we speak you speak they speak (masc.) they speak (fem.)

Notice the three vowels that appear in this conjugation: -a- with un, ne, and ata/ato; -e- with ti and ai/ajo; and nally -i- with ju. In 5 you learned how to make a simple question (i.e., a question that you can answer with yes or no) for the verb jam to be. Unlike what we observe in English, all verbs follow the same pattern as jam in Albanian:

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Declarative sentence: Interrogative sentence:

Ti et anglisht. Flet ti anglisht?

You speak English. Do you speak English?

You can also use the interrogative particle a in front of the inverted verb: Flet ti anglisht? A et ti anglisht? Do you speak English?

It is also possible to make a question using the word order of a declarative sentence and raising the voice at the end of the sentence. Thus, the following three sentences are equivalent ways of asking a question in Albanian: Flet ti anglisht? A et ti anglisht? Ti et anglisht? Do you speak English?

To answer a question afrmatively, use the particle po yes: Flet ti anglisht? Po, un as anglisht. Do you speak English? Yes, I speak English.

To answer negatively, use the particle jo no and have nuk or s not precede the verb (see also 5): Flet ti anglisht? Jo, un nuk as anglisht. Jo, un sas anglisht. Do you speak English? No, I dont speak English.

Notice the position of the adverb pak a little in the following sentence: Un as pak shqip. I speak a little Albanian.

Finally, observe that while names of countries are capitalized, as in English, names of languages and nationalities are not:
Country Language Nationality

Albania England France Italy

Shqipria Anglia Franca Italia

shqip anglisht frngjisht italisht

shqiptar, -e anglez, -e francez, -e italian, -e

USHTRIMI 2.1 Indicate whether the following statements are true (T) or false (F) based on Dialogu 2.1. If the sentence is false, briey explain why (in Albanian!). 1. _____ Zonja Paola sht nga Italia. 2. _____ Zoti Pjer sht italian. 3. _____ Zonja Paola et frngjisht.
Msimi 2: Nga jeni? gjuh isni?

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4. _____ Zoti Pjer nuk et italisht. 5. _____ Zonja Paola sht nga Franca. 6. _____ Drini sht shqiptar. 7. _____ Drini et shqip. 8. _____ Drini nuk et anglisht.

USHTRIMI 2.2 Answer the following questions based on Dialogu 2.1. Dont use a subject in your answer unless you are being asked a question with kush who. 1. Nga sht zonja Paola? ____________________________________________________________ 2. far gjuhe et zonja Paola? ____________________________________________________________ 3. sht zonja Paola nga Franca? ____________________________________________________________ 4. A sht Drini nga Italia? ____________________________________________________________ 5. far gjuhe et Drini? ____________________________________________________________ 6. sht Drini francez? ____________________________________________________________ 7. Kush sht shqiptar? ____________________________________________________________ 8. Kush et italisht? ____________________________________________________________ 9. Kush et shqip? ____________________________________________________________ 10. Zoti Pjer sht nga Franca? ____________________________________________________________

USHTRIMI 2.3 Complete the following sentences according to Dialogu 2.1 using the following words. Italia italian 1. 2. 3. 4. Franca italiane Shqipria francez italisht franceze frngjisht shqiptar anglisht shqiptare shqip

Zonja Paola sht nga __________________. Zonja Paola et _______________________. Zoti Pjer sht nga _____________________. Zoti Pjer et __________________________.

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5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10.

Drini sht nga ________________________. Drini et _____________________________. Drini nuk et _________________________. Drini sht ___________________________. Zonja Paola sht ______________________. Zoti Pjer sht _________________________.

GRAMATIK 7 Countries, nationalities, and languages In Dialogu 2.1 we encountered the following countries, nationalities, and languages:
Shtet (Country) Kombsi (Nationality) Gjuh (Language) English Name

Itali Franc Shqipri

italian/e francez/e shqiptar/e

italisht frngjisht shqip

(Italy) (France) (Albania)

In Ushtrimi 2.3 you formed the following sentences: Zonja Paola sht italiane. Zoti Pjer sht francez. Drini sht shqiptar. (Mrs.) Paola is Italian. (Mr.) Pierre is French. Drini is Albanian.

Paola is a feminine noun; therefore, the adjective of nationality must appear in the feminine form. Zoti Pjer and Drini are masculine names, so the adjective of nationality must appear in the masculine form. This phenomenon, where the noun and the adjective must bear the same gender (masculine or feminine) as well as the same number (singular or plural), is called agreement. To form the feminine form from a masculine adjective of nationality, simply add -e to the masculine form of the adjective:2
Masculine Form Feminine Form

italian francez shqiptar

italiane franceze shqiptare

8 Basic cases in Albanian; nga from to express origin and the nominative denite form of countries Albanian, unlike English, is highly inected for case. Cases are endings added to nouns to indicate or mark a particular function of that noun in a sentence. There are ve cases in Albanian:

2. There are two classes of adjectives in Albanian. Class 1 is the class like adjectives of nationality. These adjectives do not need any extra element to modify a noun apart from agreement in gender and number. We will study adjectives that belong to Class 2 in 31. These adjectives require the presence of a linking article (typically i, e, s, or t) to be able to modify a noun. The following examples show the two classes of adjectives in Albanian: Class 1: Zonja Paola sht italiane. Class 2: Zonja Paola sht e smur. (Mrs.) Paola is Italian. (Mrs.) Paola is sick.

Msimi 2: Nga jeni? gjuh isni?

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nominative (typically used with subjects and a couple of prepositions) accusative (typically used with direct objects and some prepositions) dative (typically used with indirect objects) genitive (typically used to indicate possession but also used with some prepositions) ablative (typically used with some temporal and locative prepositions)

Since the denite article follows the noun in Albanian, denite and indenite nouns will have different endings in the different cases. (This may sound overwhelming, but we will study these different cases one by one, so there is no need to worry about them right now.) You have already encountered the following sentences expressing country of origin: Zonja Paola sht nga Italia. Zoti Pjer sht nga Franca. Drini sht nga Shqipria. (Mrs.) Paola is from Italy. (Mr.) Pierre is from France. Drini is from Albania.

In the previous section we observed that names of countries have two forms: Itali, Italia; Franc, Franca; Shqipri, Shqipria. The rst form is the indenite form, while the second form is the definite form. The feminine article -a is equivalent to our English the, so when you say Shqipria, you are actually saying the Albania. Notice that the denite article in Albanian follows the noun; thus, when you say Shqipria, you are actually saying Albania- the. To express the country of origin we use the preposition nga from. Nga requires the denite form of the country in the nominative case. As mentioned above, the nominative case is typically used to express subjects, but it is also used after a couple of prepositions, including nga (see also 18). Literally, nga Italia means from the Italy. Notice also that since the denite article follows the noun in Albanian, when you say nga Italia, you are literally saying from Italy- the. To form the nominative denite form of a country, follow the following rules: 1. If the noun ends in -, change the - into -a: Franc Franca

2. If the noun ends in a stressed -i, add -a: Itali Shqipri Italia Shqipria

3. If the noun ends in a stressed vowel, except -i, add -ja: Kanada Eritre Kanadaja Eritreja

4. If the noun ends in a consonant, add -i: Brazil Egjipt Brazili Egjipti

5. If the noun ends in a -k, -g, or -h, add -u: Irak Luksemburg Nagorni Karabah Iraku Luksemburgu Nagorni Karabahu

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In general, nouns that end in a vowel are considered feminine; those that end in a consonant are considered masculine. Thus, rules 1 through 3 apply to feminine nouns, while rule 4 applies to masculine nouns. 9 Addressing someone by name Compare the following sentences: Agimi sht nga Tirana. Nga je, Agim? Agim is from Tirana. Where are you from, Agim?

In the rst example, Agimi is the subject of the sentence. Subjects typically are expressed in the nominative case. Notice that with proper names, the nominative denite form of the proper name must be used when the name is used as a subject. In the second example, we are addressing or talking to Agim. Notice that in this instance, we have used the indenite form of the masculine noun.3 If a masculine name ends in -i, then the -i is kept both when addressing that person and when the name serves as a subject: Ardi sht nga Tirana. Nga je, Ardi? Ardi is from Tirana. Where are you from, Ardi?

With feminine names, on the other hand, we use the denite form when we use the names as subjects or as address forms: Paola sht nga Italia. Nga je, Paola? Paola is from Italy. Where are you from, Paola?

When we use the title zoti Mr., we use the indenite form of the name, unless the name ends in -i: Zoti Agim, Zoti Arben Zoti Ardi, Zoti Bledi Mr. Agim, Mr. Arben Mr. Ardi, Mr. Bledi

With the feminine title zonja Mrs., we also use the indenite form of the noun, unless the feminine name ends in -a: Zonja Ingrid, Zonja Evis Zonja Arta, Zonja Eda Mrs. Ingrid, Mrs. Evis Mrs. Arta, Mrs. Eda

With other titles, like doktor(esh) doctor and msues(e) teacher, we always use the denite form of the name while we use the indenite form of the title. Notice that in this instance there is no difference between masculine and feminine names: Doktor Agimi, Doktor Ardi Doktoresh Ingridi, Doktoresh Arta Msues Agimi, Msues Bledi Msuese Evisi,4 Msuese Eda

3. Vocative case is typically the case used to address someone. Traditional grammars of Albanian, however, do not consider the vocative to be a separate case. This is due to the fact that the forms used are the same as the nominative (denite and indenite) forms. 4. Notice that the denite forms for Ingrid and Evis are Ingridi and Evisi, respectively. Although they are feminine names, they are treated as masculine names because they both end in a consonant. We add -i to form the corresponding denite form.

Msimi 2: Nga jeni? gjuh isni?

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USHTRIMI 2.4 Make sentences as in the example. Pay close attention to the way you form the denite form of the country and to the agreement with the adjective of nationality: Amerik, amerikan 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Ai sht nga Amerika; sht amerikan.5 Ajo sht nga Amerika; sht amerikane.

Shqipri (Albania), shqiptar Angli (England), anglez Bullgari (Bulgaria), bullgar Gjermani (Germany), gjerman Kin (China), kinez

USHTRIMI 2.5 Make sentences using the information given, as in the example: Tom (male), Amerik Maria (female), Spanj 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Ahmeti (male), Turqi Gzimi (male), Shqipri Ming (male), Kin Elena (female), Gjermani Melita (female), Greqi Tomi sht nga Amerika; (ai) sht amerikan. Maria sht nga Spanja; (ajo) sht spanjolle. _________________________________________ _________________________________________ _________________________________________ _________________________________________ _________________________________________

USHTRIMI 2.6 Make sentences using the information given in Ushtrimi 2.5, as in the example. Remember to use the correct form of the name, since you are talking to these people. Tom (male), Amerik Maria (female), Spanj Tom/ Tomi, nga je? Jam nga Amerika; jam amerikan. Maria, nga je? Jam nga Spanja; jam spanjolle.

5. In the spoken language you can use Amerik; however, in more formal language you should use Shtetet e Bashkuara t Ameriks (typically abbreviated as SHBA and pronounced as shba). In a more formal language, then, this example should be Tomi sht nga Shtetet e Bashkuara t Ameriks, ai sht amerikan.

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USHTRIMI 2.7 On the next page there is a list of countries, nationalities, and languages. Make statements as in the example: Danieli sht nga Anglia, sht anglez. Ai et anglisht. Maria sht nga Brazili, sht braziliane. Ajo et portugalisht.

USHTRIMI 2.8 Using the list of countries, nationalities, and languages that follows, ask questions as in the example. Then have a classmate answer your question. Mohamedi sht nga Egjipti. far gjuhe et ai? Zoti Bacila et rumanisht. Nga sht ai? Countries, Nationalities, and Languages
Shtet (Country) Kombsi (Nationality) Gjuh (Language) English Name

Angli Armeni Austri Brazil Bullgari eki Danimark Egjipt Estoni Finland Franc Gjermani Greqi Holand Hungari Irland Itali Izrael Japoni Jordani Kanada Kin Kosov Kroaci Letoni Lituani Meksik Norvegji

anglez/e armen/e austriak/e brazilian/e bullgar/e ek/e danez/e egjiptian/e estonez/e nlandez/e francez/e gjerman/e grek/e holandez/e hungarez/e irlandez/e italian/e izraelit/e, hebre japonez/e jordanez/e kanadez/e kinez/e kosovar/e kroat/e letonez/e lituanez/e meksikan/e norvegjez/e

anglisht armenisht gjermanisht portugalisht bullgarisht ekisht danisht arabisht estonisht nlandisht frngjisht gjermanisht greqisht holandisht hungarisht irlandisht italisht hebraisht japonisht arabisht anglisht/frngjisht kinezisht shqip kroatisht letonisht lituanisht spanjisht norvegjisht

England Armenia Austria Brazil Bulgaria Czech Republic Denmark Egypt Estonia Finland France Germany Greece the Netherlands Hungary Ireland Italy Israel Japan Jordan Canada China Kosovo Croatia Latvia Lithuania Mexico Norway

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Countries, Nationalities, and Languages (continued)


Shtet (Country) Kombsi (Nationality) Gjuh (Language) English Name

Poloni Portugali Qipro Rumani Rusi Serbi Sllovaki Slloveni Spanj Suedi Shqipri Shtetet e Bashkuara t Ameriks Turqi Ukrain Zvicr

polak/e portugez/e qipriot/e rumun/e rus/e serb/e sllovak/e slloven/e spanjoll/e suedez/e shqiptar/e amerikan/e turk/e ukrainas/e zviceran/e

polonisht portugalisht greqisht/turqisht rumanisht rusisht serbisht sllovakisht sllovenisht spanjisht suedisht shqip anglisht turqisht ukrainisht frngjisht/gjermanisht /italisht/retorumanisht

Poland Portugal Cyprus Romania Russia Serbia Slovakia Slovenia Spain Sweden Albania United States of America Turkey Ukraine Switzerland

DIALOGU 2.2: GJUH FLISNI? Paola: Si je Pjer? Pjeri: Mir, faleminderit. Po ti, Paola? Paola: Mir, n prgjithsi. Pjer, kush sht ajo? Pjeri: Ajo sht Ava. Paola: Prshndetje, Ava. Nga jeni ju? Ava: Jam nga Franca. Po ju? Paola: Jam nga Italia. A isni ju italisht? Ava: Jo, nuk as italisht. Un as frngjisht dhe pak spanjisht, kurse Pjeri et frngjisht dhe pak gjermanisht. Po ju, isni frngjisht? Paola: Flas pak. Po ti, Besa, a et frngjisht? Besa: Edhe un as pak frngjisht. Por as shum mir shqip. Ava: Pse et shqip mir? Besa: Sepse jam shqiptare. Ava: M falni! Sa sht ora tani? Besa: Tani sht ora katr e gjysm.6 Paola: Jo, Besa. Tani ora nuk sht katr e gjysm, por katr e nj erek.7 Ava: Faleminderit! Mirupafshim! Paola, Besa: Mirupafshim!

6. We could also say katr e tridhjet minuta four and thirty minutes. 7. We could also say katr e pesmbdhjet minuta four and fteen minutes.

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FJALOR erk dhe edhe n gjsm krse quarter also I also (me too) half while, whereas M flni! pak pse spse tan Excuse me! little why because now

GRAMATIK 10 The numbers from 13 to 99 In the previous lesson we learned the numbers from 1 through 12. Do you remember how to say 11 and 12? 11 ____________________ 12 ____________________ You see that we add -mbdhjet (lit., on ten) to the basic unit to form the numbers 11 and 12. Follow the same pattern for the numbers between 13 and 19. To form units of ten, add -dhjet to the basic unit. Notice that 20 and 40 are formed on -zet, an old measure indicating twenty units. 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 trembdhjet katrmbdhjet pesmbdhjet gjashtmbdhjet shtatmbdhjet tetmbdhjet nntmbdhjet njzet 30 tridhjet 40 dyzet8 50 pesdhjet 60 gjashtdhjet 70 shtatdhjet 80 tetdhjet 90 nntdhjet

Use the conjunction e if you want to add units to the units of ten: 21 35 46 57 68 79 81 99 njzet e nj tridhjet e pes dyzet e gjasht pesdhjet e shtat gjashtdhjet e tet shtatdhjet e nnt tetdhjet e nj nntdhjet e nnt

8. In the Gheg dialect katrdhjet is used.

Msimi 2: Nga jeni? gjuh isni?

27

11 Telling time (part 2) In Dialogu 2.2 you encountered the following times. Notice the words for quarter (nj erek) and half (gjysm): 4:15 4:30 (Ora sht) katr e nj erek. (Ora sht) katr e gjysm. Its a quarter after four. Its four thirty.

Use the conjunction e to express the minutes after the hour: 6:20 8:40 10:50 (Ora sht) gjasht e njzet (minuta). (Ora sht) tet e dyzet (minuta). (Ora sht) dhjet e pesdhjet (minuta). (Its) twenty (minutes) past six. (Its) eight forty. (Its) ten fty.

You can, optionally, use minuta minutes after the number indicating the minutes. Use the conjunction pa to express minutes before the hour: 8:40 9:45 7:35 sht nnt pa njzet (minuta). sht dhjet pa nj erek. sht tet pa njzet e pes (minuta). Its twenty (minutes) to nine. Its a quarter to ten. Its twenty- ve to eight.

USHTRIMI 2.9 Complete the following chart based on the information in Dialogu 2.2. Under nga write the country these people are from; under kombsi write their nationality (pay attention to the agreement!). Under the different languages indicate whether they speak them (+) or not (). nga Paola Pjer Ava Besa kombsi italisht frngjisht gjermanisht shqip

USHTRIMI 2.10 Indicate whether the following statements are true (T) or false (F) based on Dialogu 2.2. If a statement is false, briey explain why (in Albanian!). 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. _________ Ava sht nga Italia. _________ Pjeri dhe Ava asin italisht. _________ Pjeri dhe Ava jan nga Franca. _________ Paola et italisht. _________ Ava dhe Pjeri asin frngjisht dhe gjermanisht. _________ Besa sht nga Shqipria. _________ Ora sht katr e gjysm tani. _________ Ora sht katr e nj erek.

28 Discovering Albanian 1

USHTRIMI 2.11 Read the following numbers as fast as you can. 10 12 25 23 20 22 35 29 40 39 30 44 48 40 65 59 42 74 67 22 89 79 96 98 88 87 76

USHTRIMI 2.12 Read the following times as fast as you can. 4:45 Ora sht katr e dyzet e pes. Ora sht pes pa pesmbdhjet. Ora sht pes pa nj erek. 8:50 10:45 11:10 9:25 2:35 5:15 6:05 1:55 10:00

3:20 4:40 7:30

USHTRIMI 2.13 Complete the following sentences with the correct form of the verb jam or as. 1. Drini dhe un ___________ (as) shqip. Ne ___________ ( jam) nga Shqipria. 2. A __________ (as) ju greqisht? Jo, ne nuk _____________ (as) greqisht. Ne __________ (as) spanjisht dhe pak shqip. 3. A ____________ ( jam) Pjeri dhe Ava nga Egjipti? Jo, nuk ____________ ( jam) nga Egjipti. ________ ( jam) nga Franca. Mohamedi ___________ ( jam) nga Egjipti. Nga __________ ( jam) ti? Un ________ ( jam) nga Anglia. 4. Pse _____________ (as) ju shqip? Ne ____________ (as) shqip, sepse __________ ( jam) nga Shqipria! Nga _________ ( jam) ju? Un _____________ ( jam) nga Suedia dhe __________ (as) suedisht.

INFORMACIONE KULTURORE On TV, in ofcial meetings and activities, as well as in airline timetables, military time is used. Thus, Ora sht trembdhjet would be the equivalent of Its one oclock in the afternoon. With military time nj erek and e gjysm are not used. Instead, the full minutes are mentioned: Ora sht trembdhjet e tridhjet (minuta) Its one thirty (p.m.), or Ora sht trembdhjet e pesmbdhjet (minuta), Its one fteen (p.m.).

Msimi 2: Nga jeni? gjuh isni?

29

Prishtina, Kosovo, February 17, 2008. Flags of nations that have supported the independence of Kosovo. (photo: Bevis Fusha)

In the spoken language nj erek is often pronounced just as erek. Thus, you will hear tet e erek instead of tet e nj erek for a quarter after eight. In Kosovo time is told differently. Instead of using Sa sht ora?, Kosovars say Sa asht sahati?9 Also, pesmbdhjet fteen is used instead of nj erek. Thus, instead of saying Ora sht pes e nj erek, they would say Ora sht pes e pesmbdhjet. In Kosovo, to say the minutes lacking before the hour Kosovars use edhe (minutes) n (hour). Thus, instead of saying dy pa pes for ve (minutes) to two, they say edhe pes n dy. It may seem strange that Albanians use zoti Mr. and zonja Mrs. followed by the rst name (see 9). This may be due to the fact that during the Communist government, people addressed each other with the appellative shoku comrade, which was followed by the rst name. When shoku was replaced by zoti, it continued to be used with the rst name. The use of the last name after zoti or zonja is considered more formal.

9. Sahat is a Turkish word (from Arabic) meaning clock.

30 Discovering Albanian 1

MSIMI 3
Ku banoni?
Where do you live? In this lesson you will learn to say: where you come from where you live the numbers from 100 to 1 000 the names of some basic mathematical operations

You will learn the following grammatical points: the verb punoj to work and class 1 verbs the particle po to express action in progress the preposition n in, at and te(k) to, at (a place) the verbs kam to have and vij to come

DIALOGU 3.1: KU BANONI? Drini: Zonja Paola, ju dhe zoti Marko jeni nga Roma? Zonja Paola: Po, jemi nga Roma. Drini: A banoni ju n Rom? Zonja Paola: Po, banojm n Rom. Drini: Po ju, zoti Pjer? A jeni ju nga Parisi? Zoti Pjer: Jo, un jam nga Lioni, por banoj n Paris. Po ju, Drini, ku banoni? Drini: Un jam nga Tirana, por banoj n Sarand. bni ju n Shqipri? Punoni ktu? Zonja Paola: Jo, un dhe burri im nuk punojm n Shqipri. Jemi ktu me pushime. Zoti Pjer: Kurse un po msoj shqip n universitet. Drini: Paola, a keni fmij? Zonja Paola: Po, kam nj vajz. Drini: Sa vjee sht ajo? Zonja Paola: Vajza ime, Maria, sht 10 vjee. Drini: Po ju, zoti Pjer, a jeni i martuar? Zoti Pjer: Po, jam i martuar dhe kam nj djal. Djali im, Eduardi, sht 12 vje. Zonja Paola: Po ju, Drini, a jeni i martuar? Drini: Jo, nuk jam i martuar. Jam beqar.

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FJALOR banj banjm banni beqr beqre bj bni brr, brri brri m , fr djl, djli djli m fmj im me kt ku Lin, -i (I) live, to live (we) live (you) live single (masc) single (fem) (I) do, to do you do husband, the husband my husband what son, the son/boy, the boy my son child, children my (masc.) my (fem.) here where Lyon (France) i martar e martar me pushme n Pars, -i po msj po punjm punjm punn pushme Rm/, -a Sarnd/, -a Tirn/, -a universitt vjz/, -a vjza me vj, -e married (masc.) married (fem.) on vacation in, at Paris I am learning we are working we work he or she works, you work vacation(s), holidays Rome Saranda Tirana university daughter, the daughter/girl, the girl my daughter years old

GRAMATIK 12 The verb punoj to work and class 1 verbs As we mentioned in 6, there are six verb classes in Albanian. Verbs that end in -j belong to class 1. Below is the verb punoj to work in the present indicative. Notice that the stress falls on the vowel preceding the ending:1 un ti ai, ajo punj punn punn ne ju ata, ato punjm punni punjn

Notice that the forms for both ne and ata/ato keep the -j that the rst- person singular (un) also bears. The verb msoj to learn is conjugated like punoj: un ti ai, ajo msoj mson mson ne ju ata, ato msojm msoni msojn

1. Remember that accent marks are not used in Albanian. We have added accents to the model conjugation so that you know where to put the correct stress.

32 Discovering Albanian 1

The verb bj to do follows the same pattern: un ti ai, ajo bj bn bn ne ju ata, ato bjm bni bjn

Bj is used in interrogative structures: far bni? bni? What do you do? What are you doing? The verb gatuaj to cook also follows the same pattern: un ti ai, ajo gatuaj gatuan gatuan ne ju ato, ata gatuajm gatuani gatuajn

All verbs that end in -oj, -j, -ij, -yej, -uaj, -aj, and so on follow the same pattern. In Dialogu 3.1 we encountered the following verbs: banoj bj msoj punoj to live to do to learn to work

Practice conjugating them in all persons! 13 The particle po So far you have encountered two different uses of po. To answer a question afrmatively (5): A isni ju shqip? Po, as pak shqip. To introduce the topic of a question (5): Un as spanjisht. Po ti? I speak Spanish. And you? Do you speak Albanian? Yes, I speak a little Albanian.

In Dialogu 3.1 you encountered the following sentence: Un po msoj shqip n universitet. I am learning Albanian at the university.

We also use the particle po followed by a verb in the present indicative to express an action or condition that is taking place at the moment. Notice that to make a negative sentence, nuk precedes po. Un po msoj shqip. Un nuk po msoj shqip. I am learning Albanian. I am not learning Albanian.

Msimi 3: Ku banoni?

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14 The preposition n in, at Consider the following sentences: Drini sht nga Shqipria. Ai banon dhe punon n Shqipri. Zoti Pjer sht nga Franca, por ai punon n Franc. Drini sht nga Tirana, por nuk banon n Tiran. Paola sht nga Roma dhe banon n Rom. What nominative form of the noun (denite or indenite) follows the preposition nga in these examples? _______________________________________________________________ What form of the noun follows the preposition n in these examples? _______________________________________________________________ In 8 we saw that nga from is followed by the nominative denite form of the country or city. N in, at, on the other hand, is followed by the accusative indenite form of the country or city. The accusative indenite form (which is the same form as the nominative indenite form) is usually the form listed rst in our glossary and in dictionaries and is taken as the base to form the denite form. 15. Sa vje? Sa vjee? (How old?) To ask how old someone is, use Sa vje? if you are asking a male and Sa vjee? if you are asking a female. Sa vjee sht vajza? Sa vje sht djali? How old is the girl (the daughter)? How old is the boy (the son)?

To answer, use vje/vjee following the age. As in the corresponding question, use vje for males and vjee for females: Sa vje sht Agimi? sht 22 vje. Sa vjee sht Mira? sht 18 vjee. How old is Agim? He is 22 years old. How old is Mira? She is 18 years old.

USHTRIMI 3.1 Indicate whether the following statements are true (T) or false (F), based on Dialogu 3.1. If a statement is false, briey explain why (in Albanian!). 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. _____ Paola sht nga Italia, nga Roma. _____ Paola banon n Rom. _____ Tani Paola sht n Itali. _____ Paola po mson shqip n Shqipri. _____ Drini sht nga Saranda.

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6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12.

_____ Drini punon n Tiran. _____ Pjeri sht nga Parisi, por sht n Shqipri tani. _____ Paola sht shqiptare. _____ Paola dhe Pjeri po msojn shqip n universitet. _____ Paola punon n Shqipri. _____ Paola ka nj djal. _____ Zoti Pjer sht beqar.

USHTRIMI 3.2 Answer the following questions based on Dialogu 3.1. 1. Nga jan Paola dhe zoti Marko? Ku banojn ata? ____________________________________________________________ 2. bn Paola n Shqipri? ____________________________________________________________ 3. A sht zoti Pjer nga Parisi? ____________________________________________________________ 4. Ku banon zoti Pjer n Franc? ____________________________________________________________ 5. bn ai n Shqipri? ____________________________________________________________ 6. Kush sht nga Tirana? ____________________________________________________________ 7. A banon ai n Tiran? ____________________________________________________________ 8. A sht i martuar zoti Pjer? ____________________________________________________________ 9. Sa vje sht Eduardi? ____________________________________________________________ 10. Sa vjee sht Maria? ____________________________________________________________

USHTRIMI 3.3 Complete the following sentences with the correct form of the country or city indicated. Remember that nga takes the nominative denite form, while n takes the accusative indenite form. 1. Paola sht nga _____________ (Itali). sht nga __________ (Rom). Ajo banon dhe punon n ___________ (Rom). 2. Pjeri sht nga _________ (Franc). Banon n _____________ (Paris), por nuk sht nga ___________ (Paris). sht nga ____________ (Lion).

Msimi 3: Ku banoni?

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3. Drini sht nga ___________ (Shqipri). sht nga _________ (Tiran), por tani nuk po banon n ____________ (Tiran). Ai po banon n ___________ (Sarand). 4. Un jam nga ____________ (Amerik). Jam nga _____________ (Boston), por tani po banoj n ____________ (Shqipri). Banoj n _____________ (Kor). Burri im sht nga ______________ (Kor). 5. Erika dhe Klausi jan nga ________________ (Austri). Ata jan nga ______________ (Vjen), por tani nuk po banojn n ______________ (Vjen). Po banojn n _______________ (Shqipri), n ________________ (Vlor).

USHTRIMI 3.4 Complete the following sentences with the appropriate form of the verb banoj to live in the present indicative. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. Un ________ n Tiran. Ju _______ n Franc, kurse ne _________ n Itali. Ata ________ n Egjipt. Un _______ n Gjermani. Po ti? Edhe un ________ n Gjermani Ti _________ n Portugali. Ema dhe un ______________ n Turqi. Ata ________ n Greqi. Ajo dhe ai _______ n Bullgari. Ato _____ n Meksik. Ajo _______ n Kosov, kurse ai _______ n Angli.

USHTRIMI 3.5 Add the missing endings for questions and answers. 1. far b____ ju n universitet? (Ne) mso____ shqip. 2. far po b____ ajo? Ajo po puno____. 3. po b____ ata? Ata po a____ italisht. 4. po b____ ti? Un po mso____ anglisht. 5. po b____ ato? Ato po mso____ turqisht dhe greqisht.

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DIALOGU 3.2: KU PO SHKON? Gzimi: Mirdita, Drilona! Drilona: Mirdita, Gzim! Gzimi: Drilona, nga po vjen? Drilona: Po vij nga puna. Gzimi: Po tani, ku po shkon? Drilona: Po shkoj n shtpi. Po ti, ku po shkon? Gzimi: Po shkoj te Sokoli. Drilona: Si sht Sokoli? Gzimi: Mir. Drilona: A ka fmij Sokoli? Gzimi: Po, ka nj djal dhe nj vajz. Vajza sht 8 vjee dhe djali sht 10 vje. Ata shkojn n shkoll. Po vajza jote shkon n shkoll? Drilona: Jo, vajza ime nuk shkon n shkoll. Ajo sht 5 vjee dhe shkon n kopsht. Gzimi: Me se shkon ajo n kopsht? Drilona: N mngjes shkojm bashk n kopsht me biiklet, kurse pasdite vjen nga kopshti me makin. Gzimi: Po n mbrmje, bn, Drilona? Drilona: Zakonisht lexoj, shikoj televizor ose gatuaj, kurse vajza luan. Gzimi: Edhe un lexoj ose shikoj televizor. Drilona: Gzim, po vjen autobusi. Gzimi: Un nuk po vij me autobus. Po shkoj m kmb. Mirupafshim, Drilona! Drilona: Mirupafshim, Gzim!

FJALOR autobs, autobsi bshk biiklt gataj kmb kopsht, kpshti lexj laj makn me s m kmb n mbrmje n mngjs se pn/, -a bus, the bus together bicycle to cook foot, feet kindergarten, the kindergarten to read to play car how (transportation) on foot in the evening in the morning or work, the work/job, the job shikj shkoj shkj n shtp shkll shkon shtp n shtp te, tek televizr vjz, vjza vjza me vjza jte vj vjn zakonsht to watch to go I go home school you go, he or she goes house at home to, at television girl/daughter, the girl/the daughter my daughter your daughter I come, to come you come, he or she comes usually
Msimi 3: Ku banoni?

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GRAMATIK 16 The verb kam to have in the present indicative un ti ai, ajo kam ke ka ne ju ata, ato kemi keni kan

17 The verb vij to come in the present indicative un ti ai, ajo vij vjen vjen ne ju ata, ato vijm vini vijn

The verb vij takes the same endings as punoj (see 12); however, notice that with the pronouns ti and ai/ajo, the vowel of the stem changes from -i- to -je-. Notice that the verb vij is typically used with the preposition nga from, while the verb shkon is typically used with the preposition n at, to: Un vij nga puna. Un shkoj n pun. Im coming from work. Im going to work.

18 The preposition te(k) to, at (a place) In this lesson you encountered the following sentences: Un po shkoj te Sokoli. I am going to Sokolis house.

Tek or te, like nga (see 8), is followed by a nominative denite noun, and it expresses the direction to or the location at a denite place. Tani jam tek Albani. Tani jam te Sokoli. Now I am at Albans (house). Now I am at Sokolis (house).

Tek is used when the noun that follows starts with a vowel; te is used when the noun that follows starts with a consonant. 19 The numbers from 100 to 1 000 and the basic mathematical operations Units of 100 are formed by adding -qind to the basic unit. 100 njqind 200 dyqind 300 treqind 400 katrqind 500 pesqind 600 gjashtqind 700 shtatqind 800 tetqind 900 nntqind 1 000 nj mij

Pay special attention to the forms derived from the number 3: 3 tri 30 tridhjet 300 treqind

38 Discovering Albanian 1

Notice the use of e and between the hundreds and the tens and also between the tens and the units (see also 10): 355 treqind e pesdhjet e pes 846 tetqind e dyzet e gjasht Now lets learn the names of two basic mathematical operations: Sa bjn . . . ? How much is . . . ? (lit., How much do . . . make?) 5 + 5 = 10 12 3 = 9 pes plus pes bjn dhjet dymbdhjet minus tre bjn nnt

USHTRIMI 3.6 Indicate whether the following statements are true (T) or false (F) based on Dialogu 3.2. If a statement is false, briey explain why (in Albanian!). 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. _____ Drilona vjen nga shtpia. _____ Gzimi tani po shkon n shtpi. _____ Sokoli sht i martuar. _____ Sokoli ka nj djal dhe nj vajz. _____ Djali i Sokolit (Sokolis son) sht 8 vje. _____ Djali i Sokolit nuk shkon n shkoll. _____ Vajza e Sokolit (Sokolis daughter) sht 10 vjee. _____ Vajza e Sokolit shkon n kopsht. _____ Drilona ka nj vajz. _____ Vajza e Drilons (Drilonas daughter) sht 5 vjee. _____ Vajza e Drilons shkon n shkoll. _____ Vajza e Drilons shkon n shkoll me makin. _____ Drilona nuk shikon televizor n mbrmje. _____ Gzimi gatuan dhe luan n mbrmje. _____ Gzimi dhe Drilona shkojn me autobus.

USHTRIMI 3.7 Answer the following questions based on Dialogu 3.2. 1. Nga po vjen Drilona? _____________________________________________________________ 2. Ku po shkon ajo? _____________________________________________________________ 3. Ku po shkon Gzimi? _____________________________________________________________

Msimi 3: Ku banoni?

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4. Sa (How many) fmij ka Sokoli? ____________________________________________________________ 5. Sa vjee sht vajza e Sokolit? ____________________________________________________________ 6. Sa vje sht djali i Sokolit? ____________________________________________________________ 7. A shkojn ata n universitet? ____________________________________________________________ 8. A ka fmij Drilona? ____________________________________________________________ 9. Sa vjee sht vajza e Drilons? ____________________________________________________________ 10. A shkon ajo n kopsht? Me se shkon? ____________________________________________________________ 11. bn Drilona n mbrmje? ____________________________________________________________ 12. bn Gzimi n mbrmje? ____________________________________________________________

USHTRIMI 3.8 Complete the following sentences with the appropriate form of the verb or noun indicated in parentheses. 1. Sokoli _______ (vij) nga ______ (Vlor), por tani _______ (banoj) dhe _______ (punoj) n _______ (Tiran). 2. Entela_____ (vij) nga ___________ (Durrs). Edhe ajo __________ (banoj) dhe ________ (punoj) n _________ (Tiran), por ____________ (shkoj) shpesh n Durrs. Ajo _________ (shkoj) me _______ (autobus), sepse nuk ______ (kam) makin. 3. Ne _____________ (kam) nj djal dhe nj vajz. Ata __________ (banoj) dhe ____________ (punoj) n Tiran. Pasdite ata ____________ (lexoj) dhe ________________ (shikoj) televizor. 4. Me se __________ (shkoj) ti n pun? (Un) ___________ (shkoj) me autobus. Po ti, ________ (shkoj) m kmb? Jo, un __________ (shkoj) me biiklet. 5. po _______ (bj) ti tani? Un ______________ (shkoj) n pun. Me se _____________ (shkoj)? ______________ (shkoj) me autobus. 6. Nga ___________ (vij) ju tani? Ne ____________ (vij) nga Sokoli. Ai _____ ( jam) n shtpi. 7. Ku po ___________ (shkoj) tani? Po _____________ (shkoj) te Mira.

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USHTRIMI 3.9 Read the following numbers as fast as you can. Read them forward and backward. 25 29 49 36 69 26 47 71 78 78 87 89 284 745 149 395 820 246 467 948 344 578 566 587 699 222 897

USHTRIMI 3.10 Read and calculate. 1. 2. 3. 4. Sa bjn 48 + 35? Sa bjn 144 12? Sa bjn 230 + 445? Sa bjn 847 27?

LEXIMI 3.1
Sknderi

Sknderi sht nga Shqipria, nga Vlora, por tani banon n Tiran. Sknderi sht mjek dhe punon n nj spital n Tiran. Kupton anglisht shum mir dhe et lirisht. Ai po mson edhe frngjisht. Ai kupton pak frngjisht, por et me vshtirsi. Sknderi sht i martuar. Gruaja e tij quhet Ema. Ajo sht msuese dhe punon n nj shkoll n Tiran. Sknderi punon shum, sepse puna n spital llon hert n mngjes dhe mbaron pasdite von. Sknderi dhe Ema kan nj vajz dhe nj djal. Vajza shkon n shkoll, kurse djali shkon n kopsht. N mbrmje vajza mson, kurse djali luan.

FJALOR llj gra, graja graja e tj hrt kuptj lirsht mbarj msese mjk to start woman/wife, the woman/ wife his wife early to understand uently to nish, end teacher (fem.) doctor n mbrmje nj qhet spitl shkll, shklla shpesh vshtirs me vshtirs vn in the evening one, a she, he, or it is called hospital school often difculty with difculty, not uently late

Msimi 3: Ku banoni?

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USHTRIMI 3.11 Indicate whether the following statements about Leximi 3.1 are true (T), false (F), or not mentioned (NM). If a statement is false, briey explain why (in Albanian!). 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. _____ Sknderi sht nga Tirana. _____ Sknderi punon n nj spital. _____ Sknderi et anglisht dhe frngjisht lirisht. _____ Sknderi mson edhe gjermanisht. _____ Sknderi et anglisht. _____ Sknderi sht i martuar. _____ Ema et anglisht. _____ Ema sht msuese. _____ Sknderi dhe Ema kan nj vajz dhe nj djal. _____ Vajza shkon n shkoll. _____ Djali shkon n kopsht. _____ Puna n spital llon hert n mngjes. _____ Djali luan n kopsht.

USHTRIMI 3.12 Fill in the appropriate endingswhere necessaryto summarize Leximi 3.1. Sknder__ sht nga Shqipri_____, nga Vlor_____, por tani jeton n Tiran___. Ai sht mjek dhe puno_____ n nj spital n Tiran__. Kupto_____ anglisht shum mir. Ai po mso_____ edhe frngjisht. Ai kupto_____ pak frngjisht. Ema sht msues___ dhe puno_____ n nj shkoll n Tiran. Sknder___ puno_____ shum, sepse pun_____ n spital; llo_____ hert n mngjes dhe mbaro_____ pasdite von. Sknderi dhe Ema ka_____ nj vajz dhe nj djal. Vajza shko_____ n shkoll. Djal_____ shkon n kopsht. N mbrmje vajza mso_____, kurse djali lua_____.

USHTRIMI 3.13 Write ve original questions about Leximi 3.1. Then have your classmates answer your questions. _______________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________

42 Discovering Albanian 1

Vlora (photo: Albes Fusha)

INFORMACIONE KULTURORE In Gheg, the forms ik, cuc, and goc are used for girl. In Tosk, up is used. In Gheg, the word un is used for boy. In spoken Albanian, this word might be used to refer to a waiter in an informal way: o uni. A more formal way of calling a waiter would be to say kamarier. In the spoken language, the word shtpi is reduced to shpi.
Msimi 3: Ku banoni?

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For addition, edhe can also be used instead of the English word plus: pes edhe pes bjn dhjet (ve plus ve equals ten). Instead of the English word minus, two other forms can be used: pa: pes pa pes bjn zero; and heqim (lit., we deduct): pes heqim pes bjn zero. In Gheg, hekun prej (lit., deducted from) is used for subtraction: pes hekun prej dhet() ban pes(). In Standard Albanian, the typical question for mathematical operations is Sa bjn? How much do . . . make? In the northern and central Gheg dialect, however, Sa bajn()? is used. Southern Gheg speakers use Sa bojn()? In colloquial speech, far what is often pronounced like a: N a gjuhe?

44 Discovering Albanian 1

MSIMI 4
far profesioni keni?
What is your profession? (lit., What profession do you have?) In this lesson you will learn: the days of the week some common professions how to order simple drinks and food at a coffee shop the numbers from 1 000 to 10 000

You will learn the following grammatical points: masculine, feminine, singular, and plural forms of professions and nationalities the demonstrative forms the verbs dua to want and jap to give

LEXIMI 4.1
Profesione

Un jam mjek dhe punoj n spital. Edhe Alma sht mjeke dhe punon n ambulanc. Ne jemi mjek dhe punojm n Tiran. Doruntina dhe Adea jan mjeke. Doruntina, Adea dhe un punojm ktu. Kjo sht Elda dhe ky sht Beni. far profesioni kan ata? Beni sht inxhinier dhe punon n fabrik. Elda sht inxhiniere dhe punon n uzin. T dy jan inxhinier dhe punojn n Vlor. Jona dhe Adela jan inxhiniere. Edhe ato punojn bashk n Vlor. Kta jan Pjeri dhe Ava. far kombsie dhe far profesioni kan ata? Pjeri sht francez, por tani jeton n Shqipri. sht dentist dhe punon n nj klinik n Tiran. Gruaja e tij, Ava, sht franceze. Edhe ajo sht dentiste dhe punon n nj laborator n Tiran. Pjeri dhe Ava jan francez dhe punojn si dentist n Tiran. Stefania dhe Tomi jan amerikan. Jan ekonomist dhe punojn n nj bank n Boston, n Shtetet e Bashkuara. Kto jan Elida dhe Dorina. kombsi kan ato? Ato jan shqiptare. profesion kan? Jan ekonomiste dhe punojn n nj rm n Durrs. Johani dhe Elena vijn nga Gjermania. Jan burr e grua. Jan gjerman, por tani jetojn n Shqipri. Elena sht msuese n nj shkoll n Kor. Ajo punon t hnn, t martn, t mrkurn, t enjten dhe t premten. T shtunn nuk punon. T shtunn pushon. Burri i saj, Johani nuk sht msues. Ai sht avokat. Nuk punon n Kor. Ai punon n Tiran, por shkon n Kor do fundjav. Bledi dhe Bora jan nga Kosova. Ata jan kosovar. Jan aktor n Prishtin. Bledi dhe Bora punojn n teatr. Ata punojn vetm t premten, t shtunn dhe t dieln.

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FJALOR From now on, nouns will be given in their singular indenite, singular denite, and plural indenite forms. Adjectives will be listed with their masculine and feminine forms. The new vocabulary that is introduced in the exercises is presented in the vocabulary list preceding the exercises.1 aksidnt, -i, -e aktr, -i, - ambulnc/, -a, -a amerikn, -i, - artst, -i, - atj avokt, -i, - bnk/, -a, -a brr, -i, -a brr e gra brri i sj kombs profesin do do dt do fundjv fr kombse fr profesini dentst, -i, - e, dhe, dhe e del t deln e njte t njten ekonomst, -i, - fabrk/, -a, -a frm/, -a, -a francz, -i, - fundjv/, -a n fundjv futbollst, -i, - gazetr, -i, - accident actor outpatient clinic, ambulance American artist there lawyer bank man, husband husband and wife her husband what nationality what profession every every day every weekend what nationality what profession dentist and Sunday on Sunday Thursday on Thursday economist factory rm French (nationality) weekend on the weekend football player journalist gra, -ja, gra graja e tj gjermn, -i, - e hn/, -a t hnn inxhinir, -i, - jv/, -a, - ps dt n jv ju ltem kamarir, -i, - kndj kngtr, -i, - krcj kt kt kt kj klink/, -a, -a kombs, -a, kosovr, -i, - kuzhinir, -i, - ky laboratr, -i, - e mrt/, -a t mrtn e mrkr/, -a t mrkrn msm, -i, -e mses, -i, mjk, -u, - muziknt, -i, - n Shttet e Bashkara woman, the woman, women his wife German (nationality) Monday on Monday engineer week ve days a week please waiter to sing singer to dance these (masc.) these (fem.) here this (fem.) clinic nationality from Kosovo cook this (masc.) laboratory Tuesday on Tuesday Wednesday on Wednesday lesson teacher doctor musician in the United States

1. A slash (/) separates the stem from its ending. A dash (-) followed by a vowel indicates that you must add that vowel to the stem to form the appropriate denite or plural form of the noun. Where a dash appears by itself, you must use the original stem with the original vowel to obtain that particular form.

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pastres, -i, pastrj piktr, -i, - e prmt/e, -ja t prmten Prishtn/, -a punj si pushj raportj romn,- i, -e sekretr, -i, - si spitl, -i, -e shts, -i, shkoj

cleaning person to clean painter Friday on Friday Prishtina to work as to rest to report novel secretary as, how hospital seller to go

shkrimtr, -i, - shkraj shofr, -i, - shpjegj shpjegj msmin shqiptr, -i, - e shtn/, -a t shtnn tet/r, -ri, -ro t d udhtj uzn/, -a, -a valltr, -i, - vallzj

writer to write driver to explain to explain the lesson Albanian (nationality) Saturday on Saturday theater both of them to travel plant dancer to dance

GRAMATIK 20 Masculine, feminine, singular, and plural professions and nationalities In Leximi 4.1 you encountered several professions in the different genders and numbers. Read the rst paragraph again and pay attention to the words in bold: Un jam mjek dhe punoj n spital. Edhe Alma sht mjeke dhe punon n ambulanc. Ne jemi mjek dhe punojm n Tiran. Doruntina dhe Adea jan mjeke. Doruntina, Adea dhe un punojm ktu. Do you see a pattern? Write the different forms for mjek doctor below: Masculine singular: ____________ Masculine plural: ____________ Feminine singular: ______________ Feminine plural: ______________

If we take the masculine singular form mjek as the base, how do we form the feminine singular, the masculine plural, and the feminine plural forms? _______________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________ Consider all the professions in Leximi 4.1:
Singular (njjs) Masculine Feminine Plural (shums) Masculine Feminine

mjek inxhinier dentist ekonomist aktor msues

mjeke inxhiniere dentiste ekonomiste aktore msuese

mjek inxhinier dentist ekonomist aktor msues*

mjeke inxhiniere dentiste ekonomiste aktore msuese

doctor engineer dentist economist actor teacher


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We see that if we take the masculine singular form as the base, we nd the following patterns: add -e to form the feminine singular form add - to form the masculine plural form the feminine plural has the same form as the feminine singular: add -e to the masculine singular form. * Notice that the plural of msues teacher is msues. In general, masculine nouns that end in -es (msues teacher), -as (maqedonas Macedonian), -s (shits seller), or -yes (prkthyes translator) have the same form in the singular and in the plural. The same rules apply to the nationalities we learned in 7. Here are the nationalities that appeared in Leximi 4.1:
Singular (njjs) Masculine Feminine Plural (shums) Masculine Feminine

francez amerikan gjerman kosovar

franceze amerikane gjermane kosovare

francez amerikan gjerman kosovar

franceze amerikane gjermane kosovare

French American German Kosovar

Use the feminine plural form to refer to a group whose members are only women. Even if there are twenty women and one man, you should use the masculine plural form to refer to the group. A similar rule was observed for the use of ata/ato they (see 1). 21 The demonstrative forms Demonstratives are words that serve to mark the distance in relation to the speaker. In Leximi 4.1, you found the following demonstrative pronouns: Ky sht Beni dhe kjo sht Elda. Kta jan Pjeri dhe Ava. Kto jan Elida dhe Dorina. This is Beni and this is Elda. These are Pjer and Ava. These are Elida and Dorina.

In these examples, demonstratives are used as pronouns. They can also be used as demonstrative adjectives, in which case they precede the noun: Ky burr sht mjek. Kjo grua sht amerikane. Kta burra jan shqiptar. Kto gra jan aktore. This man is a doctor. This woman is American. These men are Albanian. These women are actresses.

The demonstrative pronouns and the demonstrative adjectives are exactly the same. The forms in the examples express closeness to the speaker. If you want to express distance from the speaker, use the same forms that you used for the third- person pronouns (see 1): Ai sht Beni. Ajo sht Elda Ata jan Pjeri dhe Ava. Ato jan Elida dhe Dorina. That (or he) is Beni. That (or she) is Elda. Those (or they) are Pjer and Ava. Those (or they) are Elida and Dorina.

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As with the forms of ky, these forms can also be used as demonstrative adjectives: Ai burr sht dentist. Ajo grua sht gjermane. Ata burra jan spanjoll. Ato gra jan msuese. That man is a dentist. That woman is German. Those men are Spanish. Those women are teachers.

The following chart summarizes the demonstrative forms:


Singular Masculine Feminine Plural Masculine Feminine

Close to speaker Far from speaker

ky ai

kjo ajo

kta ata

kto ato

Notice that in Albanian, as in English, the demonstrative adjective typically precedes the noun, which appears in its indenite form. Related to these forms are the locative adverbs: ktu atje here there

Doruntina, Adea dhe un punojm ktu. Doruntina, Adea, and I work here. Jemi nga Franca, por nuk ne banojm atje. We are from France, but we dont live there. 22 The days of the week and other time expressions The indenite days of the week are: e hn e mart e mrkur e enjte Monday Tuesday Wednesday Thursday e premte e shtun e diel Friday Saturday Sunday

The days of the week are all preceded by e. This e is a linking article, which typically appears with many adjectives as well as with a few nouns (for the use of linking articles, see Msimi 5 and 9). This e used with the days of the week is believed to originate as a possessive linking article from the phrase dita e hns (lit., the day of the moon), from which the word dita the day was later omitted. The days of the week are not capitalized in Albanian. Here are some words used to express time: sot nesr pasnesr pardje dje today tomorrow day after tomorrow day before yesterday yesterday

To say on Monday or on Tuesday, you dont need a preposition as you do in English. Just use the linking article t rather than e and then add an -n to the name of the day:2
2. As we will see later in Msimi 7, these forms are the accusative denite forms.

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t hnn t martn t mrkurn t enjten

on Monday on Tuesday on Wednesday on Thursday

t premten t shtunn t dieln

on Friday on Saturday on Sunday

To ask about the days of the week, we use these questions: dit sht sot? far dite sht sot? Kur . . . ? What day is today? What day is today? When . . . ?

We saw in 8 that nga from requires the denite form of the noun in the subject, or nominative, case. If you want to say from Monday . . . you will need the nominative denite forms of the days of the week. These are: e hna e marta e mrkura e enjtja Monday Tuesday Wednesday Thursday e premtja e shtuna e diela Friday Saturday Sunday

The days of the week are feminine in Albanian. To make the denite form of the day, change the - to -a if the day ends in -, or change the -e to -ja if the day ends in -e. To express until, we use the preposition deri, which takes the denite form of the day in the accusative case, the same form you use to say on Monday, on Tuesday, and so on: nga e hna deri t premten Try a few expressions to practice these forms: _________________________ _________________________ _________________________ _________________________ Wednesday on Thursday and Friday from Tuesday to Saturday from Wednesday to Sunday from Monday to Friday

USHTRIMI 4.1 Indicate whether the following statements are true (T) or false (F) based on Leximi 4.1. If a statement is false, briey explain why (in Albanian!). 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. ____ Alma sht mjeke dhe punon n spital. ____ Beni dhe Elda jan inxhinier. ____ Pjeri dhe Ava jan francez, por punojn n Shqipri si dentist. ____ Elida dhe Dorina jan shqiptare dhe punojn si ekonomiste n Tiran. ____ Elena dhe Johani jan gjerman dhe punojn si msues n Shqipri. ____ Elena punon do dit.

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7.____ Johani sht n Tiran do fundjav. 8. ____ Bledi dhe Bora jan bullgar. 9. ____ Bledi sht aktor dhe punon n teatr. 10. ____ Bora punon pes dit n jav.

USHTRIMI 4.2 Answer the following questions based on Leximi 4.1. 1. bjn Alma, Doruntina dhe Adea? _____________________________________________________________ 2. bn Beni? Ku punon ai? _____________________________________________________________ 3. far profesioni kan Pjeri dhe Ava? far kombsie kan ata? _____________________________________________________________ 4. far bjn Tomi dhe Stefania? Ku punojn ata? _____________________________________________________________ 5. far profesioni ka Elena? Kur punon ajo? _____________________________________________________________ 6. bn ajo t shtunn? _____________________________________________________________ 7. Elena dhe burri i saj, Johani, punojn bashk? _____________________________________________________________ 8. kombsi kan Bledi dhe Bora? Ku punojn ata? _____________________________________________________________

USHTRIMI 4.3 Make statements in the singular and in the plural as in the examples. Make all the necessary changes to the professions and nationalities. (shits, shqiptar, Sarand) Ky burr sht shits. sht shqiptar dhe punon n Sarand. Kta burra jan shits. Jan shqiptar dhe punojn n Sarand. (kngtare, amerikan, Tiran) Kjo grua sht kngtare. sht amerikane, por punon n Tiran. Kto gra jan kngtare. Jan amerikane, por punojn n Tiran. 1. 2. 3. 4. (kuzhinier, italian, Kor) (artist, rumun, Berat) (piktor, portugez, Elbasan) (muzikant, gjerman, Durrs)

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5. (shofer, egjiptian, Kor) 6. (sekretare, grek, Vlor) 7. (kamariere, kinez, Kruj)

USHTRIMI 4.4 Ask four questions for each of your sentences above. Have different classmates answer your questions. Ky burr sht shits. sht shqiptar dhe punon n Sarand. kombsi ka ky burr? A sht bullgar ky burr? far profesioni ka ai? A punon n Tiran? Ky burr sht shqiptar. Jo, nuk sht bullgar. sht shqiptar. sht shits. Jo, nuk punon n Tiran. Punon n Sarand.

USHTRIMI 4.5 Complete the following sentences with the appropriate day of the week. Be careful with the correct form of the linking article required by the day of the week in the different constructions. 1. Sot sht e diel, nesr sht _____________ dhe dje ishte (was) ________. 2. Sot sht e mrkur, nesr sht _____________ dhe pasnesr sht _____________. Dje ishte ____________ dhe pardje ishte ____________. 3. Dje ishte e hn, sot sht ________________ dhe nesr sht _____________. Pardje ishte ___________. 4. Nesr sht e shtun, pasnesr sht _____________. Dje ishte ___________ dhe pardje ishte ___________.

USHTRIMI 4.6 far bni ju? For each of the examples below, ask questions as in the example. Then answer the questions. (kngtar/kndoj/e shtun) pun bni ju? Jam kngtare. Kur kndoni ju? Kndoj t shtunn. 1. (valltar/vallzoj/do fundjav) pun bjn ata? 2. (futbollist/luaj futboll/e diel) pun bn ti? 3. (pastruese/pastroj/do dit) pun bn ajo?

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4. (shkrimtar/shkruaj romane/e hn dhe e mrkur) far profesioni ka ai? 5. (msues/shpjegoj/e hn, e mart, e mrkur, e enjte, e premte, nga . . . deri) profesion ka zonja Dodona? 6. (gazetare/raportoj nj aksident/tani) po bn kjo gazetare? 7. (kuzhinier/gatuaj/e shtun dhe e diel) pun bn zoti Pjer?

DIALOGU 4.1: N KAFENE Agimi dhe Mira bjn shtitje n qytet. Ata gjejn nj kafene. Agimi: Kjo kafene sht e bukur. A hyjm brenda? Mira: Mir. ... Kamerieri: Mirmbrma! far dshironi? Agimi: far keni? Kamerieri: Kemi aj, kafe, lng frutash, birr. Agimi: Un dua nj birr. Po ti, Mira? Mira: Un dua nj kafe dhe nj got uj, ju lutem. Kamerieri: Bjm edhe sandui. Doni? Agimi: Jo, faleminderit! Kamerieri: Mir! Porosia vjen menjher. Agimi: far sht kjo, Mira? Mira: Kjo sht nj fotogra. Agimi: Kush sht ky? Mira: Ky sht babai im, Gjergji. Agimi: Sa vje sht babai yt? Mira: sht 48 vje. Agimi: far profesioni ka? Mira: sht mjek dhe punon n spital, n Tiran. Punon edhe si profesor n universitet. Jep msim atje. Agimi: Po kjo, kush sht? Nna jote? Mira: Po, kjo sht nna ime, Teuta. Ajo sht gazetare. Agimi: Gazetare? Ku punon ajo? Mira: Punon n nj gazet. Agimi: Sa vjee sht nna jote? Mira: sht 41 vjee. Agimi: sht shum e re dhe e bukur! Po kjo, kush sht? Mira: Kjo sht motra ime, Brikena. Agimi: bn ajo? Mira: sht studente; studion ne universitet. Por n fundjav punon. Agimi: A ke vllezr?
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Mira: Kam vetm nj vlla. Vllai im, Albani, sht student; sht 18 vje. Agimi: Shum mir. Mira, a shkojm nesr n kinema? Kam dy bileta. Mira: Mir. N or llon lmi? Agimi: Filmi llon n orn 21:00. Mira: Mir! Mirupafshim nesr.

FJALOR A hjm brnda? A shkjm bshk? asnj bab, -i babi m babi t babi i sj babi i tj bj shttje bilt/, -a, -a brr/, -a, -a brnda i bkur e bkur aj, -i dri dshirj dis do dni da fotograf, -a, gt/, -a, -a gjj hj jap jap msm jep kf/e, -ja, -e kafen, -ja, kng/, -a, - kt kinem, -ja Shall we go in? Shall we go together? any, not one, anything father my father your father her father his father to take a walk ticket beer inside pretty, beautiful, handsome (masc.) pretty, beautiful (fem.) tea until to wish, desire some you (informal) want you want to want picture glass to nd to go in to give to teach (lit., to give a lesson) you give, he or she gives coffee coffee shop song here cinema ln/g, -gu, -gje lng frtash menjhr msj Mirupfshim! juice fruit juice immediately to study Good- bye! (lit., May we see each other well [again]!) Mirupfshim nsr! See you tomorrow! mt/r, -ra, -ra sister, the sister/sisters mtra me my sister mtra jte your sister mtra e sj her sister mtra e tj his sister nn/, -a, -a mother nna me my mother nna jte your mother nna e sj her mother nna e tj his mother poros, -a, order qytt, -i, -e city e r young, new (fem.) revst/, -a, -a magazine i r young, new (masc.) sandu, -i, - sandwich shttj/e, -a, -e walk, stroll, promenade shok, -u, - friend to explain shpjegj them to say tha you say Si tha? What do you say? (What do you think?) j, ji water, the water vll, -i, vllzr brother vlli m my brother vn late

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GRAMATIK 23 The irregular verbs jap to give, dua to want, and them to say
jap dua them

un ti ai, ajo ne ju ata, ato

jap jep jep japim jepni japin

dua do do duam doni duan

them thua thot themi thoni thon

Notice the different vowels in the different persons. Irregular verbs belong to class 5 (see 6). 24 Inviting someone: a plus the present indicative In Dialogu 4.1 you encountered the forms: A hyjm brenda? A shkojm bashk? Shall we go in? Shall we go together?

To invite someone to do something with you, use the present indicative of the verb in the ne (we) form preceded by the interrogative particle a: (A) Krcejm? (A) Shkojm n kinema? Shall we dance? Shall we go to the movies?

As with simple questions, the particle a is optional (see 5). 25 N or? N far ore? (What time?) In English, we use the question phrase what time to ask What time is it? or What time do you go to school? You already know how to form the rst question: in Albanian we use Sa sht ora? when we ask someone to tell us the time. To ask at what time something happens, we use n or or n far ore:3 N or shkon n shkoll? N far ore shkon n shkoll? What time do you go to school? What time do you go to school?

To answer these questions, you simply say n orn: N or shkon n shkoll? Shkoj n orn tet. N far ore shikon televizor? Shikoj televizor n orn dhjet. What time do you go to school? I go (to school) at eight oclock. What time do you watch TV? I watch TV at ten oclock.

3. Notice that we use the form or following and ore following far. Or is the nominative indenite form, while ore is the ablative indenite form. As we will see later (92), far requires an ablative form.

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To say I work from nine to ve, use the prepositions nga from and deri to, until (see 22). Nga should be followed by the nominative denite form ora the hour, while deri is followed by n orn, at the time: Punoj nga ora nnt deri n orn pes. I work from nine to ve.

26 The numbers from 1 000 to 10 000 To form units of a thousand, use the word mij thousand, following the basic unit and written separately. 1 000 2 000 3 000 4 000 5 000 6 000 7 000 8 000 9 000 10 000 nj mij dy mij tre mij katr mij pes mij gjasht mij shtat mij tet mij nnt mij dhjet mij 1 200 2 332 3 561 4 672 5 783 6 846 7 452 8 921 9 897 nj mij e dyqind dy mij e treqind e tridhjet e dy tre mij e pesqind e gjashtdhjet e nj katr mij e gjashtqind e shtatdhjet e dy pes mij e shtatqind e tetdhjet e tre gjasht mij e tetqind e dyzet e gjasht shtat mij e katrqind e pesdhjet e dy tet mij e nntqind e njzet e nj nnt mij e tetqind e nntdhjet e shtat

USHTRIMI 4.7 Indicate whether the following statements are true (T) or false (F). If a statement is false, briey explain why (in Albanian!). 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. _____ Gjergji sht 40 vje. _____ Gjergji punon si mjek n Tiran. _____ Teuta sht gazetare. _____ Teuta punon pr nj gazet n Tiran. _____ Nna sht e re dhe e bukur. _____ Mira ka dy motra. _____ Brikena sht studente n universitet. _____ Brikena sht n shtpi n fundjav. _____ Mira ka dy vllezr. _____ Albani shkon n shkoll. _____ T dieln Albani shkon n teatr. _____ Mira ka dy bileta pr n kinema.

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USHTRIMI 4.8 Answer the following questions based on Dialogu 4.1. 1. far po bjn Agimi dhe Mira? _____________________________________________________________ 2. Kush ka nj fotogra? _____________________________________________________________ 3. Sa vje sht Gjergji? Ku punon ai? _____________________________________________________________ 4. far profesioni ka Teuta? Sa vjee sht ajo? _____________________________________________________________ 5. Ku punon ajo? _____________________________________________________________ 6. A ka Mira vllezr? bjn ata? _____________________________________________________________ 7. bn Brikena n fundjav? _____________________________________________________________ 8. Sa vje sht Albani? _____________________________________________________________ 9. Kush ka dy bileta pr n kinema? _____________________________________________________________

USHTRIMI 4.9 Complete the following sentences with the appropriate form of the verb in parentheses. 1. ______ (bj) Agimi dhe Mira? ______ (Bj) shtitje, ______ (gjej) nj kafene dhe ______ (hyj) brenda. 2. N or ____________ (shkoj) ju do dit n pun? Ne ____________ (shkoj) n orn tet. N or __________ (shkoj) ti n pun? Un _________ (shkoj) n orn tet. 3. Kamarieri: __________ (dshiroj)? Brikena: Un ___________ (dua) nj aj. Po ti, Sokol, ____ (dua)? Sokoli: Un __________ (dua) nj kafe. Era: _____ (Dua) nj aj dhe nj kafe, ju lutem. Kamarieri: Porosia _________ (vij) menjher.

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LEXIMI 4.2
Agroni

Agroni sht shqiptaro- amerikan dhe jeton n Amerik, n ikago. Babai i tij sht shqiptar, kurse nna e tij sht amerikane. Agroni sht 20 vje dhe studion n universitet. N shtpi nuk asin shqip, sepse nna e tij nuk et asnj fjal shqip. Megjithat, tani Agroni po studion shqip n universitet. Gjuha shqipe sht pak e vshtir, prandaj ai studion disa or do dit. Agroni jeton n nj konvikt. Megjithse atje ka disa shok shqiptar, nuk et shqip me ata, sepse ai et shqip me vshtirsi. do dit shkon n universitet. N mbrmje shkon n bibliotek. Atje lexon dhe mson. T shtunn shkon n kinema ose n diskotek. Agroni ka nj vlla dhe nj motr. Vllai i tij, Bledi, sht i vogl. Ai sht nxns dhe shkon n shkoll nga e hna deri t premten. T shtunn luan futboll.4 Motra e tij, Bora, sht sekretare dhe punon pr nj rm italiane. Ajo sht e martuar. Burri i saj sht avokat. Ai jep edhe msim n universitet. Ata nuk kan fmij.

FJALOR bibliotk/, -a, -a diskotk/, -a, -a fjl/, -a, - gjha shqpe krcj konvkt, -i, -e me at megjthat megjthse nxns, -i, prandj e sj i sj library discotheque, disco, dance club word the Albanian language to dance dorm with them however even though pupil therefore her (if a feminine singular noun is possessed) her (if a masculine singular noun is possessed) studij shqiptaroamerikn, -e e tj i tj to study Albanian American his (if a feminine singular noun is possessed) his (if a masculine singular noun is possessed) his brother difcult (masc.) difcult (fem.) small, young (masc.) small, young (fem.)

vlli i tj i vshtr e vshtr i vgl e vgl

4. Nxns pupil, student is used for students in elementary school (grades 18) and secondary school (grades 912), while student student is used for students at the university level.

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USHTRIMI 4.10 Indicate whether the following statements are true (T), false (F), or not mentioned (NM). Where they are false or not mentioned, briey explain why (in Albanian!). You can say Nuk e dim sepse nuk sht n tekst, We dont know. It is not in the text. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. _____ Agroni banon n Shqipri. _____ Babai dhe nna e tij jan shqiptar. _____ Nna e tij et pak shqip. _____ Babai i tij sht avokat. _____ N shtpi, Agroni et shqip. _____ Agroni studion n universitet. _____ Agroni jeton n konvikt. _____ Agroni ka disa shok shqiptar n universitet. _____ Agroni et shqip lirisht. _____ Agroni studion shqip nj or do dit. _____ Agroni krcen n diskotek. _____ Bledi sht futbollist. _____ Bledi sht student. _____ Bora punon n nj rm shqiptare. _____ Bora sht beqare.

USHTRIMI 4.11 Answer the following questions based on Leximi 4.2. 1. Nga sht Agroni? _____________________________________________________________ 2. A banon n Shqipri? _____________________________________________________________ 3. Babai i tij edhe nna e tij jan shqiptar? _____________________________________________________________ 4. A asin shqip n shtpi? _____________________________________________________________ 5. Pse nuk et shqip Agroni n shtpi? _____________________________________________________________ 6. far gjuhe studion Agroni n universitet? _____________________________________________________________ 7. Pse studion shqip Agroni do dit? _____________________________________________________________ 8. A banon Agroni n shtpi? _____________________________________________________________ 9. Ka shok shqiptar? _____________________________________________________________
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10. A et Agroni shqip me ata? Pse ( jo)? ____________________________________________________________ 11. bn Agroni n mbrmje? ____________________________________________________________ 12. bn ai t shtunn? ____________________________________________________________ 13. Kush sht Bledi? bn ai? ____________________________________________________________ 14. Kush sht Bora? ____________________________________________________________ 15. A sht e martuar motra e Agronit? bn burri i saj? ____________________________________________________________

USHTRIMI 4.12 Read out loud or write out the following years. These are important dates in Albanian history. 1443: Gjergj Kastrioti, known as Skanderbeg, the national hero of Albania, declares war against the Ottoman Empire. 1468: Skanderbeg dies. 1822: Ali Pasha of Tepelen is assassinated by the Ottomans for promoting an independent state. 1908: Albanian intellectuals in Bitola (Manastir) choose the Latin alphabet rather than Arabic or Cyrillic as standard script. 1912: Delegates in Vlor declare Albania independent and establish an independent government. 1913: The great powers recognize Albania as an independent state ruled by a constitutional monarchy. 1914: Prince Wilhelm zu Wied, a German army captain, is installed as head of the new Albanian state, but the state collapses soon after the beginning of World War I. 1920: Albania is admitted to the League of Nations as an independent state. 1922: The patriarch in Constantinople recognizes the Autocephalous Albanian Orthodox Church. 1924: Ahmet Zogus party wins elections for the National Assembly. Ahmet Zogu steps down after a nancial scandal and an assassination attempt. In December 1924 he returns to power and tries to smother the parliamentary democracy. 1928: Ahmet Zogu pressures the National Assembly to dissolve itself; a new assembly declares Albania a kingdom, and he becomes Zogu I, king of the Albanians. 1939: Mussolinis troops invade Albania. The National Assembly votes to unite the country with Italy. King Zogu ees to Greece. Italys king, Emmanuel III, assumes the Albanian crown. 1941: The Albanian Communist Party is created. Enver Hoxha becomes rst secretary. 1943: German forces invade and occupy Albania. 1944: In November the Germans withdraw from Tirana and the Communists move into the capital. 1946: The Peoples Assembly proclaims Albania a peoples republic. 1985: The Albanian dictator Enver Hoxha dies. 1992: Elections end forty- seven years of Communist rule. The Democratic Party takes power.

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Gjergj Kastrioti-Skanderbeg (photo: Albes Fusha)

INFORMACIONE KULTURORE In Gheg, the days of the week are pronounced differently. In northern Gheg, e hn is pronounced e han, and e diel is pronounced e dill. In southern Gheg, e hn is pronounced e hon (colloquially), whereas e mart is pronounced e mort. Often e enjte is pronounced like e ejte (both in Gheg and colloquially). In the spoken language, the - in -t is often reduced. What you might hear is thnn (thonn, thann), tmartn (tmortn), tmrkurn, tenjten (tejten), tpremten, tshtunn, tdieln (tdiln, tdilln), and so on. (You might also nd apostrophes used in old texts or in texts written in Gheg. According to the orthography of Standard Albanian, the apostrophe should not be used.) The verb dua has a different stem in the Gheg dialect: due (northern Gheg) or du (southern Gheg). In the second and third person, this verb also takes an -n ending in Gheg: ti don you want, ai/ajo don he/she wants. Another form for the rst- person plural in Gheg is na dona we want. The verb dua to want is shown in Standard Albanian and in Gheg.
Standard Albanian Gheg

un ti ai, ajo ne ju ata, ato

dua do do duam doni duan

un ti ai, ajo ne ju ata, ato

due/du don don duem/dum/dona doni duen/dun


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MSIMI 5
N shtpi
At home In this lesson you will learn: the months of the year the seasons of the year how to describe the weather during the different seasons of the year colors

You will learn the following grammatical points: the nominative denite forms of nouns the use of ka to mean there is/there are the prepositions mbi on and nn under adjectives

DIALOGU 5.1: N TELEFON A. Era dhe nna e saj jan n shtpi. Bie telefoni. Arbi: Mirdita! M falni, a sht Era n shtpi? Nna: Mirdita! Po, ktu sht. Kush jeni ju? Arbi: Un jam Arbi. Nna: Era! Era: Urdhro, nn! Kush sht? Nna: Nj shok! Era: Faleminderit, nn! ... Era: Alo! Arbi: Mirdita, Era. Jam Arbi. Era: Po, Arbi. Arbi: Era, ti je n shtpi? Por ne tani kemi nj takim n zyr. Era: Oh, po! N or llon takimi? Arbi: N orn nnt e gjysm! A banon larg nga zyra? Era: Jo. Jam afr. Po vij menjher. Arbi: Dakord! Shihemi m von n zyr. B. Besa dhe Arbi jan n shtpi dhe po shikojn fotogra. Arbi: Besa, far po shikon atje? Besa: Nj fotogra. Arbi: Oh, sa fotogra e bukur! Kush sht atje, majtas?

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Besa: Jam un. Kurse kjo ktu sht nj shoqe. Arbi: Si quhet shoqja? Besa: Jonida. Ky ktu sht burri i saj. Arbi: Po ai burri atje, kush sht? Besa: Ai sht nj shok. Arbi: Si quhet shoku? Besa: Kastriot. Arbi: Po kjo gruaja, kush sht? Besa: Kjo sht gruaja e tij, Vera. Arbi: Po ky ktu djathtas sht zog? Besa: Po, sht nj papagall. C. Teuta: Sokol, ku sht nna jote? Sokoli: Nna ime sht n pun. Teuta: N or llon pun ajo? Sokoli: N orn tet. Ajo punon tet or n dit, nga ora tet n mngjes deri n orn katr pasdite. Teuta: Po babai yt, ku sht? Sokoli: Babai sht tek mjeku. sht i smur. Teuta: A ka njeri n shtpi? Sokoli: Po. sht gjyshi dhe gjyshja. Teuta: Ku jan ata? Sokoli: Gjyshi po shikon televizor n dhom. Teuta: Po gjyshja? Sokoli: Ajo sht n kuzhin. Po gatuan. Teuta: Ti ke mace n shtpi? Sokoli: Po. Kam nj mace dhe nj qen. Macja sht atje nn kolltuk dhe qeni sht mbi divan.

FJALOR Remember that the vocabulary lists now also include the new words introduced in the exercises that follow each grammar section. fr bab, -i, baballr be be telefni i bkur, e bkur brr/, -i, -a ls, -i, -a near(by) father to ring, fall the phone rings handsome, pretty (masc., fem.) husband, man key Dakrd! divn, -i, -e djthtas dritr/e, -ja, -e dyqn, -i, -e dhm/, -a, -a amr, -i, - etr/e, -ja, -e frigorifr, -i, - All right! sofa, couch to the right, on the right window store room ag notebook refrigerator
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garzh, -i, -e gt/, -a, -a gra, -ja, gra gjsh, -i, -r gjsh/e, -ja, -e hr/, -a, - njhr jsht jte ka karrg/e, -ia, -e kh/, -a kolltk, -u, - krh, -u, - kut, -a, kuzhn/, -a, -a lps, -i, -a larg lb/r, -ri, -ra lg/, -a, - ll/e, -ja, -e mc/e, -ja, -e mak, -u, - i madh, e mdhe mjtas mbi nn/, -a, -a nn njer, -u, njrz obrr, -i, -e

garage glass woman/wife grandfather grandmother time once outside your (fem., informal) there is/there are chair time, weather armchair arm box kitchen pencil far book spoon ower cat (fem.) cat (masc.) big (masc., fem.) to the left on, on top of mother under human being, somebody yard

Oh! r/, -a, - papag/ll, -lli, -j pr/k, -u, qe pm/, -a, - psh/k, -u, q pirn, -i, - pn/, -a, - qn, -i, sa i sj, e sj i smr, e smr shah, -u Shhemi m vn! shk, -u, - shq/e, -ja, -e takm, -i, -e tavoln/, -a, -a thk/, -a, -a Urdhr!1 vzo, -ja, vn m vn yt zr/, -a, -a Sa fotograf e bkur!

Oh! clock parrot park tree sh fork work dog how her (masc., fem.) sick (masc., fem.) chess See you later! (lit., We see each other later!) (male) friend female friend meeting table knife May I help you? (lit., Command me!) vase late later your (masc., informal) ofce What a beautiful photo!

GRAMATIK 27 Nominative singular denite nouns: feminine nouns We have already seen that nouns that end in a vowel are typically feminine in Albanian (8). We also saw that the names of countries and cities can be indenite or denite and that the denite article follows the noun in Albanian, unlike in English, where it precedes the noun. We saw that the preposition n in requires the accusative indenite form of the country or city (14), while nga from requires the nominative denite form (8). Consider the following pairs of examples. The rst example in each pair contains the accusative indenite form of the country, while the second contains its nominative denite form:
1. Urdhro is also used to welcome people or to invite people inside a house or ofce.

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Un jetoj n Shqipri. Un jam nga Shqipria. Ajo banon n Kor. Ajo sht nga Kora. Ne banojm n Kanada. Ne jemi nga Kanadaja.

I live in Albania. I am from Albania. She lives in Kora. She is from Kora. We live in Canada. We are from Canada.

8 provided the rules for forming nominative denite nouns from indenite nouns. The same rules apply to other feminine nouns that are not proper names of countries or cities: If a noun ends in -, replace - with -a: nn mother nna the mother

If a noun ends in a stressed -i, add -a: shtpi house shtpia the house

If a noun ends in an unstressed -e, replace -e with -ja: shoqe gjyshe female friend grandmother shoqja gjyshja the female friend the grandmother

If a noun ends in a stressed vowel, add -ja: kafene coffee shop kafeneja the coffee shop

An exception to this rule is the word grua woman, wife, whose denite form is gruaja the woman, the wife, in spite of the fact that the nal -a is not stressed. Some feminine nouns end in -l, -ll, -r, or -rr; in these cases, drop the - and add -a: motr pupl krikll letr ndrr sister feather mug letter dream motra pupla kriklla letra ndrra the sister the feather the mug the letter the dream

28 Nominative singular denite nouns: masculine nouns In 8 we saw that nouns that end in a consonant are typically masculine in Albanian. We also saw some masculine countries and cities that had an indenite form and a denite form. As with feminine nouns, n in, at is typically followed by the accusative indenite form while nga from is followed by the nominative denite form: Filipi banon n Brazil. Filipi sht nga Brazili. Hansi punon n Mynih. Hansi vjen nga Mynihu do muaj. Filip lives in Brazil. Filip is from Brazil. Hans works in Munich. Hans comes from Munich every month.

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To form the nominative denite form of nouns that are not countries, follow the same rules as with the countries in 8: If the noun ends in a consonant, add -i: gjysh grandfather gjyshi the grandfather

A few masculine nouns end in -; in this case, replace - with -i: burr djal man, husband boy burri djali the man, the husband the boy

Very few masculine nouns end in a stressed -a; in this case, add -i: baba father babai the father

Some masculine nouns end in -r; in this case, drop the - and add -i: libr book libri the book

If a noun ends in -k, -g, or -h, add -u: shok zog krah friend bird hand shoku zogu krahu the friend the bird the hand

29 Ka there is, there are Ka is used to express there is and there are, regardless of whether the noun that follows is singular or plural: Ka nj student ktu. Ka shum student ktu. There is a student here. There are many students here.

30 The prepositions mbi on and nn under In Dialogu 5.1, part C, you encountered the following constructions: Qeni sht mbi divan. Macja sht nn kolltuk. The dog is on the couch. The cat is under the armchair.

The prepositions mbi on and nn under, just like n at (14), require the accusative indenite form of the noun, which is the same as the nominative form, or the base form typically listed in the dictionary. Notice that in English, unlike what is observed in Albanian, the noun that follows the prepositions on and under appears in the denite form.

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USHTRIMI 5.1 Indicate whether the following statements are true (T) or false (F) based on Dialogu 5.1.
Dialogu 5.1, part A

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20.

_____ Era sht n pun kur bie telefoni. _____ N telefon sht Kastrioti. _____ Arbi sht n shtpi. _____ Arbi dhe Era punojn bashk. _____ Takimi llon n orn tet e nj erek. _____ Era banon afr. _____ Besa shikon nj fotogra. _____ Fotograa sht e bukur. _____ Shoqja e Bess (Besas female friend) sht beqare. _____ Shoku i Bess (Besas male friend) sht i martuar. _____ Kastrioti sht majtas n fotogra. _____ Besa ka nj mace dhe nj qen. _____ Nna e Sokolit (Sokolis mother) sht tek mjeku. _____ Babai i Sokolit (Sokolis father) sht n pun. _____ Gjyshi i Sokolit sht n kuzhin. _____ Gjyshja e Sokolit po gatuan _____ Macja dhe qeni jan n shtpi. _____ Macja sht mbi divan. _____ Qeni sht n kuzhin. _____ Gjyshi i Sokolit po shikon televizor.

Dialogu 5.1, part B

Dialogu 5.1, part C

USHTRIMI 5.2 Ask questions and have a classmate answer, as in the following examples. Try both dialogue models: telefon, majtas Ku sht telefoni? Telefoni sht majtas. 1. zog, djathtas

2. student, n universitet

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3. peshk, n frigorifer

4. kolltuk, dhom

5. laps, mbi tryez

6. shtpi, afr

7. frigorifer, n kuzhin

8. vajz, n shkoll

9. televizor, n dyqan

10. shkoll, afr 11. shah, mbi tryez2 12. studente, n universitet

13. els, mbi tryez

2. N can also be used.

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14. amur, jasht

15. msues, n shkoll

16. etore, n shtpi

17. karrige,3 n dhom

18. kuti, mbi karrige

19. tryez, n oborr

20. lug, mbi tryez

USHTRIMI 5.3 Ask questions and have a classmate answer as in the following example: or, mbi tryez A ka nj or ktu? Po, ka nj or. Ku sht ora? Ora sht mbi tryez.
3. The denite form of karrige chair is not karrigja but karrigia. This is due to the fact that we need to maintain the [g] sound of the original form.

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1. pirun, mbi tryez

2. lule, n vazo

3. makin, n garazh

4. etore, mbi tryez

5. mjek, n spital

6. kolltuk, n shtpi

7. els, ktu

8. got, n kuzhin

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9. pem, n oborr

10. dritare, atje

DIALOGU 5.2: QYTETI IM Martini: Dea, si sht qyteti yt, Tirana? Dea: Tirana sht nj qytet i madh dhe i bukur. sht qytet i zhurmshm dhe plot me gjallri. Po qyteti yt, si sht Martin? Martini: Qyteti im, Shngjini, sht nj qytet i vogl bregdetar. sht shum i kndshm n pranver dhe n ver, por i trishtuar n vjesht dhe n dimr. Dea: Pse sht i trishtuar n vjesht dhe n dimr? Martini: Sepse n vjesht dhe n dimr, qyteti sht i qet dhe pa gjallri. Dea: Si sht koha n vjesht? Martini: Nuk sht e ftoht, por bie shpesh shi dhe fryn shum er. Qielli sht shpesh gri dhe nganjher ka edhe mjegull. Prandaj vjeshta sht pak e trishtuar. Dea: Po dimri, si sht? Martini: Dimri sht i but dhe jo shum i gjat. Bie shi, por nuk bie asnjher bor. Po n Tiran, si sht koha n dimr? Dea: Koha n dimr nuk sht e keqe. Nuk bn shum ftoht, por bie shpesh shi. Shum rrall bie edhe bor. Martini: Po vera, si sht n Tiran? Dea: Vera n Tiran sht e nxeht. Bn shum vap dhe nganjher bie shi. Martini: Cila sht stina jote e paraplqyer, Dea? Dea: Stina ime e paraplqyer sht pranvera.4 Koha n pranver sht e ngroht dhe natyra sht e bukur. Qielli sht i kaltr; dielli ndrion. Dita sht e gjat; nata sht e shkurtr. N rrug ka shum gjallri. Martini: Kurse stina ime e preferuar sht vera. N ver, dielli ndrion, deti sht blu dhe qyteti sht plot jet.

4. Stina ime e preferuar can also be used instead of Stina ime e paraplqyer to mean my favorite season.

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FJALOR asnjhr i brdh, e brdh blu br/, -a be br bregdetr, -e budall, -qe i,e bkur i,e bt cli cla dt, -i de/ll, -lli, -j dm/r, -ri, -ra dt/, -a, - dhjetr, -i i,e ftht fjalr, -i, - frj frn r gri gsht, -i gjallr, -a i,e gjt i,e gjlbr i,e hpur i,e haj janr, -i jt/, -a, - jte i,e kltr i keq, e kqe i,e knqur i kndsh/m, e -me klint, -i, - kh/, -a korrk, -u i kuq, e kqe i,e lht never white (masc., fem.) blue snow it snows coastal stupid beautiful, handsome mild, soft which (masc.) which (fem.) ocean sun winter day December cold dictionary to blow it is windy (lit., it blows wind) gray August liveliness, vitality long green open foreign January life your (fem., sing.) sky blue bad satised pleasant client weather, time July red easy, light i,e lr i,e lmtur i mdh, e mdhe mj, -i mrs, -i i,e mbllur mjgull, -a ka mjgull maj, -i, nt/, -a, net natr/, -a ndrs ndrij delli ndrin i ndrsh/m, e -me i nevjsh/m, e -me nntr, -i nga na tjtr nganjhr i,e ngrht i,e nxht i,e paraplqer plot plot jt prandj pranvr/, -a, -a i,e preferar prll, -i qershr, -i i,e qt qe/ll, -lli, -j qytt, -i i,e rnd i r, e r rrll rrallhr rrg/, -a, - si i st/m, e -me free, not busy, not occupied; cheap happy big May March closed fog it is foggy (lit., it has fog) month night nature whereas to shine the sun shines different necessary November on the other hand sometimes warm hot preferred, favorite full full of life therefore spring favorite April June quiet sky city heavy new, young rarely rarely street, road how todays, from today

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stn/, -a, - i shndtsh/m, e -me sh, -u, -ra be sh shkrt, -i i,e shkrtr i,e shpjt shtatr, -i i,e shtrnjt tetr, -i i,e trishtar ushtrm, -i, -e valxh/e, -ja, -e

season healthy rain it rains February short fast September expensive October gloomy, sad exercise suitcase

vr/, -a, -a i,e vrtt i,e vshtr vjsht/, -a, -a i,e vjtr i,e vgl yt i,e zaknsh/m, e -me i,e zn i zi, e zz i,e zgjar i zhrmsh/m, e -me

summer true difcult fall old small your (masc., informal) usual busy, occupied black smart, intelligent noisy

GRAMATIK 31 Class 2 adjectives: the linking article with singular denite nouns As we have seen before (7), adjectives typically follow nouns in Albanian. We have also seen that there are two kinds of adjectives: those that appear without a linking article (like adjectives of nationality, see 7, Class 1 adjectives) and those that appear with a linking article (Class 2 adjectives). In this lesson we will concentrate on adjectives that bear an obligatory linking article. Consider rst the following examples with denite singular nouns: (1) Studenti i mir sht ktu. (2) Studentja e mir sht ktu. The good student (masc.) is here. The good student (fem.) is here.

Class 2 adjectives require a linking article to be able to modify a noun; this linking article always precedes the adjective. Look at examples (1) and (2) above and write down the linking article for the denite singular nouns in the examples above:
Masculine Feminine

Nominative (subject)

____________

____________

As you have observed, the linking article i is used with a nominative masculine noun while e is used with a nominative feminine noun (remember that nominative is normally the case used with subjects). Notice that in all these examples the adjective immediately follows the noun. When an adjective modies a noun directly we say that it is an attributive adjective. The following chart shows the forms of the linking article with attributive adjectives in the nominative singular form:
Masculine Singular Feminine

Nominative

studenti i mir

studentja e mir

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Adjectives can also be used after a copular verb, such as jam to be or duket to seem. In these instances we say that the adjective is a predicative adjective. Consider the following examples: (3) Studenti sht i mir. (4) Studentja sht e mir. The student (masc) is good. The student (fem) is good.

Write down the linking article for the predicative adjectives above:
Singular Feminine

Masculine

Nominative (subject)

______________

______________

As you can see, the forms of the linking article are the same when the adjective is used attributively as when it is used predicatively. This is true for singular nouns.5 The following chart shows the forms of the linking article with predicative adjectives in the nominative singular form:
Masculine Singular Feminine

Nominative

Studenti sht i mir.

Studentja sht e mir

32 Class 2 adjectives: adjective agreement (singular forms) Now that you know the form of the linking article for singular nominative nouns, you need to master the different forms of the adjective. As you already know, the adjective agrees with the noun it modies. Most class 2 adjectives only have two forms, one for the feminine plural and another form for all the other cases. Lets consider the singular forms rst: Studenti i mir (masc.). Studentja e mir (fem.). The good student (masc.). The good student (fem.).

As you can see, adjectives that require a linking article have the same form in the masculine singular as in the feminine singular; only the linking article changes. Here are some more useful adjectives. They are not from the dialogue, but you will nd them useful for everyday conversation:
Masculine Feminine

i bardh i gjelbr i hapur i huaj i kaltr i knaqur i leht i lir i lumtur i mbyllur i rnd

e bardh e gjelbr e hapur e huaj e kaltr e knaqur e leht e lir e lumtur e mbyllur e rnd

white green open foreign sky blue satised easy, light free happy closed heavy

5. We will see later (42) that plural denite forms have different forms for the linking article when used attributively and when used predicatively. Hence it is important to understand the difference between these two types of modication.

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i smur i shpejt i shtrenjt i verdh i vrtet i vshtir i vjetr i zn i zgjuar

e smur e shpejt e shtrenjt e verdh e vrtet e vshtir e vjetr e zn e zgjuar

sick fast expensive yellow true difcult old busy, occupied smart, intelligent

Adjectives that end in -m in the masculine form take -me in the corresponding feminine singular form:
Masculine Feminine

i kndshm i ndryshm i nevojshm i sotm i shndetshm i zakonshm

e kndshme e ndryshme e nevojshme e sotme e shndetshme e zakonshme

pleasant different necessary todays, of today healthy usual

Some adjectives are irregular. These you must memorize:


Masculine Feminine

i keq i kuq i madh i ri i zi

e keqe e kuqe e madhe e re e zez

bad red big young, new black

Notice that i ri means both young and new, while i vjetr means old, referring to both people and objects: Djali sht i ri. Libri sht i ri. Burri sht i vjetr. Libri sht i vjetr. The boy is young. The book is new. The man is old. The book is old.

33 Class 2 adjectives with nominative singular indenite nouns In 31 we saw how class 2 adjectives behaved when modifying denite nouns. In this section we will learn how they behave when modifying indenite nouns. Consider the following examples: Ky sht nj student i mir. Kjo sht nj studente e mir. This is a good student (masc.). This is a good student (fem.).

Write down your observations. What is the linking article when the adjective is used attributively and when the noun is indenite?
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Masculine

Feminine

Nominative

__________

__________

The following charts summarize the forms of the linking article with attributive adjectives when they modify a nominative (subject) noun: Linking articles to modify a denite noun:
Masculine Singular Feminine

Nominative

studenti i mir

studentja e mir

Linking articles to modify an indenite noun:


Masculine Singular Feminine

Nominative

(nj) student i mir

(nj) studente e mir

34 The weather Here are some useful expressions for the weather. Si sht koha sot? Koha sht e mir sot. sht me diell. Po ndrion dielli. sht vap. Bn vap. sht ngroht. Koha sht e keqe sot. Po bie shi. sht me er. Fryn er. Po bie bor. sht ftoht. sht me re. Ka re. sht me lagshtir. Ka lagshtir. sht me mjegull. Ka mjegull. sht freskt. How is the weather today? The weather is good today. Its sunny. The sun is shining. Its hot. Its hot. Its warm. The weather is bad today. Its raining. Its windy. Its windy. Its snowing. Its cold. Its cloudy. Its cloudy. Its muggy. Its muggy. Its foggy. Its foggy. Its cool.

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35 The seasons and the months of the year Muajt (the months) and dhe stint (the seasons):
Stin Muaj

dimr janar shkurt mars

pranver prill maj qershor

ver korrik gusht shtator

vjesht tetor nntor dhjetor

There are two ways to ask for the date: Sa sht data sot? Sot sht 12 qershor 2012. dat sht sot? Sot sht 28 nntor 2012. Whats the date today? Today is June 12, 2012. Whats the date today? Today is November 28, 2012.

When you write the date on a letter, you write: Tiran, m 12.02.2012 (m dymbdhjet shkurt dy mij e dymbdhjet) Notice that in Albanian you must write day, month, year in that order. Thus, the date above is February 12, not December 2! Notice the way the different English prepositions are translated into Albanian when using days, months, seasons, and years: on Monday in February in 2012 on Monday, February 18, 2012 in (the) summer in the summer of 2012 Christmas is on December 25. Summer starts on June 21. t hnn (see 22) n shkurt n vitin 2012 (or n 2012-n) t hnn, m 18 shkurt 2012 n ver n vern e vitit 2012 Krishtlindjet jan m 25 dhjetor. Vera llon m 21 qershor.

USHTRIMI 5.4 Indicate whether the following statements are true (T), false (F), or not mentioned (NM) based on Dialogu 5.2. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. _____ Tirana sht nj qytet i madh dhe i bukur. _____ Tirana sht e zhurmshme dhe plot gjallri. _____ Shngjini sht nj qytet i vogl. sht shum i kndshm n dimr dhe n vjesht. _____ Tirana sht shum e qet n ver. _____ N Tiran qielli sht shpesh gri dhe nganjher ka dhe mjegull n dimr. _____ Dea thot se vjeshta sht stin e kndshme. _____ N dimr bie shum shi n Tiran.

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8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14.

_____ Martini thot se n dimr qielli sht gri n Shngjin. _____ N Tiran bie nganjher bor. _____ N Tiran, vera nuk sht asnjher e nxeht. _____ Dea thot se stina e saj e paraplqyer sht dimri. _____ Koha n pranver sht e ngroht dhe natyra sht shum e bukur n Tiran. _____ Shngjini sht nj qytet bregdetar dhe sht plot jet n ver. _____ N Shngjin, deti n ver sht blu.

USHTRIMI 5.5 Answer the following questions based on Dialogu 5.2. 1. Nga sht Dea? ____________________________________________________________ 2. Nga sht Martini? ____________________________________________________________ 3. Si sht Tirana? ____________________________________________________________ 4. Si sht Shngjini? ____________________________________________________________ 5. Si sht koha n dimr n Tiran? ____________________________________________________________ 6. Si sht koha n ver n Tiran? ____________________________________________________________ 7. Pse thot Martini se vjeshta sht stin e trishtuar? ____________________________________________________________ 8. Si sht koha n pranver? ____________________________________________________________ 9. Bie shi n dimr n Tiran? ____________________________________________________________ 10. Si sht koha n ver n Shngjin? ____________________________________________________________

USHTRIMI 5.6 Si sht koha? Briey describe the weather in the two cities mentioned in Dialogu 5.2 depending on the season. N pranver: Shngjini ________________________ ________________________ Tirana ________________________ ________________________

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N ver: N vjesht: N dimr:

________________________ ________________________ ________________________ ________________________ ________________________ ________________________

________________________ ________________________ ________________________ ________________________ ________________________ ________________________

USHTRIMI 5.7 Complete the following sentences with the appropriate form of the adjective in parentheses. Make sure you understand the meaning of the adjectives you are using! 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. Qyteti sht ___________(i madh) dhe ___________(i bukur). Rruga sht ___________(i zhurmshm). Natyra sht ___________(i kndshm) n pranver. Pranvera sht stin ___________(i bukur). Dimri sht ___________(i ftoht). Dita sht ___________(i gjat). Shtpia sht ___________(i qet). Vjeshta sht ___________(i bukur) dhe pak ___________(i trishtuar). Qielli sht ___________ (i kaltr). Qyteti sht ___________ (i qet).

USHTRIMI 5.8 Complete the following sentences with the appropriate form of the words in parentheses. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. __________________ (The red notebook) sht mbi tryez. __________________ (Todays newspaper) sht ktu. __________________ (The small boy) tani shkon n shkoll. __________________ (The white book) sht mbi tryez. __________________ (The table) sht ______________ (red). ______________ (This beer) sht ____________ (cold), kurse ajo sht ______________ (warm). _______________ (The new lesson) sht _____________ (easy). _______________ (The new discotheque) sht ______________ (open), kurse _______________ (the old discotheque) sht ______________ (closed). _______________ (The new [male] student) nuk sht ___________ (healthy), ai sht shpesh _____________ (sick). _____________ (The ower) sht _____________ (yellow); nuk sht _____________ (green).

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USHTRIMI 5.9 In Dialogu 5.1, you encountered the following expression: Sa fotogra e bukur! What a beautiful picture!

This is what we call an exclamative noun phrase. What is the formula to form exclamative noun phrases? (i) ________ + (ii) ____________ + (iii) ___________. Now try to say the following exclamative noun phrases. Be careful with the form of the linking article. Remember that you need to use the indenite form of the noun. These exclamative noun phrases always start with the exclamative word sa how. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. What a beautiful girl! What a tall boy! What an intelligent woman! What an easy exercise! What an expensive car! What an old house! What a cold winter! What a hot summer! What a difcult book! What an old city! ________________________________________ ________________________________________ ________________________________________ ________________________________________ ________________________________________ ________________________________________ ________________________________________ ________________________________________ ________________________________________ ________________________________________

LEXIMI 5.1: LETR NGA PUSHIMET Xhimi sht nj student nga Shtetet e Bashkuara dhe studion shqip n universitet. Tani sht me pushime n Sarand dhe po shkruan nj letr pr nj shok q banon n Tiran Sarand, m 15.08.2012 I dashur Artan, Tani jam n Sarand. Jam n hotel Cosmopole. Kam nj dhom me pamje nga deti. Dhoma ka nj ballkon. N ballkon ka dy karrige, nj tryez dhe nj adr. Atje ha mngjes [I eat breakfast] do dit. Pr mngjes zakonisht ha kos me fruta, buk me gjalp dhe me reel dhe pi kafe turke me shum sheqer. Kafeja sht shum e fort ktu. Koha sht e mir. N mngjes, temperatura sht 20 grad Celsius dhe sht shum kndshm, sepse nuk bn vap. Por n mesdit dielli sht shum i fort dhe bn shum vap (30 33 grad C). Zakonisht n mesdit un shkoj n plazh. Edhe n mbrmje sht vap dhe ka pak lagshti. Pr fat t mir, hoteli ka ajr t kondicionuar dhe nga deti fryn gjithmon nj lad i freskt. N dhom ka dy krevate dhe nj dollap. Dhoma nuk sht si dhoma ime n Uashington. N dhom ka frigorifer dhe televizor. Un shikoj televizor do pasdite. Megjithse ka

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disa kanale n anglisht si BBC dhe CNN, un shikoj vetm kanale shqiptare. Nuk kuptoj do gj, por kuptoj shum (70 pr qind). N televizor ka shum telenovela italiane dhe latinoamerikane! Tri minuta larg nga hoteli sht tregu dhe nj supermarket.6 Shkoj do dit n treg, sepse blej fruta, kurse n supermarket blej buk, djath, gjalp, reel, qumsht, lng frutash dhe koka- kola.7 Drek ha zakonisht n plazh. N mbrmje shkoj n kafene ku pi kafe ose lng frutash, ose ha patate t skuqura.8 do dit blej dy gazeta dhe lexoj disa artikuj. Kam edhe dy shok ktu. Ata nuk jan nga Saranda, por punojn ktu n ver. Valdeti sht nga Tirana dhe Toku sht nga Prishtina (nga Kosova). Valdeti punon si kamarier n nj hotel ktu afr, kurse Toku sht murator. Valdeti dhe Toku vijn do pasdite n hotel. Tani n Sarand ka kryesisht turist nga Balkani, por jo nga Evropa Perndimore ose nga Shtetet e Bashkuara. Nuk po shkruaj m, sepse po troket dera. T fala, shoku yt Xhimi

FJALOR fr jr i kondicionar jr t kondicionar ballkn, -i, -e bk/, -a, - d/r, -ra, -ra dr/, -a, dyer dt, -i, -e de/ll, -lli, -j djth/, -i, -ra dollp, -i, - drek/, -a, -a ft, -i pr fat t mr lad, -i, -e i,e frt i,e frskt frigorifr, -i, - frt/, -a, -a nearby air conditioning (nom.) air conditioning (acc.) balcony bread parasol, sunshade door sea sun cheese wardrobe lunch fate, destiny, luck luckily, fortunately light breeze strong refreshing, fresh refrigerator fruit fryj gadshu/ll, -lli, -j grd/, -a, -a gjlp/, -i gj, -ja, -ra d gj gjithmn kanl, -i, -e i kndsh/m, e -me kka- kla kos, -i krevt, -i, -e kryessht lagsht, -a latno- amerikn, -e ln/g, -gu, -gje lng frtash megjthse m muratr, -i, - pmj/e, -ja, -e to blow peninsula degree butter thing everything always channel comfortable Coca-Cola yogurt bed mainly humidity Latin American juice fruit juice although more, any more stonemason, bricklayer view, sight

6. In the spoken language, tre minuta is usually used. 7. In the spoken language, just use kola. 8. In the spoken language, kafe is used instead of kafene: Shkojm n kafe! Lets go to a coffee shop!

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me pmje nga patt/e, -ja, -e patte t skqura perndimr, -e pr qnd pi plzh, -i, -e qmsht, -i rel, -i sa i,e skqur sheqr, -i

facing, with a view to potato fried potatoes western percent to drink beach milk jam like fried sugar

telenovl/, -a, -a t fla tr/g, -gu, -gje troks Po trokt dra.

turst, -i, - vp/, -a sht vp. Kam vp.

soap opera greetings, regards market to knock Someone is knocking. (lit., The door is knocking.) tourist heat Its hot. I am hot.

USHTRIMI 5.10 Answer the following questions based on Leximi 5.1. 1. Nga sht Xhimi? Ku sht tani? ____________________________________________________________ 2. muaj sht? stin sht? ____________________________________________________________ 3. Sa sht data? ____________________________________________________________ 4. po bn Xhimi n Sarand tani? N hotel sht ai? ____________________________________________________________ 5. Si sht koha n Sarand n ver? ____________________________________________________________ 6. Si sht dhoma? ____________________________________________________________ 7. ka n ballkon? ____________________________________________________________ 8. far ka n dhom? ____________________________________________________________ 9. A shikon Xhimi programe n anglisht n televizor? Pse? ____________________________________________________________ 10. Sa gazeta blen do dit? ____________________________________________________________ 11. Sa shok ka ai n Sarand? bjn ata? far kombsie kan? ____________________________________________________________ 12. A ka turist nga Evropa Perndimore? ____________________________________________________________

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USHTRIMI 5.11 Classify the following words into one of the following categories. Write these nouns (except turist) in their singular denite form, as in the example. These are very practical words to know when youre traveling! ballkon, buk, adr, det, diell, dhom, lad, frigorifer, frut, gjalp, kafe, kamarier, karrige, krevat, lagshti, murator, reel, sheqer, tryez, televizor, [turist], treg, Tok, Valdet, vap, ver
Ushqime/Pije Mobilje Qytet Hotel Shok Koha

(food/drink)

(furniture)

(city) turist

(hotel) ballkoni

(friends)

(weather)

USHTRIMI 5.12 Create dialogues for the following situations. 1. Imagine you are Xhimi. Using the information given in the reading, register at the Hotel Cosmopole in Saranda. A classmate will play the role of the receptionist. Ask as many questions as you can about the room. 2. Xhimi eats breakfast in the hotel dining room. He talks to the waiter about where he is from. The waiter tells him what the hotel offers for breakfast. Use some of the vocabulary in Ushtrimi 5.11 3. Xhimi goes to dinner at a nice restaurant. He talks to the waiter and asks many questions about Saranda. The waiter tells him what is on the menu. Use some of the vocabulary in Ushtrimi 5.11.
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Shngjin (photo: Edmond Prifti)

INFORMACIONE KULTURORE Tirana, located in central Albania, is the capital of Albania. Shngjin is a city on the Adriatic Sea. Saranda is a city in southern Albania on the coast of the Ionian Sea. Albania has a mild, Mediterranean climate, with hot, dry summers and cool, wet winters in the lowlands. In the highlands, snow can fall from November until March; mountain towns are very cold at this time of year. The coastal lowlands typically have Mediterranean weather; the highlands have a Mediterranean continental climate. In both the lowlands and the interior, the weather varies markedly from north to south. The lowlands have mild winters, averaging about 7 C. Summer temperatures average 24 C. In the southern lowlands, temperatures average about ve degrees higher throughout the year. The difference is greater than ve degrees during the summer and somewhat less during the winter. In Gheg, the months of the year are Kallnuer (kallnor), fruer (fror), mars, prill, qershuer, korrik, gusht, shtatuer, Tetuer, nantuer, dhetuer. In Gheg, the seasons of the year are pra(e)ndver, ver, vjesht, dimn. Adjectives that end in -uar in Standard Albanian typically end in -u(e)m in the Gheg dialect: i trishtuar i trishtu(e)m i gzuar i gzu(e)m Adjectives that end in -ur end in -un in Gheg: i lumtur i lumtun

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MSIMI 6
Prsritje
Review DIALOGU 6.1: PAMELA Drini: Kush sht kjo ktu n fotogra? Vesa: Kjo sht Pamela. Drini: Nga sht Pamela? Vesa: sht nga Uashingtoni.1 Drini: Sa vjee sht ajo? Vesa: Pamela sht 20 vjee. Drini: sht n pun apo studion n universitet? Vesa: Studion n universitet. Drini: Pr far studion ajo?2 Vesa: Pamela studion pr matematik. Ajo ka burs nga universiteti. Drini: Banon me prindrit apo vetm? Vesa: Jo, banon me dy shoqe n konvikt. Drini: Sa lnd ka kt semestr? Vesa: Kt semestr ka katr lnd: matematik, kimi, zik. Studion edhe shqip. Drini: Shqip? Pse studion shqip? Vesa: Sepse babai i saj sht shqiptar. Drini: Po n shtpi, far gjuhe et me prindrit? Vesa: N shtpi et vetm anglisht. Nna e saj sht amerikane dhe nuk et shqip. Drini: Ku punon babai i saj? Vesa: Babai i saj sht dentist dhe punon n nj klinik dentare. Drini: Po nna e saj, pun bn? Vesa: Nna sht pedagoge. Punon n universitet. Jep letrsi. Drini: A ka motra dhe vllezr? Vesa: Ka nj motr dhe nj vlla. Ata shkojn n shkoll. Drini: bn Pamela n fundjav? Vesa: T shtunn n mngjes noton n pishin ose vrapon. Pastaj studion pak. N mbrmje shkon n diskotek ose n kinema. Drini: Po t dieln? Vesa: T dieln shkon n bibliotek. Atje kalon shum or, sepse studion dhe bn detyrat.

1. Typically, foreign names are written the way they sound to an Albanian person. Notice that since Uashington ends in a consonant, it is considered a masculine noun. Hence, Uashingtoni is its denite form, which is required after nga. 2. This structure is used to ask about the major a person is pursuing at a university.

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FJALOR A ka mtra dhe vllzr? brs/, -a, -a detr/, -a, -a bj detrat sht n pn? zk/, -a kalj kt kim, -a klink/, -a, -a klink dentre letrs, -a Does she have brothers and sisters? scholarship, stock exchange assignment, homework to do the homework Is she working? (lit, Is she at work?) physics to spend time this (accusative) chemistry clinic dental clinic literature lnd/, -a, - matematk/, -a pastj pedagg, -u, - pishn/, -a, -a prind, -i, -r me prndrit semst/r, -ri, -ra kt semster shm shm r Uashingtn, -i vtm vrapj course, subject mathematics afterward teacher, professor (at the university level) swimming pool parent with the parents semester this semester many many hours Washington only, alone to run

USHTRIMI 6.1 True (T), false (F), or not mentioned (NM)? 1. _____ Pamela sht nga Shtetet e Bashkuara. 2. _____ Pamela sht 20 vjee. 3. _____ Pamela studion n mngjes dhe punon n mbrmje. 4. _____ Pamela jeton me nj shoqe. 5. _____ Pamela studion n universitet. 6. _____ Pamela ka 4 lnd kt semestr. 7. _____ Pamela et shqip lirisht. 8. _____ Babai i Pamels (Pamelas father) sht nga Shqipria. 9. _____ Nna e Pamels (Pamelas mother) sht amerikane. 10. _____ Babai i Pamels punon n Uashington. 11. _____ Nna e Pamels punon n shkoll. 12. _____ Nna e Pamels jep matematik. 13. _____ Pamela ka nj vlla dhe nj motr. 14. _____ T shtunn dhe t dieln Pamela shkon n diskotek.

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USHTRIMI 6.2 Answer the following questions based on Dialogu 6.1. 1. A sht Pamela nga Uashingtoni? ____________________________________________________________ 2. bn babai i saj? Ku punon ai? ____________________________________________________________ 3. bn nna e saj? Ku punon ajo? ____________________________________________________________ 4. A ka vllezr dhe motra? bjn ata? ____________________________________________________________ 5. Ku studion Pamela? studion? ____________________________________________________________ 6. Sa lnd ka kt semestr? ____________________________________________________________ 7. Studion Pamela shqip? Pse? ____________________________________________________________ 8. Ka ajo burs nga universiteti? ____________________________________________________________ 9. bn ajo t shtunn? ____________________________________________________________ 10. bn Pamela t dieln? ____________________________________________________________

USHTRIMI 6.3 Geri is in the fth grade. Below is his orari i msimeve schedule of classes preceded by a brief vocabulary list. Study the schedule and answer the questions. aftsm, -i aftsm teknologjk ditur, -a ditur natre edukt/, -a edukt zke ekonom, -a ekonom shtpike lexm, -i lexm letrr pushm, -i vizatm, -i qualication, skill technology (lit., technological skill) knowledge science (lit., knowledge of nature) education physical education economics home economics reading the subject of literature for elementary school break drawing

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ORARI I MSIMEVE E hn 08:0008:45 Gjuh Shqipe 08:5009:35 Histori 09:4010:25 Vizatim 10:2510:50 P 10:5011:35 Anglisht 11:4012:25 Matematik 12:3013:15 Muzik

E mart Histori Edukat zike Matematik U Gjeogra Lexim letrar Ekonomi shtpiake

E mrkur Gjuh Shqipe Lexim letrar Dituri natyre Sh Matematik Muzik

E enjte Anglisht Matematik Edukat zike I Gjuh Shqipe Lexim letrar Dituri natyre

E premte Gjuh Shqipe Anglisht Matematik M Ekonomi shtpiake Aftsim teknologjik Dituri natyre

1. N or llon shkolla (the school) do dit? ____________________________________________________________ 2. N or mbaron? ____________________________________________________________ 3. Sa or kalon Geri n shkoll do dit? ____________________________________________________________ 4. Ka Geri msim do dit? ____________________________________________________________ 5. Sa lnd ka Geri n shkoll? ____________________________________________________________ 6. Kur ka Geri gjuh shqipe? ____________________________________________________________ 7. Sa or matematik ka n jav? Kur ka matematik? ____________________________________________________________ 8. Sa or histori ka Geri n jav? Po dituri natyre? ____________________________________________________________ 9. Kur ka lexim letrar? ____________________________________________________________ 10. lnd ka t premten? ____________________________________________________________ 11. Nga or deri n or ka pushim do dit? ____________________________________________________________ 12. gjuh mson Geri? Sa or ka n jav? ____________________________________________________________ 13. Mson ai italisht n shkoll? ____________________________________________________________ 14. N lnd mson kompjuterin (learn about the computer)? ____________________________________________________________

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Polytechnic University of Tirana (photo: Albes Fusha)

USHTRIMI 6.4 Create dialogues for the following situations. 1. You are an exchange student in Tirana. A classmate is a reporter and interviews you about your life in Albania. Follow the model of Ushtrimi 6.3. 2. You and a friend go for a drink at a coffee shop. You each talk about your family and friends. 3. Briey discuss your weekly schedule of classes as a university student. 4. You are a junior in high school. Briey discuss your schedule of classes. Look up in the dictionary the names of the classes you are taking that you have not learned yet.

INFORMACIONE KULTURORE Albanian law used to require all children to attend school for eight years. Since the educational reform of 2004, education is now compulsory for nine years. Children typically start rst grade at the age of six. The rst cycle of elementary education (grades 15) is called Cikl i Ult (Low Cycle). The second cycle is called Cikl i Lart (High Cycle). After Cikl i Lart students earn a Dftes Lirimi (Leaving Certicate). In the Albanian grading system, 10 is the highest grade, and 5 is the lowest passing grade. Compulsory subjects for elementary education are mother tongue/literature (Albanian), mathematics, history, geography, physics, biology, knowledge of nature, art, music, civic education, technological education (technology), physical education, and a foreign language.

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MSIMI 7
far ka sonte n televizor?
Whats on TV tonight? In this lesson you will learn: activities that you do in a language class how to describe a city You will learn the following grammatical points: the verbs njoh to know and shoh to see in the present indicative the nominative and accusative forms of plural nouns class 1 adjectives that modify a plural noun class 2 adjectives that modify a plural noun

DIALOGU 7.1: N KLAS Gazetari: Mirdita, profesor! Sa student ka kjo klas? Profesori: Mirdita! Kjo klas ka 15 student. Gazetari: far studiojn ata? Profesori: Ata studiojn shqip. Gazetari: Pse studiojn shqip? Profesori: Ata studiojn shqip pr shum arsye. Disa student po msojn shqip, sepse jetojn n Shqipri. Disa po msojn shqip sepse jan studiues dhe po bjn krkime n Shqipri. N klas ka edhe dy prkthyes. Ata asin disa gjuh dhe tani po msojn edhe shqip. Gazetari: A sht kjo klas pr llestar? Profesori: Jo. Kta student tashm kuptojn dhe asin mir shqip. Gazetari: A bjn shum gabime kur asin? Profesori: Jo shum! Gazetari: bjn studentt n klas? Profesori: Studentt asin shqip, lexojn tekste, bjn ushtrime dhe shpesh shohin n televizor emisione kulturore. Gazetari: A diskutojn ata n klas pr tekstet q lexojn? Profesori: Po. Ata diskutojn gjat pr tekstet q lexojn: bjn pyetje dhe japin mendime. Ata shfaqin interes n veanti pr tekstet historike dhe kulturore. Po ashtu, bjn diskutime pr emisionet kulturore dhe pr lmat shqiptar q shohin n klas ose n shtpi. Gazetari: Studentt punojn n grupe apo n mnyr individuale? Profesori: Studentt punojn kryesisht n grupe. Ndrsa, kur bjn ushtrime n etore, punojn n mnyr individuale. Gazetari: A shohin lma n klas?

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Profesori: Po, nganjher ata shohin edhe lma. Pastaj ne diskutojm pr lmat n klas dhe un shpjegoj me hollsi do gj q ata nuk kuptojn. Gazetari: Klasa duket shum interesante dhe informuese. Prgzime! Profesori: Shum faleminderit!

FJALOR ars/e, -ja, -e pr shm arse asht bisedj diskutm, -i, -e bj nj diskutm diskutj dket emisin, -i, -e flm, -i, -a llestr, -i, - gabm, -i, -e grp, -i, -e gjt holls, -a, me holls individul, -e informatv, -e inters, -i, -a shfq inters interesnt, -e jap jp mendme jetj krkm, -i, -e reason for many reasons so, thus to talk, discuss discussion to have a discussion to discuss (it) seems show (from TV) lm beginner mistake group long, for a long time detail in detail individual informative interest to show interest interesting to give to give opinions to live research kryeqytt, -i kryessht kulturr, -e kuptj mendm, -i, -e jp mendme mnr/, -a n mnr individule prgzm, -i, -e Prgzme! prkthj prkthes, -i, prandj q studies, -i, shfaq shoh shpjt tshm tkst, -i, -e ushtrm, -i, -e veant, -a n veant capital (city) primarily cultural to understand opinion to give opinions manner, way individually (lit., in an individual way) compliment Congratulations! to translate translator therefore that, who, which researcher to show to see, watch fast already text exercise particularity, peculiarity especially

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GRAMATIK 36 The verbs njoh to know and shoh to see in the present indicative
njoh shoh

un ti ai, ajo ne ju ata, ato

njoh njeh njeh njohim njihni njohin

shoh sheh sheh shohim shihni shohin

Njoh to know and shoh to see are class 2 verbs (see 6). Notice the vowel change from -o- to -e- with ti and ai/ajo and from -o- to -i- with ju. Njoh and shoh are transitive verbs; that is, they typically occur with a direct object, which is marked with the accusative case. We have already learned that subjects are typically marked with the nominative case. Indenite nouns have the same form in the nominative (when used as subjects) as in the accusative case (when used as direct objects). Nj student po lexon. Un njoh nj student. One/A student is reading. I know one/a student.

In the examples above, nj student a student is used both as a subject and as a direct object, respectively. The former is in the nominative case, while the latter is in the accusative case. In the next couple of sections we will learn how to form plural indenites; these can also be used either as subjects or as objects. Then we will learn how to form and use plural denite forms in subject and object positions. 37 Nominative/accusative plural indenite nouns: masculine nouns Masculine nouns typically end in a consonant in Albanian. The following explains how masculine indenite nouns form their nominative/accusative plural. 1. Some masculine nouns add -. This is perhaps the most productive of all classes. (nj) student (disa) student (nj) kompozitor (disa) kompozitor (a) student (some) students (a) composer (some) composers

2. Other masculine nouns form their plural by adding -a: (nj) lm (disa) lma 3. Other masculine nouns add -e: (nj) gabim (disa) gabime a mistake some mistakes a lm some lms

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(nj) ushtrim (disa) ushtrime (nj) universitet (disa) universitete (nj) mendim (disa) mendime (nj) stacion (disa) stacione

an exercise some exercises a university some universities an opinion some opinions a (bus, train) stop some stations

Notice that most nouns in group 3 end in -im or are foreign loanwords that end in -et or -on. It is important to remember that these masculine nouns change gender in the plural. Thus, while they are masculine in the singular, they become feminine in the plural. nj shtet evropian (masc.) disa shtete evropiane (fem.) a European country some European countries

4. Some masculine names that end in -r drop the -- and add -a: (nj) libr (disa) libra a book some books

5. Masculine nouns that end in -ll form their plural by replacing -ll with -j: (nj) artikull (disa) artikuj (nj) papagall (disa) papagaj (nj) konsull (disa) konsuj an article some articles a parrot some parrots a consul some consuls

6. Some masculine nouns have the same form in the singular and in the plural. These are typically nouns that end in -as, -()s, -ues, or -yes: (nj) maqedonas (disa) maqedonas (nj) nxns (disa) nxns (nj) msues (disa) msues (nj) prkthyes (disa) prkthyes (nj) studiues (disa) studiues a Macedonian some Macedonians a student some students a teacher some teachers a translator some translators a researcher some researchers
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7. Some nouns are irregular. You have already encountered several: (nj) baba (disa) baballar (nj) djal (disa) djem (nj) gjysh (disa) gjyshr (nj) prind (disa) prindr (nj) vlla (disa) vllezr (nj) z (disa) zra a father some fathers a boy, son some boys, sons a grandfather some grandfathers a parent some parents a brother some brothers a sound, voice some sounds, voices

With the exception of the nouns in groups 2, 4, 5, and 6, Albanian masculine nouns are a little erratic as to how they form their plural. You must memorize these forms! The plural form will be listed immediately after the denite form in the vocabulary lists and in the glossary. Thus, if you nd the following entries in the vocabulary list or in the glossary at the end of the book, you will know how to make the singular denite form as well as the plural indenite form:
Vocabulary Entry Singular Indenite Singular Denite Plural Indenite

student, -i, - (student) universitet, -i, -e (university) lm, -i, -a (lm) lib/r, -ri, -ra (book) nxns, -i, - (pupil) burr/, -i, -a (man) gjysh, -i, -r (grandfather)

student universitet lm libr nxns burr gjysh

studenti universiteti lmi libri nxnsi burri gjyshi

student universitete lma libra nxns burra gjyshr

Indenites share the same form in the nominative as in the accusative, and thus they can be used either as subjects (where they bear the nominative case) or as direct objects (where they bear the accusative case): Nj student po shkruan n tabel. Un njoh nj student. Disa student po shkruajn tani. Un njoh disa student. A student is writing on the board. I know a student. Some students are writing now. I know some students.

38 Nominative/accusative plural denite nouns: masculine nouns In 37 you learned how to form the plural indenite. To make the plural denite, simply add -t to the plural indenite form:

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Singular Indenite

Plural Indenite

Plural Denite

student (student) burr (man) ushtrim (exercise) libr (book) artikull (article)

student burra ushtrime libra artikuj

studentt (the students) burrat (the men) ushtrimet (the exercises) librat (the books) artikujt (the articles)

If the plural form ends in a consonant, add -it:


Singular Indenite Plural Indenite Plural Denite

maqedonas (Macedonian) nxns (pupil) msues (teacher) prkthyes (translator) vlla (brother) prind (parent)

maqedonas nxns msues prkthyes vllezr prindr

maqedonasit nxnsit msuesit prkthyesit vllezrit prindrit

Unlike English, Albanian does not allow plain indenites to be used as subjects. Generic subjects (when we refer to an entity as a group) are typically used with a denite article in Albanian: Studentt punojn shum. Students work hard.

If we want to refer to an indenite group, we must use the determiner disa some: Disa student nuk msojn n shtpi. Some students dont study at home.

Masculine plural denite nouns have the same form in both the nominative and accusative cases; therefore, just like the indenites discussed in 37, these plural denite forms can be used either as subjects (nominative) or as direct objects (accusative):1 Msuesit lexojn ushtrimet. Ne shohim msuesit. The teachers read the exercises. We see the teachers.

39 Nationality and class 1 adjectives We saw in 7 that class 1 adjectives are those adjectives that are used without a linking article. Consider the following examples: (1) nj msues shqiptar (2) nj msuese shqiptare (3) msuesi shqiptar (4) msuesja shqiptare an Albanian (male) teacher an Albanian (female) teacher the Albanian (male) teacher the Albanian (female) teacher

Why do we nd shqiptar in examples (1) and (3) but shqiptare in (2) and (4)?2 _______________________________________________________________
1. Masculine singular denite nouns have different forms in the nominative and accusative (see 53). 2. If you cannot answer quickly, please review 7.

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Consider now the corresponding plural forms: (5) disa msues shqiptar (6) disa msuese shqiptare (7) msuesit shqiptar (8) msueset shqiptare some Albanian (male) teachers some Albanian (female) teachers the Albanian (male) teachers the Albanian (female) teachers

Why do we nd shqiptar in examples (5) and (7) but shqiptare in (6) and (8)? _______________________________________________________________ Now look at examples (1) through (8). Do the adjectives take a different form when they modify a denite or an indenite noun? _______________________________________________________________ Write the corresponding forms for the adjective shqiptar Albanian: masculine singular _____________ feminine singular _____________ masculine plural _____________ feminine plural _____________

Adjectives must agree with the noun they modify. In general, nationality adjectives and adjectives that end in a consonant and that are stressed on the last syllable take an - to form the plural if they are masculine and an -e if they are feminine. The feminine forms are the same in the singular and in the plural. Class 1 adjectives remain the same whether they modify a denite or an indenite noun.
Masculine Singular Feminine Singular

Plural

Plural

shqiptar amerikan italian anglez interesant kulturor informativ llestar

shqiptar amerikan _________ _________ interesant kulturor _________ _________

shqiptare amerikane _________ _________ interesante kulturore _________ _________

shqiptare amerikane _________ _________ interesante kulturore _________ _________

Class 1 adjectives in Albanian are not inected for case, so the adjective will have the same form when it modies a nominative subject and an accusative direct object: Studentt amerikan asin mir shqip. The American students speak Albanian well. Un njoh disa student amerikan. I know some American students.

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USHTRIMI 7.1 Indicate whether the following statements are true (T), false (F), or not mentioned (NM) in Dialogu 7.1. _____ Klasa ka 25 student. _____ Ajo nuk sht nj klas pr llestar. _____ Studentt bjn shum gabime kur asin shqip. _____ Studentt bisedojn pr lma shqiptar. _____ Studentt msojn shqip pr shum arsye _____ Ka tre prkthyes n klas. _____ N klas ka pes studiues. _____ Klasa sht shum interesante. _____ Profesori shpjegon do gj me hollsi, kur studentt nuk kuptojn. _____ N klas, studentt asin shqip, lexojn tekste, bjn ushtrime dhe shpesh shohin n televizor emisione kulturore. 11. _____ Studentt nuk diskutojn pr lmat q shohin n klas. 12. _____ Studentt asin shqip n klas. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10.

USHTRIMI 7.2 Answer the following questions based on Dialogu 7.1. 1. Sa student ka klasa? ____________________________________________________________ 2. Studentt jan llestar? ____________________________________________________________ 3. Pse msojn shqip studentt? ____________________________________________________________ 4. bjn studiuesit n Shqipri? ____________________________________________________________ 5. bjn studentt n klas? ____________________________________________________________ 6. A bjn shum gabime kur asin? ____________________________________________________________ 7. A shohin ata lma n klas? ____________________________________________________________ 8. A diskutojn ata pr lmat q shohin? ____________________________________________________________ 9. A japin mendime pr tekstet q lexojn n klas? ____________________________________________________________ 10. Si duket klasa? ____________________________________________________________

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USHTRIMI 7.3 Here are some nouns that appear in Dialogu 7.1. Write the corresponding forms, as in the example.
Singular Indenite Singular Denite Plural Indenite Plural Denite

student gabim prkthyes ushtrim televizor lm studiues krkim mendim

studenti

student

studentt

USHTRIMI 7.4 Now lets practice the plural of masculine nouns. Change the following sentences into the plural, making all necessary additional changes. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. Ky kngtar sht nga Turqia. Un njoh nj kuzhinier n hotel. Ata msojn nj msim do dit. Ne lexojm nj libr. Un njoh nj djal. Ne shohim nj lm n mbrmje. Universiteti sht n kryeqytet. Takimi mbaron n orn katr. Kuzhinieri po gatuan dark (dinner). Msuesi po shikon nj emision n televizor.

USHTRIMI 7.5 Change all the nouns in the following sentences into the plural. Make all the necessary additional changes. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Zakonisht bj nj gabim kur shkruaj. Prkthyesi po prkthen nj libr. Ky burr po sheh nj lm. Ku sht vllai? Ushtrimi sht n etore. Tani (Now) po lexojm nj tekst.

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7. 8. 9. 10.

Ku sht gjyshi dhe babai? Un njoh nj studiues gjerman. Nxnsi sht n klas. Msuesi po shpjegon nj ushtrim.

DIALOGU 7.2: FAR PO SHIKON N TELEVIZOR? Dardani: far po sheh Ajkuna? Ajkuna: Po shoh lajmet n televizor. Dardani: far po japin lajmet? Ajkuna: Tani po japin nj kronik pr nj olimpiad ballkanike n matematik. Dardani: A ka nxns shqiptar n olimpiad? Ajkuna: Po, ka dhe nj ekip me nxns shqiptar. Ata prfaqsojn shkolla t ndryshme private dhe publike. Dardani: Si jan rezultatet e tyre n olimpiad? Ajkuna: Ata po arrijn rezultate shum t mira dhe msuesit e tyre jan shum t knaqur. Ata thon se kta djem t rinj dhe vajza t reja jan krenaria jon. Dardani: Po vet nxnsit shqiptar far thon? Ajkuna: Ata thon se n olimpiad ka shum vajza t talentuara dhe djem t talentuar, prandaj konkurrenca sht shum e fort. Dardani: A studiojn shum? Ajkuna: Po. Ushtrimet jan shum t vshtira, prandaj ata studiojn disa or n dit. Dardani: A jan t gzuar q kan rezultate t larta? Ajkuna: Po, ata jan shum t gzuar q kan rezultate t larta. Dardani: Po n olimpiada botrore a jan t suksesshme ekipet shqiptare? Ajkuna: Po. Ekipet shqiptare jan t suksesshme n aktivitete t rndsishme ballkanike dhe botrore. Dardani: Shum mir. Rezultatet e larta n aktivitetet kombtare dhe ndrkombtare jan shum t rndsishme pr nxnsit e talentuar shqiptar dhe pr shkollat shqiptare.

FJALOR arrj botrr, -e diskutm, -i, -e bj nj diskutm ekp, -i, -e i,e frt ftoj i,e gzuar to achieve, arrive, reach world (adj.), worldwide discussion to have a discussion team strong to invite glad jn konkurrnc/, -a krenar, -a kulturr, -e lajm, -i, -e i,e lrt ndrkombtr, -e i ndrsh/m, e -me prfaqsj prandj our competition pride cultural news high international different to represent therefore

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privt, -e publk, -e q rezultt, -i, -e i rndssh/m, e -me studies, -i, i suksssh/m, e -me shfaq

private (adj.) public (adj.) that, who, which result important researcher, scholar successful to show

shoh shpjt i,e talentar tkst, -i, -e i,e tre i,e vshtr vet vet nxnsit

to see fast talented text their difcult oneself the students themselves

GRAMATIK 40 Nominative/accusative plural indenite nouns: feminine nouns Feminine nouns are typically those that end in a vowel in Albanian (see 27). The following shows how feminine nouns form their nominative/accusative plural indenite form: 1. If a noun ends in -, replace the - with -a. This is the most common class. nj gazet (disa) gazeta nj revist (disa) revista a newspaper some newspapers a magazine some magazines

2. Feminine nouns that end in -r drop the -r and add -a: (nj) motr (disa) motra (nj) letr (disa) letra a sister some sisters a letter some letters

3. Feminine nouns that end in a stressed -i, -e, or -a have the same form in the singular and plural: (nj) shtpi (disa) shtpi (nj) kafene (disa) kafene (nj) kala (disa) kala a house some houses a coffeehouse some coffeehouses a castle some castles

4. Feminine nouns that end in an unstressed -e or -o also have the same form in the singular and plural: (nj) mace (disa) mace (nj) radio (disa) radio a cat some cats a radio some radios

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5. Some feminine nouns that end in - have the same form in the singular and plural: (nj) dit (disa) dit (nj) gjuh (disa) gjuh (nj) kmb (disa) kmb a day some days a language some languages a leg some feet

6. Some feminine nouns are irregular. So far you have encountered only a couple of these irregular forms: (nj) grua (disa) gra (nj) der (disa) dyer a woman some women a door some doors

With the exception of the rules in groups 5 and 6, feminine plural nouns, unlike masculine nouns, are very easy to form and to remember. The irregular forms in groups 5 and 6 must be memorized. The other forms are predictable. The plural forms will be listed immediately following the denite form in the vocabulary lists and in the glossary:
Vocabulary Entry Singular Indenite Singular Denite Plural Indenite

gazet/, -a, -a (newspaper) mot/r, -ra, -ra (sister) shtpi, -a, - (house) mac/e, -ja, -e (cat) dit/, -a, - (day) grua, -ja, gra (woman)

gazet motr shtpi mace dit grua

gazeta motra shtpia macja dita gruaja

gazeta motra shtpi mace dit gra

As we mentioned in 37, indenites (whether singular or plural) share the same form in the nominative as in the accusative case; thus, they can be used either as subjects or as direct objects: Nj gazet sht mbi tryez. Ne lexojm nj gazet do dit. Disa gazeta jan mbi tryez. Ne lexojm disa gazeta do dit. A newspaper is on the table. We read a newspaper every day. Some newspapers are on the table. We read some newspapers every day.

41 Nominative/accusative plural denite nouns: feminine nouns We saw in 38 that to make the denite form of masculine plural nouns we take the plural indenite form as the base. The same is observed with feminine nouns. This is how you form feminine plural nouns:

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1. If the plural ends in an unstressed vowel, add -t:


Singular Form Plural Indenite Plural Denite

revist (magazine) motr (sister) dit (day) mace (cat)

revista motra dit mace

revistat motrat ditt macet

2. If the plural ends in a stressed vowel, add -t:


Singular Form Plural Indenite Plural Denite

shtpi (house) kafene (coffee shop) kala (castle) grua (woman)

shtpi kafene kala gra

shtpit kafenet kalat grat

Feminine plural denite nounsjust like masculine plural denite nouns (see 38)have the same form in the nominative and accusative cases. Thus, they can appear in both the subject and the direct object positions:3 Gazetat jan mbi tryez. Ne lexojm gazetat. The newspapers are on the table. We read the newspapers.

42 Class 2 adjectives: the linking article with plural denite nouns In 3133, we saw how class 2 adjectives behave when they modify a singular noun. Lets review before we look at class 2 adjectives that modify plural nouns. In this section, we will concentrate on the forms of the linking article that appear with the adjective. In the next section, we will look at the way the adjective itself agrees with the noun. Consider the following examples with singular nouns. In examples (1) and (2), the adjectives are being used attributively; in examples (3) and (4), they are being used predicatively:4 (1) Studenti i mir sht atje. (2) Studentja e mir sht atje. (3) Studenti sht i mir. (4) Studentja sht e mir. The good (male) student is over there. The good (female) student is over there. The (male) student is good. The (female) student is good.

Write down the forms of the linking article depending on whether the adjective is used attributively (examples [1] and [2]) or predicatively (examples [3] and [4]):
Singular Feminine

Masculine

Attributive adjective Predicative adjective

_________ _________

_________ _________

3. Singular denite nouns will have a different form in the nominative and accusative cases (see 53). 4. An attributive adjective modies a noun directly (in Albanian it typically follows the noun directly; see examples [1] and [2] as well as [5] and [6]), while a predicative adjective is used after a copular verb like the verb jam to be (see

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Consider the following examples of denite nouns in the plural: (5) Studentt e mir jan atje. (6) Studentet e mira jan atje. (7) Studentt jan t mir. (8) Studentet jan t mira. The good (male) students are over there. The good (female) students are over there. The (male) students are good. The (female) students are good.

Lets concentrate on the form of the linking article rst. Write down the forms of the linking article depending on whether the plural adjective is used attributively (examples [5] and [6]) or predicatively (examples [7] and [8]):
Plural Masculine Feminine

Attributive adjective Predicative adjective

_________ _________

_________ _________

When an adjective modies a plural noun, the form of the linking article is sensitive to whether the adjective is attributive or predicative. The following chart contains the forms the linking article takes depending on whether it modies a singular or a plural noun. Keep in mind that all the cases we have discussed so far involve nominative denite nouns and adjectives:
Singular Masculine Feminine Plural Masculine Feminine

Attributive adjective Predicative adjective

i mir i mir

e mir e mir

e mir t mir

e mira t mira

As you can see, i is the linking article for masculine singular adjectives, whether they are used attributively or predicatively, and e is the linking article for feminine singular adjectives when they are used either as attributes or as predicates. For plural adjectives, on the other hand, e is the linking article both for masculine and feminine attributive adjectives, while t is the linking article for masculine and feminine predicative adjectives.5 Now that you know how the linking article works, lets see the different forms that the adjective itself may take. 43 Class 2 adjectives: adjective agreement (plural forms) Now we will look at the forms of class 2 adjectives when they modify a noun. Look at the chart at the end of 42, repeated here for convenience.

examples [3] and [4] as well as [7] and [8]). As you can see in the plural examples (5) through (8), this difference is important in Albanian (not so in English!), since the linking article will have a different form depending on whether it is being used attributively or predicatively. 5. Notice that in examples (5) and (6) the linking article appears following the denite noun. If the linking article is separated from the denite noun, then instead of the linking article e, you must use t: 1. a. studentt e mir b. studentt shqiptar t mir 2. a. studentet e mira b. studentet shqiptare t mira the good (male) students the good Albanian (male) students the good (female) students the good Albanian (female) students

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Singular Masculine Feminine

Plural Masculine Feminine

Attributive adjective Predicative adjective

i mir i mir

e mir e mir

e mir t mir

e mira t mira

If we take the masculine singular form mir as the base form, how are the other forms derived? _______________________________________________________________ You probably concluded that the only adjective form that varies in form is that of the feminine plural form, which takes an -a rather than an - ending. Notice that the form of the adjective itself (excluding the linking article!) remains the same when used as an attribute or when used as a predicate. That is easy and should compensate for the complexity of the linking article! 44 Class 2 adjectives with nominative/accusative plural indenite nouns In 33 we saw the forms of the linking article when it modies a singular indenite noun. Lets review: (1) Ky sht nj student i mir. (2) Kjo sht nj studente e mir. (3) Un njoh nj student t mir. (4) Un njoh nj studente t mir. He is a good (male) student. She is a good (female) student. I know a good (male) student. I know a good (female) student.

In examples (1) and (2), the adjective modies a nominative indenite noun; in (3) and (4), it modies an accusative indenite noun. Write down the forms of the linking article when it modies a singular indenite noun:
Singular Feminine

Masculine

Nominative Accusative

_________ _________

_________ _________

Lets consider now the corresponding plural forms: (5) Kta jan student t mir. (6) Kto jan studente t mira. (7) Un njoh disa student t mir. (8) Un njoh disa studente t mira. These are good (male) students. These are good (female) students. I know some good (male) students. I know some good (female) students.

Write down the forms for the linking article when a class 2 adjective modies a plural indenite noun:
Plural Masculine Feminine

Nominative Accusative

_________ _________

_________ _________

The following chart summarizes the forms we have studied so far. The accusative singular forms will be dealt with in Msimi 9.

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Linking articles when modifying a denite noun:


Masculine Singular Feminine Masculine Plural Feminine

Nominative Accusative

studenti i mir xxx

studentja e mir xxx

studentt e mir studentt e mir

studentet e mira studentet e mira

Linking articles when modifying an indenite noun:


Masculine Singular Feminine Masculine Plural Feminine

Nominative Accusative

(nj) student i mir (nj) student t mir

(nj) studente e mir (nj) studente t mir

(disa) student t mir (disa) student t mir

(disa) studente t mira (disa) studente t mira

Observe that mir is used with masculine singular and feminine singular as well as with masculine plural nouns, while mira is used with feminine plural nouns. That form of the adjective remains the same whether the adjective modies a denite or an indenite noun. As you can see in the charts above, the only element that changes is the linking article. Before you start using class 2 adjectives productively, try to explain both the form of the linking article as well as the form of the adjective in the following examples from Dialogu 7.2: Konkurrenca sht shum e fort. Msuesit e tyre jan shum t knaqur. Ushtrimet jan shum t vshtira. Ata po arrijn rezultate shum t mira. Competition is very strong. Their professors are very satised. The exercises are very hard.6 They are achieving very good results.

Ata jan shum t gzuar q kan rezultate t larta. They are very happy that they have high scores. Ekipet shqiptare jan t suksesshme n aktivitete t rndsishme ballkanike dhe botrore. The Albanian teams are successful in important Balkan and world activities (competitions). Rezultatet e larta n aktivitetet kombtare dhe ndrkombtare jan shum t rndsishme. High results (scores) in national and international activities (competitions) are very important. 45 Some irregular class 2 adjectives in the plural In 32 we saw that class 2 adjectives, without taking into account the linking article, typically have two forms: one for the feminine plural and another for both the masculine and feminine singular and the masculine plural: djali i zgjuar vajza e zgjuar djemt e zgjuar the intelligent boy the intelligent girl the intelligent boys

6. Notice that ushtrim exercise is masculine in the singular (ushtrim ushtrimi the [masc.] exercise). Why are we saying t vshtira difcult (fem.) here? If you cannot think of an answer fast, you may want to review 38.

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but vajzat e zgjuara the intelligent girls

In 32 we also saw some exceptions to that general rule. Write the corresponding feminine singular forms for the following adjectives: i keq i madh i ri i zi _____________ _____________ _____________ _____________

These adjectives are also irregular in the plural, as you can see in the following chart. We add i vogl small, young to our list. Although it is regular in the singular forms (they are the same), i vogl exhibits two plural forms, just like the other irregular class 2 plural adjectives:
Singular Masculine Feminine Masculine Plural Feminine

i keq i madh i ri i vogl i zi

e keqe e madhe e re e vogl e zez

e/t kqij e/t mdhenj e/t rinj e/t vegjl e/t zinj

e/t kqija (bad) e/t mdha (big) e/t reja (new, young) e/t vogla (small, young) e/t zeza (black)

USHTRIMI 7.6 Indicate whether the following statements are true (T) or false (F) based on Dialogu 7.2. When a statement is false, briey explain why (in Albanian!). 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. _____ Ajkuna po shikon televizor. _____ Ajkuna po sheh nj kronik pr nj olimpiad ballkanike. _____ Olimpiada sht n matematik. _____ N olimpiad ka dhe nj ekip me nxns shqiptar. _____ Ata studiojn n shkolla publike dhe private. _____ Msuesit e tyre jan shum t knaqur. _____ Konkurrenca sht shum e fort, sepse n olimpiad ka shum nxns t talentuar. _____ Ata nuk studiojn shum, sepse ushtrimet jan shum t lehta. _____ Nxnsit jan shum t gzuar pr rezultatet. _____ Nxnsit shqiptar kan rezultate t mira n aktivitete t rndsishme ballkanike dhe botrore.

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USHTRIMI 7.7 Answer the following questions based on Dialogu 7.2. Provide as much information as you can. 1. far po bn Ajkuna? ____________________________________________________________ 2. far po japin lajmet? ____________________________________________________________ 3. far olimpiade sht? ____________________________________________________________ 4. A ka nxns shqiptar n olimpiad? ____________________________________________________________ 5. Si jan rezultatet e tyre n olimpiad? ____________________________________________________________ 6. far thon msuesit e tyre? ____________________________________________________________ 7. Po vet nxnsit? ____________________________________________________________ 8. A studiojn shum nxnsit? ____________________________________________________________ 9. A jan ata t gzuar q kan rezultate t larta? ____________________________________________________________ 10. Po n olimpiada botrore a jan t suksesshme ekipet shqiptare? ____________________________________________________________

USHTRIMI 7.8 Complete the following sentences with the appropriate form of the adjective. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. Nxnsit jan __________ (i mir). Rezultatet jan __________ (i lart). Ekipet shqiptare jan __________ (i suksesshm). Kto vajza __________ (i gzuar) po asin n telefon. Kto aktivitete jan __________ (i rndsishm). Studentt jan shum __________ (i gzuar). Djemt __________ (i ri) nuk jan n shtpi. Kto vajza __________ (i ri) po diskutojn. Msueset jan __________ (i knaqur) me nxnsit. Msuesit jan __________ (i knaqur) me nxnsit.

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USHTRIMI 7.9 Change the following sentences into the plural. 1. Qyteti sht i madh dhe i bukur. ____________________________________________________________ 2. Djali sht i madh. ____________________________________________________________ 3. Dita sht e kndshme n pranver. ____________________________________________________________ 4. Nata sht e ngroht. ____________________________________________________________ 5. Ushtrimi sht i gjat. ____________________________________________________________ 6. Shtpia sht e qet. ____________________________________________________________ 7. Msimi sht i vshtir. ____________________________________________________________ 8. Studentja sht e talentuar. ____________________________________________________________ 9. Nxnsi sht i mir. ____________________________________________________________ 10. Libri sht i bukur. ____________________________________________________________

USHTRIMI 7.10 Complete the following sentences with the appropriate form of the words in parentheses. Then change those words into the plural. Finally, change the whole sentence into the plural form. Make all the necessary changes. 1. _______________ (The small boy) tani shkon n shkoll. _____________________________________________________________ 2. _______________ (The red notebook) sht mbi tryez. _____________________________________________________________ 3. __________ (The ower) sht __________ (yellow); nuk sht ___________ (green). _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ 4. __________________ (The white book) sht mbi tryez. _____________________________________________________________

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5. A sht ________________ (expensive) apo ____________ (cheap) _____________ (that dictionary)? __________________________________________________________ 6. ______________ (This beer) sht ____________ (cold), kurse ajo sht ______________ (warm). __________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________ 7. ______________ (This suitcase) sht ____________ (light), ndrsa ajo atje sht ______________ (heavy). __________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________ 8. ______________ (The new lesson) sht _____________ (easy). __________________________________________________________ 9. ______________ (This store) sht ___________ (open), kurse ai atje sht ___________ (closed). __________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________ 10. _____________ (This magazine) sht shum ______________ (expensive). _____________ (This newspaper), nga ana tjetr (on the other hand), sht _____________ (cheap). __________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________

LEXIMI 7.1
Tirana

Tirana sht nj qytet i madh dhe i bukur. N Tiran ka shum ndrtesa t reja dhe t vjetra. Ndrtesat e reja jan t larta dhe moderne, kurse ndrtesat e vjetra jan kryesisht t ulta dhe me ngjyra t forta. N ditt e sotme, Tirana sht nj qytet plot me hotele, restorante, bare dhe kafene. Tirana ka n qendr nj shesh t madh dhe t bukur. Ky sht sheshi Sknderbej. Atje ndodhen Muzeu Historik Kombtar, Pallati i Kulturs, Hotel Tirana, Xhamia e Ethem Beut, Kulla e Sahatit. Kulla e Sahatit sht 35 metra e lart. Kulla sht e hapur pr turistt. Nga kjo kull, turistt shohin pamje shum t bukura. Muzeu Historik Kombtar sht nj muze shum i rndsishm dhe me shum objekte historike. N Tiran ka disa kisha dhe xhami. Teatri i Opers dhe i Baletit, Teatri Kombtar, Galeria e Arteve etj., jan qendra t rndsishme kulturore. N Tiran ka universitete publike dhe private. Tirana ka nj klim t mir. Dimri sht i shkurtr dhe i but. Temperaturat n dimr nuk jan shum t ulta. Kurse vera sht e nxeht dhe me temperatura t larta.

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FJALOR balt, -i, -e i,e bt etj. (e tjr) i,e hpur histork, -e hotl, -i, -e ksh/, -a, -a klm/, -a, -a kultr/, -a, -a kulturr, -e kll/, -a, -a Klla e Sahtit i,e lrt muz, -u, Muzu Histork Kombtr ndrts/, -a, -a nddhem nddhen ngjr/, -a, -a objkt, -i, -e ballet mild, soft, weak etc. open historical hotel church climate culture cultural tower Tower Clock tall, high museum National History Museum building I am located they are located color object per/, -a, -a Tetri i pers dhe i Baltit pallt, -i, -e Pallti i Kultrs pmj/e, -a, -e plot plt me qnd/r, -ra, -ra i st/m, e -me sll/, -a, -a shsh, -i, -e shshi Sknderbj i,e lt universitt, -i, -e tet/r, -ri, -ro Tetri Kombtr xham, -a, Xhama e Ethm But opera Opera and Ballet Theater palace (building) Palace of Culture view full full of center todays, of today lobby, auditorium square Skanderbeg Square low university theater National Theater mosque Ethem Bej Mosque

USHTRIMI 7.11 Indicate whether the following statements are true (T) or false (F) based on Leximi 7.1. When a statement is false, briey explain why (in Albanian!). 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. _____ Tirana sht nj qytet i kndshm. _____ Tirana ka ndrtesa t reja dhe t vjetra, tradicionale dhe moderne. _____ Ndrtesat jan me ngjyra t forta. _____ N Tiran ka hotele dhe restorante. _____ Sheshi Sknderbej sht nj shesh i madh dhe i bukur. _____ Kulla e Sahatit sht 25 metra e lart. _____ Kulla e Sahatit sht e hapur pr turistt. _____ Nj muze shum i rndsishm sht Muzeu Historik Kombtar. _____Teatri i Opers dhe i Baletit sht qendr e rndsishme kulturore. _____ Tirana ka klim t mir.

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USHTRIMI 7.12 Answer the following questions based on Leximi 7.1. 1. Si sht Tirana? ____________________________________________________________ 2. far ka n Tiran? ____________________________________________________________ 3. Si jan ndrtesat e reja? ____________________________________________________________ 4. Po ndrtesat e vjetra? ____________________________________________________________ 5. Si sht Tirana n ditt e sotme? ____________________________________________________________ 6. objekte ndodhen n shesh? ____________________________________________________________ 7. Sa e lart sht Kulla e Sahatit? ____________________________________________________________ 8. A sht e hapur pr turistt? ____________________________________________________________ 9. Cilat jan qendra t rndsishme kulturore? ____________________________________________________________ 10. Si sht klima n Tiran? Si jan temperaturat n dimr, po n ver? ____________________________________________________________

USHTRIMI 7.13 Complete the following text with the appropriate form of the adjective or expressions in parentheses. Tirana sht nj qytet ___________ (big) dhe _________ (beautiful). N Tiran ka shum ndrtesa ________ (new) dhe _________ (old). Ndrtesat ________ (new) jan ____________ (tall, high) dhe ____________ (modern), kurse ndrtesat __________ (old) jan kryesisht __________ (low) dhe me ngjyra __________ (strong). N ditt _________ (of todays, these days), Tirana sht nj qytet plot me hotele, restorante, bare dhe kafene. Tirana ka n qendr nj shesh ____________ (big) dhe _________ (beautiful). Ky sht sheshi Sknderbej. Atje ndodhen Muzeu Historik Kombtar, Pallati i Kulturs, Hotel Tirana, Xhamia e Ethem Beut, Kulla e Sahatit. Kulla e Sahatit sht 35 metra _________ (tall). Kulla sht ___________ (open) pr turistt. Nga kjo kull turistt shohin pamje shum ____________ (beautiful). Muzeu Historik Kombtar sht nj muze shum _______________ (important) dhe me shum objekte ________ (historical). N Tiran ka disa kisha dhe xhami. Teatri i Opers dhe i Baletit, Teatri __________ (National), Galeria e Arteve etj. jan qendra ____________ (important, cultural). N Tiran

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ka universitete ___________ (public) dhe ___________ (private). Tirana ka klim __________ (good). Dimri sht ___________ (short) dhe ____________ (mild). Temperaturat n dimr nuk jan shum __________ (low). Kurse vera sht ___________ (hot) dhe me temperatura ____________ (high).

USHTRIMI 7.14 Create dialogues for the following situations. 1. Imagine you are an inhabitant of Tirana. A classmate will play the role of a tourist. Using the information given in the reading, the tourist will ask you for information about Tirana. 2. You are with some friends in Tirana. Describe your city to them. 3. You are a student, and you have met an Albanian friend who is studying English. Each of you describes your teacher. Then ask each other questions about the activities you do in class. Say what you like and dont like about your classes.

INFORMACIONE KULTURORE The city of Tirana was founded in 1614. Tirana became the capital of Albania in 1920. Recent archaeological ndings have discovered that Tirana might have been settled at the beginning of the rst or second century A.D.

National History Museum, Tirana (photo: Albes Fusha)

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The Mosque of Ethem Bej (Xhamia e Ethem Beut) was built in 1821. Tiranas Clock Tower (Kulla e Sahatit) was built in 1830. The Orthodox Church of Saint Prokop (Kisha e Shn Prokopit) was built in 1780. The Catholic Church of Saint Mary (Kisha e Shn Mris) was built in 1865. Twelve kilometers from Tirana is the Fortress of Petrela (Kalaja e Petrels), which dates back to the fourth century B.C. The ministry buildings in the center of Tirana, the National Bank, the City Hall, and the Palace of Brigades (the former residence of the king of Albania) were designed by Italian architects. Tiranas main boulevard, Martyrs of the Nation (Dshmort e Kombit), was built in 1930. In honor of the king of Albania, Ahmet Zogu, it was then called Zogu I. After the Communists came into power in 1945, the street was renamed Dshmort e Kombit. Tirana is located thirty-ve kilometers east of the Adriatic Sea (Deti Adriatik, or Adriatiku) and twenty-ve kilometers west of Dajti Mountain (Mali i Dajtit).

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MSIMI 8
N dyqan
At the store In this lesson you will learn: about food about groceries how to go grocery shopping You will learn the following grammatical points: class 2 verbs: mbyll to close, prgatis to prepare, dal to go out, marr to take, and so on the subjunctive and future indicative

DIALOGU 8.1: N TELEFON Eanda: Alo, Bojken, ku je? Bojkeni: Tani po dal nga zyra. Po ti, Eanda, ku je? Eanda: Jam n shtpi. Po gatuaj pr dark, por kam nevoj pr disa gjra. Bojkeni: Pr far ke nevoj? Eanda: Po prgatis nj byrek dhe nj mblsir me mjalt dhe me arra, por nuk kam shum miell. Bojkeni: Sa kilogram miell do? Eanda: Dua dy kilogram miell. Bojkeni: Po arra, a ke? Eanda: As arra nuk kam shum. Nuk besoj se mjaftojn. Bojkeni: Mir. Po shkoj n dyqan. Dyqanet mbyllin pr nj or. Kam koh. Po tjetr, far do? Eanda: Merr dy kilogram sheqer, dy pako kafe dhe nj kuti kakao. Bojkeni: Mir. Po aj, a kemi n shtpi? Eanda: Nuk e di. Po shoh njher n bufe. Bojkeni: Mir. Po pres n telefon. Eanda: Bojken, kemi disa kuti me aj. Bojkeni: Mir. N qoft se kemi aj, nuk po marr. Po marr dy pako makarona dhe dy kilogram oriz. Si thua? Eanda: Shum mir po bn. Merr makarona Barilla, sepse ato jan makaronat m t mira. Bojkeni: Po vaj, a kemi? Eanda: Kemi vetm vaj vegjetal, kurse vaj ulliri nuk kemi. Bojken: Ather, po marr dy litra vaj ulliri. Tjetr? Eanda: Merr nj pako krip dhe piper t zi. Bojkeni: Po rigon, do?

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Eanda: Jo, rigon kemi. Bojkeni: Eanda, po marr dhe gjalp, reel dhe okollata. Si thua? Eanda: Shum mir. Por merr gjalp me krip, sepse ai sht gjalpi m i mir. Bojkeni: Mir. Po pyes nse ka. Eanda: Nse ke mundsi merr dhe 300 gram bajame, 200 gram lajthi dhe 500 gram kikirik. Bojkeni: N rregull. Po marr edhe nj buk dhe po paguaj tani. Eanda: Merr nj buk t zez, sepse sht m e mir se buka e bardh. Eanda: Mir.

FJALOR Remember that the vocabulary lists also include the new words introduced in the exercises following the respective grammar section. rr/, -a, -a as bajm/e, -ja, -e besj besj se buf, -ja, bk/, -a, - byrk, -u, - j, -i okollt/, -a, -a dal dl nga drk/, -a, -a dyqn, -i, -e mblsr/, -a, -a frk/, -a, - gj, -ja, -ra kf/e, -ja, -e kako, -ja kikirk, -u, - kilogrm, -i, - kh/, -a, - km kh krp/, -a, -ra lajth, -a, lt/r, -ri, -ra makarna, -t bj makarna nut, walnut neither, not even almond to believe I believe that cupboard bread pie tea chocolate to go out, leave to leave from dinner store, shop dessert, sweet fear, dread thing coffee cocoa peanut kilogram time to have time salt hazelnut liter pasta to prepare pasta mas mbyll Merr! mell, -i, -ra i,e mr m i/e mr mjaftj i mjaftesh/m, e -me mjlt/, -i munds, -a, ndnj ndnj gj nevj/, -a, -a km nevj n qft se nse njhr orz, -i pko, -ja, nj pko kfe prgats pipr, -i pipr i zi pres rign, -i sheqr, -i telefont/, -a, -a to measure to close Take! (imperative form) our good better to be sufcient sufcient honey possibility, opportunity any anything need to have the need if if rst, once rice package, parcel a package of coffee to prepare pepper black pepper to wait, cut oregano sugar phone call

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tjtr e/t tjra e/t tjr ull, -ri, -nj

other, something else other (fem. pl.) other (masc. pl.) olive

ushqm, -i, -e vj, -i vj ullri vj vegjetl

food oil olive oil vegetable oil

GRAMATIK 46 Class 2 verbs In 6 we saw that verbs that end in a consonant belong to class 2 verbs. In Dialogu 8.1 you encountered the verbs mbyll to close and marr to take, both of which are class 2 verbs: Dyqanet mbyllin pr nj or. The shops close in one hour. Po marr edhe gjalp. I am taking (buying) butter also. The following chart shows the conjugation in the present indicative for the verbs mbyll to close and hap to open: un ti ai, ajo ne ju ata, ato mbyll mbyll mbyll mbyll mbyllim mbyllni mbyllin hap hap hap hap hapim hapni hapin

Notice that class 2 verbs take no ending in the singular forms. In 6 you learned the conjugation for the verb as to speak, which is also a class 2 verb. Complete the following chart with the forms of the present indicative of as: un ti ai, ajo ne ju ata, ato _______________ _______________ _______________ _______________ _______________ _______________

How does as, which is a class 2 verb, differ from mbyll and hap? _______________________________________________________________ The verb as has two peculiarities that make it different from most class 2 verbs: (a) its conjugation includes three different vowels, and (b) the -s changes to -t in the second- and third- person singular.

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In Dialogu 8.1 you saw two more verbs that function like as with regard to the different vowels: the verbs dal to go out and marr to take. Here are their present indicative forms: un ti ai, ajo ne ju ata, ato as as et et asim isni asin dal dal del del dalim dilni dalin marr marr merr merr marrim merrni marrin

Notice the stem change in the forms ti, ai/ajo (the a of the rst- person singular changes to e), and ju (the a changes to i or e). In Dialogu 8.1 you also encountered the verb prgatis to prepare: Po prgatis nj mblsir me mjalt dhe arra. I am preparing a dessert with honey and nuts. Verbs like prgatis to prepare are also considered class 2 verbs since they end in a consonant. However, just like the verb as, the -s changes to -t in the second- and third- person singular. Other verbs like prgatis are pres to wait, shtis to walk, and shes to sell: un ti ai, ajo ne ju ata, ato prgatis prgatis prgatit prgatit prgatisim prgatitni prgatisin pres pres pret pret presim pritni presin shtis shtis shtit shtit shtisim shtitni shtisin shes shes shet shet shesim shitni1 shesin

Some verbs that end in -s, like prgatis to prepare and mas to weigh, take -s- with the persons un, ne, ju, and ata/ato. However, they can also be conjugated with a -t throughout the whole paradigm: un ti ai, ajo ne ju ata, ato prgatis prgatis prgatit prgatit prgatisim prgatisni prgatisin prgatit prgatit prgatit prgatit prgatitim prgatitni prgatitin mas mas mat mat masim masni masin mat mat mat mat matim matni matin

47 Superlative constructions In Dialogu 8.1 you encountered the following structures: Ato jan makaronat m t mira. That is the best pasta.
1. You will also hear prgatisni, prisni, shtisni, shisni, as the s generalizes in the plural form.

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Por merr gjalp me krip, sepse ai sht gjalpi m i mir. But take salted butter, because that is the best butter. These constructions are called relative superlatives. In English, the superlative is formed in two ways: add - est to the end of the adjective, or add the most in front of the adjective: big biggest beautiful the most beautiful These constructions indicate that there is no other element within a group that has the quality being expressed by the adjective. In Albanian, the superlative structure is formed by putting the adverb m most in front of the adjective. Unlike the adjective and the linking article, which agree with the noun, the adverb m remains invariable. This applies to both class 1 and class 2 adjectives: libri interesant libri m interesant vajza e zgjuar vajza m e zgjuar the interesting book the most interesting book the smart girl the smartest girl

Be careful when you make the superlative of a plural denite noun. Since the linking article is no longer adjacent to the denite noun (it is now separated by the adverb m most), the linking article must change from e to t (see 42). vajzat e zgjuara vajzat m t zgjuara the smart girls the smartest girls

M most can also be used with adverbs in a superlative construction. Notice the use of the preposition nga from, among with superlative constructions: Un as shpejt. I speak fast. Un as shpejt, por Gzimi et m shpejt nga t gjith. I speak fast, but Gzim speaks the fastest of all. Dona et italisht mir. Dona speaks Italian well. Elona et m mir nga t gjith. Elona speaks the best of all. There is a second type of superlative, called the absolute superlative. It is formed with the help of adverbs like absolutisht absolutely, fort very, jashtzakonisht extremely, shum very, and tepr extremely. This construction, just like the relative superlative, is used with class 1 and 2 adjectives as well as with adverbs. Ky libr sht absolutisht interesant! Gzimi et jashtzakonisht shpejt! This book is absolutely interesting! Gzim speaks extremely fast!

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Ky roman sht tepr i gjat. Butrinti sht fort i bukur.

This novel is very long. Butrint is very beautiful.

48 Comparative constructions In Dialogu 8.1 you encountered the following structure: Merr nj buk t zez, sepse sht m e mir se buka e bardh. Take black bread (corn bread), because it is better than (the) white bread. In English, we use - er than or more than to compare qualities. In Albanian, we use m . . . se/sesa more than to express a higher degree:2 Gzimi sht m i zgjuar se Artani. Kto ushtrime jan m t lehta sesa ato. Kjo ndrtes sht m e lart se ajo. Vllai im sht m i gjat se(sa) un. The same construction can be used with adverbs: Qeni vrapon m shpejt se macja. Un punoj m shum se vllai im. Un msoj m pak se ti. The dog runs faster than the cat. I work more than my brother. I study less than you. Gzim is smarter than Artan. These exercises are easier than those. This building is taller than that (one). My brother is taller than I.

To express an equal degree of quality for both adjectives and adverbs, use aq . . . sa (edhe) as . . . as. Notice that the particle po may also optionally appear in front of the comparative: Gzimi sht (po) aq i zgjuar sa Artani. Ky msim sht (po) aq i vshtir sa ai. Un as (po) aq shpejt sa edhe ti. Gzim is as smart as Artan. This lesson is as hard as that (one). I speak as fast as you.

USHTRIMI 8.1 Indicate whether the following statements are true (T) or false (F) based on Dialogu 8.1. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. ____ Bojkeni po del nga zyra, kurse Eanda sht n shtpi. ____ Dyqanet mbyllin pr dy or. ____ Eanda po prgatit nj mblsir me lajthi dhe bajame. ____ Eanda ka nevoj pr arra dhe mjalt. ____ Dyqanet mbyllin pr tri or. ____ Bojkeni shkon n dyqan dhe blen kikirik. ____ Ai blen dy pako kafe dhe nj pako kakao. ____ Ata nuk kan aj n shtpi. ____ Bojkeni blen dhe nj pako makarona dhe nj kilogram oriz. ____ Ai blen krip dhe nj litr vaj.

2. Se and sesa than are interchangeable.

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USHTRIMI 8.2 Answer the following questions based on Dialogu 8.1. 1. Ku sht Bojkeni? ____________________________________________________________ 2. Po Eanda, ku sht? ____________________________________________________________ 3. Pr far ka nevoj Eanda? ____________________________________________________________ 4. far po prgatit Eanda? ____________________________________________________________ 5. Ku shkon Bojkeni? ____________________________________________________________ 6. Sa kilogram miell do Eanda? ____________________________________________________________ 7. far blen ai n dyqan? ____________________________________________________________ 8. A blen ai kafe dhe kakao? ____________________________________________________________ 9. A blen ai vaj? ____________________________________________________________ 10. A kan ata aj n shtpi? ____________________________________________________________

USHTRIMI 8.3 Complete the following sentences with the appropriate form of the verbs given in parentheses. 1. Kush po (hap) _______ dritaret? Un po _______ (hap) dritaret. 2. far po _______ (prgatis) ju? Ne po _____ (prgatis) nj mblsir. Po ata, far po ______ (prgatis)? 3. Ku po _______ (shtis) ju? Ne po ____ (shtis) n qytet. 4. Kush po _______ (mbyll) dyert? Djali po ____ (mbyll) dyert. 5. far po _______(mas) ju? Ne po _______ (mas) nj shtpi. 6. N far ore _____ (dal) ata nga zyra? Ata __________ (dal) n orn 17:00. Po ju, kur __________ (dal)? Ne __________ (dal) pr nj or. 7. Ti po _____ (marr) nj shoqe n telefon. 8. Un po _____________ (marr) nj kilogram arra n dyqan. 9. Ju po _____________ (dal) nga shtpia dhe po shkoni n zyr. 10. Kush po ______ (marr) n telefon? Nj shok po ______ (marr) n telefon.

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USHTRIMI 8.4 Make comparative or superlative constructions as required. Pay attention to the agreement with the adjective. (mace, qen, i vogl) (kjo, vajz e bukur, t gjitha) 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. gjysh, gjyshe, i smur kjo zyr, dhoma ime, i madh kjo fotogra, ajo, i bukur Gzim, vllai i tij, i gjat kjo kafe, ajo, i keq ky, msim i leht, ai Dona dhe Besa, Sokol, i zn Artan, djal i lumtur, t gjith shtpia ime, shtpia jote, i ri kto valixhe, ato, i rnd Macja sht m e vogl se qeni. Kjo sht vajza m e bukur nga t gjitha.

DIALOGU 8.2: N DYQAN Shitsja: Mirdita! far dshironi? Ana: Mirdita! Dua t blej dy kilogram domate. A keni? Shitsja: Po. Kemi domate shum t mira. Mund t zgjidhni ktu. Ana: Po speca t kuq, a keni? Shitsja: Po, kemi speca t kuq dhe speca jeshil. Ana: Mund t peshoni dy kilogram speca t kuq? Shitsja: Patjetr. Po tjetr, far dshironi? Ana: Dua t blej nj kilogram qep t bardha dhe dy kilogram tranguj. Shitsja: Kemi qep t mira dhe tranguj t freskt. Ana: Duhet t blej dhe 200 gram hudhra. A keni? Shitsja: Po. Ja, ku jan. Ndonj gj tjetr? Ana: Edhe nj kilogram patllxhan dhe dy kilogram patate. Shitsja: Patjetr. Kemi patate t reja. Ana: Po bizelet, si jan? Shitsja: Bizelet jan shum t freskta. Do t merrni? Ana: Mir. Po marr nj kilogram bizele. Po t jet e freskt, po marr edhe nj kilogram sallat jeshile. Shitsja: Po, sallata jeshile sht shum e freskt. Po fruta do t merrni? Ana: Do t marr dy kilogram qershi, po t jen t mbla. Pres t vij vajza sot nga pushimet dhe dua t prgatis nj mblsir t mir me qershi. Shitsja: Qershit jan shum t mbla. Po t doni, mund t provoni nj kokrr. Ana: Mir. Po pjeshkt si jan?

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Shitsja: Pjeshkt jan shum t mira. Ana: Po kajsi, a keni? Shitsja: Jo. Kajsi nuk kemi. Ana: Po pjepra dhe shalqinj, a keni? Shitsja: Po, kemi. Ana: Ather, po marr nj shalqi dhe dy pjepra t vegjl. Po dardhat si jan? Shitsja: Jan pak t forta, por jan shum t shijshme. Ana: Mir. Po marr nj kilogram dardha dhe nj kilogram moll t kuqe. Sa kushtojn t gjitha? Shitsja: 2020 lek.

FJALOR bizl/e, -ja, -e drdh/, -a, -a dgjj do t domt/e, -ja, -e i,e mbl i,e frt frt/, -a, -a gjj hdh/r, -ra, -ra jeshl, -e kajs, -a, kilogrm, -i, - kk/rr, -rra, -rra kushtj Sa kushtjn t gjtha? mll/, -a, - patt/e, -ja, -e patllxhn, -i, - bean, pea pear to listen will (future marker) tomato sweet strong, hard fruit to nd garlic green apricot kilogram piece, unit (of fruit) to cost How much for everything? apple potato eggplant patjtr perme, -t peshj pjp/r, -ri, -ra pjeshk/, -a, -e problm, -i, -e provj qp/, -a, - qersh, -a, sallt/, -a, -a sallt jeshle spc, -i, -a shalq, -ri, -nj i shjsh/m, e -me t tjtr trngu/ll, -lli, -j zgjdh certainly, denitely vegetables3 to weigh honeydew melon peach problem to try onion cherry salad green salad pepper watermelon delicious, tasty subjunctive marker other, else, something else cucumber to choose4

GRAMATIK 49 The present subjunctive Consider the following examples from Dialogu 8.2: Dua t blej dy kilogram domate. I want to buy two kilograms of tomatoes.
3. Also zarzavat/e, -ja, -e vegetables. 4. Notice the present indicative for zgjedh to choose: zgjedh, zgjedh, zgjedh, zgjedhim, zgjidhni, zgjedhin.

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Mund t zgjidhni ktu. You can choose here. Mund t peshoni dy kilogram speca t kuq? Can you weigh two kilograms of red peppers? Duhet t blej dhe 200 gram hudhra. I must buy 200 grams of garlic. Pres t vij vajza sot nga pushimet. I am waiting for my daughter to come back from the holidays. As you can see in the translations above, in English, we use an innitive after the conjugated forms of the verb to want: I want to buy, for example. Standard Albanian has no innitive (see 6, 12); instead, we use a subjunctive form that agrees with the subject of the main verb. The subjunctive is formed by using the subjunctive particle t followed by the subjunctive form of the verb. The present subjunctive forms are very straightforward. The following chart contains the forms for class 1 verbs (e.g., punoj to work) and class 2 verbs (e.g., dal to leave). Both the present indicative and the present subjunctive forms are given so that you can compare the forms:
Indicative Subjunctive Indicative Subjunctive

un ti ai, ajo ne ju ata, ato

punoj punon punon punojm punoni punojn

t punoj t punosh t punoj t punojm t punoni t punojn

dal del del dalim dilni dalin

t dal t dalsh t dal t dalim t dilni t dalin

As you can see, all subjunctive forms are formed with the help of the subjunctive particle t. Most persons are the same in the indicative and in the subjunctive. However, two forms differ. What persons change form? _______________________________________ In what verb class does the change occur? _______________________________________ How do we form the present subjunctive forms if the verb ends in: -oj _________________ ti ai, ajo _________________ a consonant (class 2 verb) _________________ _________________

Notice that the verb dal changes to del and dilni in the present indicative. Which of the three forms serves as the base for the present subjunctive to derive the forms of ti and ai/ajo? _______________________________________________________________ For verbs that undergo a change of stem, we take the form of the rst- person singular as the base for the subjunctive and add -sh (for the ti form) or -(j) (for the ai/ajo form).

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The verbs jam to be and kam to have are irregular in the present subjunctive. Both verbs take similar forms, as you can see in the chart below:
Indicative Subjunctive Indicative Subjunctive

un ti ai, ajo ne ju ata, ato

jam je sht jemi jeni jan

t jem t jesh t jet t jemi t jeni t jen

kam ke ka kemi keni kan

t kem t kesh t ket t kemi t keni t ken

The verbs dua to want and them to say are also irregular since they dont take the rst- person singular as the base to form the second- and third- person singular in the present subjunctive:
Indicative Subjunctive Indicative Subjunctive

un ti ai, ajo ne ju ata, ato

dua do do duam doni duan

t dua t duash t doj t duam t doni t duan

them thua thot themi thoni thon

t them t thuash t thot t themi t thoni t thon

50 The modal verbs duhet must and mund can and the present subjunctive English modal verbs like will, can, must, and so on, are typically followed by the root innitive of a verb (i.e., the innitive without the particle to), so we say I will eat, I can go, she must go, and so on. We saw before that Standard Albanian does not have innitives; therefore, it also lacks root innitives. Thus, a subjunctive fullls the function of the root innitive, as you can see in the following examples from Dialogu 8.2: Duhet t blej dhe 200 gram hudhra. Mund t zgjidhni ktu. I must also buy 200 grams of garlic. You can choose here.

Just like in English, these modal verbs are not conjugated; that is, they keep the same form in all the different persons. Notice that in Albanian, the subjunctive verb, which obligatorily follows the modal, agrees with the main subject: Un duhet t zgjedh. Ti duhet t zgjedhsh. Ai duhet t zgjedh. Ajo duhet t zgjedh. Ne mund t zgjedhim. Ju mund t zgjidhni. Ata mund t zgjedhin. Ato mund t zgjedhin. I must choose. You must choose. She must choose. She must choose. We can choose. You can choose. They can choose. They can choose.

To negate the sentences with a modal verb, simple add the word nuk not in front of the modal:

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Un nuk mund t shkoj atje. Ne nuk duhet t shkojm atje.

I cannot go there. We must not go there.

51 Other basic constructions that require the present subjunctive 1. The verbs lloj to start and vazhdoj to continue are typically followed by the subjunctive. Notice that, unlike the modal verbs duhet must and mund can, which remain invariable (see 50), these verbs are fully conjugated, similar to what we observed with the verb dua to want in 49: Ai po llon t studioj. Po vazhdojm t kndojm. He is starting to study. We continue to sing.

2. With impersonal constructions like sht mir its good, sht m mire its better, sht keq its bad, sht e vshtir its difcult, and sht e nevojshme its necessary, we typically nd the subjunctive: sht mir t pushosh. Nuk sht keq t pushosh pak. sht e rndsishme t msoni do dit. sht e nevojshme t assh shqip. Its good (for you) to relax. It is not bad if you rest a little bit. Its important (for you) to study every day.5 Its necessary (for you) to speak Albanian.

To negate a subjunctive, use mos not after the subjunctive marker t: sht m mir t mos shkojm n teatr sot. Its better that we not go to the theater today. sht e vshtir t mos thuash asgj. Its difcult for you not to say anything. 3. To express a purpose, we usually use the conjunction q in order to. As it is in English, this conjunction is optional, especially in spoken Albanian: Po shkoj n dyqan (q) t blej patate. Im going to the store (in order) to buy potatoes. A more formal conjunction to express purpose is me qllim q in order to, so as to: Po msoj shqip me qllim q t shkoj n Shqipri. Im studying Albanian in order to go to Albania. 4. The subjunctive typically follows some temporal conjunctions when the event or state described by the verb has not taken place yet. Some of these temporal conjunctions are kur when, para se before, pasi after, sapo as soon as, and derisa until: Po vij, kur t telefonosh ti. Im coming when you telephone. Po vij, para se t shkosh ti atje. Im coming before you go there.
5. In general, when we use an impersonal expression with an adjective, we use the feminine form of the adjective.

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Po shkoj, pasi t mbaroj detyrat. Im going after I nish the homework. Duhet t krkosh, derisa t gjesh at q do. You must look until you nd what you want. Ajo do t dal me shokt, sapo t mbaroj detyrat. Shes going out with her friends as soon as she nishes her homework. Notice that in the examples above the temporal clause (i.e., the clause that starts with the temporal conjunction) follows the main clause. In written Albanian, these two clauses are typically separated by a comma. The temporal clause may also precede the main clause. Again, a comma is needed to separate the two clauses: Sapo t mbaroj detyrat, ajo do t dal me shokt. When she nishes her homework, she will go out with her friends. In all the examples above, the action or state expressed by the temporal verb has not taken place. If it usually takes place, then the present indicative rather than the present subjunctive should be used: Ajo del shpesh me shokt, sapo mbaron detyrat. She often goes out with friends as soon as she nishes her homework. Compare the previous example with the following example: Ajo do t dal me shokt, sapo t mbaroj detyrat. She will go out with her friends as soon as she nishes her homework. 52 The future indicative The future tense is formed by adding the particle do in front of the subjunctive form of the verb:6 un ti ai, ajo ne ju ata, ato punoj to work do t punoj do t punosh do t punoj do t punojm do t punoni do t punojn dal to leave do t dal do t dalsh do t dal do t dalim do t dilni do t dalin

To form the negative of a future form, use nuk not in front of the future marker: Nesr nuk do t punoj. Ne nuk do t vijm nesr. I will not work tomorrow. We will not come tomorrow.

6. The future particle do was originally the form of the second/third person of the verb dua to want in the present indicative, which has grammaticalized as a future marker in Albanian. The same is observed in English (and in many other languages), where the modal verb will, which we use to form the future tense, also comes from an original verb that means to want.

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Some typical future time expressions are the following: javn e ardhshme kt jav kt vit muajin e ardhshm muajin q vjen nesr pasnesr sivjet sot t hnn, t martn, . . . vitin e ardhshm vitin q vjen next week this week this year next month next month, the coming month tomorrow the day after tomorrow this year today (next/on) Monday, Tuesday, . . . next year next year

USHTRIMI 8.5 Indicate whether the following statements are true (T) or false (F) based on Dialogu 8.2. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. ____ Ana do t blej dy kilogram domate. ____ N dyqan ka domate shum t mira. ____ N dyqan nuk ka speca t kuq. ____ Ana do t blej nj kilogram qep t bardha. ____ Bizelet nuk jan shum t freskta. ____ Ana blen nj kilogram bizele. ____ Qershit jan t mbla. ____ Pjeshkt jan shum t mira. ____ N dyqan nuk ka kajsi. ____ Ana merr nj kilogram dardha dhe nj kilogram moll t kuqe.

USHTRIMI 8.6 Answer the following questions based on Dialogu 8.2. 1. far do t blej Ana? _____________________________________________________________ 2. Si jan domatet? _____________________________________________________________ 3. A ka speca t kuq n dyqan? _____________________________________________________________ 4. far blen tjetr Ana? _____________________________________________________________

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5. Si jan bizelet? ____________________________________________________________ 6. Po fruta, a blen Ana? ____________________________________________________________ 7. Po qershit, si jan? ____________________________________________________________ 8. A ka kajsi n dyqan? ____________________________________________________________ 9. Si jan dardhat? ____________________________________________________________ 10. A blen moll Ana? ____________________________________________________________

USHTRIMI 8.7 Complete the following sentences with the correct form of the verb in parentheses. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. Ato po shkojn q t _____ (blej) fruta. Ti duhet t _____ (as) me shokt q t ____ (ata, vij) sonte n koncert. Ne po presim q t _____ (takoj) msueset dhe t _____ (bisedoj) pr detyrat. Ti duhet t _____ (shkoj) n disa dyqane, derisa t _____ (gjej) at q dshiron. sht mir t _____ (as, ne) bashk pr kto probleme. sht e nevojshme q t _____ (dgjoj, ju) edhe studentt, para se t _____ ( jap, ju) rezultatet. Ti duhet t _____ (dal) nga zyra, sepse ktu ne nuk mund t _____ (bisedoj). Kur t _____ (vij) nna, po vij dhe un. Flasim kur ju t _____ (shkoj) atje. Po llojn t _____ (dal) shum probleme.

LEXIMI 8.1
Kshilla pr nj diet t shndetshme

Nj diet e shndetshme dhe e rregullt sht shum e rndsishme pr njerzit. Frutat, perimet e freskta dhe drithrat duhet t jen do dit n tryez. Njerzit e shndetshm duhet t konsumojn katr deri n gjasht gota uj n dit. Mjekt thon se nj diet e mir duhet t ket vitamina dhe kripra minerale q jan shum t nevojshme. N dimr, mjekt kshillojn q t prdorim sa m shum perime dhe fruta t freskta q kan vitamina A dhe C, si: mandarina, kivi, spinaqi, kungulli dhe karota. Duhet t konsumojm dhe produkte q kan vitamin E si: gruri, bajamet, arrat, patatet dhe lajthit. N ver sht mir t konsumojm shum perime dhe fruta, sepse kan uj. Zgjedhje e mir jan frutat e freskta, si shalqiri dhe pjepri, perimet si domatet, sallata jeshile dhe brokoli.

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N situata stresi mjekt kshillojn nj diet me buk, makarona, oriz, sallat jeshile, qep, djath, kos, vez dhe qumsht. Frutat e mbla dhe mjalti ndihmojn q t Jemi t qet. N kto situata sht mir t mos prdorim kafe, aj, kakao apo okollata. Edhe ushqime pikante me piper apo me shum krip, si dhe alkooli jan shum t dmshme.

FJALOR alkol, -i brkoli i dmsh/m, e -me dit/, -a, -a drth/, -i, -ra gt/, -a, -a nj gt j grr/, -i kart/, -a, -a kshillj kshll/, -a, -a kvi konsumj kos, -i krp/, -a, -ra krpra minerle kngu/ll, -lli, -j lajth, -a, alcohol broccoli harmful diet grain, cereal glass a glass of water corn, wheat carrot to advise advice kiwi to consume yogurt salt mineral salts pumpkin, squash hazelnut mandarn/, -a, -a minerl, -e ndihmj perme (pl.) prdr piknt, -e qmsht, -i i,e rrgullt sa m shm situt/, -a, -a n situta strsi spinq, -i stres, -i tensin, -i, -e j/, -i, -ra vz/, -a, - vitamn/, -a, -a zgjdhj/e, -a, -e tangerine mineral to help vegetables to use spicy milk regular as much as possible situation, condition in stressful situations spinach stress blood pressure, pressure water egg vitamin choice, pick

USHTRIMI 8.8 Indicate whether the following statements are true (T) or false (F) based on Leximi 8.1. When a statement is false, briey explain why (in Albanian!). 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. _____ Dieta e shndetshme dhe e rregullt sht shum e rndsishme. _____ Nuk sht mir t konsumoni nj got uj n dit. _____ Mandarina, kivi, spinaqi, kungulli dhe karota kan vitamina A dhe C. _____ Gruri, bajamet, arrat, patatet dhe lajthit kan vitamin E. _____ Ne ver sht mir t konsumojm shalqi dhe pjepr. _____ N ver nuk sht mir t prdorni domate dhe sallat jeshile. _____ Nj diet e mir sht e rndsishme n situata stresi. _____ Frutat e mbla dhe mjalti ndihmojn q t jemi t qet. _____ Kakaoja dhe okollatat jan t dmshme n situata stresi. _____ sht mir t mos konsumoni shum alkool.
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USHTRIMI 8.9 Answer the following questions based on Leximi 8.1. 1. far sht e rndsishme pr njerzit? ____________________________________________________________ 2. far duhet t ken njerzit do dit n tryez? ____________________________________________________________ 3. Sa gota uj n dit duhet t konsumojn njerzit e shndetshm? ____________________________________________________________ 4. far duhet t ket nj diet e mir? ____________________________________________________________ 5. far kshillojn mjekt n dimr? ____________________________________________________________ 6. Cilat fruta dhe perime kan vitamina A dhe C? ____________________________________________________________ 7. Po vitamin E? ____________________________________________________________ 8. far duhet t konsumojn njerzit n ver? ____________________________________________________________ 9. far diete kshillojn mjekt n situata stresi? ____________________________________________________________ 10. far nuk duhet t prdorim n kto situata? ____________________________________________________________ 11. A sht i dmshm alkooli? ____________________________________________________________

USHTRIMI 8.10 Create dialogues for the following situations. 1. Using the information given in the reading, imagine you are a doctor who is asked for information about a healthy diet. A classmate will play the role of your patient. Ask your patient as many questions as you can about his or her diet. 2. Its your turn to cook dinner at home, and you are talking with your housemate about the food that you are going to prepare. You explain to him or her that you need to go to the supermarket to buy the different ingredients that you will need.

INFORMACIONE KULTURORE In Albania, fresh fruits and vegetables are available in all stores year- round. Some of them are season- specic. Tomatoes (domate), carrots (karota), salad greens (sallat jeshile), green

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The boulevard Dshmort e Kombit (Martyrs of the Nation), Tirana (photo: Albes Fusha)

beans (bizele), cucumbers (tranguj), garlic (hudhra; lit., garlics), and onions (qep) can be found year- round. A large variety of fruits are sold year- round, for example, apples (moll), oranges (portokalle), tangerines (mandarina), peaches (pjeshk), watermelons (shalqi), honeydew melons (pjepra), grapes (rrush), apricots (kajsi), gs (q), and plums (kumbulla). The best watermelons and honeydew melons are produced in July and August. Fresh cherries (qershi) are typical of June. Albanians use the metric system:
Liquid Measure Weight Measure

1 liter = 1.057 quarts 1 quart = .9464 liter 1 gallon = 3.785 liters 1 liter = .2642 gallon

1 kilogram = 2.205 pounds 1 pound = .4536 kilogram 1 quintal = 220.5 pounds 1 quintal = 100 kilograms

In the spoken language, kile is used instead of kilogram. You will often hear nj kile domate instead of nj kilogram domate. In Kosovo, instead of patllxhan (eggplant) you will hear domate t zeza. Also, instead of dyqan, the word shitore is used. In Gheg, just as in English and unlike what happens in Standard Albanian, an innitive is used when the subject of both verbs is the same:

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Gheg

Standard Albanian

English

un ti ai, ajo ne ju ata, ato

du(e) me shkue do(n) me shkue do(n) me shkue du(e)m me shkue doni me shkue du(e)n me shkue

dua t shkoj do t shkosh do t shkoj do t shkojm do t shkoni do t shkojn

I want to go you want to go he/she wants to go we want to go you want to go they want to go

For the future tense, Gheg uses the verb kam to have plus the innitive:
Gheg Standard Albanian English

un ti ai, ajo ne ju ata, ato

kam me shkue ke me shkue ka me shkue kemi me shkue keni me shkue kan me shkue

dua t shkoj do t shkosh do t shkoj do t shkojm do t shkoni do t shkojn

I will go you will go he/she will go we will go you will go they will go

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MSIMI 9
Shtpi dhe hotel
House and hotel In this lesson you will learn: how to talk about renting or buying an apartment how to read and write newspaper ads about renting and selling You will learn the following grammatical points: the accusative (or object) case the demonstrative forms in the accusative case adjectives in the accusative case prepositions that require the accusative case kush who and cili which in the accusative case ordinal numbers class 3 and 4 verbs

DIALOGU 9.1: N AGJENCIN IMOBILIARE Arturi: Alo, mirmngjes! Flas me agjencin imobiliare Tirana? Monika: Po. Jemi agjencia imobiliare Tirana. far dshironi? Arturi: Jam nj banor ktu n Tiran dhe krkoj nj apartament me qira. Po lexoj n gazetn Shqip se agjencia juaj ka shum oferta t mira dhe me mime t arsyeshme. Prandaj po marr n telefon, sepse jam i interesuar pr kto oferta. Monika: sht e vrtet q ne kemi shum oferta, por cilat jan krkesat q keni ju pr shtpi? Arturi: Un dua nj apartament me dy dhoma dhe nj kuzhin. Monika: Kemi disa apartamente dy plus nj. Kemi dy apartamente n rrugn Qemal Stafa, disa apartamente n rrugn Don Bosko, tri apartamente n rrugn Myslym Shyri, etj. Arturi: Po n rrugn Mine Peza, a keni ndonj apartament? Monika: Kemi vetm nj apartament n at rrug, por sht i pamobiluar. Arturi: Nuk ka problem. sht apartament i ri apo i vjetr? Monika: sht apartament i vjetr. Arturi: Sa sht mimi pr kt apartament? Monika: sht rreth 25 000 lek, por pr mimin mund t diskutojm m von. Arturi: Shum mir, ather. Kam edhe nj pyetje. A sht me ballkon? Monika: Po sht me ballkon, por ballkoni nuk sht i madh. A jeni i interesuar pr kt apartament? Arturi: Jam shum i interesuar, por sigurisht q duhet t shoh apartamentin para se t vendos. Monika: sht mir q t kaloni nj dit nga agjencia.

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Arturi: A mund t vij sot? Monika: Sot kemi shum pun dhe nuk mund t shkojm q t shohim apartamentin. Por mund t vini nesr. Arturi: N or? Monika: N orn dhjet. Jeni i lir n at or? Arturi: Po. Ather, po vij nesr n orn dhjet. Shum faleminderit pr ndihmn. Monika: Ska prse. Knaqsia ime!

FJALOR agjenc, -a, agjenc imobilire agency housing agency (where you can rent or buy a home or apartment; a real estate ofce) apartment reasonable then resident, inhabitant price negotiable room interested your (formal) to pass (by) pleasure my pleasure request, demand to look for this (masc. sing., fem. sing. acc.) kitchen Albanian money free, cheap to call on the phone i,e mobilar ndhm/, -a, -a ndonj ndonj apartamnt ofrt/, -a, -a ofrj pallt, -i, -e i,e pamobilar pra se patjtr prse Sk prs! prandj pes petj/e, -a, -e qir, -ja, marr me qir jap me qir rreth rrg/, -a, - vends i,e vrtt sht e vrtt vn m vn furnished help any any apartment offer to offer building (block of apartments), palace without furniture before surely, without fail why, what for You are welcome! Not at all! therefore, so to ask question rent, lease to rent to rent out about, around street, road to decide true, real it is true late later

apartamnt, -i, -e i arsesh/m, e -me athr banr, -i, - mm, -i, -e i diskutesh/ m, e -me dhm/, -a, -a i,e interesar jaj kalj knaqs, -a, knaqsa me krks/, -a, -a krkj kt kuzhn/, -a, -a lk, -u, - i,e lr mrr n telefn

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GRAMATIK 53 Accusative singular nouns In Dialogu 9.1 you encountered denite nouns in the accusative (or object) case, which is the case we typically use with direct objects (the object immediately affected by the action of the verb) or after certain prepositions like pr for, me with, and n in. Masculine nouns: shohim apartamentin pr mimin mund t diskutojm Feminine nouns: me agjencin imobiliare n gazetn Shqip n rrugn Mine Peza with the real estate ofce in the newspaper Shqip on Mine Peza Street we see the apartment we can discuss the price

Do you see a pattern? How do we form the accusative denite form of singular nouns? What form do we take as the base? What do we add to that base? Masculine nouns: _______________________________________________ Feminine nouns: ________________________________________________ Lets consider rst the forms of the singular masculine nouns when used as subjects (in the nominative case) and when used as objects (in the accusative case).
Nominative Indenite Denite Accusative Indenite Denite

apartament shok

apartamenti shoku

apartament shok

apartamentin (apartment) shokun (friend)

In the chart above we can observe two facts: 1. The masculine indenite forms are the same in the nominative and accusative cases. 2. The masculine accusative denite form is built on the denite form of the noun in the nominative case. To form the masculine accusative denite form, all we need to do is add -n to the nominative denite form. Consider now the singular feminine forms:
Nominative Indenite Denite Accusative Indenite Denite

gazet msuese agjenci

gazeta mesuesja agjencia

gazet msuese agjenci

gazetn (newspaper) msuesen (teacher) agjencin (agency)

From the chart above we can get two generalizations:

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1. The feminine indenite forms are the same in the nominative and accusative cases. 2. The feminine accusative denite form is built on the indenite form of the noun in the nominative case. There are basically two rules: a. Add -n if the noun ends in an unstressed vowel. b. Add -n if the noun ends in a stressed vowel. We saw that feminine nouns that end in -r, -rr, or -l typically drop the before the nominative denite article (letr letter becomes letra the letter) (see 27). In the accusative denite form, this is also dropped, but since the result would be an unpronounceable letrn, we insert an extra before the -n of the accusative, getting letrn. Put simpler, if the noun ends in -r, -rr, or -l, replace these endings with -n to form the accusative singular denite form.
Nominative Indenite Denite Accusative Indenite Denite

motr ndrr vegl

motra ndrra vegla

motr ndrr vegl

motrn (sister) ndrrn (dream) vegln (instrument/tool)

The same rules apply to personal names and the names of countries and cities. To see if you have mastered the rules above, briey explain the accusative denite forms below:
Nominative Indenite Denite Accusative Indenite Denite

Gzim Irak Tiran Kanada Shkodr Eritre

Gzimi Iraku Tirana Diana Kanadaja Shkodra Eritreja

Gzim Irak Tiran Kanada Shkodr Eritre

Gzimin Irakun Tirann Diann Kanadan Shkodrn Eritren

There is a pattern that unies the formation of singular masculine and feminine denite nouns: to form the accusative denite case of a noun, add -n if the noun ends in an unstressed vowel, and add -n if the noun ends in a stressed vowel. Just remember to apply this rule to the singular denite form of the masculine noun and to the indenite form of the feminine noun. Since there is no rule without exceptions, lets just mention one exception here. Masculine nouns that end in a stressed a take -n for the accusative denite. Fortunately, it stays in the family, as you can see below:1
Nominative Indenite Denite Accusative Indenite Denite

baba vlla

babai vllai

baba vlla

baban (father)2 vllan (brother)

1. Why are these forms exceptions? Notice that both words end in a stressed vowel and take -n in the accusative plural, thus apparently obeying the rule given above! Hint: What kind of words typically take -n in the accusative? 2. You will hear the forms babain and vllain much more often than the grammatically correct forms baban and vllan.

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54 Accusative plural nouns If you remember the nominative plural denite forms (38, 41), then the accusative forms will be easy, since they are the same as the nominative forms:
Nominative Indenite Denite Indenite Accusative Denite

(disa) jurist (disa) gazetar (disa) grupe (disa) shkolla (disa) agjenci

juristt gazetart grupet shkollat agjencit

(disa) jurist (disa) gazetar (disa) grupe (disa) shkolla (disa) agjenci

juristt (lawyers) gazetart (reporters) grupet (groups) shkollat (schools) agjencit (agencies)

55 Prepositions and the accusative case We have seen that the prepositions n in, at (14), mbi on, and nn under (30) require the accusative form. We saw that, unlike English, Albanian does not require a denite noun if the noun appears unmodied (or alone); instead, the indenite form is used: Banoj n Tiran. Jemi n dhom. Macja sht mbi krevat. Qeni sht nn tryez. I live in Tirana. We are in the room. The cat is on the bed. The dog is under the table.

However, if the noun is modied, then the noun must be inected as an accusative denite noun: Jemi n dhomn numr 121. Macja sht mbi krevatin djathtas. We are in room 121. The cat is on the bed over there on the right.

Of course, the complement of the preposition can be an indenite noun: Drita punon n nj agjenci n Elbasan. Drita works for an agency in Elbasan.

In Dialogu 9.1, you encountered three more prepositions that also require the accusative case: me with, pr for, and pa without: Po as me agjencin. Mund t diskutojm pr mimin. Nuk shkoj pa Irenn. I am speaking to the agency. We can discuss the price. I am not going without Irena.

If a denite noun (where in English you would say the + noun or possessive + noun) follows me with or pa without, use an accusative denite form for human nouns and an accusative indenite form for nonhuman nouns: Bisedoj me msuesen. Vllai im po luan me top. Gzimi shkon n shtpi pa shokt. Shkon n shkoll pa stilograf. I speak with the teacher. My brother is playing with the ball. Gzim goes home without (his) friends. He goes to school without (his) pen.

However, if the noun appears modied, then use a denite form in both cases:

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Vllai im po luan me topin e kuq. Bisedoj me msuesen shqiptare.

My brother is playing with the red ball. I speak with the Albanian teacher.

If a denite noun follows pr for, about, then use the accusative denite form of the noun whether the object is human or not: Flasin pr msuesin. Flasin pr shkolln. They talk about the teacher. They talk about the school.

You may have noticed the following contradictory examples: Po as me agjencin. Vllai im po luan me top. I am speaking to the agency. My brother is playing with the ball.

The indenite form is used after me when what follows is the instrument with which we carry out the action expressed by the verb (me top with the ball). Otherwise, we use the denite form (me agjencin with the agency). 56 The demonstrative forms in the accusative case In Dialogu 9.1, you found the following demonstrative adjectives: Kemi nj apartament n at rrug. A jeni i interesuar pr kt apartament? We have an apartment on that street. Are you interested in this apartment?

In these examples, kt is in the accusative case. The same forms are used when the demonstrative is used as a pronoun: Ata asin pr kt. They are speaking about this.

The different forms for the demonstrative in the nominative and accusative cases are shown below:
Singular Masculine Feminine Plural Masculine Feminine

Nominative Accusative

ky/ai kt/at

kjo/ajo kt/at

kta/ata kta/ata

kto/ato kto/ato

As you can see, in the plural, the masculine and feminine forms are the same in the nominative and accusative cases. Only the singular forms change. Ky apartament sht ktu. Po shikoj kt apartament. Ky sht ktu. Po punoj pr kt. Kta gazetar jan ktu. Flasim pr kta gazetar. Kto studente po shkruajn. Po as me kto studente. This apartment is here. I am looking at this apartment. This is here. I am working on this. These journalists are here. We speak about these journalists. These students are writing. I am talking to these female students.

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Ajo sht rrug e bukur. Un shikoj at rrug. Ai apartament sht atje. Po krkoj at apartament Ai sht ktu. Po punoj pr at. Ata gazetar jan atje. Po shoh ata gazetar. Ato shkolla jan larg. Po krkojm ato shkolla.

That is a beautiful street. I see that street. That apartment is there. I am looking for that apartment. This is here. I am working on this. Those journalists are there. I am looking at those journalists. Those schools are far. We are looking for those schools.

57 The interrogative pronouns kush who and cili which Consider the following examples: Kush po et n telefon? K do t vizitojm sot? Po ti, me k po et? Who is talking on the phone? Whom will we visit today? And you, with whom are you talking? And you, to whom are you talking?

As you can see in the translation, kush and k are equivalent to who and whom, respectively. In colloquial English, the form whom is losing ground to who; however, in Albanian, these two forms are kept separate both in colloquial as well as in formal speech. When do we use kush? When do we use k? ___________________________________ ___________________________________

You may have observed that kush is used with subjects, while k is used with direct objects or as the complement of a preposition that requires the accusative case. Kush is the nominative form, while k is the corresponding accusative form. In this lesson we will learn a new question word, cili which, which has more forms than kush who, since it must agree with the noun it modies. Consider rst the masculine noun gazetar (male) journalist and the corresponding plural form, gazetar (male) journalists: Cili gazetar sht ky? Me cilin gazetar po et? Cilt gazetar jan kta? Me cilt gazetar po et? Which journalist is this? With which journalist are you talking? Which journalists are these? With which journalists are you talking?

Consider now the feminine noun gazetare (female) journalist and its corresponding plural form, gazetare (female) journalists: Cila gazetare sht kjo? Me ciln gazetare po et? Cilat gazetare jan kto? Me cilat gazetare po et? Which journalist is this? With which journalist are you talking? Which journalists are these? With which journalists are you talking?
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The forms for cili which are shown in the following chart:
Singular Masculine Feminine Plural Masculine Feminine

Nominative (kush) Accusative (k)

cili cilin

cila ciln

cilt cilt

cilat cilat

Notice that the masculine endings that cili takes are the same endings that studenti the (male) student takes (see 28, 38), while the endings of cila are the same endings that vajza the girl takes (see 27, 41):
Singular Plural

Nominative Accusative Nominative Accusative

studenti studentin
Singular

studentt studentt
Plural

vajza vajzn

vajzat vajzat

As the chart above shows, you are basically adding the denite article to the bases cil- (masculine) and cil() (feminine).

USHTRIMI 9.1 Indicate whether the following statements are true (T) or false (F) based on Dialogu 9.1. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. ____ Arturi po krkon nj apartament me qira. ____ Artur krkon informacione n nj agjenci imobiliare. ____ Ai po lexon n nj gazet se agjencia imobiliare Tirana ka oferta t mira. ____ mimet nuk jan shum t larta. ____ Agjencia ofron disa apartamente n rrugn Mine Peza. ____ Apartamenti n rrugn Mine Peza sht i ri dhe i mobiluar. ____ Apartamenti ka nj dhom dhe nj kuzhin dhe nuk ka ballkon. ____ Arturi nuk sht i interesuar pr apartamentin. ____ Ai do t shkoj n agjenci sot pasdite. ____ Ai do t shoh apartamentin n rrugn Myslym Shyri.

USHTRIMI 9.2 Answer the following questions based on Dialogu 9.1. 1. Ku banon Arturi? _____________________________________________________________ 2. far po bn ai tani? _____________________________________________________________

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3. Cila sht agjencia q ka oferta t mira pr shtpi? ____________________________________________________________ 4. far apartamenti po krkon Arturi? ____________________________________________________________ 5. A ofron agjencia apartamente n rrugn Mine Peza? ____________________________________________________________ 6. Si sht apartamenti? ____________________________________________________________ 7. Sa sht mimi? ____________________________________________________________ 8. A sht i interesuar Arturi pr kt apartament? ____________________________________________________________ 9. far do t bj Arturi, para se t vendos pr apartamentin? ____________________________________________________________ 10. Kur shkon ai n agjenci? ____________________________________________________________

USHTRIMI 9.3 Ask four questions using the words given. Have different classmates answer your questions. Mira, Belgjik, bisedoj, nj djal, nj vajz, Genti, Ilda Kush sht kjo? po bn ajo? Me k po bisedon? Cilt jan ata? 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Kjo sht Mira. Ajo po bisedon. Ajo po bisedon me nj djal dhe me nj vajz. Ata jan Genti dhe Ilda.

Drita, takoj, nj vajz, kam, mace Erdriti, Vera, Beni, Igli, bisedoj, raport, ekonomik Moza, luaj, golf, vetm Sara, as, telefon, Rea Agimi, msoj, shqip, shkoll

USHTRIMI 9.4 Complete the following sentences with the appropriate form of the words given in parentheses, making all necessary changes. 1. Me _______ (kush) po bisedon? Po bisedoj me _______ (Drini). 2. _______ (Kush) sht _______ (ky/kjo)? _____ (Ky/Kjo) sht Diana. ______ (Ai/Ajo) po et me _________ (Erjoni, Albani dhe Besarti).
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3. Pr _______ (far) po diskutojn _______ (msues)? Ata po diskutojn pr ____ (ky/kjo) shkolla? _______ (Kush) po intervistojn _______ (ky/kjo) gazetar? 4. ____ (Ky/Kjo) gazetar po intervistojn __________ (nj sportist). 5. Pr _______ (cili) vajz po isni? Po asim pr _______ (Entela). Ajo ka disa __________ (student) amerikane q po studiojn n Tiran.

USHTRIMI 9.5 far bni ju? Create dialogues as in the example. lexoj, ti, gazet, cila, kjo far bn ti? Po lexoj. far po lexon? Po lexoj nj gazet. Ciln gazet? Po lexoj kt gazet. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. as, kjo, mjeke, kush jap, nj intervist, far, ky, gazetar ky, manaxher/informoj (pr)/projekt Artani, prgatis, kjo, informacion, shtpi jurist, shkruaj, ky, raport msues, shpjegoj, msim, kta, student gazetar, raportoj, ky, takim, nga, Londr

DIALOGU 9.2: N HOTEL Recepsionistja: Hotel Tirana, mirdita! Klara: Mirdita! Dua t bj nj rezervim. Recepsionistja: Po, urdhroni! Klara: Dua t rezervoj nj dhom teke dhe nj dhom dyshe pr datat 1015 tetor.3 A keni dhoma t lira n kto data? Recepsionistja: Po. Kemi disa dhoma t lira. Klara: Shum mir. Si jan dhomat? Recepsionistja: Dhomat jan t mdha dhe shum komode.4 Disa dhoma jan me pamje nga sheshi Sknderbej. A jeni e interesuar t bni rezervimin pr kto dhoma? Klara: Po, n rast se mimi nuk sht shum i lart.
3. Dopio can also be used instead of dyshe to mean double. 4. You will also hear i rehatshm, e rehatshme instead of komod, -e.

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Recepsionistja: Jo. mimi ndryshon vetm me pak euro. Klara: Mir. Sa sht mimi pr dhomn teke? Recepsionistja: mimi pr dhomn teke sht 114 euro. Klara: A mund t rezervoni nj dhom teke n katin e dhjet me pamje nga sheshi Sknderbej? Recepsionistja: Patjetr. Po pr dhomn dyshe, cilin kat preferoni? Klara: Preferoj katin e tet. Recepsionistja: Mir. Pra, dhe njher, do t rrini n hotel pes net, nga data 10 deri n datn 15 tetor, apo jo? Klara: Sakt! Kam edhe nj pyetje. far sht e prfshir n mim? Recepsionistja: mimi prfshin qndrimin n hotel dhe mngjesin. Ne kemi nj restorant shum t mir, nse jeni e interesuar t hani drek apo dark n hotel. Restoranti ka edhe nj tarrac shum t bukur. Klara: Shum mir. Ne mund t rrim n tarrac q t punojm dhe t ham dark. Recepsionistja: N katin e par kemi dhe nj kafene, ku mund t pini kafe shum t mir. Klara: Shum mir. A mund t paguaj me kart? Recepsionistja: Sigurisht. Ju mund t paguani me kart kur t vini n hotel, me transfert bankare ose dhe me para n dor (kesh). Klara: Edhe nj krkes t fundit. A mund t drgoni nj taksi n aeroport m dat 10 tetor? Recepsionistja: Po. Por duhet t dim orn e sakt kur vjen avioni, si dhe linjn ajrore. Klara: Do t telefonoj srish q t jap informacionin e nevojshm.

FJALOR aeroprt, -i, -e ajrr, -e lnj ajrre ap Ap j? avin, -i, - bankr, -e /k, -ku, -qe mm, -i, -e drk/, -a, -a dt/, -a, -a drgj di dpio drk/, -a, -a dsh, -e i,e dt i,e dhjt airport air (adj.) airline or Is that right? (lit., Or not?) airplane, aircraft banking check price dinner date to send, deliver to know double lunch double second tenth dhm/, -a, -a dhm e lr dhm dshe dhm tke tj/e, -a kam tje uro i,e fndit i,e gjsht ha ha drk ha drk ha mngjs i,e interesar krt/, -a, -a krt kredti kt, -i, -e i,e ktrt room free room (also cheap room) double room single room thirst to be thirsty euro last sixth to eat to eat dinner to eat lunch to eat breakfast interested card credit card oor fourth

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krks/, -a, -a komd, -e i,e lrt lnj/, -a, -a mngjs, -i, -e nt/, -a, net ndryshj i,e nnt njhr pmj/e, -a, -e par, -ja, me par n dr paraplqj i,e pr i,e pst prfshj i,e prfshr pra pra, dhe njhr preferj

demand, request, requirement comfortable high line breakfast, morning night to change, differ ninth once view money (with) cash to prefer rst fth to include inclusive, included so, then so, once more to prefer

qndrm, -i, -e rst, -i, -e n rst se recepsionst/e, -ja, -e i rehtsh/m, e -me rezervm, -i, -e rri skt i,e skt srsh i,e shtt taks, -a, tarrc/, -a, -a tk, -e telefonj i,e tt transfrt/, -a, -a i,e trt ur, -a kam ur

stay case, event in case, in the eventuality that receptionist (fem.) comfortable reservation to stay exactly exact again seventh taxi terrace single to phone, call eighth transaction, transfer third hunger to be hungry

GRAMATIK 58 Class 2 adjectives: the linking article with accusative denite nouns As we have seen before (7, 31), adjectives typically follow nouns in Albanian. We have also seen that there are two kinds of adjectives: class 1 adjectives, which appear without a linking article (7, 39), and class 2 adjectives, which appear with a linking article (3133). In this lesson we will concentrate on class 2 adjectives and learn how they behave when the noun they modify is in the accusative case. Consider rst the following examples with singular denite nouns: (1) Studenti i mir sht ktu. (2) Un shikoj studentin e mir. (3) Studentja e mir sht ktu. (4) Un shikoj studenten e mir. The good student (masc.) is here. I see the good student (masc.). The good student (fem.) is here. I see the good student (fem.).

Class 2 adjectives require a linking article in order to modify a noun; this linking article always precedes the adjective. Look at examples (1) through (4) above and write down the linking article for each singular denite noun:
Singular Masculine Feminine

Nominative Accusative

________ ________

_______ _______

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As you have observed, the linking article i is used with masculine nouns, while e is used with feminine nouns. Notice that the same form of the linking article is used when the noun is in the nominative or accusative case if the noun is feminine. With denite masculine nouns, however, i in the nominative case changes to e in the accusative. Lets now consider the equivalent plural forms: (5) Studentt e mir jan ktu. (6) Un shikoj studentt e mir. (7) Studentet e mira jan ktu. (8) Un shikoj studentet e mira. The good students (masc.) are here. I see the good students (masc.). The good students (fem.) are here. I see the good students (fem.).

Write down the linking article for each plural denite noun in examples (5) through (8) above:
Plural Masculine Feminine

Nominative Accusative

________ ________

________ ________

If the denite noun is plural, then the linking article is always e, whether it is masculine or feminine, whether it is nominative or accusative. Notice that in all these cases the adjective immediately follows the noun. We saw in 31 and 42 that when an adjective modies a noun directly, we say that it is an attributive adjective. The following chart shows the forms of the linking article with attributive adjectives:
Singular Masculine Feminine Plural Masculine Feminine

Nominative Accusative

i mir e mir

e mir e mir

e mir e mir

e mira e mira

Adjectives can also be used after a copular verb such as jam to be or duket to seem. In these instances, we say that the adjective is a predicative adjective. Consider the following examples. (9) Studenti sht i mir. (10) Studentt jan t mir. (11) Studentja sht e mir. (12) Studentet jan t mira. The student (masc.) is good. The students (masc.) are good. The student (fem.) is good. The students (fem.) are good.

Write down the linking article for each predicative adjective above:
Singular Masculine Feminine Plural Masculine Feminine

Nominative

_______

_______

_______

_______

Now compare these linking articles with the linking articles in the previous chart. Notice that the singular forms are the same as the forms of the attributive adjective. However, in the plural forms, the linking article t is used instead of e. Thats a complication to bear in mind!

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Consider now these constructions: (13) ditt e ftohta (14) ditt e gjata t ftohta (15) ato dit t ftohta (16) ditt shum t ftohta the cold days the long cold days those cold days very cold days

In examples (13) through (16) we are using the adjective in an attributive function since we are not modifying the noun via a copular verb. In example (13), as expected, we use the linking article e because we are modifying the feminine plural noun ditt days. In examples (14), (15), and (16), however, we are still modifying dit(t) e gjata, but now the linking article is t! What happened? The plural linking article e changes to t when the adjective does not immediately follow the denite form of the noun. This simple rule also explains the predicative examples in (10) and (12), so you wont need to remember the difference between attributive and predicative anymore! The following chart summarizes all the different forms of the linking article when an adjective modies a denite noun. The slash indicates the possibility of two forms. Just remember that the second form is used when the adjective is far away from the denite form of the noun. This rule will explain both the predicative cases in examples (10) and (12) as well as the strange cases in examples (14), (15), and (16), where the plural adjective is not next to the denite noun.
Singular Masculine Feminine Plural Masculine Feminine

Nominative Accusative

i mir e/t mir

e mir e/t mir

e/t mir e/t mir

e/t mira e/t mira

59 Class 2 adjectives: the linking article with accusative indenite nouns Consider the following examples: (1) Ai sht (nj) student i mir. (2) Ajo sht (nj) studente e mir. (3) Un njoh nj student t mir. (4) Un njoh nj studente t mir. He is a good student (masc.). She is a good student (fem.). I know a good student (masc.). I know a good student (fem.).

Complete the following chart with the corresponding form of the linking article when the adjective modies a singular indenite noun:
Singular Masculine Feminine

Nominative Accusative

________ ________

_______ _______

Consider now the corresponding examples in the plural: (5) Ata jan student t mir. (6) Ato jan studente t mira. (7) Un njoh disa student t mir. (8) Un njoh disa studente t mira. They are good students (masc.). They are good students (fem.). I know some good students (masc.). I know some good students (fem.).

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Now complete the following chart with the corresponding forms of the linking article when the adjective modies a plural indenite noun:
Plural Masculine Feminine

Nominative Accusative

________ ________

_______ _______

As you probably observed, i and e are used only with masculine nominative singular and feminine singular, respectively. In all other cases, we need to resort to t. The following chart shows the different forms of the linking article when the adjective modies an indenite noun:
Singular Masculine Feminine Plural Masculine Feminine

Nominative Accusative

i mir t mir

e mir t mir

t mir t mir

t mira t mira

60 Ordinal numbers There are two types of numbers: cardinal and ordinal. We use cardinal numbers when we count or when we want to indicate quantity: twenty students, ten houses. We use ordinal numbers when we want to put things in order: the twentieth house, the tenth house. The following charts summarize the different forms of both cardinal and ordinal numbers.
Cardinal Ordinal Cardinal Ordinal

nj dy tre katr pes gjasht shtat tet nnt dhjet

i/e par i/e dyt i/e tret i/e katrt i/e pest i/e gjasht i/e shtat i/e tet i/e nnt i/e dhjet

njmbdhjet dymbdhjet trembdhjet katrmbdhjet pesmbdhjet gjashtmbdhjet shtatmbdhjet tetmbdhjet nntmbdhjet njzet

i/e njmbdhjet i/e dymbdhjet i/e trembdhjet i/e katrmbdhjet i/e pesmbdhjet i/e gjashtmbdhjet i/e shtatmbdhjet i/e tetmbdhjet i/e nntmbdhjet i/e njzet

Notice the difference between primary numbers and ordinal numbers for numbers above twenty:
Cardinal Ordinal Cardinal Ordinal

njzet e nj njzet e dy njzet e tre njzet e katr njzet e pes njzet e gjasht njzet e shtat njzet e tet njzet e nnt tridhjet

i,e njzetenj i,e njzetedyt i,e njzetetret i,e njzetekatrt i,e njzetepest i,e njzetegjasht i,e njzeteshtat i,e njzetetet i,e njzetennt i,e tridhjet

dyzet pesdhjet gjashtdhjet shtatdhjet tetdhjet nntdhjet njqind njqind e pesdhjet e nj dyqind

i,e dyzet i,e pesdhjet i,e gjashtdhjet i,e shtatdhjet i,e tetdhjet i,e nntdhjet i/e njqindt i,e njqindtepesdhjete nj i,e dyqindt
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Cardinal

Ordinal

Cardinal

Ordinal

treqind katrqind pesqind gjashtqind shtatqind tetqind nntqind

i,e treqindt i,e katrqindt i,e pesqindt i,e gjashtqindt i,e shtatqindt i,e tetqindt i,e nntqindt

nj mij nj mij e tet pes mij pesmij e pesdhjet nj milion nj miliard

i,e njmijt i,e njmijetet i,e pesmijt i,e pesmijepesdhjet i,e njmiliont i,e njmiliardt

As you can see above, ordinal numbers are class 2 adjectives, and they need to be accompanied by a linking article (see 31, 42). Numbers from two to ve add -t or -t to form the corresponding ordinal number; higher numbers just add the linking article. Notice that, unlike cardinal numbers, ordinal numbers follow the noun. In the chart below, you can see all the forms for student i par the rst student:
Singular Masculine Feminine Plural Masculine Feminine

Nominative Accusative

studenti i par studentin e par

studentja e par studenten e par

studentt e par studentt e par

studentet e para studentet e para

As with other class 2 adjectives, pay attention to the feminine plural forms; these forms are the only ones that differ from the others (see 32). There are similar forms for the other ordinal numbers: e/ t dyta second, feminine plural, e/t treta third, feminine plural, e/t katrta fourth, feminine plural, and so on. Attention: Ordinal numbers are typically written as one word. The vowel in ten drops before the linking article e: gjashtdhjet e nnt becomes i,e gjashtdhjetennt 61 Class 3 and 4 verbs Class 3 verbs are the verbs that end with a vowel (see 6). The verbs ha to eat, pi to drink, rri to stay, di to know, and e to sleep are all class 3 verbs. The present indicative is shown in the chart below: un ti ai, ajo ne ju ata, ato ha ha ha ha ham hani han pi pi pi pi pim pini pin rri rri rri rri rrim rrini rrin di di di di dim dini din e e e e em ini en

Notice that the ju form of e undergoes a stem change, where the -e- in the stem becomes -i-.

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Remember that the present subjunctive has the same forms as the present indicative (49), with the exception of ti, which takes -sh, and ai/ajo, which take -j. The following are the forms of the present subjunctive for class 3 verbs: un ti ai, ajo ne ju ata, ato ha t ha t hash t haj t ham t hani t han pi t pi t pish t pij t pim t pini t pin rri t rri t rrish t rrij t rrim t rrini t rrin di t di t dish t dij t dim t dini t din e t e t esh t ej t em t ini t en

Remember that the future indicative is formed by adding the auxiliary do in front of the subjunctive (52). un ti ai, ajo ne ju ata, ato ha do t ha do t hash do t haj do t ham do t hani do t han pi do t pi do t pish do t pij do t pim do t pini do t pin rri do t rri do t rrish do t rrij do t rrim do t rrini do t rrin di do t di do t dish do t dij do t dim do t dini do t din e do t e do t esh do t ej do t em do t ini do t en

There are three verbs that end in -i but that take different endings from verbs like pi to drink, rri to stay, and di to know, as shown above. These three verbs belong to class 4. The present indicative for iki to go, eci to walk, ride, and hipi to climb, get on is shown below: un ti ai, ajo ne ju ata, ato iki iki ikn ikn ikim ikni ikin iki do t iki do t iksh do t ik do t ikim do t ikni do t ikin eci eci ecn ecn ecim ecni ecin eci do t eci do t ecsh do t ec do t ecim do t ecni do t ecin hipi hipi hipn hipn hipim hipni hipin hipi do t hipi do t hipsh do t hip do t hipim do t hipni do t hipin

un ti ai, ajo ne ju ata, ato

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USHTRIMI 9.6 Indicate whether the following statements are true (T) or false (F) based on Dialogu 9.2. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. ____ Klara bisedon me recepsionisten. ____ Klara rezervon nj dhom teke. ____ Dhoma sht shum e shtrenjt. ____ Dhomat q rezervon Klara shohin nga sheshi Sknderbej. ____ Klara rezervon nj dhom n katin e par. ____ Hoteli ka nj restorant shum t mir. ____ Rezervimi sht pr datat 15 maj. ____ Restoranti ka nj tarrac t bukur. ____ Hoteli ka nj kafene t mir. ____ Klara paguan me ek.

USHTRIMI 9.7 Answer the following questions based on Dialogu 9.2. 1. Me k bisedon Klara? ____________________________________________________________ 2. Pse telefonon Klara? ____________________________________________________________ 3. Pr cilat data sht rezervimi? ____________________________________________________________ 4. Sa dhoma rezervon Klara? ____________________________________________________________ 5. Cilin kat preferon (paraplqen) ajo? ____________________________________________________________ 6. far sht e prfshir n mim? ____________________________________________________________ 7. A ka hoteli restorant? ____________________________________________________________ 8. Si mund t paguaj Klara? ____________________________________________________________ 9. Pr ciln dat krkon ajo nj taksi? ____________________________________________________________ 10. far thot recepsionistja? ____________________________________________________________

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USHTRIMI 9.8 Complete the following sentences with the appropriate form of the verb. 1. Ku _____________ (shkoj, ju) nesr? (Ne) ___________ (shkoj) n restorant. __________ (Ha) drek dhe dark atje. 2. far doni ________ (pi)? Ngaq nuk __________ (kam, ne) shum koh, duam ___________ (pi) vetm nj kafe. 3. po ____________ (ha, ti)? Po _____________ (ha) pak buk me gjalp. 4. Sa or ______________ (e) ju do dit? Motra ime dhe un ______________ (e) tet or, por gjyshja dhe gjyshi ___________ (e) dhjet or. 5. A _________ (as) ju shum me ata? Po, gjithmon (ne) ___________ (ha) dark bashk dhe ___________ (as) shum.

USHTRIMI 9.9 Complete the following sentences with the correct form of the linking article. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. Un banoj n katin _____ par. Dhoma sht n katin ____ tret. Po as me msuesen ____ re. Po dgjoj msimin ____ ri. Hoteli sht ____ madh dhe ____ bukur. Qndrimi n hotel nuk sht ___ gjat. Po shikojm dritaren ___ hapur. mimet jan ___ larta. Ky sht hoteli im ____ preferuar. Dhomat jan shum _____ mira.

LEXIMI 9.1
Njoftime

Krkoj nj dyqan me qira n Tiran, n rrugn Myslym Shyri ose n rrugn Dshmort e 4 shkurtit me siprfaqe nga 30 deri n 50 m2. Dua t blej dy shtpi n Dhrmi ose n Himar. T gjith personat q duan t shesin shtpit e tyre n Dhrmi ose n Himar, mund t kontaktojn n kt numr telefoni: 393 2202.

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Shes apartament dy dhoma e nj kuzhin n rrugn Komuna e Parisit, Tiran. Apartamenti ndodhet n katin e shtat dhe sht ndrtim i ri, i sapoprfunduar. Apartamenti ka hapsira t mdha me punime bashkkohore. Apartamenti sheh nga kopshti botanik. mimi sht i diskutueshm. N qoft se jeni t interesuar, ose nse keni nevoj pr m shum informacione, mund t kontaktoni n kt numr telefoni: 2 344 472. Shes apartament 3+1 n rrugn Sami Frashri, n katin e shtat, i mobiluar shum bukur. Nga apartamenti shikon pamje t mrekullueshme. Apartamenti ka dy banja. Siprfaqja sht 150 m2. mimi sht 100 euro/ m2. tel: 2 239 523. Jap me qira nj vil t re dykatshe. Kati i par sht i prshtatshm pr zyra, kurse kati i dyt pr banim. Ka edhe nj oborr t madh n pjesn e prparme. Vila ka punime shum cilsore. Nuk sht e mobiluar. Cel: 069 20 21 715. Ofrojm apartamente t reja (me prenotim) nj plus nj dhe dy plus nj, me punime shum cilsore dhe pamje shum t bukur. Apartamentet kan siprfaqe nga 60 m2 deri n 150 m2. mimi pr apartamentet sht 450 euro/ m2, kurse pr dyqanet sht 600 m2. Tel: 2 266 618.

FJALOR banm, -i, -e bnj/, -a, -a bashkkohr, -e botank, -e cilsr, -e i diskutesh/m, e -me dyktsh/e hapsr/, -a, -a jap jp me qra krkj kontaktj kpsht, -i, -e kpshti botank m2 = mtra katrr i,e mobilar residence, dwelling toilet, bathroom contemporary botanical distinctive negotiable two-story space to give to rent to search, look for to contact garden botanical garden square meter furnished i mrekullesh/m, e -me ndrtm, -i, -e njoftm, -i, -e obrr, -i, -e i prpr/m, e -me i prshttsh/m, e -me pjs/, -a, -a prenotm, -i, -e punm, -i, -e qft n qft se i sapoprfundar, -e siprfq/e, -ja, -e shes vl/, -a, -a zr/, -a, -a marvelous building, construction announcement, ad yard, court frontal, in the front suitable, adaptable part reservation nish, scrollwork whether if, in case completed recently surface, area to sell villa ofce

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USHTRIMI 9.10 Read the previous ads (njoftime) from the newspaper. With a classmate, play roles where one of you wants to rent or buy and the other one is renting or selling the indicated product.

USHTRIMI 9.11 The following ads appeared in last Sundays paper. 1. Krkoj nj apartament me qira 2+1, n Tiran, tek 21 dhjetori. mimi 20 00025 000 lek (bashk me dritat). Telefon: 876-4814. 2. Shes nj shtpi 1+1, n rrugn Mine Peza. mimi sht i arsyeshm. Shtpia ka nj ballkon dhe korridor. Telefon: 311-8065. 3. Jap me qira nj apartament 1+1, n rrugn Qemal Stafa, me siprfaqe 67 metra katror. Apartamenti sht i mobiluar. Telefon: 283-7186. Match the following situations with one of the ads and then carry out the corresponding transaction with a classmate. 1. Bora krkon t blej nj shtpi. 2. Enedi jep nj apartament me qira 2+1. 3. Aida krkon nj apartament me qira 1+1.

Hotel Sheraton, Tirana (photo: Albes Fusha) Msimi 9: Shtpi dhe hotel

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Grand Hotel in Prishtina (photo: Edmond Prifti)

INFORMACIONE KULTURORE In Tirana, the ve-star Sheraton Hotel is located near the National Park (the articial lake and zoo). The Sheraton is a few minutes walk from the Convention Center (Pallati i Kongreseve) and the Presidential Palace (Presidenca). Hotel Europapark Rogner is situated on the main boulevard of Tirana, Dshmort e Kombit, where many ministry buildings, the Presidential Palace, and embassies are located within walking distance. This makes Hotel Europapark a meeting place for the international world of business, politics, and art. Chateau Linza is located on the hill in the Linza area facing the city of Tirana, at the foot of Dajti Mountain, only fteen minutes from downtown and one hour from Rinas airport. In Prishtina, the Grand Hotel is located in the premier shopping and business district. A few steps from the National Theater (Teatri Kombtar), the Grand Hotel is perfectly situated for easy exploration of Prishtinas principal attractions. It was built in 1978 and has 13 oors and 368 rooms. Hotel Prishtina is located within the heart of the citys most important business district. This hotel has 4 oors and 45 rooms and suites.

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MSIMI 10
Festat zyrtare n Shqipri
Ofcial holidays in Albania In this lesson you will learn: how to ask and talk about cultural events the ofcial holidays in Albania how to buy tickets for a cultural show You will learn the following grammatical points: the genitive case for denite nouns the genitive case for indenite nouns basic uses of the genitive case in Albanian how to ask questions with whose the genitive forms of demonstratives linking articles that modify a genitive noun

DIALOGU 10.1: FESTAT ZYRTARE N SHQIPRI Ejona: Cilat jan festat zyrtare n Republikn e Shqipris? Rea: N Republikn e Shqipris ka disa festa zyrtare. Disa nga kto festa jan festa fetare. Ejona: Cilat jan festat fetare? Rea: N Shqipri bashkjetojn n harmoni tri fe: feja myslimane, feja ortodokse dhe feja katolike. Pr kt arsye, ne festojm festat e tyre m t rndsishme: Pashkt Katolike, Pashkt Ortodokse, Ditn e Novruzit, Bajramin e Madh, Bajramin e Vogl dhe Krishtlindjet. Ejona: far sht Dita e Novruzit? Rea: Dita e Novruzit ose Dita e Sulltan Novruzit sht festa e bektashinjve. Ejona: sht hera e par q dgjoj pr bektashinjt. far jan ata? Rea: Bektashizmi sht nj sekt fetar islamik. Bektashinj ka kryesisht Jugu i Shqipris. Ejona: Cilat jan festat e tjera? Rea: M 14 mars ne festojm Ditn e Vers. Ejona: far sht Dita e Vers? Rea: Dita e Vers sht nj fest pagane. Ajo simbolizon largimin e dimrit dhe ardhjen e pranvers. Kjo sht nj fest tradicionale sidomos pr qytetin e Elbasanit. Ejona: Po Dita e Pavarsis, kur sht? Rea: Dita e Pavarsis sht m 28 Nntor. Kurse m 29 Nntor festojm Ditn e lirimit. Ejona: Po Viti i Ri, a sht fest tradicionale n Shqipri? Rea: Po. M 1 dhe 2 janar festojm Vitin e Ri. Kjo sht nj fest tradicionale dhe shum popullore.

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Ejona: Po festa ndrkombtare, a festoni? Rea: M 1 Maj festojm Ditn e Puntorve, kurse m 19 Tetor festojm Ditn e Lumturimit t Nn Terezs. Ejona: Ju keni nj fest zyrtare pr Nn Terezn? Rea: Po, Nn Tereza sht me origjin shqiptare. Emri i vrtet i Nn Terezs sht Gonxhe Bojaxhi. Q nga 19 tetori 2004, Dita e Lumturimit t Nn Terezs, sht fest zyrtare pr shqiptart. Ejona: Po dit prkujtimore keni? Rea: Kemi disa dit prkujtimore: si 5 Majin (Dita e Dshmorve), 7 Marsin (Dita e Msuesit), 8 Marsin (Dita Ndrkombtare e Gruas), 1 Qershorin (Dita Ndrkombtare e Fmijve), etj.

FJALOR rdhj/e, -a, -e ars/e, -ja, -e pr kt arse Bajrmi i Mdh Bajrmi i Vgl bashkjetj bektash, -u, -nj bektashzm, -i lirm, -i, dshmr, -i, - dt/, -a, - Dta e lirmit Dta e Dshmrve Dta e Lumturmit t Nn Terzs Dta e Novrzit Dta e Pavarss Dta e Puntrve drejtes, -i, f, -ja, fst/, -a, -a festj fetr, -e gjsm/, -a, -a harmon, -a hr/, -a, - hra e pr arrival reason for this reason Eid ul-Fitr Eid Mubarak cohabit, coexist Bektashi Bektashism liberation martyr day Liberation Day Martyrs Day Mother Teresas Beatication Day (Sultan) Novrusis Day Independence Day Labor Day (lit., Workers Day) director, head, leader religion, faith holiday to celebrate religious half harmony time, while the rst time kalendr, -i, - kan/e, -ja, -e katolk, -e klint, -i, - lumturm, -i myslimn, -e kompjter, -i, -a i,e krishtr Krishtlndj/e, -a, -e largm, -i, -e origjn/, -a, -a ortodks, -e Pshkt Pshkt Katolke Pshkt Ortodkse patatna pavars, -a Dta e Pavarss prkujtimr, -e popullr, -e progrm, -i, -e qs/e, -ja, -e i rehtshm, e -me sekt, -i, -e sidoms simbolizj sulltn, -i, - Sulltn Novrzi shnj calendar tin Catholic client beatication Moslem computer Christian Christmas departure, removal origin, source Orthodox Easter Catholic Easter Orthodox Easter potato chips independence Independence Day commemorative popular program bag comfortable sect especially to symbolize sultan Sultan Novrus to mark, indicate

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tradicionl, -e i,e vent i,e vrtt

traditional special real, true

Vti i R zyrtr, -e

New Year ofcial

GRAMATIK 62 Genitive singular denite nouns In Dialogu 10.1, you encountered several denite nouns in the genitive case, which is the case we typically use to indicate possession (in English we typically indicate this case with an apostrophe plus s or the word of). Lets start with masculine singular denite nouns: Dita e Novruzit libri i Aliut makina e babait librat e babait Novruss Day Alis book my fathers car my fathers books

The nouns in bold above are in the genitive case, and they indicate the possessor. How do we form the genitive case of a denite noun that indicates the possessor? Do you see a pattern? What form do we take as the base? What do we add to that base? Masculine singular nouns:
Base Genitive Form

Novruz Ali

__________________ __________________

You can see in the examples above that there is also a linking article. What does this linking article agree with, the possessor or the possessed object? _______________________________________________________________ Lets go step by step and consider rst the genitive form of masculine singular nouns:
Nominative Indenite Denite Genitive Denite

Novruz baba student libr Ali shok Irak

Novruzi babai studenti libri Aliu shoku Iraku

Novruzit (Novrus) babait (father) studentit (student, masc.) librit (book)1 Aliut (Ali) shokut (friend) Irakut (Iraq)

1. Notice that libr book drops -- to form the denite form. The genitive form is formed on the denite form of the noun libri the book; thus, there is no -- in the genitive form librit of the book either.

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As you have observed above, the masculine denite possessive form is built on the form of the denite noun in the nominative case. All we need to do is add -t to the nominative denite form of the masculine singular noun to obtain the genitive denite form. We also need to have a linking article to connect the possessor with the object possessed. Notice that the linking article agrees with the noun that is possessed and has exactly the same form as the linking article we use with class 2 adjectives (see 31 and 42): (1) Ky sht libri i msuesit. Kjo sht shtpia e msuesit. Kta jan librat e msuesit. Kto jan shtpit e msuesit. This is the teachers (masc.) book. This is the teachers (masc.) house. These are the teachers (masc.) books. These are the teachers (masc.) houses.

As we saw with class 2 adjectives, the linking article must always agree in gender, case, number, and deniteness with the noun it modies. In the previous examples, the (denite) possessee is in the nominative case. If the possessee is in the accusative case (i.e., it is a direct object), then the form of the linking article will always be e (see 58 and 59): (2) Un shoh librin e msuesit. Un shoh shtpin e msuesit. Un shoh librat e msuesit. Un shoh shtpit e msuesit. I see the teachers (masc.) book. I see the teachers (masc.) house. I see the teachers (masc.) books. I see the teachers (masc.) houses.

When we have an indenite possessee, the linking article also takes different forms, since it is sensitive to the gender, case, number, and deniteness of the possessee. Notice that the genitive form of the possessor, however, remains unchanged: (3) Ky sht nj libr i msuesit. Kjo sht nj etore e msuesit. Kta jan disa libra t msuesit. Kto jan disa etore t msuesit. (4) Un shoh nj libr t msuesit. Un shoh nj etore t msuesit. Un shoh disa libra t msuesit. Un shoh disa etore t msuesit. This is one of the teachers (masc.) books. This is one of the teachers (masc.) notebooks. These are some of the teachers (masc.) books. These are some of the teachers (masc.) notebooks. I see one of the teachers (masc.) books. I see one of the teachers (masc.) notebooks. I see some of the teachers (masc.) books. I see some of the teachers (masc.) notebooks.

The following chart summarizes the forms of the linking article used to express possession when the element possessed is a denite noun (see examples in [1] and [2] above). Remember that the linking article agrees with the element that is possessed:
Singular Masculine Feminine Plural Masculine Feminine

Nominative Accusative

i e

e e

e e

e e

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The following chart summarizes the forms of the linking article used to express possession when the element possessed is an indenite noun (see examples in [3] and [4] above). Again, remember that the linking article agrees with the element possessed.
Singular Masculine Feminine Plural Masculine Feminine

Nominative Accusative

i t

e t

t t

t t

Lets now consider the formation of the genitive form of feminine singular denite nouns. The nouns in bold are feminine nouns in the genitive case: Jugu i Shqipris makina e nns the south of Albania (my) mothers car

How do we form the genitive form of feminine denite nouns? What is the base form? What do we add to that base? Feminine singular nouns:
Base Genitive Form

nn Shqipri

_______________ _______________

What does the linking article agree with, the possessor or the possessee? _______________________________________________________________ You discovered that there are two endings to form the genitive case of feminine denite nouns: -s and -s. Lets see if you can gure out when you use -s and when you use -s. Consider the following examples:
Nominative Indenite Denite Genitive Denite

nn Drit studente msuese Shqipri shtpi

nna Drita studentja msuesja Shqipria shtpia

nns (mother) Drits (Drita) studentes (student, fem.) mesueses (teacher, fem.) Shqipris (Albania) shtpis (house)

Use -s when ___________________________________________________ Use -s when __________________________________________________ You probably discovered that the genitive form of feminine singular denite nouns is built on the nominative indenite form of the feminine noun. We add -s when the last syllable of the indenite form is unstressed. If the last syllable is stressed, then we add -s.2
2. For pronunciation purposes, -s and -s are pronounced the same way when you speak at normal speed; thus, both nns of the mother and shtpis of the house would have two syllables. In more careful speech, however, -s would add an extra syllable to the original word.

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We saw that feminine nouns that end in -r, -rr, or -l typically drop the - (and add -a) to form the denite nominative form (letr letter letra the letter) (see 27). In the denite possessive form, this - is also dropped, but since the result would be an unpronounceable letrs, we insert an extra - before the -s of the possessive, getting letrs. More simply put, if the noun ends in -r, -rr, or -l, replace those endings with -s to form the denite singular nominative form.
Nominative Indenite Denite Genitive Denite

motr ndrr vegl

motra ndrra vegla

motrs (sister) ndrrs (dream) vegls (tool)

Feminine possessors also need a linking article to connect to the element being possessed. The linking article agrees with the preceding possessed object, as with class 2 adjectives (see 31 and 42): Ky sht libri i msueses. Kjo sht shtpia e msueses. Kta jan librat e msueses. Kto jan shtpit e msueses. This is the teachers (fem.) book. This is the teachers (fem.) house. These are the teachers (fem.) books. These are the teachers (fem.) houses.

The linking article is sensitive to the gender, case, number, and deniteness of the noun it modies. Notice that the genitive form of the noun msuese female teacher remains unchanged in the following examples, where the possessee is now in the accusative case (the possessee is a direct object). Only the linking article changes form (see 42 and 58): Un shoh librin e msueses. Un shoh shtpin e msueses. Un shoh librat e msueses. Un shoh shtpit e msueses. I see the teachers (fem.) book. I see the teachers (fem.) house. I see the teachers (fem.) books. I see the teachers (fem.) houses.

Notice the form of the linking article when the possessed noun is indenite. On the other hand, the genitive form of msuese remains unchanged: Ky sht nj libr i msueses. Kjo sht nj etore e msueses. Kta jan disa libra t msueses. Kto jan disa etore t msueses. Un shoh nj libr t msueses. Un shoh nj etore t msueses. Un shoh disa libra t msueses. Un shoh disa etore t msueses. This is one of the teachers (fem.) books. This is one of the teachers (fem.) notebooks. These are some of the teachers (fem.) books. These are some of the teachers (fem.) notebooks. I see one of the teachers (fem.) books. I see one of the teachers (fem.) notebooks. I see some of the teachers (fem.) books. I see some of the teachers (fem.) notebooks.

The following charts summarize the different forms of the linking article when the possessee is denite:

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Singular denite possessee:

Nominative: Accusative:

libri etorja librin etoren

i e e e

msuesit/msueses msuesit/msueses msuesit/msueses msuesit/msueses

Plural denite possessee:

Nominative: Accusative:

librat etoret librat etoret

e e e e

msuesit/msueses msuesit/msueses msuesit/msueses msuesit/msueses

The following charts summarize the forms of the linking article when the possessed object is indenite:
Singular indenite possessee:

Nominative: Accusative:

nj libr nj etore nj libr nj etore

i e t t

msuesit/msueses msuesit/msueses msuesit/msueses msuesit/msueses

Plural indenite possessee:

Nominative: Accusative:

disa libra disa etore disa libra disa etore

t t t t

msuesit/msueses msuesit/msueses msuesit/msueses msuesit/msueses

63 Genitive plural denite nouns Consider the following examples. The plural nouns in bold are the nouns bearing the genitive case: shkolla shkolla babai babai shtpit librat e studentve e studenteve i djemve i vajzave e studentve e studenteve the (male) students school the (female) students school the boys father the girls father the (male) students houses the (female) students books

How do we construct the genitive form of denite plural nouns? Which form do we take as the base? What sufx do we add to that base? Do masculine and feminine nouns differ in the way their genitive plural denite form is constructed? Masculine plural nouns:
Base Genitive Form

student djal

_____________ _____________
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Feminine plural nouns:


Base Genitive Form

studente vajz

_____________ _____________

You have just discovered that the genitive plural of denite nouns, both masculine and feminine, is formed by adding -ve to the plural indenite form. As with singular forms, we need a linking article to connect the possessor (in the genitive case) with the possessed object. The linking article will always agree in gender, case, number, and deniteness with the possessed object, while the genitive form of the possessor remains unchanged: Ky sht libri i vajzave/djemve. Kjo sht shtpia e vajzave/djemve. Kta jan librat e vajzave/djemve. Kto jan shtpit e vajzave/djemve. Un shoh librin e vajzave/djemve. Un shoh shtpin e vajzave/djemve. Un shoh librat e vajzave/djemve. Un shoh shtpit e vajzave/djemve. Ky sht nj libr i vajzave/djemve. Kjo sht nj etore e vajzave/djemve. Kta jan disa libra t vajzave/djemve. Kto jan disa etore t vajzave/djemve. Un shoh nj libr t vajzave/djemve. Un shoh nj etore t vajzave/djemve. Un shoh disa libra t vajzave/djemve. Un shoh disa etore t vajzave/djemve. This is the girls/the boys book. This is the girls/the boys house. These are the girls/the boys books. These are the girls/the boys houses. I see the girls/the boys book. I see the girls/the boys house. I see the girls/the boys books. I see the girls/the boys houses. This is one of the girls/the boys books. This is one of the girls/the boys notebooks. These are some of the girls/the boys books. These are some of the girls/the boys notebooks. I see one of the girls/the boys books. I see one of the girls/the boys notebooks. I see some of the girls/the boys books. I see some of the girls/the boys notebooks.

The following charts summarize the forms of the linking article when the possessee is denite:
Singular denite possessee:

Nominative: Accusative:

libri etorja librin etoren

i e e e

djemve/vajzave djemve/vajzave djemve/vajzave djemve/vajzave

Plural denite possessee:

Nominative: Accusative:

librat etoret librat etoret

e e e e

djemve/vajzave djemve/vajzave djemve/vajzave djemve/vajzave

The following charts summarize the forms of the linking article when the possessee is indenite:

162 Discovering Albanian 1

Singular indenite possessee:

Nominative: Accusative:

nj libr nj etore nj libr nj etore

i e t t

djemve/vajzave djemve/vajzave djemve/vajzave djemve/vajzave

Plural indenite possessee:

Nominative: Accusative:

disa libra disa etore disa libra disa etore

t t t t

djemve/vajzave djemve/vajzave djemve/vajzave djemve/vajzave

64 Basic uses of the genitive case The genitive case is used: 1. to indicate possession: shtpia e vajzs shoku i Drits the girls house Dritas friend

2. to indicate the object of a noun that expresses action: lirimi i Shqipris leximi i librit the liberation of Albania the reading of the book

3. to indicate the agent (or subject) of a noun that expresses action: ardhja e pranvers llimi i dimrit the arrival of spring the beginning of winter

4. to indicate the name of a city, island, river, and so on: qyteti i Elbasanit ishulli i Sazanit liqeni i Shkodrs lumi i Vjoss 5. to indicate a part or division: shumica e vajzave gjysma e studentve the majority of the girls half of the students the city of Elbasan the island of Sazan Shkodr Lake the Vjosa River

With measure phrases, you use just the plural form of count nouns (notice that in English you use a genitive form with the preposition of): nj kilogram domate nj paket cigare dhjetra libra gjasht kokrra vez a kilo of tomatoes a pack of cigarettes a dozen books half a dozen eggs
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With the phrase nj kuti a box or nj qese a bag, the preposition me with is typically used, although in colloquial Albanian it is typically omitted: nj kuti (me) okollata nj kuti (me) moll nj kuti (me) drithra nj qese (me) patatina a box of chocolates a box of apples a box of cereal a bag of potato chips

If the noun is a mass noun, use the singular form:3 gjysm kilogram sallam nj shishe birr nj got ver disa feta djath nj kanae kola half a kilo of salami a bottle of beer a glass of wine some slices of cheese a tin of soda

65 Asking questions with whose If we want to ask for the possessor of an object, in English we use the interrogative word whose. Notice the two ways the question can be asked in Albanian: Msuesi i kujt sht ky? I kujt sht ky msues? Msuesja e kujt sht kjo? E kujt sht kjo msuese? Msuesit e kujt jan kta? T kujt jan kta msues? Msueset e kujt jan keto? T kujt jan kto msuese? Whose teacher (masc.) is this? lit., Whose is this teacher (masc.)? Whose teacher (fem.) is this? lit., Whose is this teacher (fem.)? Whose teachers (masc.) are these? lit., Whose are these teachers (masc.)? Whose teachers (fem.) are these? lit., Whose are these teachers (fem.)?

Remember that the plural linking articles i and e change to t when the linking article is not next to a denite noun (see 31 and 42). This explains the use of t kujt rather than i/e kujt when the question word appears at the beginning of the question in the last two sets of examples. Use a parallel structure to answer these questions: Msuesi i kujt sht ky? (Ky sht msuesi) i Gzimit. I kujt sht ky msues? (Ky msues sht) i Gzimit. Msuesit e kujt jan kta? Kta jan msuesit e Gzimit. T Gzimit.4 Whose teacher (masc.) is this? This is Gzims teacher (masc.). lit., Whose is this teacher (masc.)? lit., This teachers (masc.) is Gzims. Whose teachers (masc.) are these? These are Gzims teachers. Gzims.

3. With the measure phrase nj liter a liter you need to use the ablative case (see 89 to 91): nj litr qumsht a liter of milk. 4. Notice that if the preceding sentence is not pronounced, we must use the linking article t instead of e. As we saw in 42, t is used when the linking article is not immediately adjacent to the denite noun it modies.

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T kujt jan kta msues? (Kta msues jan) t Gzimit.

lit., Whose are those teachers (masc.)? lit., Those teachers are Gezims.

66 Modifying the genitive denite form It is possible for a possessor to be possessed by another noun, as you can see in the following examples. Use s as the linking article when modifying a feminine genitive singular denite noun; use t in the other cases: msuesja e vllait t Drits msuesja e motrs s Drits msuesja e vllezrve t Drits msuesja e motrave t Drits Dritas brothers teacher (fem.) (lit., the teacher of the brother of Dritas) Dritas sisters teacher (fem.) (lit., the teacher of the sister of Dritas) Dritas brothers teacher (fem.) (lit., the teacher of the brothers of Dritas) Dritas sisters teacher (fem.) (lit., the teacher of the sisters of Dritas)

The same forms of the linking article are used when we modify a genitive noun with a class 2 adjective: msuesi i djalit t vogl msuesi i vajzs s vogl msuesi i djemve t vegjl msuesi i vajzave t vogla the small boys teacher the little girls teacher the little boys teacher the little girls teacher

S changes to t if s is not next to the noun it modies or if this noun is not denite: msuesja e motrs s Drits msuesja e motrs s vogl t Drits msuesi i vajzs s vogl msuesi i vajzs s zgjuar dhe t vogl Dritas sisters teacher Dritas small sisters teacher the small girls teacher the teacher of the intelligent and small girl

Notice that in the examples above, the rst adjective appears with the linking article s, while the second modier (whether a possessor or an adjective) appears with the linking article t since the latter is not adjacent to the noun it modies. We saw a similar phenomenon for e in 42. The following chart summarizes the different forms of the linking article when modifying a denite noun. Where there are two forms, the second form is obligatorily used if the modifying element (whether a class 2 adjective or a possessive) is not next (or adjacent) to the denite noun it modies.
Singular Masculine Feminine Plural Masculine Feminine

Nominative Accusative Genitive

i e/t t

e e/t s/t

e/t e/t e/t

e/t e/t e/t

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USHTRIMI 10.1 Indicate whether the following statements are true (T) or false (F) based on Dialogu 10.1. 1. ____ N Shqipri bashkjetojn n harmoni tri fe, feja myslimane, feja ortodokse dhe feja katolike. ____ N Shqipri, nuk festojn festat fetare katolike m t rndsishme. 2. 3. ____ Dita e Sulltan Novruzit sht festa e katolikve. 4. ____ Bektashizmi sht nj sekt fetar islamik. 5. ____ M 10 mars, n Shqipri, festojn Ditn e Vers. 6. ____ Dita e Vers sht nj fest pagane. 7. ____ Dita e Pavarsis s Shqipris sht m 28 Nntor. 8. ____ Dita e lirimit t Shqipris sht m 30 nntor. 9. ____ Nn Tereza sht me origjin shqiptare. 10. ____ Data 19 nntor sht festa e Lumturimit t Nn Terezs. 11. ____ Pes Maji sht Dita e Dshmorve. 12. ____ Dita e Msuesit sht m 8 Mars. 13. ____ M 1 Qershor sht Dita e Fmijve.

USHTRIMI 10.2 Answer the following questions based on Dialogu 10.1. 1. Sa festa zyrtare ka n Republikn e Shqipris? ____________________________________________________________ 2. Cilat jan festat fetare? ____________________________________________________________ 3. far sht Dita e Novruzit? ____________________________________________________________ 4. far sht bektashizmi? ____________________________________________________________ 5. far sht Dita e Vers? ____________________________________________________________ 6. far simbolizon ajo? ____________________________________________________________ 7. Ku sht Dita e Vers fest tradicionale? ____________________________________________________________ 8. Kur sht Dita e Pavarsis s Shqipris? ____________________________________________________________ 9. Kur sht Dita e lirimit t Shqipris? ____________________________________________________________ 10. Kur sht Dita e Puntorve? ____________________________________________________________

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11. Cili sht emri i vrtet i Nn Terezs? ____________________________________________________________ 12. far sht 5 Maji? ____________________________________________________________ 13. far sht 7 Marsi? ____________________________________________________________ 14. Kur sht Dita Ndrkombtare e Fmijve? ____________________________________________________________ 15. far sht 19 Tetori? ____________________________________________________________

USHTRIMI 10.3 Explain the use of the linking articles i, e, s, and t in the following examples. Identify the case (nominative, accusative, genitive), gender (masculine, feminine), and number (singular, plural) of the noun being modied. Refer to the charts of linking articles in 62: 1. N Shqipri, ne festojm festat m t rndsishme t komuniteteve fetare myslimane, ortodokse dhe katolike. 2. Dita e Sulltan Novruzit sht festa e bektashinjve. 3. Dita e Pavarsis s Shqipris sht m 28 Nntor. 4. Data 19 Tetor sht Dita e Lumturimit t Nn Terezs. 5. M 1 Qershor sht Dita Ndrkombtare e Fmijve. 6. Emri i vrtet i Nn Terezs sht Gonxhe Bojaxhi. 7. far sht Dita e Vers? 8. Cila sht mblsira tradicionale pr Ditn e Vers? 9. Viti i Ri sht fest tradicionale. 10. Shtat Marsi sht Festa e Msuesit.

USHTRIMI 10.4 Complete the following sentences with the necessary linking article and the genitive form of the noun in parentheses. Then make the sentences plural, changing the possessor and the possessee into the plural. 1. Fletorja ___________ (vajz) sht mbi karrige. _____________________________________________________________ 2. Libri _____________ (djal) sht mbi televizor. _____________________________________________________________ 3. Ky sht lapsi ____________ (student). _____________________________________________________________ 4. Po lexoj librin _____________ (shkrimtar) shqiptar. _____________________________________________________________
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5. Ai po shikon djalin __________ (motr). ____________________________________________________________ 6. Shikoj nga dritarja vajzn _________ (shoqe). ____________________________________________________________ 7. Biikleta _____________ (nn) sht blu. ____________________________________________________________ 8. Kjo sht dhoma _____________ (hotel). ____________________________________________________________ 9. Krkoj fjalorin ______________ (anglishte).5 ____________________________________________________________ 10. Po takoj baban __________ (djal). ____________________________________________________________

DIALOGU 10.2: N ZYRN E INFORMACIONIT Punonjsja: Mirmbrma, zonj! Mirela: Mirmbrma! Kam nevoj pr disa informacione pr aktivitetet kulturore q ka sot pasdite n Tiran. Punonjsja: N Tiran ka shum aktivitete kulturore sot pasdite. Pr far jeni e interesuar? Mirela: shfaqje ka n Teatrin e Opers dhe t Baletit? Punonjsja: N Teatrin e Opers dhe t Baletit ka nj shfaqje shum t bukur. Ansambli i Kngve dhe i Valleve Popullore hap sezonin e ri artistik me nj koncert me kng e valle popullore. Mirela: far ka n program? Punonjsja: N program ka kng e valle t shum trevave shqiptare, t Veriut, t Jugut dhe t Shqipris s Mesme. Ka dhe kng e valle kosovare dhe ame. Mirela: N far ore llon koncerti? Punonjsja: Koncerti llon n orn 20:00 dhe mbaron n orn 22:00. Mirela: A ka ndonj koncert tjetr sot pasdite? Punonjsja: Po, n Akademin e Arteve t Bukura ka nj koncert recital. Mirela: I kujt sht koncerti recital? Punonjsja: sht koncerti i nj pianisteje shqiptare, studente n Akademin e Arteve. Kurse nesr n mbrmje, n Pallatin e Kongreseve llon Festivali i Kngs n Radio-Televizion. Mirela: A ka bileta n shitje? Punonjsja: Po. Sot po shesim biletat e fundit. Mirela: N cilat radh jan vendet? Punonjsja: Jan n radhn e fundit, karriget 5, 6, 7 dhe 8. Mirela: Mir. Po blej dy bileta. Po n Teatrin Kombtar, far ka sonte? Punonjsja: Trupa e Teatrit Kombtar shfaq nj shfaqje t re.
5. You have learned the word anglisht, as in Un as anglisht I speak English. However, anglisht is an adverb, so when you say Un as anglisht, you are actually saying something close to I speak in an English way. If you add -e to the language adverb, you get the corresponding language, so anglishte is the English language, italishte the Italian language, shqipe the Albanian language, and so on. Fjalor i shqipes means dictionary of the Albanian language.

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Mirela: E kujt sht kjo shfaqje? Punonjsja: sht e nj dramaturgu rumun. Mirela: Po n Galerin e Arteve far aktiviteti ka? Punonjsja: N Galerin e Arteve sot pasdite sht prurimi i nj ekspozite pikture. Mirela: T kujt jan punimet? Punonjsja: Punimet jan t piktorve shkodran: Kol Idromeno dhe Zef Kolombi. Edhe n Muzeun Historik Kombtar ka nj ekspozit t prbashkt t disa artistve t njohur. Mirela: Shum faleminderit pr informacionet. Punonjsja: Asgj. sht knaqsia ime.

FJALOR akadem, -a, Akadema e rteve t Bkura aktivitt, -i, -e ansmb/l, -li, -le Ansmbli i Kngve dhe i Vlleve Popullre asgj Asgj! balt, -i, -e m, -e dramatrg/- u, - ekspozt/, -a, -a ekspozt piktre Festivli i Kngs i,e fndit galer, -a, galera e rteve hll, -i, -e knaqs, -a, kongrs, -i, -e mbrmj/e, -a n mbrmje i ms/m, e -me nt/, -a academy Academy of Fine Arts activity, show ensemble Ensemble of Folk Music and Dance anything, nothing Youre welcome! ballet related to the am population playwright, dramatist exhibit painting exhibit Song Festival last gallery art gallery hall pleasure congress, convention, conference evening in the evening central, middle night net i,e njhur per/, -a, -a pallt, -i, -e nights famous, well- known opera palace, building (group of apartments) Convention Center joint inauguration pianist lane, oor popular, folk work row recital season tonight to show, put on show sale from Shkodr National Theater Theater of Opera and Ballet region troupe, company dance dancing

Pallti i Kongrseve i,e prbshkt prurm, -i, -e pianst/e, -ja, -e pst/, -a, -a popullr, -e punm, -i, -e rdh/, -a, - recitl, -i, -e sezn, -i, -e snte shfq, -a, -ur shfqj/e, -a, -e shtj/e, -a, -e shkodrn, -e Tetri Kombtr Tetri i pers dhe i Baltit trv/, -a, -a trp/, -a, -a vll/e, -ja, -e vallzm, -i, -e

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GRAMATIK 67 The genitive indenite form In the previous sections of this lesson, we learned how to form the genitive denite. In this section, we will learn how to form the genitive indenite. You encountered a few examples in Dialogu 10.2: sht e nj dramaturgu koncerti i nj pianisteje prurimi i nj ekspozite ka nj ekspozit t disa artistve its by (of ) a playwright the concert of a pianist the inauguration of an exhibit there is an exhibit by some artists

We have already seen that the linking article always agrees in gender, case, number, and deniteness with the noun that the possessive modies. Here we will concentrate on the forms of the indenite possessor. Lets rst consider masculine singular indenite nouns: libri i nj shoku pupla e nj zogu libri i nj studenti klasa e nj msuesi a friends book (lit., the book of a friend) a bird feather (lit., the feather of a bird) a students book (lit., the book of a student) a teachers class (lit., the class of a teacher)

Do these endings remind you of any other form you have studied? _______________________________________________________________ What is strange about the endings of these indenite constructions? _______________________________________________________________ Lets now concentrate on the way you form the genitive indenite: 1. To form the genitive indenite of masculine singular nouns, add -u if the noun ends in -k, -g, or -h. Otherwise, add -i. As you can see, these forms are exactly the same as those of the nominative denite (see 28). It is a bit shocking to nd these forms here, since these forms are not denite! Now lets consider feminine singular indenite nouns: prurimi i nj ekspozite dera e nj shtpie klasa e nj msueseje the inauguration of an exhibit the door of a house a teachers class (lit., the class of a teacher)

2. To form the genitive indenite of a feminine singular noun, there are basically three patterns (cf. 27): a. If the indenite nominative noun ends in -, replace - with -e (ekspozit i/e nj ekspozite of an exhibit).6 b. If the nominative indenite noun ends in a stressed -i, add -e (shtpi i/e nj shtpie of a house).
6. The same rule applies to nouns ending in -r (motr i/e nj motre of a sister), -rr (ndrr i nj ndrre of a dream), -l (vegl vegle of a tool).

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c. If the nominative indenite noun ends in -e or in a stressed vowel (except -i), add -je (studente i/e nj studenteje of a student, kala i/e nj kalaje of a castle). This is an elsewhere or default rule. If you havent applied rules (a) or (b), simply apply rule (c).7 Finally, lets consider the formation of genitive plural indenite nouns: librat e disa studentve librat e disa studenteve klasat e disa msuesve klasat e disa msueseve the books of some students (masc.) the books of some students (fem.) the classes of some teachers (masc.) the classes of some teachers (fem.)

3. To form genitive plural indenite nouns, both masculine and feminine, simply add -ve to the nominative plural indenite form. Notice that the forms are the same as the corresponding genitive plural denite forms (63). Genitive endings for both indenite and denite nouns are summarized in the following charts for easy reference:
Masculine singular: Nominative indenite Genitive indenite Nominative denite Genitive denite

(nj) qytet (nj) dramaturg


Masculine plural: Nominative indenite

(i/e) nj qyteti (i/e) nj dramaturgu

qyteti dramaturgu

(i/e) qytetit (i/e) dramaturgut

Genitive indenite

Nominative denite

Genitive denite

(disa) qytete (disa) dramaturg


Feminine singular: Nominative indenite

(i/e) disa qyteteve (i/e) disa dramaturgve

qytetet dramaturgt

(i/e) qyteteve (i/e) dramaturgve

Genitive indenite

Nominative denite

Genitive denite

(nj) ekspozit (nj) shtpi (nj) pianiste


Feminine plural: Nominative indenite

(i/e) nj ekspozite (i/e) nj shtpie (i/e) nj pianisteje

ekspozita shtpia pianistja

(i/e) ekspozits (i/e) shtpis (i/e) pianistes

Genitive indenite

Nominative denite

Genitive denite

(disa) ekspozita (disa) shtpi (disa) pianiste

(i/e) disa ekspozitave (i/e) disa shtpive (i/e) pianisteve

ekspozitat shtpit pianistet

(i/e) ekspozitave (i/e) shtpive (i/e) pianisteve

7. The word grua woman falls into the elsewhere rule. It does not end in - or -e, so it ought to take -je. That is exactly what we observe: grua i/e nj gruaje of a woman.

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68 The genitive forms of cili which In 65 you learned how to ask questions with i/e kujt whose about the possessor. I kujt sht ky libr? Libri i kujt sht ky? E kujt sht kjo etore? Fletorja e kujt sht kjo? Whose is this book? Whose book is this? Whose is this notebook? Whose notebook is this?

In these examples, you are asking about the identity of the possessor. In some cases, you may know the identity of the possessor (i.e., that it is a boy or a girl), but you may want to make that information more specic (which boy?, which girl?). In this instance, you would use cili rather than kujt: Libri i cilit djal sht ky? I cilit djal sht ky libr? Libri i cils vajz sht ky? I cils vajz sht ky libr? Librat e cilve djem jan kta? T cilve djem jan kta libra?8 Librat e cilave vajza jan kta? T cilave vajza jan kta libra? Which boys book is this? lit., Which boys is this book? Which girls book is this? lit., Which girls is this book? Which boys books are these? lit., Which boys are these books? Which girls books are these? lit., Which girls are these books?

Notice that in the examples above, the linking article agrees with the possessee (the object possessed), while cili agrees with the possessor. As you can see, cili is inected for gender, case, and number; the possessor, on the other hand, is not inected for case. The following chart summarizes the forms of cili in the three cases that we have studied so far:
Singular Masculine Feminine Plural Masculine Feminine

Nominative Accusative Genitive

cili cilin i/e/t cilit

cila ciln i/e/t cils

cilt cilt i/e/t cilve

cilat cilat i/e/t cilave

69 The genitive forms of the demonstratives ky this and ai that Demonstratives are also inected for case. As with all possessive constructions, the linking article agrees with the possessee (the possessed object). The demonstrative appears in the genitive case, and it agrees in gender and number with the possessor. Furthermore, notice that the possessor appears in the genitive indenite form (see 67): libri i ktij djali etorja e ksaj vajze etoret e ktyre djemve librat e ktyre vajzave this boys book this girls notebook these boys notebooks these girls books

8. Notice the change of e to t in this example and in the following when the linking article is not next to the denite noun it modies (see 65, 47).

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etorja e atij djali libri i asaj vajze librat e atyre djemve etoret e atyre vajzave I kujt sht ky libr? (Ky libr sht) i ktij djali. Librat e kujt jan ata? Ata jan librat e atyre djemve. T kujt jan ata libra? (Ata libra jan) t atyre djemve.

that boys notebook that girls book those boys books those girls notebooks Whose is that book? That book is this boys. Whose books are those? Those books are those boys. Whose are those books? (Those books are) those boys.

The following charts summarize the forms of the demonstrative adjectives/pronouns in the nominative, accusative, and genitive cases.
Singular Masculine Feminine Plural Masculine Feminine

Nominative Accusative Genitive

ky kt i/e/t ktij

kjo kt i/e/t ksaj

kta kta i/e/t ktyre


Plural Masculine

kto kto i/e/t ktyre

Singular Masculine Feminine

Feminine

Nominative Accusative Genitive

ai at i/e/t atij

ajo at i/e/t asaj

ata ata i/e/t atyre

ato ato i/e/t atyre

USHTRIMI 10.5 Indicate whether the following statements are true (T) or false (F) based on Dialogu 10.2. 1. _____ N Tiran ka disa aktivitete pasdite. 2. _____ N Teatrin e Opers dhe t Baletit ka nj shfaqje shum t bukur. 3. _____ Ansambli i Kngve dhe i Valleve Popullore hap sezonin e ri artistik me nj koncert me kng e valle popullore. 4. _____ N program nuk ka kng e valle kosovare dhe ame. 5. _____ Koncerti llon n orn 20:00 dhe mbaron n orn 22:00. 6. _____ N Akademin e Arteve t Bukura ka nj koncert recital. 7. _____ Shfaqja n Teatrin Kombtar sht e nj dramaturgu italian. 8. _____ Punimet n Galerin e Arteve jan t piktorve kosovar. 9. _____ N Muzeun Historik Kombtar ka nj ekspozit t prbashkt t disa artistve t njohur. _____ Trupa e Teatrit Kombtar shfaq nj shfaqje t re. 10.

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USHTRIMI 10.6 Answer the following questions based on Dialogu 10.2. 1. aktivitete kulturore ka sot pasdite n Tiran? ____________________________________________________________ 2. shfaqje ka n Teatrin e Opers dhe t Baletit? ____________________________________________________________ 3. N far ore llon koncerti? ____________________________________________________________ 4. A ka ndonj koncert n Akademin e Arteve? ____________________________________________________________ 5. I kujt sht koncerti? ____________________________________________________________ 6. far ka n Pallatin e Kongreseve? ____________________________________________________________ 7. A ka bileta pr n festival? ___________________________________________________________ 8. shfaqje ka n Teatrin Kombtar? ____________________________________________________________ 9. E kujt sht kjo shfaqje? ____________________________________________________________ 10. T kujt jan punimet n Galerin e Arteve? ____________________________________________________________

USHTRIMI 10.7 Change the following sentences as in the example. Ky sht libri i studentit. Kta jan librat e studentve. Un shikoj librin e studentit. Un shikoj librat e studentve. ________________________________________ ________________________________________ ________________________________________ ________________________________________ ________________________________________ ________________________________________ ________________________________________ ________________________________________ ________________________________________

1. Kjo sht klasa e nxnses.

2. Kjo sht galeria e artit.

3. Kjo sht vajza e shoqes.

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4. Ky sht fjalori i nj studenti.

5. Kjo sht lulja e parkut.

________________________________________ ________________________________________ ________________________________________ ________________________________________ ________________________________________ ________________________________________

USHTRIMI 10.8 Change the nouns in bold in the following sentences to the corresponding feminine form, as in the example. Make all other necessary changes: Libri i nxnsit sht i ri. Libri i nxnses sht i ri. 1. Fletorja e djalit sht mbi tryez. ____________________________________________________________ 2. Koncerti i pianistit sht i bukur. ____________________________________________________________ 3. Shpjegimi i msuesit sht i mir. ____________________________________________________________ 4. Po takoj shokun e klass. ____________________________________________________________ 5. Aktort e teatrit luajn bukur. ____________________________________________________________ 6. Ai po bisedon me pianistin e ri. ____________________________________________________________ 7. Po dgjoj kngn e nj kompozitori shqiptar. ____________________________________________________________ 8. Takimi i studentve sht i rndsishm. ____________________________________________________________ 9. A sht kjo adresa e ktij mjeku? ____________________________________________________________ 10. Ne po asim me msuesit e shkolls. ____________________________________________________________

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LEXIMI 10.1
Festivali Folklorik Kombtar i Gjirokastrs

Festivali Folklorik Kombtar i Gjirokastrs sht nj aktivitet i nj rndsie t veant. Kalaja e Gjirokastrs pret nj her n katr vjet grupe folklorike nga Shqipria, dhe nga shqiptart e Kosovs, e Malit t Zi, e Maqedonis, Turqis, Greqis, e Ameriks, nga grupet arbreshe etj. Kto grupe paraqesin folklorin shqiptar t trevave t ndryshme. Qyteti i Gjirokastrs, n ditt e Festivalit Folklorik ka shum vizitor shqiptar dhe t huaj. Ky sht nj aktivitet i Qendrs s Veprimtaris Folklorike, nn kujdesin e Ministris s Kulturs, Turizmit, Rinis dhe Sporteve. Ky festival dshmon se folklori muzikor sht i pasur dhe i larmishm. Kngt kan forma t ndryshme t interpretimit. Instrumenta muzikor specik, si lahuta, iftelia, sharkia dhe daullja shoqrojn kngt dhe vallet e Veriut. Kurse n Jug t vendit sht karakteristike iso- polifonia q tani sht pjes e trashgimis orale t njerzimit. Pjes e rndsishme e festivalit jan vallet. Valle t famshme jan vallja e Rugovs, vallja e Tropojs, e Devollit, e Lunxhris, vallja e Rrajcs, vallet labe si dhe vallja ame e Osman Tags.

FJALOR iftel, -a, dashur, -a, dall/e, -ja, -e dshmj i fmsh/m, e -me festivl, -i, -e Festivli Folklork Kombtr frm/, -a, -a instrumnt, -i, -e interpretm, -i, -e kal, -ja, Kalja e Gjirokstrs karakteristk, -e kujds, -i, -e laht/, -a, -a i larmsh/m, e -me ministr, -a, Ministra e Kultrs, Turzmit, Rins dhe Sprteve two- stringed lute love drum to witness, testify famous festival National Folk Festival form instrument interpretation fortress, palace Fortress of Gjirokastra typical, peculiar care, responsibility lute varied, diversied ministry Ministry of Culture, Tourism, Youth, and Sports muzikr, -e njerzm, -i nj hr n ktr vjt orl, -e paraqs i,e psur prfaqsj polifon, -a, rnds, -a musical humanity once every four years oral to introduce, present rich to represent polyphony weight; g., importance, signicance youth specic to accompany heritage dance activity visitor

rin, -a, specifk, -e shoqrj trashgim, -a vll/e, -ja, -e veprimtar, -a, vizitr, -i, -

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USHTRIMI 10.9 Indicate whether the following statements are true (T), false (F), or not mentioned (NM) based on Leximi 10.1. Where they are false or not mentioned, briey explain why (in Albanian!). 1. _____ Festivali Folklorik Kombtar i Gjirokastrs sht nj aktivitet i nj rndsie t veant. 2. _____ Kalaja e Gjirokastrs pret nj her n katr vjet grupe folklorike nga Shqipria, dhe nga shqiptart e Kosovs, e Malit t Zi, e Maqedonis, Turqis, Greqis, e Ameriks, nga grupet arbreshe etj. _____ Kto grupe paraqesin folklorin shqiptar t trevave t ndryshme. 3. 4. _____ Ky aktivitet sht nn kujdesin e Ministris s Kulturs, Turizmit, Rinis dhe Sporteve. 5. _____ Ky festival dshmon se folklori muzikor n Shqipri nuk sht i pasur dhe i larmishm. 6. _____ Kngt nuk kan forma t ndryshme t interpretimit. 7. _____ Iso- polifonia tani dhe sht pjes e trashgimis orale t njerzimit. 8. _____ Vallet nuk jan pjes e rndsishme e festivalit. 9. _____ N festivalin e Gjirokastrs nuk ka shum vizitor shqiptar. 10. _____ N Veri t vendit sht karakteristike iso- polifonia. 11. _____ Valle t famshme jan vallja e Rugovs, vallja e Tropojs, e Devollit, e Lunxhris, etj.

USHTRIMI 10.10 Together with a classmate, create dialogues using the following information. Try to read the ads without consulting a dictionary, even though there may be words you dont know. Try to guess their meaning from the context. Ekspozit ikonograke: Zogra, Shpataraku, Onufri, Selenica Muzeu Historik Kombtar Sheshi Sknderbej 9 24 qershor E martE diel, ora: 09:00 13:00 & 17:00 19:00 Tel: 223 446 N Muzeun Historik Kombtar ka nj ekspozit ikonograke me rreth 50 ikona. Ikonat jan t ikonografve t njohur Zogra, Shpataraku, Onufri, Selenica etj. Publiku do t shoh pr her t par disa prej ktyre ikonave me vlera historike, estetike dhe artistike. Ceremonia e hapjes sht m 9 qershor, n orn 9:00.

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Recital pr piano Teatri i Opers dhe i Baletit Sheshi Sknderbej 20 qershor, ora: 19:00 Tel: 227 471, 224 753 Pianist shqiptar dhe t huaj vijn me nj recital pr piano n Teatrin e Opers dhe t Baletit. Ata do t interpretojn pjes nga Bahu, Vivaldi, Shopen, Brahms, Shubert etj. Kinema Millenium Filmi Letra fatale Nga data 12 dhjetor Tel: 253 654 e hne enjte Ora mimi 10:00 200 lek 12:30 200 lek 15:00 200 lek 17:30 300 lek e premtee diel Ora mimi 10:00 200 lek 12:30 300 lek 15:00 500 lek 17:30 500 lek

Kinema Millenium shfaq lmin Letra fatale. Ky sht nj lm mbi rinin dhe problemet e sotme sociale. N qendr sht jeta dhe fati i dy t rinjve. Filmi sht prodhim i RadioTelevizionit Shqiptar.

Kosovo Independence Day, 17 February 2008 (photo: Bevis Fusha)

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FJALOR artistk, -e ceremon, -a, estetk, -e ft, -i, -e fatl, -e hpj/e, -a, -e histork, -e ikonografk, -e interpret/j, -va, -ar mjeds, -i, -e artistic ceremony aesthetic luck fatal opening historical with icons to interpret premises, environment i,e njhur prej prodhm, -i, -e i ri, t rinj socil, -e i st/m, e -me shsh, -i, -e shfaq vlr/, -a, -a known from production young man, youth social of today square, plaza to show, display value

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MSIMI 11
Rrobat
Clothes In this lesson you will learn: about clothes how to shop for clothes You will learn the following grammatical points: class 6 verbs the passive form of verbs the dative case the impersonal passive forms

DIALOGU 11.1 Mimoza: far do t bsh sot, Jeta? Jeta: Sot do t dal npr dyqane bashk me Krenarin. Mimoza: far do t blesh? Jeta: Dua t blej nj fund dhe nj bluz, kurse Krenari do t blej nj pal kpuc. Mimoza: A mund t vij dhe un me ju? Kam nevoj pr nj kostum t zi. Jeta: Nse do t vish me ne, duhet t ngrihesh nga krevati dhe t bhesh gati shpejt. Mimoza: Kur do t takohesh me Krenarin? Jeta: Pr nj or. Mimoza: Po ngrihem menjher. Ndrkoh q ti po hekuros rrobat, un po shkoj t lahem dhe t krihem. Jeta: Moza, ti do t hekurossh ndonj gj? Mimoza: Jo. Do t vesh xhinset dhe nj bluz pambuku. Nuk kan nevoj t hekurosen. Jeta: Kurse un do t vesh nj pal pantallona t zeza dhe nj kmish t bardh. Mimoza: Pse nuk vishesh me xhinse? Jeta: Ndihem m mir kshtu. Mimoza: Mir. Jeta: Moza, po prpiqem t marr dhe Norn n telefon, por nuk prgjigjet. Si thua sikur t vij dhe ajo me ne? Mimoza: Shum mir do t bsh. Nora martohet muajin tjetr dhe tani po merret me prgatitjet e dasms. Ndoshta ka nevoj q t bj blerjet e fundit. Jeta: Po, por nuk po prgjigjet n telefon. Mimoza: Mbase sht e zn tani.

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Jeta: Mir. Por po shqetsohem sepse nuk po prgjigjet as n telefonin e shtpis. Mimoza: Presim dhe pak. Me siguri q do t telefonoj vet m von. Jeta: Po sikur t mos telefonoj? Mimoza: Ather, para se t kthehemi pr n shtpi, do t shkojm tek Nora t pyesim si sht me shndet.

FJALOR afrhem bhem bhem gti blrj/e, -a, -e blz/, -a, -a blz pambku ldhem dsm/, -a, -a dhmb, -i, - fnd, -i, -e fnd i gjt fnd i shkrtr fnd me pla fnd xhins i,e fndit fustn, -i, -e hekurs kmsh/, -a, - kpc/, -a, - kpc me cils kostm, -i, -e kostm pr brra kostm pr gr kreh krhem to reach, approach to become, get to get ready buying, purchasing blouse cotton blouse to rest wedding tooth skirt long skirt short skirt pleated skirt denim skirt last dress to iron shirt shoe quality shoes costume, suit mens suit womens outt to comb (someones hair) to comb ones own hair, have ones hair combed to return to wash (something), bathe (someone), clean mrrem ndhem ndshta npr nse ngrhem pl/, -a, -a pl/, -a, - nj pl kpc pambk, -u pantallna pantallna t zza prgattj/e, -a, -e prgjgjem prpqem rrb/, -a, -a sigur, -a me sigur sikr po sikr shqetshem takj takhem vesh vshem xhnse pantallna (blu) xhins to be busy, have a job to feel maybe about, around, up and down if to get up pleat, crease pair a pair of shoes cotton pants black pants preparation to answer to try clothes certainty certainly as if what if to get worried to meet (someone) to meet with to dress, wear to dress oneself, get dressed jeans, denim blue jeans

kthhem lj

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GRAMATIK 70 Class 6 Verbs: the present indicative of verbs that end in -(h)em In Dialogu 11.1 you encountered several verbs that end in -hem. The chart below shows the present indicative of the verbs zgjohem to wake up and nisem to leave: un ti ai, ajo ne ju ata, ato zgjohem zgjohem zgjohesh zgjohet zgjohemi zgjoheni zgjohen nisem nisem nisesh niset nisemi niseni nisen

Now you complete the forms for the verbs lahem to wash oneself and prgjigjem to answer: un ti ai, ajo ne ju ata, ato lahem ___________ ___________ ___________ ___________ ___________ ___________ prgjigjem ___________ ___________ ___________ ___________ ___________ ___________

As you can see above, many of the verbs that end in -(h)em are verbs where the subject both carries out and receives the action of the verb. Because of this property, verbs like zgjohem to wake up, lahem to wash oneself, and vishem to dress oneself are called reexive verbs. Consider the following pairs of sentences: Nna zgjon vajzn n orn 8. Nna zgjohet n orn 7. Nna lan vajzn do dit. Nna lahet do mngjes. Un vesh djalin. Babai vesh djalin. Babai vishet dhe ha mngjes. The mother wakes the girl up at 8 oclock. The mother wakes up at 7 oclock. The mother bathes the girl every day. The mother takes a bath every morning. I dress the boy/the son. The father dresses the boy/the son. The father gets dressed and has breakfast.1

As you can see above, when the subject performs the action on another person, then we use the transitive form of the verb, where the direct object is the (different) person receiving the action of the verb. If the subject both carries out and receives the action, then we must use the -(h)em form of the verb.

1. In Dialogu 11.1 you had the following sentence: Un do t vesh nj pal pantallona t zeza. (I will wear a pair of black pants [lit., I will dress a pair of black pants].) In this case, the verb vesh is being used transitively; thus, we do not use the corresponding class 6 verb. If we make the verb intransitive, then a class 6 verb is called for: Un do t vishem me pantallona t zeza. (I will wear a pair of black pants.)

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How do we form the -(h)em form of verbs that have a corresponding transitive form? You take the second- person plural of the present indicative of the transitive verb, drop the -ni of the third person, and then add -(h)em. If the second- person plural (without the -ni ending) ends in a consonant, add -em; add -hem if it ends in a vowel. If the verb changes stem in the second- person plural, use this stem all throughout the -(h)em form. Below you can see the conjugations for for vesh to dress (someone) and vishem to dress oneself as well as for marr to take and merrem to be engaged (with something). Notice that the -hem form comes from the second- person plural: vish he or she dresses (someone) and merr he or she takes: un ti ai, ajo ne ju ata, ato vesh vesh vesh vesh veshim vishni veshin vishem vishem vishesh vishet vishemi visheni vishen marr marr merr merr marrim merrni marrin merrem merrem merresh merret merremi merreni merren

The following verbs are interpreted as reexive verbs when used with the -(h)em form: fsheh to hide kreh to comb largoj to remove mrzit to bore, bother paraqes to present prgatis to prepare rruaj to shave fshihem to hide oneself krihem to comb oneself largohem to go away mrzitem to get bored paraqitem to present oneself prgatitem to prepare oneself rruhem to shave oneself

As you can see with the pair marr to take and merrem to be engaged (with something), the semantic relation is not as transparent as with the other pairs of verbs that we saw before. Therefore, we recommend that you memorize these -(h)em verbs as separate verbs from their corresponding transitive nonreexive forms. As with marr to take and merrem to be engaged (with something), some verbs will also undergo a slight change of meaning, thus further suggesting that you should memorize these forms as separate verbs: afroj to bring closer bj to do lodh to rest gjej to nd (something) kthej to return (something) ngre to lift shpreh to express, declare takoj to meet (someone) vras to kill zhvilloj to develop afrohem to draw nearer, approach bhem to become lodhem to rest, vacation gjendem to nd oneself, be kthehem to return, come back ngrihem to get up shprehem to declare oneself takohem to meet with (someone) vritem to fall zhvillohem to take place, be developed
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Furthermore, many -(h)em verbs have no corresponding regular transitive form.2 You already encountered the verb nisem to leave, which does not have a corresponding transitive verb. These verbs are known as mediopassive verbs: ankohem to complain duhet must dukem to seem ndodhem to be located prgjigjem to answer prpiqem to try In the next sections, we will see other constructions that make use of the -(h)em form. 71 Passive constructions Consider the following sentences: Gazeta publikon artikullin. Artikulli publikohet nga gazeta. The newspaper publishes the article. The article is published by the newspaper.

The rst sentence is an active sentence because the subject performs the action of the verb. The second example is a passive sentence because the subject receives rather than performs the action of the verb. Notice that in English we use the passive auxiliary verb to be + the past participle to form such constructions. In Albanian we use the -hem form of the verb to form a passive construction. Below are a few more examples: Nna hap dritaret. Dritaret hapen nga nna. Babai mbyll dern. Dera mbyllet nga babai. The mother opens the windows. The windows are opened by the mother. The father closes the door. The door is closed by the father.

Notice the use of nga in the passive sentence to express the agent of the action. 72 Negative, progressive, subjunctive, and future of class 6 verbs Verbs that end in -(h)em are negated by putting the negative adverb nuk in front of the verb: Nuk prgjigjet n telefon. She is not answering the phone.

Progressive forms are formed by putting the particle po in front of the verb: Po lahem dhe po krihem. I am taking a shower and combing (my hair).

The present subjunctive is formed by putting t in front of the corresponding form of the present indicative. Second- and third- person singular forms keep their -(h)em form in the subjunctive as well, unlike what is observed with the equivalent forms in classes 1 5 (cf. 49):
2. Most traditional and pedagogical grammars of Albanian that follow that tradition do not consider class 6 a separate class of verbs. We argue for a class 6 for verbs ending in -(h)em here because, rst, these verbs have a distinct paradigm in all the different tenses; second, verbs like ankohem to complain and others would not belong to any class of verbs if there were no class 6, since they do not have a corresponding transitive counterpart; and third, there are verbs that change meaning when they are used in the -(h)em form.

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Duhet t ngrihesh nga krevati. You should get out of bed. Mimoza duhet t ngrihet nga krevati. Mimoza has to get out of bed. The future form is formed by putting the auxiliary do t in front of the verb. Again, -(h)em verbs do not change in the second- or third- person singular, unlike what is observed in other verb classes (cf. 52): Kur do t takohesh me Krenarin? When are you meeting with Krenar? Jeta do t takohet me Krenarin m von. I will meet with Krenar later. The following chart summarizes the forms of the present indicative, present subjunctive, and future for the two types of class 6 verbs: those that end in -hem and those that end in -em, respectively.
Present Indicative Present Subjunctive/Future Present Indicative Present Subjunctive/Future

un ti ai, ajo ne ju ata, ata

zgjohem zgjohesh zgjohet zgjohemi zgjoheni zgjohen

(do) t zgjohem (do) t zgjohesh (do) t zgjohet (do) t zgjohemi (do) t zgjoheni (do) t zgjohen

nisem nisesh niset nisemi niseni nisen

(do) t nisem (do) t nisesh (do) t niset (do) t nisemi (do) t niseni (do) t nisen

USHTRIMI 11.1 The following statements, based on Dialogu 11.1, are all false. Briey indicate why. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. ____ Jeta do t rrij n shtpi m Krenarin. ____ Krenari do t blej bluz t zez. ____ Mimoza po lan shtpin. ____ Jeta po lahet. ____ Krenari do t blej nj kostum t ri. ____ Mimoza po hekuros xhinset dhe bluzn e pambukut. ____ Jeta preferon t vishet me xhinse. ____ Krenari vesh nj pal pantallona t zeza dhe nj kmish t bardh. ____ Vajzat asin n telefon me Norn. ____ Ajo martohet t dieln. ____ Nora nuk blen shum rroba t reja. ____ Vajzat shqetsohen, sepse Nora nuk shkon me ato. ____ Jeta dhe Mimoza shkojn n shtpin e Nors. ____ Nora sht shum mir me shndet.

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USHTRIMI 11.2 Answer the following questions based on Dialogu 11.1. 1. Me k po bisedon Jeta? ____________________________________________________________ 2. Ku do t shkoj Jeta? ____________________________________________________________ 3. far thot Mimoza? ____________________________________________________________ 4. Pse ngrihet Mimoza menjher nga krevati? ____________________________________________________________ 5. po bn Jeta? ____________________________________________________________ 6. far do t bj Mimoza? ____________________________________________________________ 7. K merr Jeta n telefon? ____________________________________________________________ 8. Kur martohet ajo? ____________________________________________________________ 9. far do t blej Jeta? Po Mimoza? ____________________________________________________________ 10. Pse shqetsohen vajzat? ___________________________________________________________

USHTRIMI 11.3 Complete the following sentences with the appropriate form of the verb in parentheses. 1. N or ___________ (zgjohem, ti) do dit? ___________ (Zgjohem) n orn 7, por nuk __________ (ngrihem) deri n orn 7:15. bn pasi ____________ (ngrihem)? ____________ (Rruhem), ___________ (lahem), ________ (laj) dhmbt dhe ___________ (vishem). ___________ (Ha) mngjes shum shpejt dhe ____________ (nisem) pr n pun. 2. N or ___________ (zgjohem) Artani do dit? ___________ (Zgjohem) n orn 7, por nuk __________ (ngrihem) deri n orn 7:15. bn pasi ____________ (ngrihem)? ____________ (Rruhem), ___________ (lahem), ________ (laj) dhmbt dhe ___________ (vishem). ___________ (Ha) mngjes shum shpejt dhe ____________ (nisem) pr n pun. 3. N or ___________ (zgjohem, ju) do dit? ___________ (Zgjohem) n orn 7, por nuk __________ (ngrihem) deri n orn 7:15.

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4.

5. 6. 7.

8.

9.

bni pasi ____________ (ngrihem)? ____________ (Rruhem), ___________ (lahem), ________ (laj) dhmbt dhe ___________ (vishem). ___________ (Ha) mngjes shum shpejt dhe ____________ (nisem) pr n pun. N or ___________ (zgjohem) Sokoli dhe Artani do dit? ___________ (Zgjohem) n orn 7, por nuk __________ (ngrihem) deri n orn 7:15. bjn pasi ____________ (ngrihem)? ____________ (Rruhem), ___________ (lahem), ________ (laj) dhmbt dhe ___________ (vishem). ___________ (Ha) mngjes shum shpejt dhe ____________ (nisem) pr n pun. po __________ (bj) djali? Po ___________ (vishem). ________ (Dua) t ____________ (luaj) pak. po __________ (bj) djemt? Po ___________ (vishem). ________ (Dua) t ____________ (luaj) pak. ________ (bj, ti) n llim: ___________ (rruhem) apo ___________ (krihem)? Zakonisht _____________ (rruhem) kur _______________ (bj) dush. Pastaj ___________ (krihem). Zonja dhe zotrinj! Po ________________ (afrohem, ne) n qytetin e Sarands dhe do t ___________ (lodhem) atje pr 20 minuta, para se ______________ (vazhdoj) udhtimin pr n qytetin e Vlors. do t _____________ (bhem) vllai yt? Do t _______________ (bhem) ekonomist.

DIALOGU 11.2: N DHOMN E PROVS Jeta: Mimoza, ku sht dhoma e provs? Dua t shkoj t provoj rrobat. Mimoza: sht atje n fund. Jeta: Shkojm bashk, sepse dua t m thuash si m rrin. Mimoza: Mir, Jeta. Shkojm. Jeta: Po provoj n llim fundin. Mimoza, si m rri fundi? Mimoza: T rri shum bukur. Mua m plqen shum. Jeta: Mir. T lutem, m jep pak bluzn e bardh? Mimoza: Po, nj sekond. Ja, ku sht. Jeta: Oh! Bluza m rri e vogl. Nuk sht masa ime. Mimoza: Ndoshta ka masa t tjera. Po shkoj t shoh. Jeta: Jo, Mimoza. Tani dua t provoj sandalet. Si thua, m rrin mir? Mimoza: T rrin shum mir dhe duken shum t rehatshme. Jeta: Po, ashtu jan. Mua po m plqejn shum. Mimoza: Jeta, t vjen keq t pressh dhe pak minuta sa t provoj dhe un kostumin? Jeta: Patjetr. Mimoza: H, Jeta, si m rri? Jeta: T rri shum mir n trup dhe t shkon shum. T tregon elegante.

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Mimoza: Faleminderit! A shkojm tani t gjejm nj bluz t bardh? Jeta: Shkojm. Pastaj dua t provoj dhe nj pal kpuc q jan n vitrin. Jan shum t bukura. Mimoza: N rregull. Jeta: Nuk ka bluza t bardha. Shkojm t provojm kpuct. Po i them shitses q dua nj pal kpuc si ato q jan n vitrin. Shpresoj t ket numr 38. Mimoza: Kurse mua m duhen nj pal izme. Jeta: Shum mir. Pastaj shkojm n restorant, sepse po m dhemb koka dhe po m hahet shum. Po i them Krenarit q t vij atje. Mimoza: Edhe un kam uri. Shkojm t ham nj drek t mir. Jeta: Ndrkoh po i telefonoj edhe njher Nors. Ndoshta prgjigjet tani.

FJALOR zm/e, -ja, -e dhemb dkem m dket fal M fl. llm, -i, -e n llm fnd, -i, -e grk/, -a, - ha m hhet H! i kmb/, -a, - kk/, -a, - ms/, -a, -a m mos ma ndrkh ndshta plqj m plqn prv/, -a, -a dhma e prvs knee- high boot to hurt to appear, seem it seems to me to excuse Excuse me. beginning at the beginning skirt, end, bottom throat to eat I am hungry Hey! her, to her foot head size me, to me dont, not, perhaps to me in the meantime perhaps, probably to like I like tting tting room provj i rehtsh/m, e -me rri M rr. M rr i/e vgl. sandl/e, -ja, -e stomk, -u, - shkoj T shkn shm. shpresj t tjtr, t tjr/, -a tregj T tregn . . . trp, -i, -a ty ur, -a M vjn ura. vj M vjn mr q . . . M vjn kq. T vjn kq t . . . ? vitrn/, -a, -a to try on comfortable to t, stay It suits me, it ts me. Its too small for me. sandals stomach to go, suit It suits you very well. to hope you, to you other, another to show, narrate It looks . . . on you. body to you hunger I get hungry. to come I am glad that . . . Im sorry. Is it inconvenient for you to . . . ? shop window

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GRAMATIK 73 Dative pronouns: strong and weak forms As you can see from the chart below, all personal nominative pronouns have two corresponding dative forms, a strong one and a weak one. The weak forms are also referred to as clitics or clitic pronouns:
Strong Dative Form Weak Dative Form

un ti ai ajo ne ju ata, ato

mua ty atij asaj neve juve atyre

m t i i na ju u

The strong forms of the dative personal pronouns are not obligatory in a structure; they are only used for contrast or for emphasis, and they must co-occur with the weak form: M duket se bn vap jasht. It seems to me that its hot outside. Mua m duket se bn vap jasht. Po ty? (As for me), it seems to me that its hot outside. And (how does it seem) to you? In the next section we will study the basic uses of the dative pronouns. 74 Basic uses of the dative case 1. The verbs plqen to like, rri to t, and shkoj to t, go. Compare the following sentences in English and Albanian: M plqen kjo kmish. M plqejn kto kmish. I plqen libri i ri. I plqejn librat e rinj. Atyre u plqejn kngt shqiptare. Atyre u plqen kngtari shqiptar. T plqen ai lm? Ju plqen Shqipria? I like this shirt. I like these shirts. She/He likes the new book. She/He likes the new books. They like Albanian songs. They like the Albanian singer. Do you like that lm? Do you like Albania?

Notice that the verb plqen to like appears in two forms in the previous examples: plqen and plqejn. When do we use each form? We use the singular form plqen when _____________________________________ We use the plural form plqejn when _____________________________________ What do the dative pronouns refer to? To the object we like or to the person who likes something? _______________________________________________________________

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What does the verb agree with? With the object that we like or with the person that does the liking? How does English compare with Albanian regarding this construction? _______________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________ It is important to notice that the verb agrees with the object that we like, which is the grammatical subject. The person who likes appears as a dative pronoun. Thus, when you say M plqen kjo kmish, its as if you were saying This shirt is pleasing to me, and the verb appears in the singular because the object that we like (the grammatical subject) is kjo kmish this shirt. If instead of kjo kmish we had the corresponding plural form, kto kmish these shirts, then, as expected, the verb also changes to the plural form: M plqejn kto kmish. Another verb that is used like plqen to like is the verb dhemb to hurt: M dhemb koka. T dhemb gryka? I dhembin kmbt. Na dhemb stomaku. My head hurts (lit., The head hurts to me). Does your throat hurt? His/Her feet hurt. Our stomachs hurt (lit., Our stomach hurts).

Notice that the possessive is not used with the noun, as it is in English. The possessor is understood through the dative pronoun. Notice that with both plqen to like and dhemb to hurt the grammatical subject (the object liked or the part that hurts) typically appears after the verb. In the dialogue you encountered other verbs that function like plqen in that they take a dative pronoun: M rri mir fundi? T rri shum bukur. Bluza t shkon shum. Does the skirt t me? It ts you very well. The blouse ts you well (lit., It goes well with you).

Unlike what we observed with plqej and dhemb, where the subject typically follows the verb, with the verbs rri and shkoj the subject may appear either before or after the verb with these verbs. The verb duket to seem also takes a dative complement: M duket se bluza t rri mir. It seems to me that the shirt ts you well.

The expressions vjen keq to be sorry (lit., it comes bad) and vjen mir to be pleased (lit., it comes well) also take an indirect object: M vjen keq, por duhet t shkoj. I vjen keq, por nuk mund t vij. M vjen mir q t plqejn kpuct. Im sorry, but I have to leave. She/He is sorry, but she/he cannot come. Im pleased that you like the shoes.

Vjen keq is taken in a more literal sense in the following expression in the dialogue: T vjen keq t pressh pak minuta? Is it inconvenient for you to wait for a few minutes?

2. The most common and basic function of the dative pronoun is to indicate the recipient (i.e., someone who receives something), and as such, it is typically used with indirect objects:

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jap: Un t jap nj letr. drgoj: Ata po na drgojn nj letr. shkruaj: Un i shkruaj nj letr.

I give you a letter. They are sending us a letter. I write him/her a letter.

Dative pronouns are also typically used with verbs of communication, where we can imagine that the content of the message is received by someone (hence also a recipient): them: Un t them dika as: Ti po m et mua? I am telling you something. Are you speaking to me?

3. Some verbs allow an impersonal passive construction. These impersonal passive constructions typically appear with indirect object clitic pronouns: M hahet. M pihet. M ihet. 75 Dative case on nouns Consider the following examples: Po i them shitses se dua nj pal kpuc. Im telling the seller (fem.) that I want a pair of shoes. Po i shkruaj babait nj letr. Im writing my father a letter. Po i drgoj nns nj dhurat. Im sending my mother a present. Po u them shitseve se dua nj pal kpuc. Im telling the sellers (fem.) that I want a pair of shoes. Po u shkruaj prindrve. Im writing to my parents. Remember that the indirect object is the one that is a recipient. The nouns above in bold are indirect objects. Briey explain the use of the pronouns i and u in the examples above: The dative clitic pronoun i is used when _____________________________________ The dative clitic pronoun u is used when ____________________________________ Each noun in bold is in its dative form. What do these dative forms remind you of? _______________________________________________________________ The dative forms are the same forms as the genitives that you learned in Lesson 10! (see 62 and 63). Remember that the word order in Albanian is quite exible, so dont be surprised to nd the indirect object in different places in a sentence. However, no matter where it appears, the indirect object must always be doubled by a clitic pronoun: Im hungry (lit., It is eaten to me). Im thirsty (lit., It is drunk to me). Im sleepy (lit., It is slept to me).

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I drgoj nns nj dhurat. I drgoj nj dhurat nns. Nns i drgoj nj dhurat.

I send my mother a gift. I send a gift to my mother. I send my mother a gift.

76 Position of the dative clitic pronouns Look at the following examples, where we use a dative clitic pronoun: (1) in the present indicative in a declarative sentence, (2) in the present indicative in a negative sentence, (3) in the progressive construction with po, (4) in a subjunctive construction, and (5) in a future construction: (1) Besa m drgon nj letr. (2) Besa nuk m drgon nj letr. (3) Besa po m drgon nj letr. (4) Besa duhet t m drgoj nj letr. (5) Besa do t m drgoj nj letr. Besa sends me a letter. Besa does not send me a letter. Besa is sending me a letter. Besa must send me a letter. Besa will send me a letter.

Where does the dative clitic pronoun appear in relation to the following elements? the negative marker nuk: the progressive marker po: the subjunctive marker t: the future marker do t: _____________________________ _____________________________ _____________________________ _____________________________

You may have observed that the dative clitic pronoun always follows all of the above markers. The generalization we can draw from examples (1) through (5) above is that dative clitic pronouns always precede and are immediately adjacent to the verb. 77 Dative demonstratives Consider the following examples: Po i shkruaj asaj studenteje. I am writing to that student (fem.). Po i shpjegoj ktij msuesi. I am explaining to this teacher (masc.). Atyre vajzave nuk u rrin mir sandalet. Those sandals dont t those girls well. Ktyre djemve nuk u plqejn gjuht e huaja. These boys dont like foreign languages. Do these demonstrative forms remind you of any other form you have studied before? _______________________________________________________________ What about the endings on the nouns that follow the demonstratives? Have you encountered these endings before? _______________________________________________________________

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You may have discovered that the forms for the dative demonstratives are the same as the genitive demonstratives that we studied in 69. The nouns that follow the demonstratives are also the same as the indenite genitive forms that we studied in 67. The different forms of the demonstratives are shown in the following chart:
Singular Masculine Feminine Plural Masculine Feminine

Nominative Accusative Genitive/Dative

ky kt ktij

kjo kt ksaj

kta kta ktyre

kto kto ktyre

Singular Masculine Feminine

Plural Masculine Feminine

Nominative Accusative Genitive/Dative

ai at atij

ajo at asaj

ata ata atyre

ato ato atyre

78 Dative forms of kush who and cili which When you ask for the identity of the indirect object, you must use the dative form of kush who, which is kujt to whom. Notice that both kujt in the question and the indirect object in the reply appear doubled by a direct object clitic pronoun: Kujt po i shkruan tani? Tani po i shkruaj nns. Kujt po i telefonon tani? Po i telefonoj Drits. Whom are you writing to now? Im writing to my mother. Whom are you calling on the phone now? Im calling Drita now.

If instead of who you want to ask which, then you must use the dative form of cili: Cilit djal po i blen nj dhurat? Po i blej Artanit nj dhurat. Cils studente po i tregon revistn? Po i tregoj Vers revistn. Cilve djem po u blen nj dhurat? Po u blej Artanit dhe Sokolit nj dhurat. Cilave vajza po u tregon revistn? Po u tregoj Vers dhe Drits revistn. Which boy are you buying a present for? Im buying a present for Artan. Which student (fem.) are you showing the magazine to? Im showing Vera the magazine. Which boys are you buying a present for? Im buying Artan and Sokol a present. Which girls are you showing the magazine to? Im showing Vera and Drita the magazine.

The following chart includes the forms of kush who and cili which in the different cases that we have studied so far:

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Singular Masculine Feminine

Plural Masculine Feminine

Nominative Accusative Genitive Dative

kush k i,e kujt kujt

cili cilin i,e cilit cilit

cila ciln i,e cils cils

cilt cilt i,e cilve cilve

cilat cilat i,e cilave cilave

USHTRIMI 11.4 Indicate whether the following statements are true (T) or false (F) based on Dialogu 11.2. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. _____ Jeta dhe Mimoza shkojn n dhomn e provs. _____ Ato duan t provojn rrobat. _____ Jeta provon n llim nj fund. _____ Mimoza i thot Jets se fundi i rri shum bukur. _____ Bluza e bardh i rri e madhe nuk sht masa e saj. _____ Jeta do nj bluz tjetr. _____ Kostumi i zi i rri shum mir Ers. _____ Jets dhe Mimozs u plqen kostumi i zi. _____ Jeta dhe Mimoza krkojn pr nj bluz t bardh. _____ Jeta blen nj pal kpuc. _____ Mimoza do t blej sandale. _____ Jeta do t blej izmet q jan n vitrin.

USHTRIMI 11.5 Answer the following questions based on Dialogu 11.2. 1. Ku shkojn Mimoza dhe Jeta? _____________________________________________________________ 2. far bjn ato atje? _____________________________________________________________ 3. far provon Jeta n llim? _____________________________________________________________ 4. Si i rri fundi? Po bluza? _____________________________________________________________ 5. Si i rri kostumi Mimozs? _____________________________________________________________ 6. far ka n vitrin? _____________________________________________________________ 7. A ka bluza t bardha n dyqan? _____________________________________________________________

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8. Pse do t shkoj Jeta n restorant? ____________________________________________________________ 9. Kush do t blej izme? ____________________________________________________________ 10. Kujt i telefonojn ato? ____________________________________________________________

USHTRIMI 11.6 Complete the following sentences with the weak form of the dative pronoun. Remember that the use of the strong dative pronoun emphasizes or contrasts the indirect object. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Vajza ____________ thot mua dika t rndsishme. Shitsja ____________ tregon asaj nj fund t bukur. Ty ____________ duket ky dyqan i bukur. Neve ____________ plqejn gjrat e reja. Juve ____________ vjen keq pr Dritanin. Atij ____________ rrin shum bukur rrobat. Po ____________ shpjegoj atyre problemin.

Complete the following sentences with the strong form of the dative pronoun. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. Vajza po i thot ___________ (him) dika t rndsishme. Shitsja ju tregon ________ nj libr t ri. ______ na duket ky dyqan pak i shtrenjt. ______ nuk m plqejn gjrat e vjetra. ______ i vjen keq pr nnn. (She feels sorry . . . ) ______ t shkon shum ajo kmish. Po _____, si m rrin kto pantallona? ______ u dhemb koka. Po _____, far t dhemb?

USHTRIMI 11.7 Complete the following sentences with the appropriate form of the noun and the corresponding weak pronouns. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. Andi ____________ shkruan nj kartolin ____________(Vilma). Djali ____________ drgon ____________ (miq) disa libra. Po ____________ japim msime ____________ (student). Ne po ____________ asim ____________ (shqiptar). ____________ (Djem) ____________ plqen sporti. ____________ (Djal) _____________ plqen basketbolli. ____________(Vajza, sing.) ____________ plqen baleti. ____________ (Vajza, pl.) ____________ plqejn gjuht e huaja.

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9. ____________ (Kta student) ______ duket i vshtir msimi. 10. ____________ (Kjo msuese) ______ duket i leht msimi. 11. ____________ (Baba) ______ dhemb koka, kurse __________ (nn) _____ dhembin kmbt. 12. Kjo bluz ________ shkon shum __________ (Besa). 13. po ____ thot nna ___________ (Sokol)? 14. Artani po ____ blen _______ (Entela) nj CD me muzik shqiptare. 15. _____ (Ju) ________ duket se po bie shi? 16. _______ (Prindr) _____ vjen mir kur un marr nota t mira n shkoll. 17. Msuesja po __________ shpjegon ___________ (ai student) gramatikn. 18. Polici po ____ tregon ______ (ajo grua) adresn q po krkon. 19. __________ (Gjysh) nuk _____ plqen shahu. Po _______ (gjyshja)? 20. Ajo po _____ shkruan _______ (disa shoqe) nj kartolin.

LEXIMI 11.1
Qendra tregtare n Tiran

N Tiran ka disa qendra tregtare ku banort e kryeqytetit kan mundsin t blejn ushqime, veshje, pajisje elektronike etj. N kto qendra tregtare ka dyqane me mallra t rmave t njohura t huaja dhe shqiptare. Po ashtu, n kto qendra kryejn aktivitetin e tyre dhe banka, kompani celulare, agjenci turistike etj. Dyqanet e veshjeve numrojn me mijra klient. Dyqanet ofrojn veshje t prditshme, veshje sportive dhe veshje elegante. Pr veshjet e brendshme, rrobat e banjs, getat e orapet ka dyqane t veanta. N dyqanet e kpucve, kompani t vendit dhe t huaja ofrojn modele t shumllojshme t kpucve pr meshkuj dhe femra. Edhe dyqanet pr fmij trheqin shum klient. Prindrit mund t plotsojn nevojat dhe dshirat e fmijve me produkte t larmishme, me cilsi t lart dhe me mime konkurruese.

FJALOR agjenc turistke aktivitt, -i, -e bnk/, -a, -a i brndsh/m, e-me celulr, -e kompan celulre telefn celulr cils, -a, orp/e, -ja, -e tourist agency activity bank interior, underwear cellular (adj.) cellular companies cell phone quality socks dshr/, -a, -a elektronk, -e fm/r, -ra, -ra gt/, -a, -a konkurres, -e krej i larmsh/m, e -me mll, -i, -ra mshkull, -i, mshkuj desire electronic female panty hose competitive to carry out varied, diversied goods male

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mjra munds, -a, km mundsn nevj/, -a, -a numrj pajsj/e, -a, -e i prdtshm, e -me plotsj rrb/, -a, -a rrba bnje rrbat e bnjs

thousands possibility to have the possibility need, necessity to count device daily to complete, satisfy cloth, clothes bathing suit bathing suit

i shumlljsh/m, e -me trhq tregtr, -e qndr tregtre ushqm, -i, -e i,e vent vshj/e, -a, -e vshje sportve vshjet e brndshme

various, diverse to attract commercial commercial center food special, specic clothing sport clothes underwear

USHTRIMI 11.8 Indicate whether the following statements are true (T), false (F), or not mentioned (NM). If they are false or not mentioned, briey explain why (in Albanian). 1. _____ N Tiran ka disa qendra tregtare. 2. _____ N kto qendra tregtare klientt mund t blejn ushqime, veshje dhe pajisje elektronike. 3. _____ N kto qendra tregtare ka dyqane vetm me mallra t rmave t njohura shqiptare. 4. _____ Atje kryejn aktivitetin e tyre dhe kompani celulare, banka, agjenci turistike etj. 5. _____ Dyqanet e veshjeve numrojn me qindra klient. 6. _____ Dyqanet ofrojn veshje t prditshme, veshje sportive dhe veshje elegante. 7. _____ Pr veshjet e brendshme, pr rrobat e banjs, getat e orapet ka dyqane t veanta. 8. _____ Dyqanet pr fmij trheqin shum klient. 9. _____ Ato ofrojn produkte me cilsi t lart.

USHTRIMI 11.9 Answer the following questions based on Leximi 11.1. Give as much information as you can. 1. far ka n Tiran? _____________________________________________________________ 2. A ka dyqane me mallrat t rmave t njohura? _____________________________________________________________ 3. A kan klient kto qendra tregtare? _____________________________________________________________ 4. far ofrojn dyqanet? _____________________________________________________________ 5. A ka dyqane t veanta? _____________________________________________________________

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Albanian traditional dresses (photos: Edmond Prifti)

6. A ka klient n dyqanet pr fmij? ____________________________________________________________ 7. A kan mundsi prindrit q t plotsojn dshirat e fmijve? ____________________________________________________________ 8. Si jan mimet? ____________________________________________________________ 9. Ka kompani t ndryshme n kto qendra tregtare? ____________________________________________________________

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MSIMI 12
Prsritje
Review DIALOGU 12.1 Martini: Ulpjana, ti je nga Prishtina, apo jo? Ulpjana: Po, Martin, jam nga Prishtina. Pse po pyet? Martini: Sepse di pak pr Prishtinn dhe jam shum kureshtar t msoj m shum pr t. Ulpjana: Prishtina sht qytet shum i vjetr. Dhjet kilometra nga Prishtina sht Ulpiana, dikur nj qytet i madh antik, i njohur me emrin Justiniana Sekunda. Martini: Po sot, si sht Prishtina? Ulpjana: Prishtina sht sot nj qytet i madh, me rreth 600 000 banor. Martini: Sa sht siprfaqja e saj? Ulpjana: 854 km2. Martini: A sht e bukur Prishtina? Ulpjana: Prishtina sht nj qytet modern. Tani ka shum ndrtesa t reja dhe t larta. sht qytet me shum gjallri, sepse sht qendr shum e rndsishme administrative, kulturore dhe universitare. Martini: far mund t vizitoj n Prishtin? Ulpjana: Mund t vizitosh Parkun Kombtar Grmia. Grmia sht nj vend shum i bukur me pyje, ku prishtinasit kalojn kohn e lir. Atje ka nj liqen dhe restorante t ndryshme. Martini: Po tjetr? Ulpjana: Mund t vizitosh Muzeun e Kosovs. Ai ndodhet n nj ndrtes t vjetr. Martini: Po Galeria e Arteve, si sht n Prishtin? Ulpjana: Prishtina ka nj galeri shum t mir. Ajo organizon do vit ekspozita kombtare dhe ndrkombtare, publikime, katalog etj. Martini: Po objekte historike, a mund t vizitoj n Prishtin? Ulpjana: Po, n Prishtin ka 21 monumente q mbrohen nga shteti. Objekte me rndsi historike jan: Sahat kulla, Shadrvani, Hamami i Madh etj. Martini: Po klima, si sht n Prishtin? Ulpjana: Prishtina ka klim kontinentale. N dimr bn ftoht. Shpesh bie bor dhe temperaturat shkojn deri n minus zero grad Celsius. Kurse vera sht e nxeht, me temperatura t larta. Martini: Ather, sht mir q un t vizitoj Prishtinn n pranver. Faleminderit pr informacionin.

199

FJALOR administratv, -e di ekspozt/, -a, -a galer, -a, galera e rteve hamm, -i, -e histork, -e kalj kalj khn e lr katalg, -u, - knaqs, -a, me knaqs klm/, -a, -a kh/, -a, - kontinentl, -e kulturr, -e administrative to know exhibition gallery art gallery Turkish bath historical to spend to spend ones free time catalog pleasure with pleasure climate time, weather continental cultural kureshtr, -e liqn, -i, -e i,e lr modrn, -e monumnt, -i, -e ndrkombtr, -e i ndrsh/m, e -me objkt, -i, -e organizj pr/k, -ku, -qe prishtnas, -i, publikm, -i, -e pll, -i, -je shtt, -i, -e universitr, -e vizitj curious lake free modern monument international different object to organize park inhabitant of Prishtina publication forest state university (adj.) to visit

USHTRIMI 12.1 Indicate whether the following statements are true (T) or false (F) based on Dialogu 12.1. 1. ____ Martini dhe Ulpjana bisedojn pr Prishtinn. 2. ____ Martini sht i interesuar pr Prishtinn, sepse nuk ka shum informacione pr kt qytet. 3. ____ Ulpjana thot se Prishtina sht qytet i vogl, por modern. 4. ____ Prishtina sht qendr e rndsishme kulturore dhe administrative. 5. ____ N Prishtin ndodhet nj park i rndsishm kombtar. 6. ____ Prishtinasit kalojn kohn e lir n kt park. 7. ____ Muzeu sht n nj ndrtes t vjetr. 8. ____ Galeria e Arteve sht shum e vogl. 9. ____ Galeria e Arteve organizon shum aktivitete. 10. ____ Prishtina ka klim kontinentale.

USHTRIMI 12.2 Answer the following questions based on Dialogu 12.1. 1. Pr far po bisedojn Martini me Ulpjann? _____________________________________________________________ 2. Pse sht i interesuar Martini pr Prishtinn? _____________________________________________________________

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3. Si sht Prishtina? ____________________________________________________________ 4. A sht e bukur Prishtina? ____________________________________________________________ 5. far sht Grmia? ____________________________________________________________ 6. Ku ndodhet Muzeu i Kosovs? ____________________________________________________________ 7. Si sht Galeria e Arteve? ____________________________________________________________ 8. far organizon Galeria e Arteve? ____________________________________________________________ 9. A ka objekte historike n Prishtin? ____________________________________________________________ 10. Cilat jan disa nga kto objekte? ____________________________________________________________ 11. Si sht klima n Prishtin? ____________________________________________________________ 12. Si sht dimri? ____________________________________________________________

LEXIMI 12.1
Prizreni

Prizreni sht nj qytet i lasht me vlera t shumta historike, kulturore dhe arkitekturore. T dhnat arkeologjike dshmojn se Prizreni sht nj nga qytetet m t vjetra n Evropn Juglindore. Arkeologt mendojn se jeta n Prizren llon me Therandn, nj qendr dardane (s ilir), q ndodhet 6 km larg nga Prizreni i sotm. Prizreni ka objekte me vlera historike q dshmojn pr lashtsin e tij. Prizreni sht i prmendur n shum burime historike si n dokumente me karakter ekonomik ose politik dhe n kronika, apo vepra fetare dhe shkencore. N periudha t ndryshme historike, Prizreni del me emra t ndryshm: n dokumentet latine emrin Prisrien, Prisrenum etj, kurse n dokumentet osmane me emrat Tarzerin, Perserin etj. N Prizren ka terma dhe mure nga periudha romake (tek Sahat Kulla), si dhe mozaik. Prizreni quhet Qytet- muze.

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FJALOR burm, -i, -e dardn, -e dshmj dokumnt, -i, -e t dhnat m/r, -ri, -ra fetr, -e fs, -i, -e gjithmn ilr, -e jt/, -a juglindr, -e karaktr, -i, -e kronk/, -a, -a kryeqytt, -i, -e source Dardan to witness, testify document the data name religious tribe always Illyrian life southeastern character, nature chronicle, annals capital (city) i,e lsht lashts, -a latn, -e mendj mozak, -u, - mr, -i, -e osmn, -e i,e prmndur politk, -e romk, -e si dhe shkencr, -e trma vp/r, -ra, -ra i,e vjtr vlr/, -a, -a ancient antiquity Latin to think, consider mosaic wall Ottoman mentioned political Roman as well as scientic thermal baths work old value

USHTRIMI 12.3 Answer the following questions based on Leximi 12.1. 1. far sht Prizreni? ____________________________________________________________ 2. far dshmojn t dhnat arkeologjike? ____________________________________________________________ 3. N cilat dokumente prmendet Prizreni? ____________________________________________________________ 4. Cilat jan emrat latin pr Prizrenin? ____________________________________________________________ 5. Cilat jan emrat osman pr Prizrenin? ____________________________________________________________ 6. A ka monumente nga periudha romake n Prizren? ____________________________________________________________ 7. Cilat jan ato? ____________________________________________________________

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USHTRIMI 12.4 Complete the following text with the appropriate form of the word(s) indicated in parentheses. Make all the necessary changes. The words have been classied according to their syntactic class. You may use some words more than once.
Nouns:

arkeolog, burim, t dhnat, dokument, emr, Evrop, s, jet, kronik, mozaik, mur, periudh, Prizren, qendr, qytet, Therand, vepr
Adjectives:

dardan, ekonomik, fetar, juglindor, historik, i lasht, latin, i ndryshm, osman, i prmendur, politik, romak, i sotm, shkencor, i vjetr
Verbs:

dshmoj, lloj, mendoj, ndodhet


Prepositions:

n, nga, tek _______ (Prisren) sht qytet _______ (ancient). ______ (The data) arkeologjike _______ (witness) se Prizreni sht nj _____ (from) _______ (the cities) _____________ (oldest) n ________ (Europe) _______ (southeastern). __________ (Archaeologists) _______ (think/believe) se ________ (life) _____ (in) _______ (Prisren) __________ (starts) me ____________ (Theranda), nj _______ (center) ________ (Dardan) (_______ [tribe] ilir), q __________ (is located) 6 km nga Prizreni ________ (todays). Prizreni ____________ (is mentioned) n shum ______________(historical sources) si n _______ (documents) me karakter _________ (economic) ose ________ (political) dhe n __________ (chronicles), apo ___________ (works) ___________ (religious) dhe __________ (scientic). N periudha _________ (different/various) historike, Prizreni del me ___________________ (different names): n dokumentet __________ (Latin) me __________ (the name) Prisrien, Prisrenum etj, kurse n ________ (the Ottoman documents) me _______ (the names) Tarzerin, Perserin etj. N ________ (Prisren) e sotm ka terma dhe ________ (walls) nga ___________ (the Roman period) (____ [at] Sahat Kulla), si dhe ________ (mosaics).

INFORMACIONE KULTURORE Prishtina, the capital of Kosovo, has several protected monuments: Sahat Kulla, built in the nineteenth century, was reconstructed in brick after it burned down. Hamami i madh dates back to the fteenth century. This building was a fundamental part of the complex of the Mosque of King Fatih. Shadrvani is a marble decorated fountain. It is located between Xhamia e arshis and the Museum of Kosovo. It is the only public fountain that remains in Prishtina.

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Prizren, Kosovo (photo: Edmond Prifti)

Varrezat e hebrenjve (the cemeteries of the Jews) are located on top of the hill of Tauk Bashqa. They date back to the nineteenth century, the period during which there was a population of about 1 500 Jews in Prishtina. In Prizren there are several important historical spots: Nnkalaja has a unique urban structure: narrow winding lanes climbing up the hill and small old houses with a beautiful view of the town. Kalaja (the Fortress) is considered the symbol of Prizren, and it is extremely important for Kosovos cultural identity. The Fortress is built on a high hill on the southeastern side of the city. It is now on the list of endangered World Heritage Sites.

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MSIMI 13
Pushime dhe libra
Vacations and books In this lesson you will learn: how to talk about a trip you took how to buy books You will learn the following grammatical points: the simple past indicative the accusative forms of personal pronouns

DIALOGU 13.1: PUSHIMET E VERS Drini: Briz, ku ishe sivjet me pushime? Brizi: Isha bashk me disa miq t huaj n nj udhtim npr Shqipri. Drini: Si kaluat? Brizi: Kaluam shum mir. Ishte nj udhtim shum i bukur. Vizituam shum qendra arkeologjike dhe pika turistike. Drini: Ku shkuat? Brizi: N llim shkuam n Durrs. Atje vizituam amteatrin dhe muzeun arkeologjik. Drini: U plqeu amteatri miqve t huaj? Brizi: Po. U plqeu shum. U tregova pr historin e amteatrit dhe mbetn t habitur kur u thash se ai sht amteatri romak m i madh dhe m i rndsishm n Ballkan. Drini: Po n Kruj, a shkuat? Brizi: Po, nga Durrsi shkuam n Kruj. N Kruj u bri prshtypje Muzeu Etnograk dhe pazari karakteristik i Krujs. Atje blen shum suvenire, veshje tradicionale, qilima etj. N Kruj bm dhe shum fotogra. Drini: Po m pas, pr ku udhtuat? Brizi: Udhtuam pr n Shkodr. N Shkodr qndruam vetm nj nat. Nga Shkodra shkuam n Razm. Razma sht vrtet nj vend shum i bukur dhe me klim shum t mir. Atje fjetm disa net dhe organizuam shum aktivitete: shtitm n ajrin e pastr, bm piknik etj. Drini: Po n Jug, a shkuat? Brizi: Po. Fillimisht vizituam Beratin. N Berat, na lan mbresa t forta shtpit n kala dhe Muzeu Kombtar Onufri. Nga Berati shkuam n Vlor, ku ndenjm disa dit. Drini: A vizituat vende t tjera? Brizi: Po, vizituam dhe Kalan e Ali Pash Tepelens q ndodhet n Porto Palermo. Drini: Po plazh, a bt?

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Brizi: Po. Plazh bm n Potam, Ksamil dhe Sarand. Atje mbetn t mahnitur nga bukuria e natyrs shqiptare. Drini: Shkuat n Butrint? Brizi: Patjetr. Butrinti ishte pjes e rndsishme e ktij udhtimi. Atje pam qytetin antik, kurse n mbrmje ndoqm nj shfaqje teatrale n Teatrin e Butrintit. N Butrint kishte shum turist shqiptar dhe t huaj. Drini: A mbett t knaqur nga ky udhtim? Brizi: Shum t knaqur. Vitin tjetr mund t organizojm nj udhtim n vende t tjera turistike.

FJALOR j/r, -ri jr i pstr n jr t pstr amtet/r, -ri, -ro antk, -e b/j, -ra bj fotograf bj prshtpje (+ dat.) bj plzh bm (bj) bri (bj) bl/j, -va bln (blej) bukur, -a, llm, -i, -e llimsht e, fjta fjtm (e) i,e habtur i,e haj jam sha ( jam) she ( jam) shte ( jam) kal, -ja, kal/j, -va Kalam shm mr. Si kalat? karakteristk, -e air fresh air in the open air amphitheater ancient, old to make, do to take pictures to make an impression to go swimming (at the beach) we made he/she/it made to buy they bought beauty beginning at the beginning to sleep we slept surprised, astonished foreign to be I was you were he/she/it was fortress to pass, go We had a good time (lit., We passed very well). How did it go (for you)? typical, peculiar kshte (kam) l, lsh ln (l) l mbrs (+ dat.) i,e mahntur mb/s, -ta mbs i knaqr mbs i mahntur mbtn mbtt mbrs/, -a, -a l mbrs m ps muz, -u, Muzu Arkeologjk Muzu Etnografk ndal/j, -va ndnjm (rri) ndjk, ndqa ndqm (ndjek) nddhem npr organiz/j, -va organizam prshtpj/e, -a, -e bj prshtpje pk/, -a, -a pjs/, -a pm (shoh) there was, there were to leave they left to make an impresssion amazed to remain, stay, be to be satised to be amazed they remained, they were you remained, you were impression to make an impression, to impress afterwards Museum Archaelogical Museum Ethnographic Museum to stop we stayed to attend, follow we attended to be located around to organize we organized impression to make an impression, impress point part we saw

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i,e pstr jr i pstr patjtr pazr, -i, -e plzh, -i, -e pushm, -i, -e qndr/j, -va qndram qilm, -i, -a i rndssh/m, e -me romk, -e rr, ndnja sivjt suvenr, -i, -e shku/ll, -lli, -j sht/s, -ta shttm shfqj/e, -a, -e shk/j, -va

clean pure air certainly, denitely market beach vacation to stay, spend (time) we spent the night carpet important Roman to stay this year souvenir century to walk, stroll we walked, strolled show, performance to go

shkam (shkoj) shkat (shkoj) shoh, psh teatrl, -e tradicionl, -e treg/j, -va thsh (them) them, thsh udhtm, -i, -e udht/j, -va udhtam (udhtoj) udhtat (udhtoj) vnd, -i, -e vizt/, -a, -a vizit/j, -va vizitam (vizitoj) vizitat (vizitoj)

we went you went to see theatrical traditional to tell, narrate I told to tell travel, journey to travel we traveled you traveled place, area, country, region visit to visit we visited you visited

GRAMATIK 79 The simple past indicative of class 1 verbs Consider the following examples from Dialogu 13.1. Remember that class 1 verbs end in -oj, -aj, -j, -ij, -yj, -iej, -uaj, or -yej (see 6): Udhtuam pr n Shkodr. Ku shkuat? Fillimisht vizituam Beratin. Ju plqeu amteatri? We traveled to Shkodra. Where did you go? First, we visited Berat. Did you like the amphitheater?

These examples demonstrate the simple past indicative, which is typically used to indicate that an action has been completed or nished in the past. Some typical past expressions are the following: dje t hnn e kaluar, t hnn q shkoi t mrkurn e kaluar, t mrkurn q shkoi javn e kaluar, javn q shkoi muajin e kaluar, muajin q shkoi vitin e kaluar, vitin q shkoi/kaloi javn e kaluar, nj jav m par muajin e kaluar, muajin q shkoi nj vit m par, vitin q shkoi yesterday last Monday last Wednesday last week last month last year a week ago a month ago a year ago
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In this section we will learn how to form the past indicative of class 1 verbs. Lets start with the verbs that end in -aj, -ej, -ij, or -yj:1 blej to buy bleva bleve bleu blem blet blen laj to wash lava lave lau lam lat lan fshij to sweep fshiva fshive fshiu fshim fshit fshin fryj to blow fryva fryve fryu frym fryt fryn

un ti ai, ajo ne ju ata, ato

Verbs that end in -oj or -uaj have the following endings in the past indicative: punoj to work punova punove punoi punuam punuat punuan shkruaj2 to write shkrova shkrove shkroi shkruam shkruat shkruan

un ti ai, ajo ne ju ata, ato

Verbs that end in -yej take the following endings. Notice that the -y- disappears in the singular forms but reappears in the plural forms:3 thyej to break theva theve theu thyem thyet thyen

un ti ai, ajo ne ju ata, ato

There are a few exceptions to the forms we saw above, but dont get too anxious! The irregularities are of two types, and not many verbs fall into this category. The verbs bj to do and the hyj to enter take the following forms. Notice that the singular forms bear an -r- that is not present in the past endings we discussed earlier:

1. Because of all the irregularities found in the past indicative, we will list the rst person singular of the simple past indicative form of all verbs, whether regular or irregular. This form will appear following the simple present indicative form. In the glossary at the end of the book, verbs will appear with three forms. Take punoj to work, for instance. In the glossary at the end of the book you will nd pun/oj, -ova, -uar. Punoj is the present indicative, punova is the simple past, and punuar is the past participle, respectively. 2. In colloquial Albanian you will also hear shkruajta. This form, however, is not considered standard. 3. The verb plqej to like also behaves like thyej to break: plqeva, plqeve, plqeu, plqyem, plqyet, plqyen.

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un ti ai, ajo ne ju ata, ato

bj to do bra bre bri bm bt bn

hyj to enter hyra hyre hyri hym hyt hyn

A few verbs take an extra -t- in the past indicative. Contrary to the -r- with the two verbs noted above, this -t- is kept throughout the past indicative paradigm: arrij to arrive arrita arrite arriti arritm arritt arritn gjej to nd gjeta gjete gjeti gjetm gjett gjetn luaj to play luajta luajte luajti luajtm luajtt luajtn

un ti ai, ajo ne ju ata, ato

80 The simple past indicative of class 3 verbs Class 3 verbs are the verbs that end in a vowel in the present indicative form. These verbs take the same endings as the verbs that end in -aj, -ej, ij, or yj discussed in 79. pi to drink piva pive piu pim pit pin

un ti ai, ajo ne ju ata, ato

However, many class 3 verbs are irregular. Some form the past indicative with -ta: di to know: dita, dite, diti, ditm, ditt, ditn e to sleep: fjeta, fjete, fjeti, fjetm, fjett, fjetn Other class 3 verbs take -ra, but only in the singular forms: v to put: vura, vure, vuri, vum, vut, vun z to catch: zura, zure, zuri, zum, zut, zun 81 The simple past indicative of class 2 verbs Class 2 verbs are the ones that end in a consonant. They take the following endings in the simple past:

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un ti ai, ajo ne ju ata, ato

ha to open hapa hape hapi hapm hapt hapn

If the verb ends in -h, then the third person singular takes -u rather than -i:4 kreh to comb (someones hair): kreha, krehe, krehu, krehm, kreht, krehn njoh to know: njoha, njohe, njohu, njohm, njoht, njohn Class 2 verbs that end in -as, -es, or -yes take -ta in the past indicative. Notice that the vowel preceding -s in the stem becomes -i- when it precedes -ta: brtas to shout: brtita, brtite, brtiti, brtitm, brtitt, brtitn pres to wait: prita, prite, priti, pritm, pritt, pritn5 shes to sell: shita, shite, shiti, shitm, shitt, shitn Verbs that end in -yes drop the -s and take -ta; no -i- is necessary: pyes to ask: pyeta, pyete, pyeti, pyetm, pyett, pyetn Other verbs change stem, but the endings remain the same as those for hap above. The following verbs take an -o- in the past indicative: dal to go out: dola, dole, doli, dolm, dolt, doln as to speak: fola, fole, foli, folm, folt, foln marr to take: mora, more, mori, morm, mort, morn nxjerr to take out/off: nxora, nxore, nxori, nxorm, nxort, nxorn sjell to bring: solla, solle, solli, sollm, sollt, solln zgjedh to choose: zgjodha, zgjodhe, zgjodhi, zgjodhm, zgjodht, zgjodhn The following verbs also change their stem, but instead of taking an -o-, they take an -i-. Notice that the nal -i for the third- person singular is absorbed by -q: thrras to call: thirra, thirre, thirri, thirrm, thirrt, thirrn6 vdes to die: vdiqa, vdiqe, vdiq, vdiqm, vdiqt, vdiqn 82 The simple past indicative of irregular verbs We noticed in 6 that irregular verbs belong to class 5. For pedagogical reasons, in this section of the chapter we include verbs that drastically change their stems when forming the past, although they do not necessarily belong to class 5.
4. This rule refers to the sound [h] rather than to the letter h. Notice the past indicative of the verb vesh to dress (someone): vesha, veshe, veshi, veshm, vesht, veshn. 5. Notice that the verb pres to cut takes the following endings (compare these forms with those of the verb pres to wait in the text): preva, preve, preu, prem, pret, pren. 6. Thrras to call can also take -ta in the simple past: thrrita, thrrite, thrriti, thrritm, thrritt, thrritn.

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bie to fall: rash, re, ra, ram, rat, ran jap to give: dhash, dhe, dha, dham, dhat, dhan jam to be: qesh, qe, qe, qem, qet, qen7 l to leave: lash, le, la, lam, lat, lan shoh to see: pash, pe, pa, pam, pat, pan them to say: thash, the, tha, tham, that, than kam to have: pata, pate, pati, patm, patt, patn8 vete to go: vajta, vajte, vajti, vajtm, vajtt, vajtn dua to want: desha, deshe, deshi, deshm, desht, deshn ha to eat: hngra, hngre, hngri, hngrm, hngrt, hngrn rri to stay: ndenja, ndenje, ndenji, ndenjm, ndenjt, ndenjn vij to come: erdha, erdhe, erdhi, erdhm, erdht, erdhn

USHTRIMI 13.1 Indicate whether the following statements are true (T), false (F), or not mentioned (NM) in Dialogu 13.1. When a statement is false, briey say why (in Albanian!). 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. _____ Sivjet Brizi shkoi me disa miq n nj vend t huaj. _____ N llim Brizi dhe miqt e tij shkuan n Kruj. _____ N Durrs nuk ka qendra arkeologjike. _____ Amteatri i Durrsit sht amteatr grek dhe nuk sht shum i madh. _____ N Kruj qndruan nj nat. _____ Kruja ka klim shum t mir. _____ Muzeu Etnograk i Durrsit i bri prshtypje Brizit. _____ Brizi dhe miqt e tij qndruan n Shkodr vetm nj nat. _____ N Berat u lan mbresa t forta shtpit n plazh. _____ Kalaja e Ali Pash Tepelens ndodhet n Jug t Shqipris.

USHTRIMI 13.2 Answer the following questions based on Dialogu 13.1. 1. Me k bisedon Drini? _____________________________________________________________ 2. Ku ishte Brizi? _____________________________________________________________ 3. Cilin vend vizituan n llim? _____________________________________________________________
7. The imperfect tense rather than the simple past tense of the verb jam is used more often to express the past. The forms are: isha, ishe, ishte, ishim, ishit, ishin. 8. The imperfect forms of the verb kam are also used more often than those of the past tense. The imperfect forms are: kisha, kishe, kishte, kishim, kishit, kishin.

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4. far bn turistt n Durrs? ____________________________________________________________ 5. far bn turistt n Kruj? ____________________________________________________________ 6. Sa dit qndruan n Shkodr? ____________________________________________________________ 7. Po n Jug, a shkuan? ____________________________________________________________ 8. far u la mbresa n Berat? ____________________________________________________________ 9. Po plazh, a bn ata? ____________________________________________________________ 10. A shkuan n Butrint? ____________________________________________________________

USHTRIMI 13.3 Complete the following sentences with the past indicative of the verbs in parentheses. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. Ata ___________ (shkoj) n plazh. Studentt _____________ (lexoj) librat e rinj. Atyre u _____________ (plqej) shum udhtimi. Ne __________ (shoh) vende shum t bukura. Turistt _________ (udhtoj) npr Shqipri. N pazar ajo _____________ (blej) disa suvenire. N autobus ______________ (kndoj, ne) shum kng. Ju _____________ (them) se sot sht pushim. Djali ______ (v) antn mbi bank. ____________ (Pi, un) nj aj t ftoht. Ku _____________ (shkoj) ata? far ____________ (marr, ti) nga Shqipria? Nuk ____________ (dal, ato) dje nga shtpia. Pse nuk ____________ (vij, ju) me ne? U ____________ ( jap, ne) disa informacione t rndsishme. Sot nuk ____________ (ha, ne) mngjes. ____________________ (Rri, un) gjith fundjavn n shtpi. Ku ____________ ( jam, ti) dje? ________________ (Mbyll, ata) dern e shtpis. N muze ____________ (kam) shum turist.

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USHTRIMI 13.4 Change the following sentences to the simple past indicative. 1. Ajo po udhton npr Shqipri. ____________________________________________________________ 2. Ne po vizitojm disa vende t bukura turistike. ____________________________________________________________ 3. Ata nuk kan shum informacione pr Shqiprin. ____________________________________________________________ 4. T plqen Durrsi? ____________________________________________________________ 5. Un rri gjith ditn n qytet. ____________________________________________________________ 6. Ata bjn vizita n muze. ____________________________________________________________ 7. Po ham dark ktu. ____________________________________________________________ 8. Ata mbeten t mahnitur nga bukuria e natyrs shqiptare. ____________________________________________________________ 9. Po shohim Kalan e Ali Pash Tepelens. ____________________________________________________________ 10. Ti po merr informacione pr Sknderbeun. ____________________________________________________________ 11. Un po shoh disa dokumente. ____________________________________________________________ 12. Do t qndroj vetm nj nat. ____________________________________________________________ DIALOGU 13.2: N LIBRARI Genti: Mirdita! Shitsi: Mirdita! Si mund tju ndihmoj? Genti: Interesohem pr libra t autorve shqiptar. far m sugjeroni? Shitsi: Interesoheni pr libra t shkrimtarve modern apo t tradits? Genti: E kam porosi nga disa miq q nuk jetojn n Shqipri q t blej libra nga shkrimtar t ndryshm shqiptar. Ata duan ti pasurojn bibliotekat e tyre me libra n gjuhn shqipe, q fmijt e tyre ta njohin letrsin shqipe. far m kshilloni t marr? Shitsi: S pari, ju kshilloj t merrni veprn e poetit Naim Frashri. Genti: Shum mir. Po e marr. Tjetr? Shitsi: Blini dhe veprn e Faik Konics. sht n katr vllime. Genti: Mir. Po i marr t katr vllimet. Shitsi: Po nga veprat e Ismail Kadares, far doni t merrni? Genti: E keni librin Kronik n gur?
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Shitsi: E kemi. Genti: Ather, po marr disa kopje nga ky roman. Jam i gzuar q e gjeta. Dua t blej dhe disa nga botimet e fundit, pasi shum libra t ktij autori i kam. Shitsi: Nse doni, mund t merrni veprn e plot t Ismail Kadares, sepse tashm sht e prmbledhur n disa vllime. Genti: A mund ta shoh? Shitsi: Patjetr. Ja, ku i keni t gjitha vllimet. Genti: Mir, ather, po i marr t gjitha vllimet. M falni, por dua tju pyes edhe pr libra t autorve t tjer shqiptar. far m kshilloni? Shitsi: Mund t merrni romanet e Petro Markos, Fatos Kongolit etj. Genti: Po libra me poezi keni? Shitsi: Po kemi antologjin e poezis bashkkohore shqiptare. E doni? Genti: Po. Po nga librat pr fmij, far m rekomandoni? Shitsi: Ju rekomandoj librin Tregime t mome shqiptare. Genti: Sa mir q m kujtuat pr librin Tregime t mome shqiptare. Fmijt tan duhet ta lexojn at patjetr. Ju falnderoj pa mas pr ndihmn. Do t vij srish nesr, nse do t m krkojn t blej libra t tjer. Shitsi: Mir se t vini! FJALOR From now on, all verbs except class 6 verbs will be introduced in the present, simple past, and past participle forms. antologj, -a, bashkkohr, -e botm, -i, -e falnder/j, -va, -ar i,e fndit i,e gzar gr, -i, - gj/j, -ta intereshem krk/j, -va, -ar kshill/j, -va, -ar kpj/e, -a, -e kronk/, -a, -a Kronk n gr kujt/j, -va, -ar librar, -a, ms/, -a, -a pa ms Mir se t vini! anthology contemporary edition, publication to thank last glad stone to nd to be interested in to ask to advise, suggest copy chronicle Chronicle in Stone to remind bookstore measure immensely You are welcome! Any time! i m/m, e -me n mnr q pa ms pas pasur/j, -va, -ar i,e prmbldhur i,e plt pot, -i, - poros, -a, prz/, -a, -a Sa mr q . . . srsh tn tradt/, -a, -a i,e tre vllm, -i, -e vp/r, -ra, -ra vpr e plt i,e zgjdhur ancient, old in order to, so that immensely since to enrich collected whole, complete poet request (n.) prose Its good that . . . , a good thing that . . . again our tradition their volume work complete work(s) selected

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GRAMATIK 83 Accusative pronouns: strong and weak forms In Dialogu 13.2 you saw the following sentences: E keni librin Kronik n gur? Do you have the book Chronicle in Stone? (lit., It you have the book Chronicle in Stone?) Po, e kemi. Yes, we have it (lit., Yes, it we have). Ja, ku i keni t gjitha vllimet. Here (is where) we have all the volumes (lit., Here them you have all the volumes). The words in bold are direct object pronouns, or clitics, in Albanian. As the indirect object pronouns (73) they can appear in two forms, a strong form and a weak one (also called a clitic pronoun). The chart below summarizes both forms:
Strong Accusative Form Weak Accusative Form

un ti ai ajo ne ju ata ato

mua ty at at ne ju ata ato

m t e e na ju i i

The weak forms cannot be used separately from the verb, and thus we use the term clitic pronouns to refer to them. The strong forms of the accusative personal pronouns, on the other hand, are not obligatory and can be used alone, without the verb. However, when they are used in a sentence, they are used only for contrast or emphasis, and they must necessarily co-occur with the weak form: Ai e takoi n universitet. He met her/him at the university. Ai e takoi at n rrug. He met her/him on the street. In the next section we will study the basic uses of the weak accusative clitic pronouns. 84 Basic uses of the accusative clitic pronouns 1. The clitic pronoun generally replaces the direct object. Consider the following example from Dialogu 13.2: E keni librin Kronik n gur? Do you have the book Chronicle in Stone? Po, e kemi. Yes, we have it.
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In the previous example, the clitic pronoun e replaces the whole direct object, librin Kronik n gur, the book Chronicle in Stone. 2. The clitic pronoun anticipates the direct object. Consider the following examples: Ja, ku i keni t gjitha vllimet. Here you have all the volumes. Ata duan ti pasurojn bibliotekat e tyre. They want to enrich their libraries. Nuk e di, a e keni veprn e Kutelit. I dont know if you have Kutelis work. In Albanian, an accusative weak clitic pronoun is typically used if the direct object is denite. We see that the accusative clitics i and e above anticipate the direct object. This phenomenon, where both the clitic and the object appear simultaneously, is called clitic doubling. 3. The direct object precedes the verb. Remember that word order is quite exible in Albanian. If the direct object precedes the verb, then the weak accusative clitic pronoun must appear obligatorily: Librin e fundit t Konics e kemi atje. Lit., Konicas last book, we have it there. In the example above, the direct object is denite. The accusative clitic may appear even when an indenite direct object precedes the verb: Nj pjes t veprave t Kadares i kam. Lit., One volume of the works by Kadare, I have (it). 85 T plus accusative clitic pronouns In Dialogu 13.2 you encountered the weak forms of accusative clitics used with the future and the subjunctive: Ata duan ti pasurojn bibliotekat e tyre. They want to enrich their libraries. M falni, por dua tju pyes edhe pr vepra t autorve t tjer shqiptar. Excuse me, but I want to ask you about works by other Albanian authors. As you can see above, t is contracted to t in front of i them and ju you. When t is followed by e, we use the form ta: Fmijet tan duhet ta lexojn at libr patjetr. Our children must read that book by all means. A mund ta shoh? Can I see it?

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The following chart summarizes the different combinations of t with direct object clitics. Incidentally, notice that the verb pyes to ask takes an accusative complement; that is, the person being asked always appears in the accusative case:
Subjunctive Future

m t e na ju i

Duhet t m pyessh. You have to ask me. Duhet t t pyes. I have to ask you. Duhet ta pyes. I have to ask him/her. Duhet t na pyessh. You have to ask us. Duhet tju pyes. I have to ask you. Duhet ti pyes. I have to ask them.

Do t m pyessh. You will ask me. Do t t pyes. I will ask you. Do ta pyes. I will ask him/her. Do t na pyessh. You will ask us. Do tju pyes. I will ask you. Do ti pyes. I will ask them.

The following chart contains the three forms of t that get truncated or altered: t + ju t + i t + e

tju ti ta

USHTRIMI 13.5 Indicate whether the following statements are true (T), false (F), or not mentioned (NM) in Dialogu 13.2. When a statement is false, briey say why (in Albanian!). 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. _____ Genti po blen libra pr disa miq q nuk jetojn n Shqipri. _____ Shitsi i kshillon t marr veprn e poetit Naim Frashri. _____ Vepra e Faik Konics sht n dy vllime. _____ Shitsi thot Gentit se nuk e ka librin Kronik n gur. _____ Genti nuk ka asnj libr t Ismail Kadares. _____ Shitsi e kshillon t marr romanet e Fatos Kongolit. _____ Genti e pyet nse ka libra me poezi. _____ Genti blen antologjin e poezis bashkkohore shqiptare. _____ Genti krkon t blej dhe libra pr fmij. _____ Genti blen librin Tregime t mome shqiptare.

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USHTRIMI 13.6 Answer the following questions based on Dialogu 13.2. 1. Ku zhvillohet dialogu? ____________________________________________________________ 2. Pse krkon Genti t blej libra? ____________________________________________________________ 3. Pr far interesohet ai? ____________________________________________________________ 4. Cili sht autori q i sugjeron shitsi? ____________________________________________________________ 5. N sa vllime sht vepra e Faik Konics? ____________________________________________________________ 6. Pr cilin libr t Kadares interesohet ai? ____________________________________________________________ 7. A blen ai libra nga Mitrush Kuteli? ____________________________________________________________ 8. A blen libra me poezi? ____________________________________________________________ 9. far i thot ai shitsit? A do t vij ai srish n librari? ____________________________________________________________ 10. Cili sht autori i librit Kronik n gur? ____________________________________________________________

USHTRIMI 13.7 Complete the following sentences with the appropriate form of the weak accusative clitic pronoun. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. Po __________ (ti) pyes pr librat. Ai ___________ (un) mori dje n telefon. Si mund t___________ (ti) ndihmoj? Ata duan t ___________ (ato) pasurojn bibliotekat e tyre. far ___________ (un) kshilloni t marr? ___________ (Ju) kshilloj t merrni veprn e poetit Naim Frashri. Ata po ___________ (un) dgjojn. Sa mir q ___________ (ajo) kujtuat librin Tregime t mome shqiptare. Ai ___________(ne) pa i uditur. ___________ (Ai) takova dje.

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USHTRIMI 13.8 Complete the following sentences with the appropriate form of the strong accusative pronoun. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. Po e krkoj __________ (ai) pr nj pun. M mori ___________ (un) n telefon. far t pyeti ___________ (ti)? Kjo histori na kujtoi ___________ (ne) pr at nat. far e keni ___________ (ajo)? Ju kshillova ___________ ( ju) t blini nj libr me poezi. Nse i dgjoni ___________ (ata), mos shkoni n Durrs nesr. I pash ___________ (ato) n shkoll.

LEXIMI 13.1
Gjergj Kastrioti Sknderbeu

Gjergj Kastrioti Sknderbeu sht heroi kombtar i shqiptarve. Ai vlersohet si prijsi m i madh n historin e Shqipris, por edhe si sundimtar, diplomat, strateg e ushtarak. Informacionet pr jetn e Sknderbeut vijn kryesisht nga Marin Barleti. N vitet 1508 1510 ai shkroi n latinisht veprn Historia e jets dhe e bmave t Sknderbeut. Gjergj Kastrioti ishte 63 vje kur vdiq, m 17 janar 1468, prandaj mendohet se ai lindi n vitin 1405. N mosh t vogl e morn peng n pallatin e Sulltan Muratit II. Atje i dhan emrin mysliman Isknder. Si nj ushtarak i zoti, n vitin 1443 luftoi me Janosh Huniadin. Ushtria osmane humbi luftn dhe Sknderbeu, bashk me kalors shqiptar dhe me nipin e tij Hamza Kastrioti, shkoi n Dibr, dhe m pas n Kruj. M dat 28 nntor 1443 shpalli rimkmbjen e principats s Kastriotve. M 2 mars 1444, Sknderbeu organizoi Kuvendin e Arbrit n Lezh (Shqipri). Lidhja Shqiptare e Lezhs ishte nj aleanc politike dhe ushtarake e snikve shqiptar. Pr njzet e pes vjet me radh Sknderbeu mbrojti vendin e tij dhe Evropn Perndimore nga pushtimi osman.

FJALOR alenc/, -a, -a bm/, -a, -a diplomt, -i, - snk, -u, - her, -i, -nj hmb, -a hmbj/e, -a, -e kalrs, -i, alliance deed, action diplomat nobleman, knight hero to lose loss rider, horseman kryessht kuvnd, -i, -e ldhj/e, -a, -e Ldhja shqiptre e Lzhs lnd, -a, -ur lft/, -a, -a mbrj, -ta, -tur mainly assembly, convention linkage, league Albanian League of Lezha to be born war to defend

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mendhet myslimn, -e np, -i, -a osmn, -e pn/g, -gu, -gje politk, -e prjs, -i, principt/, -a, -a pushtt, -i, -e pushtm, -i, -e rdh/, -a, -

it is thought Muslim nephew Ottoman pledge political leader, commander principality, princedom power invasion row, line

me rdh rimkmbj/e, -a stratg, -u, - sundimtr, -i, - shpll, -a, -ur ushtark, -u, - ushtr, -a, vdes, vdqa, vdkur vlershet i zti, e znja

in a row, consecutively reestablishment strategist ruler to proclaim military, ofcer army to die he/she/it is appreciated, is appraised skilled

USHTRIMI 13.9 Match the words with the denitions. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. shpall vdes lind sundimtar nip a. b. c. d. e. dal n jet djali i vajzs apo i djalit, i motrs apo i vllait nuk jetoj m bj dika t njohur ai q ka pushtet t plot

USHTRIMI 13.10 Answer the following questions based on Leximi 13.1. Expand your answers as much as possible. 1. Cili sht Gjergj Kastrioti Sknderbeu? _____________________________________________________________ 2. Si vlersohet ai? _____________________________________________________________ 3. Kur e shkroi Marin Barleti veprn e tij pr Sknderbeun? _____________________________________________________________ 4. far bri Sknderbeu n vitin 1443? _____________________________________________________________ 5. far ishte Lidhja Shqiptare e Lezhs? _____________________________________________________________ 6. bri ai pr njzet e pes vjet me radh? _____________________________________________________________ 7. Kur lindi dhe kur vdiq Sknderbeu? _____________________________________________________________ 8. Cili sht emri i tij i vrtet? _____________________________________________________________

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USHTRIMI 13.11 Create dialogues for the following situations. 1. Discuss with a friend your last summer vacation. Ask as many questions as you can and give as much information as possible. 2. You are at a bookstore and ask the salesperson questions about the latest novels. 3. Do research about your favorite historical character. Then give a small presentation about his or her life.

INFORMACIONE KULTURORE Located on the coast of the Adriatic Sea, Durrs is just a short drive from Tirana, Albanias capital city. Not only is Durrs the main port of Albania, it is also a very popular tourist destination because of its picturesque beaches. The amphitheater, constructed in the second century B.C., is an important landmark. The old fortress was built around A.D. 600.

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The archaelogical museum has a collection of objects dating back to antiquity. Kruj, the birthplace of Albanias legendary hero Skanderbeg, resisted an Ottoman takeover from 1443 to 1468. Kruj comes from the word krua spring in Albanian. In Kruj be sure to visit the restored castle, the Ethnographic Museum, the Skanderbeg Museum (located in the castle), and the old bazaar. A member of the UNESCO World Heritage List for its religious and cultural diversity throughout the centuries, Berat is home to the Kala, a castle built during the thirteenth century, as well as many Byzantine churches also dating back to that period. This south- central Albanian town also features a number of mosques built during the Ottoman era, from approximately 1417 onward. Jnos Hunyadi (1387? 1456) was a renowned Hungarian military leader.

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MSIMI 14
Kinema, imejl dhe internet
Movies, e-mail, and the Internet In this lesson you will learn: how to talk about movies how to talk about the Internet and e-mail You will learn the following grammatical points: the simple past indicative (class 6 verbs) the nominative and accusative forms of possessive adjectives

DIALOGU 14.1: BISED Vesa: Dita, far bre sot paradite? Dita: Sot fjeta deri von, se e kisha pushim. Vesa: N or u zgjove? Dita: U zgjova n orn 9:00. Hngra nj mngjes t mir dhe pastaj u mora me punt e shtpis. Vesa: U lodhe shum? Dita: U lodha se pastrova gjith shtpin. Pasi mbarova gjith punt, prgatita dhe drekn. Vesa: Po pasdite far bre? Dita: Pasi hngra drek, u bra gati dhe dola pr nj kafe. U takova me me dy shoqe dhe n orn 19:00 shkuam n kinema. Vesa: far lmi pat? Dita: Ishte nata e par e festivalit t lmit dhe n kinema u shfaqn dy lma t shkurtr: nj lm shqiptar dhe nj lm italian. Vesa: Ju plqyen lmat? Dita: Po. Ishin lma shum t bukur. Filmat u shoqruan dhe me diskutime q ngjalln shum interes tek publiku n sall. Vesa: Pr far u diskutua? Dita: U diskutua pr mesazhet e lmave. N sall ishin t pranishm dhe regjisort e lmave q u dhan prgjigje shum pyetjeve t publikut. Vesa: Zgjatn shum diskutimet? Dita: Gati nj or. Ne u larguam nga kinemaja, pasi mbaruan t gjitha diskutimet, sepse na plqeu shum atmosfera q u krijua. Vesa: Kur u ktheve n shtpi? Dita: Nuk ka shum. Tani do t shtrihem t e, sepse ndihem shum e lodhur. Po ti, si kalove sot? Vesa: Mir. Edhe un sapo u ktheva n shtpi. Sot shkova n Vlor, sepse kisha nj mbledhje. Dita: Kur u nise pr n Vlor?

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Vesa: U nisa hert n mngjes, sepse mbledhja ishte n orn 10:00. Dita: Kalove mir? Vesa: Shum mir. Tani po bie t e dhe un, sepse nesr do t ngrihem hert n mngjes. Dita: Faleminderit q m telefonove. Natn e mir. Vesa: Natn e mir.

FJALOR atmosfr/, -a, -a b/hem, u -ra bhem gti diskutm, -i, -e diskut/het, u -va gjm/, -i hrt krij/het, u -va kth/hem, u -va larg/hem, u -va ldh/em, u -a i,e ldhur mbldh/je, -ja, -je mrrem, u mra meszh, -i, -e ndhem, u ndjva ngr/hem, u -ta ngjll, -a ngjrj/e, -a, -a atmosphere to become to get ready discussion it is discussed sleep early it is created to return to leave to get tired tired meeting to be busy, occupied message to feel to get up, stand up to create, inspire, arouse event ns/em, u -a nuk ka shum pas pastr/j, -va, -ar i pransh/m,e - me publ/k, -e pnt e shtps sll/, -a spo se shfq/em, u -a shfqet shoqr/hem, u -va shtr/hem, u -va tak/hem, u -va zgjt, -a, -ur zgj/hem, u -va to leave, depart not long ago after, when to clean present public house chores room just, this moment because to appear, display, show (movie) it is being shown (movie) to be accompanied to lie down to meet with to last, lengthen, prolong to wake up

GRAMATIK 86 The simple past indicative of class 6 verbs Remember that class 6 verbs are those that end in -em or -hem (see 6, 70, 71), and they are usually nonactive forms. The simple past indicative of class 6 verbs is formed by adding the particle u in front of the corresponding active form. Look at the verbs lahem to be washed and futem to be put below and compare them with the corresponding active forms. Then answer the questions:

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un ti ai, ajo ne ju ata, ato

la to wash lava lave lau lam lat lan

lahem to be washed u lava u lave u la u lam u lat u lan

fut to put futa fute futi futm futt futn

futem to be put u futa u fute u fut u futm u futt u futn

What forms take u in front of the past indicative? _______________________________ What form is different in the corresponding passive form? _________________________ How is this form different? _____________________________________________ You noticed that the third- person singular is the only person that differs. The third person typically loses the past indicative ending that it takes in the active form. An exception to this rule are the verbs that end in -oj or -uaj, on the one hand, and those that end in -ej or -yej. Verbs that end in -oj or -uaj take the ending -ua instead of -oi in the third- person singular (as you can see, the third- person singular takes the same vowels that the plural forms take). This is illustrated with the verbs takoj/takohem and rruaj/rruhem in the following chart: takoj to meet un ti ai, ajo ne ju ata, ato takova takove takoi takuam takuat takuan takohem to meet with someone u takova u takove u takua u takuam u takuat u takuan rruaj to shave rrova rrove rroi rruam rruat rruan rruhem to be shaved by someone u rrova u rrove u rrua u rruam u rruat u rruan

Verbs that end in -ej or -yej take -ye instead of -eu in the third- person singular. As with the verbs above, notice that in the ending found in the third- person singular vowels, we nd the same vowels as those of the plural forms: kthej to return un ti ai, ajo ne ju ata, ato ktheva ktheve ktheu kthyem kthyet kthyen kthehem to return something, come back u ktheva u ktheve u kthye u kthyem u kthyet u kthyen thyej to break theva theve theu thyem thyet thyen thyhem to be broken u theva u theve u thye u thyem u thyet u thyen

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Verbs that take -ra in the simple past indicative (see 80) lose the -ri ending in the corresponding passive form:1 v to put un ti ai, ajo ne ju ata, ato vura vure vuri vum vut vun vihem to be put u vura u vure u vu u vum u vut u vun bj to do bra bre bri bm bt bn bhem to become, be made u bra u bre u b u bm u bt u bn

USHTRIMI 14.1 Indicate whether the following statements are true (T) or false (F) based on Dialogu 14.1. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. ____ Dita po bisedon me Enteln n telefon. ____ Dita u zgjua nga gjumi n orn 10:00. ____ Pasi hngri mngjesin, Dita u nis pr n Vlor. ____ Dita pastroi gjith shtpin. ____ Pasi mbaroi gjith punt, prgatiti drekn. ____ N orn 17:00 shkoi me dy shoqe n kinema. ____ N kinema u shfaq nj lm francez. ____ Filmi u shoqrua me diskutime n sall. ____ N sall ishte i pranishm dhe regjisori i lmit francez. ____ Dita u largua nga kinemaja, pasi mbaruan t gjitha diskutimet. ____ Vesa ishte n Vlor. ____ Ajo kishte atje nj mbledhje. ____ Vesa u nis pr n Vlor n orn 10:00. ____ Vesa do t ngrihet hert n mngjes.

USHTRIMI 14.2 Answer the following questions based on Dialogu 14.1. 1. Me k po bisedon Dita n telefon? _____________________________________________________________ 2. N or u zgjua Dita nga gjumi? _____________________________________________________________
1. Compare the simple past of the verb marr to take, receive with the simple past of merrem to get involved, occupy oneself with: marr: mora, more, mori, morm, mort, morn merrem: u mora, u more, u mor, u morm, u mort, u morn

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3. far bri pasi u zgjua nga gjumi? ____________________________________________________________ 4. A u lodh shum? ____________________________________________________________ 5. far bri ajo pasi i mbaroi gjith punt? ____________________________________________________________ 6. Me k u takua Dita pasdite? ____________________________________________________________ 7. N or shkoi me shoqet n kinema? ____________________________________________________________ 8. far lmi pan n kinema? ____________________________________________________________ 9. Si ishin lmat? ____________________________________________________________ 10. Me se u shoqruan lmat? ____________________________________________________________ 11. Pr far u diskutua? ____________________________________________________________ 12. Zgjatn shum diskutimet? ____________________________________________________________ 13. Ku ishte Vesa? ____________________________________________________________ 14. Kur u nis ajo pr n Vlor? ____________________________________________________________ 15. Pse shkoi Vesa n Vlor? ____________________________________________________________

USHTRIMI 14.3 Complete the following sentences with the past indicative of the verbs in parentheses. Ti ___________ (nisem) pr n shkoll. Ata _____________ (knaqem) shum n kinema. Vajza ____________ (largohem) nga kinemaja n orn 21:00. Fmijt _____________ (lahem) n det. Aktiviteti __________ (organizohet) shum bukur. N takim _________ (diskutohet) pr shum probleme. Filmi _____________ (shoqrohet) me diskutime. Djali _____________ (ngrihem) nga gjumi n orn 7:00. Vesa _____________ (lahem), _____________ (krihem) dhe _____________ (bhem) gati pr n pun. 10. Ne _____________ (mrzitem) shum n shtpi. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9.

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DIALOGU 14.2: LIBRA N INTERNET Indriti: Alo, Neritan, e more imejlin (e- mail) tim? Neritani: Sapo e kontrollova postn elektronike dhe pash imejlin tnd. E hapa dhe i shkarkova2 materialet e bashklidhura. I ruajta n kompjuter, por nuk i lexova dot se nuk pata koh. Do ti lexoj m von. Indriti: Shpresoj t t plqejn. Jan materiale q i nxora nga interneti. Neritani: M bre kureshtar tani. Mund t m thuash se materiale jan? Indriti: Jan materiale shum interesante. Bashk me shokt e mi bm nj krkim t gjat n internet dhe u habitm kur pam se kishte disa libra t vjetr pr gjuhn shqipe dhe historin e Shqipris, t cilt mund t shkarkohen falas nga interneti. Neritiani: Jan libra t autorve shqiptar apo t huaj? Indriti: T autorve t huaj. Neritani: N gjuh jan? Indriti: Jan n anglisht, frngjisht dhe gjermanisht. Neritani: I shkarkove t gjith librat nga interneti? Indriti: Po, i shkarkova t gjith dhe i ruajta n kompjuterin tim n nj skedar 3 t veant. Neritani: Shum mir. Besoj se kta libra jan me shum interes dhe pr miqt e mi, prandaj po i drgoj menjher me e-mail n adresat e tyre. Indriti: Po t duash, po t drgoj dhe nj adres n internet me libra elektronik n gjuhn shqipe. Neritani: libra jan? Indriti: Jan libra me tregime pr fmij, me prralla dhe legjenda n gjuhn shqipe. Neritani: M duken me shum interes pr motrn time. Ajo sht msuese dhe mund ti prdor kto materiale pr nxnsit e saj. Indriti: Shum mir. Po ta drgoj faqen e internetit me imejl n adresn tnde. Nse do materiale t tjera pr vete ose pr miqt e tu, mund t komunikojm me imejl. Kjo sht adresa ime e re. Neritani: Shum faleminderit.

FJALOR i, e bashkldhur drg/j, -va, -ar elektronk, -e e mi e ma e tu e ta i,e saj i,e tij i,e tre attached to send electronic my (masc. pl.) my (fem. pl.) your (masc. pl.) your (fem. pl.) her (masc., fem.) his (masc., fem.) their (pl.) flas fq/e, -ja, -e fqe internti habt/em, u -a imjl, -i, -e internt, -i krkm, -i, -e komunik/j, -va, -ar kontroll/j, -va, -ar kureshtr, -e free, gratis page webpage, website to be surprised e- mail Internet search to communicate to check curious

2. Colloquially, daunlodoj. 3. In colloquial speech, folder.

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legjnd/, -a, -a nxjrr, nxra, nxjrr prdr, -a prrll/, -a, -a pst/, -a, -a pst elektronke prandj raj, rajta, rajtur skedr, -i, - shkark/j, -va, -ar

legend to take out, download to use fairy tale, folktale post e- mail therefore to save folder to download

tim tme tnd tnde tn tn tregm, -i, -e i,e vent vt/e, -ja

my (acc. masc.) my (acc. fem.) your (acc. masc.) your (acc. fem.) our (acc. masc., fem.) our (acc. masc., fem.) story, narration special (one)self

GRAMATIK 87 Possessive adjectives: nominative forms Consider the following sentences and then answer the following questions: (1) (a) Djali im shkon n shkoll. My son goes to school. (b) Vajza ime nuk et shqip. My daughter does not speak Albanian. (2) (a) Djemt e mi shkojn n shkoll. My sons go to school. (b) Vajzat e mia nuk asin shqip. My daughters dont speak Albanian. How do djali in example (1a) and djemt in example (2b) differ? _______________________________________________________________ How do vajza in example (1b) and vajzat in example (2b) differ? _______________________________________________________________ Are we using the words in bold as the subject (nominative) or the object (accusative)? _______________________________________________________________ Im and e mi both mean my. Explain when we use im and when we use e mi. _______________________________________________________________ Im and ime both mean my. Explain when we use im and when we use ime. _______________________________________________________________ Explain when we use ime and when we use e mi. _______________________________________________________________ As you can see in the examples above, these four possessive forms (im, ime, e mi, and e mia) are all translated as my in English. In Albanian, however, possessive adjectives agree with the noun possessed. They agree in gender and number, and, as we will see in the next section, they also agree in case. In this section we are only looking at possessives used in nominative, that is, when they indicate possession of a subject noun. The chart below summarizes the different possessive forms in nominative:
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Masculine

Singular Feminine

Plural Masculine Feminine

my your his her our your their

shoku im shoku yt shoku i tij shoku i saj shoku yn shoku juaj shoku i tyre

shoqja ime shoqja jote shoqja e tij shoqja e saj shoqja jon shoqja juaj shoqja e tyre

shokt e mi shokt e tu shokt e tij shokt e saj shokt tan shokt tuaj shokt e tyre

shoqet e mia shoqet e tua shoqet e tij shoqet e saj shoqet tona shoqet tuaja shoqet e tyre

Since these forms are quite complex, in this book we will concentrate on and give you intensive practice with all the singular forms (my, your, his, her) and with the third- person plural (their). In the next volume we will reinforce the rst- and second- person plural forms. At this point, you should only be able to recognize these latter forms. 88 Possessive adjectives: accusative forms Possessive adjectives have different forms depending on the gender, number, and case of the person or object possessed. Read the following examples and then answer the questions that follow: (1) (a) Djali im shkon n shkoll. My son goes to school. (b) E njeh ti djalin tim? Do you know my son? (2) (a) Vajza ime nuk et shqip. My daughter does not speak Albanian. (b) E njeh ti vajzn time? Do you know my daughter? Explain why we use djali in example (1a) but djalin in example (1b): _______________________________________________________________ Why do you think we use im in example (1a) but tim in example (1b)? _______________________________________________________________ Why do we use im in example (1a) but ime in example (2a)? _______________________________________________________________ Why do we use tim in example (1b) but time in example (2b)? _______________________________________________________________ As you can see in the examples above, possessives agree with the element possessed. Not only do they agree in number, but they also agree in case. Yes, we sympathize with you! There are four ways to say my, and this only when the object possessed is singular (and when it is a subject [nominative] or an object [accusative])! Lets make the sentences above plural to see what happens to the possessive. You will see that there are two additional ways of saying my: (3) (a) Djemt e mi shkojn n shkoll. My sons go to school. (b) Vajzat e mia nuk asin shqip. My daughters dont speak Albanian.

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(4) (a) I njeh ti djemt e mi? Do you know my children? (b) I njeh ti vajzat e mia? Do you know my daughters? Lets see what patterns we nd here. When do we use e mi? Do we use this form exclusively with subjects? _______________________________________________________________ When do we use e mia? Do we use this form exclusively with direct objects? _______________________________________________________________ The charts below show the different forms of the possessives in nominative (when used with subjects) and accusative (when used as direct objects). We recommend that, as a beginning student, you master the following forms:
Possessive, rst- person singular (my):

Nominative Accusative Nominative Accusative Nominative Accusative Nominative Accusative Nominative Accusative

shoku im shokun tim shoku yt shokun tnd shoku i tij shokun e tij shoku i saj shokun e saj shoku i tyre shokun e tyre

shoqja ime shoqen time shoqja jote shoqen tnde shoqja e tij shoqen e tij shoqja e saj shoqen e saj shoqja e tyre shoqen e tyre

shokt e mi shokt e mi shokt e tu shokt e tu shokt e tij shokt e tij shokt e saj shokt e saj shokt e tyre shokt e tyre

shoqet e mia shoqet e mia shoqet e tua shoqet e tua shoqet e tij shoqet e tij shoqet e saj shoqet e saj shoqet e tyre shoqet e tyre

Possessive, second- person singular (your):

Possessive, third- person singular masculine (his):

Possessive, third- person singular feminine (her):

Possessive, third- person plural, masculine or feminine (their):

The following generalizations may help you memorize the forms above. 1. All the plural forms as well as the third- person possessive forms are formed with a linking article. This linking article is typically e with the exception of his when referring to a nominative singular possessed element. 2. All plural forms share the same forms in the nominative and accusative. 3. Add an -e to the masculine singular forms to form a feminine form for rst- person singular (my) and second- person singular (your). Pay attention to yt, which becomes jote in the feminine. 4. Add an -a to the masculine plural form to form a feminine plural form for the rst- person singular (my) and second- person singular (your). We recommend that you become acquainted with the following remaining forms. These forms will be reinforced for mastery in volume 2:

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Possessive, rst- person plural (our):

Nominative Accusative Nominative Accusative

shoku yn shokun ton shoku juaj shokun tuaj

shoqja jon shoqen ton shoqja juaj shoqen tuaj

shokt tan shokt tan shokt tuaj shokt tuaj

shoqet tona shoqet tona shoqet tuaja shoqet tuaja

Possessive, second- person plural (your):

USHTRIMI 14.4 Indicate whether the following statements are true (T) or false (F) based on Dialogu 14.2. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. _____ Neritani e hapi dhe e lexoi imejlin e Indritit. _____ Neritani i shkarkoi dhe i ruajti n kompjuterin e tij materialet. _____ Indriti bashk me shokt e tij bn nj krkim n internet. _____ Ata gjetn libra n turqisht pr historin e Shqipris. _____ Librat jan shum t vjetr dhe mund t shkarkohen falas. _____ N internet ka libra me tregime pr fmij, me prralla dhe legjenda n gjuhn shqipe. _____ Motra e Neritanit sht msuese dhe ajo sht shum e interesuar pr kta libra. _____ Indriti i drgon asaj nj imejl. _____ Indriti ka dhe materiale t tjera q jan me interes pr Neritanin dhe miqt e tij. _____ Ata do t komunikojn me imejl.

USHTRIMI 14.5 Answer the following questions based on Dialogu 14.2. 1. Me k po bisedon Indriti? _____________________________________________________________ 2. Cila sht pyetja e tij? _____________________________________________________________ 3. E lexoi Neritani imejlin e Indritit? _____________________________________________________________ 4. Ku i ruajti ai materialet q shkarkoi? _____________________________________________________________ 5. Pse u habitn Indriti dhe shokt e tij? _____________________________________________________________ 6. far u drgon Neritani me imejl miqve t tij? _____________________________________________________________ 7. Pse Neritani mendon se librat elektronik jan me interes pr motrn e tij? _____________________________________________________________

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8. Si e drgon Indriti informacionin pr librat elektronik? ____________________________________________________________ 9. A ka libra elektronik me prralla? ____________________________________________________________ 10. Si do t komunikojn Indriti dhe Neritani? ____________________________________________________________

USHTRIMI 14.6 Change the noun phrases in bold to the plural. Make all the necessary changes. 1. Djali im jeton n Tiran. ____________________________________________________________ 2. Shoku yt po studion n universitet. ____________________________________________________________ 3. Msuesja e tij shpjegoi msimin. ____________________________________________________________ 4. Vajza e saj po shikon nj fotogra. ____________________________________________________________ 5. Motra ime po bhet gati pr pun. ____________________________________________________________ 6. Shoqja ime po shkruan detyrn pa gabime. ____________________________________________________________ 7. Shtpia jote sht larg q ktej. ____________________________________________________________ 8. Televizori i tij isht i shtrenjt. ____________________________________________________________ 9. Hoteli i tyre sht i madh. ____________________________________________________________ 10. Shoqja e tyre shkoi n shkoll. ____________________________________________________________

USHTRIMI 14.7 Change the noun phrases in bold to the feminine. 1. Djali im jeton n Tiran. _____________________________________________________________ 2. Babai i tij sht mjek i njohur. _____________________________________________________________ 3. Miku yt do t vij tani. _____________________________________________________________

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4. Vllai i saj takohet shpesh me ne. ____________________________________________________________ 5. Djemt e mi studiojn n Rom. ____________________________________________________________ 6. Msuesit e tyre jan t shqetsuar pr msimin. ____________________________________________________________ 7. Studentt e tu po bjn detyrat. ____________________________________________________________ 8. Mjekt e tij jan shum t prgatitur. ____________________________________________________________ 9. Msuesit e mi jan shum t mir. ____________________________________________________________ 10. Shokt e saj duan t shkojn n kinema. ____________________________________________________________

USHTRIMI 14.8 Complete the following sentences with the accusative form of the noun phrases in parentheses. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. Po takoj _____________ (vajza ime). Bisedoj me _____________ (babai i tij). Fola me _____________ (shoku yt). Krkova _____________ (vllai i saj). Shkova n _____________ (shtpia e saj). Vizitova _____________ (nena jot). Po takohen me _____________ (msuesit e tyre). Shoh _____________ (studentt e tu). Mrzitem pr _____________ (problemet e tua). Gjeta _____________ (librat e tij).

LEXIMI 14.1
Besa e Konstandinit 4

Ishte nj her nj nn shum e mir q kishte dymbdhjet djem dhe nj vajz shum t bukur, me emrin Doruntin. Kur Doruntina u rrit, nj trim i huaj e krkoi pr nuse. Nna dhe njmbdhjet vllezrit nuk e pranuan kt krkes, sepse trimi ishte nga nj vend i largt. Vetm djali i vogl Konstandini ishte dakord. Trimi sht shum i mir, -i tha ai nns. Mua m plqen shum. T jap besn se kur ti ta duash Doruntinn n shtpi, do t shkoj un dhe do ta sjell.
4. Adapted from Mitrush Kutelis Tregime t mome shqiptare.

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Nna dhe njmbdhjet vllezrit u bindn. E fejuan dhe e martuan Doruntinn me trimin e largt. Bn dasm nnt dit. Ditn e dhjet trimi mori nusen dhe shkoi. Kaluan vite. Vendi u pushtua dhe dymbdhjet vllezrit luftuan dhe u vran n luft. Kur u vra Konstandini, nna shkoi te varri i Konstandinit dhe i tha: O Konstandin, ku sht besa q m dhe? Nuk do ta shoh kurr m Doruntinn. N mesnat, Konstandini u ngrit nga varri. Varri u b kal. Ai udhtoi dit e nat dhe arriti te shtpia e motrs. Doruntin, shkojm n shtpi. T pret nna. Ata u nisn pr n shtpi. Kur arritn n shtpi, Konstandini i tha motrs: Doruntin, un po hyj pak n kish. Vij m von. Doruntina shkoi n shtpi dhe trokiti n der. Kush je ti q po troket?e pyeti nna. Jam un, Doruntina! Ti nuk je Doruntina, ti je vdekja q m mori 12 djem dhe tani po vjen pr mua q t mos e shoh m Doruntinn. thua ashtu nn. Jam un Doruntina, nuk m njeh? Kush t solli ktu?e pyeti nna. M solli vllai im Konstandini. far thua, Doruntin? Konstandini nuk jeton m,i tha nna. Dhe t dyja, njra te pragu e tjetra te dera, plasn si qelqi me ver . . .

FJALOR bs/, -a, -a jap bsn mbaj bsn b/hem, u -ra bnd/em, u -a thua ashtu nn? dsm/, -a, -a fej/j, -va fej/hem, u -va h/j, -ra kl/, -i, kuaj krks/, -a, -a ksh/, -a, -a krr i,e lrgt luft/j, -va oath to give an oath to keep an oath to become to be convinced Why are you saying that, Mother? wedding to get someone engaged to get engaged to go in horse request church never distant to ght mart/j, -va mart/hem u -va ngr/hem, u -ta ns/e, -ja, -e njra . . . tjtra njri . . . tjtri nuk do ta shoh kurr m Doruntinn pls, -a pr/g, -u, -gje pran/j, -va pusht/hem, u -va qelq, -i rrt/em, u -a sjll, slla, sjll to marry, make someone marry to get married to rise bride, wife the one . . . the other, one another (fem.) the one . . . the other, one another (masc.) I will never see Doruntina to explode doorstep, threshold to accept to be invaded, embrace glass to grow up to send

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slli t dy, t dja trm, -i, -a trok/s, -ta vrr, -i, -e

he/she sent both of them brave person to knock grave

vdkj/e, -a, -e vdes, vdqa v/r, -ra, rra vrtem, u vrva

death to die wine to be killed

USHTRIMI 14.9 Indicate whether the following statements are true (T), false (F), or not mentioned (NM). Where they are false or not mentioned, briey explain why (in Albanian). 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. _____ Kjo sht nj histori e vjetr shqiptare. _____ Doruntina u martua shum larg. _____ Vendi u pushtua dhe dymbdhjet vllezrit luftuan dhe u vran n luft. _____ Dymbdhjet vllezrit u vran n luft. _____ Nna shkoi te varri i Konstandinit. _____ Konstandini nuk e mbajti besn. _____ Ai udhtoi dit e nat dhe shkoi te shtpia e motrs. _____ Kur arritn n shtpi, ai hyri n kish. _____ Njmbdhjet vllezrit e pritn Doruntinn te dera e shtpis. _____ Nna dhe Doruntina vdiqn tek dera.

USHTRIMI 14.10 Answer the following questions. Expand your answers as much as possible. 1. Pr far et kjo histori? _____________________________________________________________ 2. Pse u vran dymbdhjet vllezrit? _____________________________________________________________ 3. Pse shkoi nna te varri i Konstandinit? _____________________________________________________________ 4. far i tha nna Konstandinit? _____________________________________________________________ 5. bri Konstandini? _____________________________________________________________ 6. Si udhtoi ai? _____________________________________________________________ 7. Ku hyri ai kur arritn n shtpi? _____________________________________________________________ 8. far i thot Doruntina nns? _____________________________________________________________

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9. far i thot nna Doruntins? ____________________________________________________________ 10. Ishte e gzuar nna kur pa Doruntinn pas dasms? ____________________________________________________________

USHTRIMI 14.11 Create dialogues for the following situations. 1. Talk to a friend about all the activities he or she did yesterday. Ask as many questions as possible. 2. You go to a cybercaf in Tirana. Ask for as much information as possible about how to open your e-mail and download a le that a friend has sent you. 3. You must certainly remember a story or legend you learned in your childhood. Prepare to narrate it in front of the class.

INFORMACIONE KULTURORE Dhimitr Pasko, known as Dimitrie Pascu in Romania and as Mitrush Kuteli (1907 67) in Albania, sets the model for the short story in Albania. He is known for having adapted into prose traditional Albanian oral verse. His most famous work is Tregime t mome shqiptare (Old Albanian stories), published in Tirana in 1965. The Albanian word besa is usually translated into English as faith, trust, or oath of peace, but its truer meaning is word of honor, and it is typically associated with keeping a promise. The word rst gained prominence in the Kanun by Lek Dukagjini (1410 81), which contains a collection of customary codes and traditions transmitted orally and then recorded by this chieftain. In the Kanun, the besa is described as the highest authority. Some proverbs contain the word besa in them: Besa e shqiptarit nuk shitet pazarit (The Albanians word of honor cannot be sold in the bazaar). Besa e shqiptarit si purteka e arit (The Albanians word of honor is like the golden rod). The same word is also found in expressions like: e pres n bes dik i rri n bes dikujt shkel/thyej/kthej besn kam bes me bes Pr bes! to betray someone to keep ones promise to someone to break ones promise to be reliable loyally My word of honor!

Albanian songs, language, folklore, and literature are full of references to the besa.

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Sixth-century baptistery, Butrint (photo: Albes Fusha)

The legend of young Constantine, who rises from the grave to bring his sister Dhoqina back to his dying mother in fulllment of his pledge, is one of the best- known stories of Albanian folklore. In Albania, Constantines sister is known either as Dhoqina or Doruntina, and in the Italo-Albanian version of the legend, she appears as Garantina or Fjoruntina. Constantine is also known in northern Albania under the name Halil Garria. The Muslims of central Albania on occasion call him Ali or Hysen i vogl. The ballad is known wherever Albanian is spoken, not only in Albania but also in southern Italy, Kosovo, Montenegro, and Macedonia. It was adapted by the writer Ismail Kadare (1936present) in his successful 1979 novel Kush e solli Doruntinn? (Who brought Doruntina back?). This novel was translated into English as Doruntine (1998, New Amsterdam Books).5

5. See www.elsie.de.

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MSIMI 15
far dshironi?
How can I help you? In this lesson you will learn: how to ask and talk about food how to order food in a restaurant about Albanian money You will learn the following grammatical points: the indenite ablative case the imperative the denite ablative case basic uses of the ablative case in Albanian the pronouns who and which in the ablative case the ablative forms of demonstratives

DIALOGU 15.1: N DYQAN Pranvera: Mirdita! Shitsja: Mirdita, zonj! far dshironi? Pranvera: Nj kilogram djath. Shitsja: far djathi doni? Kemi djath t bardh dhe djath kakavall. Pranvera: Si sht djathi i bardh? Shitsja: sht shum i mir. Kemi shum lloje djathrash. Kemi djath Gjirokastre, djath Sarande etj. far ju plqen juve? Pranvera: A mund t provoj pak djath Gjirokastre? Shitsja: Patjetr. Pranvera: M plqen. Do t marr nj kilogram. Shitsja: Mir. Po tjetr, far dshironi? Pranvera: Dua dhe gjalp. Keni gjalp me pako? Shitsja: Po, kemi. Sa pako doni? Pranvera: M jepni tre pako gjalp. Po gjiz a keni? Shitsja: Kemi gjiz Sarande. sht shum e mir. Pranvera: sht gjiz me krip? Shitsja: Jo. sht gjiz pa krip. Kemi dhe salc kosi. Pranvera: N rregull, m bni gjysm kilogrami gjiz dhe dyqind gram salc kosi. A keni salsie? Shitsja: Kemi salsie vendi, sallam dhe proshut.

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Pranvera: Mir. Dua nj kilogram salsie vendi dhe 300 gram proshut. Po suxhuk Kosove a keni? Shitsja: Po, kemi. Sa kilogram do t merrni? Pranvera: Nj gjysm kilogrami. A keni mish? Shitsja: Kemi mish vii, mish qengji, mish lope, mish derri, mish deleje dhe pula. Pranvera: Si sht mishi i viit? Shitsja: Shum i freskt. Pranvera: M peshoni nj kilogram mish vii, pa kocka. Shitsja: Sot kemi dhe brinj qengji. Dshironi? Pranvera: Jo, faleminderit. Po marr dhe nj gjysm pule, nse keni. Shitsja: Kemi pula fshati shum t mira. Pranvera: M jepni dhe katrqind gram mish t grir. Shitsja: Urdhroni! Pranvera: Faleminderit. Tani, po shkoj t bj pagesn n ark.

FJALOR rk/, -a, -a b/j, -ra, -r m bj brnj/, -a, - brnj qngji dl/e, -ja, -e msh dleje drr, -i, -a msh drri djth/, -i, -ra djth i brdh djth kakavll djthrash fajtr, -e fst/, -a, -a i,e grr msh i grr gjlp/, -i, - gjlp me krp gjz/, -a gjz me krp gjz pa krp gjykts, -i, cash register, cashier to make, do, prepare, give give me rib lamb ribs ewe, goat goat meat pig pork cheese feta cheese fat cheese cheese (ablative pl. form) guilty holiday minced mincemeat butter salted butter curd, cottage cheese salted curd unsalted curd judge gjsm/, -a jp, dhsh, dhn m jpni jve kabn/, -a, -a kabn telefni kilogrm, -i, - kck/, -a, -a pa kcka ks, -i krp/, -a, -ra lp/, -a, - msh lpe llj, -i, -e msh, -i, -ra pags/, -a, -a pko, -ja, patjtr pazr, -i, -e pesh/j, -va, -ar m peshni prov/j, -va, -ar prosht/, -a, -a pl/, -a, -a gjsm ple half to give give me (imp.) to you booth telephone booth kilogram bone boneless yogurt salt cow beef type meat payment pack, package certainly, absolutely bazaar, marketplace to weigh weigh for me (imp.) to try, taste ham, bacon chicken half a chicken

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qngj, -i msh qngji slc/, -a, -a slc ksi sals/e, -ja, -e salse vndi sallm, -i, -e suxhk, -u, - tjt/r, -ri

lamb1 lamb sauce sour cream sausage local sausages sausage hot dog, sausage other, another (masc.)

tjt/r, -ra ull, -ri, -nj vj, -i vj ullri vnd, -i, -e v, -i, -a msh vi xhp, -i, -a

other, another (fem.) olive oil olive oil place, area, region, country calf veal pocket

GRAMATIK 89 Attributive ablative singular indenite nouns In Dialogu 15.1 you encountered several indenite nouns in the ablative case: mish vii djath Sarande salc kosi veal Saranda cheese sour cream (lit., yogurt sauce)

The ablative case is typically used when a noun modies an indenite noun. These constructions are usually called attributive ablative constructions. Since the noun in the ablative case functions as an attribute to the noun, it modies the noun like an adjective.2 Lets look at the formation of ablative forms, starting with singular indenite nouns: Masculine nouns: vi k mish vii reel ku veal g jam

Feminine nouns: lop dele qumsht lope cows milk mish deleje ewe meat

The nouns in bold above are in the ablative indenite case. How do we form the ablative indenite case of these nouns? Do you see a pattern? What form do we take as the base? What do we add to that base?

1. Mostly used as qingj. 2. If the noun to be modied is in the denite form, then the attribute will be in the genitive: mishi i viit the veal meat djathi i Sarands the Saranda cheese salca e kosit the sour cream (lit., the yogurt sauce) These constructions where the attribute is in the genitive are called attributive genitive constructions.

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Masculine singular nouns: Base vi k Ablative Form _______________ _______________

Feminine singular nouns: Base pul dele Ablative Form _______________ _______________

What previous form(s) does the ablative indenite remind you of? ____________________________________ (see 67) ____________________________________ (see 77) Lets consider rst the ablative indenite form of masculine singular nouns:
Nominative Indenite Denite Ablative Indenite

vi qengj k zog krah

vii qengji ku zogu krahu

vii (veal) qengji (lamb) ku (g) zogu (bird) krahu (hand)

As you can see, the masculine ablative indenite form is built on the form of the indenite noun in the nominative case. All we need to do is add -i to the nominative indenite form of the masculine singular noun to obtain the ablative indenite form. For nouns ending in -k, -g, or -h, we add -u to the indenite form of the nominative. Notice that the ablative indenite forms are exactly the same as the denite nominative forms when the noun is masculine and singular. Lets consider next the ablative indenite form of feminine singular nouns:
Nominative Indenite Denite Ablative Indenite

Sarand pul Shqipri shtpi dele kala

Saranda pula Shqipria shtpia delja kalaja

Sarande (Saranda) pule (chicken, lit., hen) Shqiprie (Albania) shtpie (house) deleje (ewe) kalaje (castle)

As you can see above, there are basically three patterns (see also 67):

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1. If the nominative indenite noun ends in -, replace - with -e (pul pule).3 2. If the nominative indenite noun ends in a stressed -i, add -e (shtpi shtpie). 3. If the nominative indenite noun ends in -e or in a stressed vowel except -i, add -je (dele deleje, kala kalaje). This is an elsewhere or default rule. If you havent applied rules 1 or 2, simply apply rule 3.4 90 Attributive ablative plural indenite nouns Consider the following examples. The plural nouns in bold are the nouns bearing the ablative case: kostume burrash kpuc grash disa lloje shtpish disa lloje kalash nj tuf lulesh mens suits womens shoes some types of houses some types of fortresses a bunch of owers

How do we get the ablative form of plural indenite nouns? Which form do we take as the base? What sufx do we add to that base? Do masculine and feminine nouns differ in the way their ablative plural denite form is created? Masculine plural nouns: Base burr dele Ablative Form _______________ _______________

Feminine plural nouns: Base grua shtpi kala lule Ablative Form _______________ _______________ _______________ _______________

You have just discovered that the ablative plural of indenite nouns, both masculine and feminine, is formed by adding -sh to the plural indenite form. 91 Basic uses of the ablative indenite case (a) We have already seen (90) that the ablative indenite is used when an indenite noun serves as an attribute to another indenite noun, that is, when an indenite noun modies another indenite noun: mish vii qumsht lope veal (lit., meat of veal) cows milk (lit., milk of cow)

3. Feminine nouns that end in -r take -re: Gjirokastr Gjirokastre. 4. The word grua woman falls into the elsewhere rule. It does not end in - or -e, so it ought to take -je. That is exactly what we observe: grua gruaje.

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As we observed in 90, when the main noun is denite, then both nouns must be denite: mishi i viit qumshti i lops the veal (lit., the meat of the veal) the cows milk (lit., the milk of the cow)

(b) The indenite ablative is typically used to indicate the material composition of an object: kpuc lkure kmish pambuku brinj qengji leather shoes (lit., shoes of leather) cotton shirt (lit., shirt of cotton) lamb chops (lit., chops of lamb)

As we observed in (a), if the main noun is denite, then we must use the genitive form: kpuct e lkurs kmisha e pambukut brinjt e qengjit the leather shoes (lit., the shoes of the leather) the cotton shirt (lit., the shirt of the cotton) the lamb chops (lit., the chops of the lamb)

(c) The ablative indenite is also used with some measure phrases: shum lloje djathrash nj gjysm kilogrami many types of cheese half a kilo

However, notice that with the following measure expressions, we use the indenite form: tre pako gjalp dyqind gram proshut nj kilogram salsie three packages of butter two hundred grams of ham one kilogram of sausages

92 far versus Since Msimi 1 you have been using both far and to mean what. However, you had to be careful to remember the form of the noun that follows far: gjuh, far gjuhe? kombsi, far kombsie? profesion, far profesioni? n or, n far ore? ngjyr, far ngjyre? what language? what nationality? what profession? at what time? what color? _________________ _________________

What is the form of the noun that follows ? What is the form of the noun that follows far?

As you can see in the previous examples, is followed by the indenite form of the noun,5 while far is followed by the ablative form of the indenite noun. Exactly the same behavior is observed in the plural forms. libra prdorni n klas? far librash prdorni n klas? What books do you use in that class?

5. The indenite form of the noun is the form given in the vocabulary lists and in dictionaries, in general. It corresponds to the nominative or accusative indenite form of the noun.

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fruta vini n sallat? far frutash vini n sallat?

What fruits do you put in that salad?

93 The imperative Imperative forms are used when we want to express an order. In Dialogu 15.1, you encountered the following imperative forms: M peshoni nj kilogram mish vii. M jepni tre pako gjalp. M bni gjysm kilogrami gjiz. Please weigh a kilogram of veal for me. Please give me three packages of butter. Please give me half a kilo of cottage cheese.

The imperative is used only for the second-person singular (ti) and second-person plural (ju). The second-person plural in the imperative has the same form as the second-person plural in the present indicative (see 12, 46, and 61). The following chart shows the forms for regular class 1, 2, and 3 verbs, respectively:
Indicative Imperative

punoj hap pi

(ju) punoni (ju) hap (ju) pi

punoni! hapni! pini!

work! open! drink!

Verbs that undergo a vowel change in the present indicative in the ju form also exhibit the vowel change in the imperative of the ti form:
Indicative Imperative

dal e marr jap

(ju) dilni (ju) ini (ju) merrni (ju) jep

dilni! ini! merrni! jepni!

go out! sleep! take! give!

The forms of the singular ti are a bit more complex and exhibit the following patterns: (a) For class 2, 3, and 4 verbs as well as for class 1 verbs ending in -oj and -ij, take the imperative form for ju (which is equivalent to the ju form of the present indicative) and drop the ending -ni: hap pi eci iki punoj fshij hapni! pini! ecni! ikni! punoni! fshini! hap! pi! ec! ik! puno! fshi! open! drink! walk! go! work! clean, sweep!

If the ju form undergoes a vowel change in the ju form, use the same vowel in the ti form: dal e marr jap dilni! ini! merrni! jepni dil! i! merr! jep! go out! sleep! take! give!

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(b) Class 1 verbs that end in -aj, -j, or -uaj keep the nal -j in the ti form:6 laj luaj bj shkruaj lani! luani! bni! shkruani! laj! luaj! bj! shkruaj! wash! play! do! write!

Monosyllabic verbs that end in -ej also keep the -j in the ti form; those verbs with more than one syllable drop the -j. Where the vowel changes in the ju form, the same vowel is observed in the ti forms: gjej krcej blej gjeni! krceni! blini gjej! krce! bli! nd! dance! buy!

(c) Class 2 verbs that end in -s take a -t in the ti form: pyes pyesni! pyet! ask!

If the verb undergoes a vowel change in the ju form of the present indicative, the same vowel is maintained for the ti form in the imperative: ngas pres shes vras zbres ngani! pritni! shitni! vrani! zbritni! nga! prit! shit! vra! zbrit! ride!7 wait! buy! kill!8 get off!

(d) Certain verbs take -r:9 bie hyj l shpie v z bini hyni! lini! shpini! vini! zini! bjer! hyr! lr! shpjer! vr! zr! fall! come in! leave! send! put! take, hold!

(e) Some verbs are irregular: dua as jam ti duaj! fol! ji! ju doni! isni! jini! want! speak! be!

6. The same rule applies to verbs that end in -yej and -yj, but we will set these aside for the moment, since they are not as productive. 7. You may also hear ngit, ngitni instead of nga, ngani ride! 8. You may also hear vrit, vritini instead of vra, vrani kill! 9. Notice that most of these verbs also take -ra in the simple past indicative: hyj hyra to enter, come in, shpie shpura to send, v vura to put, z zura to take, hold. Exceptions would be bie rash to fall and l lash to leave.

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kam them vij

ki! thuaj! eja!

kini! thoni! ejani!

have! say! come!

94 Negative imperative clitic pronouns To form the negative of an imperative, simply use mos in front of the imperative form of the verb: Fol shpejt! Shkruaj ngadal! Hyni brenda! Dilni nga klasa! Mos fol shpejt! Mos shkruaj ngadal! Mos hyni brenda! Mos dilni nga klasa! Dont speak fast! Dont write fast! Dont come in! Dont leave the class!

In Dialogu 15.1, you encountered the following imperative forms: M peshoni nj kilogram. M jepni tre pako gjalp. M bni gjysm kilogrami gjiz. Please weigh a kilogram for me. Please give me three packages of butter. Please give me half a kilo of cottage cheese.

As you can see, the clitic pronoun m precedes the imperative. This is very typical of spoken Albanian. In a more formal style, the clitic pronoun m typically follows the afrmative imperative. The same behavior is exhibited by the pronoun na (to) us:
Informal style Formal style

M pesho nj kilogram! M jep tre pako! Na jep nj kilogram!

Peshom nj kilogram! Jepm tre pako! Jepna nj kilogram!

Please weigh a kilo for me! Please give me three packages! Give us a kilo, please!

In the examples above, we use the imperative for the ti form. The same is observed with the ju forms, although the structure is slightly more complicated when the clitic pronoun follows the verb:
Informal style Formal style

M peshoni nj kilogram! M jepni tre pako! Na jepni nj kilogram!

Peshomni nj kilogram! Jepmni tre pako! Jepnani nj kilogram!

Please weigh a kilo for me! Please give me three packages! Please give us a kilo!

As you can see above, in the formal style the clitic pronouns (m and na) go between the verb and the -ni ending. This phenomenon is called mesoclisis, and it is typically found with the ju form in the imperative when there is a clitic pronoun. Verbs that keep the -j in the imperative (see 92(b)) drop the -j in the clitic pronoun that follows: Na shkruaj nj kartolin! M laj nj kmish! Shkruana nj kartolin! Lam nj kmish! (Please) write us a postcard! (Please) wash a shirt for me!

Other clitic pronouns will follow the formal style; that is, they will follow the afrmative imperative.

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USHTRIMI 15.1 Indicate whether the following statements are true (T) or false (F) based on Dialogu 15.1. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. ____ N dyqan ka djath t bardh dhe djath kakavall. ____ Atje ka djath Gjirokastre, djath Sarande etj. ____ Pranvera blen 2 kilogram djath Delvine. ____ Ajo blen dhe 1 pako gjalp me krip. ____ Blersja blen dy kilogram gjiz dhe pesqind gram salc kosi. ____ N dyqan nuk ka sallam dhe salsie vendi. ____ Pranvera blen nj kilogram salsie vendi dhe 300 gram proshut. ____ Pranvera krkon t blej suxhuk Kosove, por nuk ka n dyqan. ____ Shitsja thot se kan mish vii, mish qengji, mish lope, mish derri, por nuk kan mish deleje. ____ Mishi i viit nuk sht shum i freskt. ____ Pranvera do t blej dy kilogram mish vii me kocka. ____ Pranvera blen dhe dyqind gram mish t grir. ____ Shitsja thot se nuk ka pula n dyqan. ____ Pranvera i jep lekt shitses.

USHTRIMI 15.2 Answer the following questions based on Dialogu 15.1. 1. far djathi blen Pranvera? ____________________________________________________________ 2. far djathi provon Pranvera? ____________________________________________________________ 3. far gjalpi ka n dyqan? ____________________________________________________________ 4. A ka gjiz n dyqan? ____________________________________________________________ 5. Si sht gjiza? ____________________________________________________________ 6. A blen Pranvera salc kosi? ____________________________________________________________ 7. far salsiesh ka n dyqan? ____________________________________________________________ 8. A ka suxhuk Kosove n dyqan? ____________________________________________________________ 9. Sa lloje mishi ka n dyqan? ____________________________________________________________ 10. far mishi blen Pranvera? ____________________________________________________________

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11. A sht i freskt mishi i viit? ____________________________________________________________ 12. A blen Pranvera mish t grir? ____________________________________________________________

USHTRIMI 15.3 Complete the following sentences with the ablative form of the noun in parentheses. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. N dyqan ka mish ___________ (pul). Vajzat po han mish _____________ (qengj). Po blej salc ____________ (kos). N restorant ha shpesh brinj _____________ (qengj). Bleva disa lloje _____________ (djath). Ka disa lloje _____________ (shtpi) n projekt. Ky model ______________ (zyr), m plqen.

USHTRIMI 15.4 Complete the following sentences with the correct form of the noun in parentheses. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. far ___________ (dit) sht sot? N far ___________ (or) sht takimi? far ____________ (msim) kemi nesr? Pr far _____________ (problem) po diskutoni? N far __________ (vend) jeni?

USHTRIMI 15.5 Put the verbs in parentheses in the imperative. Provide both the ti and the ju forms of the imperative. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. ___________ (Hyj) n shtpi! ___________ (Dal) nga klasa! ____________ (Msoj) shum! Mos _____________ (kaloj) n rrug! __________ (Ha) tani! Mos _________ (hap) librat! _____________ (Marr) n telefon! Mos _____________ (shkoj) n shkoll sot! ______________ (Kam) m shum kujdes! _____________ (Jam) m t vmendshm!
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DIALOGU 15.2: N RESTORANT Kamarieri: Mirmbrma! Mir se vini! Klientt: Mirmbrma. Duam nj tavolin pr katr veta. Kamarieri: Ku dshironi t uleni? Klientt: A mund t ulemi tek ajo tavolina afr dritares? Kamarieri: Po. M ndiqni, ju lutem. Kamarieri: far dshironi t pini? Klientt: Duam dy shishe uj natyral dhe nj shishe uj me gaz. Na sillni dhe nj shishe ver t kuqe. Kamarieri: far dshironi t porosisni? Klientt: far na sugjeroni? Kamarieri: Un po ju tregoj n llim menyn. Po lloj me supat dhe sallatat. Kemi lloje t ndryshme supash: sup me perime, sup peshku, sup me domate, etj. Kemi dhe disa lloje sallatash: sallat me perime t skars ose t ziera: sallat me domate, tranguj, ullinj; sallat me speca turshi; sallat mikse etj.10 Prve ktyre mund t porosisni dhe sallat sipas dshirs. far dshironi t merrni? Klientt: Po marrim nj sallat me perime t skars dhe nj sallat mikse. Po pr pjat t par, far mund t porosisim? Kamarieri: Nse doni produkte mishi, mund t zgjidhni mes llojeve t ndryshme t brxollave dhe t biftekve: brxoll vii, brxoll derri, biftek vii. Prve tyre kemi dhe let pule. Klientt: A keni gatime peshku? Kamarieri: Po. Kemi lloje t ndryshme peshku: levrek, koran, gjuhz, barbun, etj. Mund t prgatisim dhe karkaleca, sepje, kallamar etj. Klientt: Si sht peshku? Kamarieri: sht peshk shum i freskt. E marrim do dit prej peshkatarve vendas. Klientt: Po gatime tradicionale shqiptare, a keni? Kamarieri: Po, kemi tav kosi me mish qengji, tav me patllxhan ose me speca t mbushur, patate furre etj. Klientt: Ather, po porosisim dy biftek t skars, nj sallat me fruta deti, nj pjat me karkaleca t skuqur dhe nj tav kosi. Kamarieri: Doni t porosisni dhe ndonj gj tjetr? Klientt: Dhe nj pyetje: far mblsirash keni? Kamarieri: Krahas mblsirave tradicionale si bakllavaja dhe kadai, kemi edhe krem karamel, torta t ndryshme, akullore etj. Klientt: Po marrim nga nj mblsir t ndryshme pr secilin prej nesh. Kamarieri: Po ju sjell menjher porosin.

10. You will also nd zgar instead of skars in colloquial speech.

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FJALOR asht bakllav, -ja, barb/n, -ni, -nj brxll/, -a, -a brxll drri brxll vi biftk, -u, - domt/e, -ja, -e mblsr/, -a, -a lt/, -a, -a lt ple11 lt vi frt/, -a, -a frta dti frr/, -a gatm, -i, -e gz, -i, -e gjhz, -a, -a kadaf, -i kallamr, -i, - karkalc, -i, -a korn, -i, - krhas krp, -i krem karaml kryesr, -e levrk, -u, - lokl, -i, -e i,e mbshur mes men, -ja, M ndqni, ju ltem! mks, -e ndjk, ndqa, ndjkur nesh ndnj gj ndnj gj tjtr thus baklava red mullet chop pork chop beef steak beefsteak tomato sweet llet chicken llet beef llet fruit seafood baked cooking, cuisine gas tongue kadai, a type of sweet squid shrimp trout beside, along with carp caramel cream main, principal bass parlor stuffed among, across menu Follow me, please! mix to follow (to) us (abl.) anything anything else i,e pr patllxhn, -i, - perme, -t perme t skrs perme t zera peshkatr, -i, - prgat/s, -ta, -tur prms prv prv ktre prv tre pj/e, -a, -e pjt/, -a, -a poros/s, -ta, -tur qft/e, -ja, -e rreth sallt/, -a, -a secl/i, -a spj/e, -a, -e sips sips dshrs spr skr/, -a, -a i,e skqur spc, -i, -a sugjer/j, -va, -ar sp/, -a, -a sp me perme sp pshku sp me domte shsh/e, -ja, -e shishqebp,-i, - tv/, -a, -a trt/, -a, -a tradicionl, -e rst eggplant, aubergine vegetables grilled vegetables stewed vegetables sherman to prepare through besides, apart from besides these besides them drink plate, dish to order meatball around salad each one, every single one cuttlesh according to, in conformity with at will above, on grill fried pepper to suggest soup vegetable soup sh soup tomato soup bottle shish kebab pan cake traditional

11. In colloquial speech you will also hear leto.

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trngu/ll, -lli, -j tursh, -a, l/em, u -a, -ur ull, -ri, -nj ushqm, -i, -e varint, -i, -e vndas, -e

cucumber pickle to sit olive food variant, variation local

vends, -a, -ur vt/, -a, -a skr/, -a, -a t skrs zgjdh, zgjdha zgjdhni i,e zer

to place, set person grill grilled to select, choose you select boiled

GRAMATIK 95 Ablative singular denite nouns In the previous sections of this lesson we learned how to form the ablative indenite. In this section we will learn how to form the ablative denite. You have already encountered a few examples in Dialogu 15.2: afr dritares sipas dshirs prej peshkatarve krahas mblsirave near the window at will from the shermen apart from the sweets

The ablative forms are in bold in the examples above. What form(s) do these forms remind you of? ______________________________________ These endings are familiar to you because they are the same as the genitive denite forms that you learned in 62 and 63. The masculine singular form is based on the denite form of the noun. All you need to do is add -t to that form. The feminine singular form, on the other hand, is formed on the indenite form, and you need to add -s or -s:
Indenite Nominative Denite Genitive/Ablative Denite

baba libr shok nn Drit shtpi Shqipri

babai libri shoku nna Drita shtpia Shqipria

babait (father) librit (book) shokut (friend) nns (mother) Drits (Drita) shtpis (house) Shqipris (Albania)

The plural forms are also identical to the corresponding genitive ones. All you need to do is add -ve to the plural form:

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Indenite

Plural Indenite

Genitive/Ablative Plural Denite

libr student studente vajz

libra student studente vajza

librave (books) studentve (students, masc.) studenteve (students, fem.) vajzave (girls)

96 Basic uses of the ablative case The ablative denite is used only after the following prepositions and adverbs: afr gjat jasht krahas kundr larg para pas prball prgjat prpara prve pran prapa prej rreth sipas near during outside beside, along; in addition to opposite, against far from before after opposite, in front of along in front of besides, except for near, close behind from, because of around according to

Ne banojm afr universitetit. We live near the university. Gjat msimit, studentt asin vetm shqip. During the lesson the students speak only Albanian. Prpara shkolls, ka nj hotel. In front of the school there is a hotel. Sipas Gencit, sot kemi pushim. According to Genci, we have the day off today. far ka prapa banks? What is there behind the bank? Po vij prej takimit. Im coming from the meeting. far ka prball dyqanit dhe kinemas? What is there opposite the store and the cinema?

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97 The ablative forms of kush who and cili which In Msimi 10 (65) and Msimi 11 (78) you learned that the form of the pronoun kush in the genitive and dative is kujt. The same form is used also in the ablative, but in the ablative this form requires the presence of a preposition, as do ablative denite nouns (see 95): Prej kujt po merr mesazhe? Who(m) are you receiving messages from? Afr kujt banon ti? Near whom do you live? (i.e., You live near who?) Notice that in English the interrogative pronoun who(m) may appear separated from the preposition or immediately following the preposition. In Albanian kujt must always follow the preposition, and it must appear in front of the sentence. Lets now turn to cili which. The ablative forms of cili are the same as the corresponding genitive and dative forms you learned before (68, 78). The following chart summarizes the different forms of cili that we have studied so far:
Masculine Singular Feminine Masculine Plural Feminine

Nominative Accusative Genitive Dative Ablative

cili cilin i/e/t cilit cilit (prej) cilit

cila ciln i/e/t cils cils (prej) cils

cilt cilt i/e/t cilve cilve (prej) cilve

cilat cilat i/e/t cilave cilave (prej) cilave

Prej cilit djal merrni mesazhe? From which boy do you receive messages? Prej cils vajz merrni mesazhe? From which girl do you receive messages? Prej cilve djem merrni mesazhe? From which boys do you receive messages? Prej cilave vajza merrni mesazhe? From which girls do you receive messages? 98 The ablative forms of ky this and ai that The ablative forms of demonstratives are the same as the genitive and dative forms. The ablative forms, however, require the use of a preposition. The following charts summarize the different forms of ky this and ai that:
Singular Masculine Feminine Plural Masculine Feminine

Nominative Accusative Genitive Dative Ablative

ky kt i/e/t ktij ktij (prej) ktij

kjo kt i/e/t ksaj ksaj (prej) ksaj

kta kta i/e/t ktyre ktyre (prej) ktyre

kto kto i/e/t ktyre ktyre (prej) ktyre

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Singular Masculine Feminine

Plural Masculine Feminine

Nominative Accusative Genitive Dative Ablative

ai at i/e/t atij atij (prej) atij

ajo at i/e/t asaj asaj (prej) asaj

ata ata i/e/t atyre atyre (prej) atyre

ato ato i/e/t atyre atyre (prej) atyre

Here are some examples with these demonstratives in the ablative case: rreth asaj date sipas ksaj gazetareje prpara atij takimi prgjat ktij dimri around that date according to that journalist (fem.) before that meeting during this winter

Notice that the noun following the demonstrative appears in its indenite ablative from (see 89). 99 The ablative forms of the personal pronouns In Dialogu 15.2, you encountered some of the personal pronouns used in the ablative: . . . pr secilin prej nesh Prve tyre kemi dhe let pule. . . . for each of us Besides them, we also have chicken llets.

The following chart summarizes the forms of the personal pronouns in the nominative, ablative, and dative cases. Notice that, unlike what we have observed for nouns, demonstratives, and the pronouns kush and cili, for which the genitive, dative, and ablative forms are the same, the dative and ablative forms of personal pronouns differ:
Nominative Ablative Dative strong weak

un ti ai ajo ne ju ata ato

(prej) meje (prej) teje (prej) atij (prej) asaj (prej) nesh (prej) jush (prej) (a)tyre (prej) (a)tyre

mua ty atij asaj neve juve atyre atyre

m t i i na ju u u

Here are some examples of personal pronouns following a preposition that requires the ablative case: Sokoli sht prapa meje. Vera sht prball atij dhe asaj. Banon msuesi afr teje? Sokol is behind me. Vera is between him and her. Does the teacher live near you?

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USHTRIMI 15.6 Indicate whether the following statements are true (T) or false (F) based on Dialogu 15.2. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. _____ Tre klient po bisedojn me kamarierin. _____ Ata ulen pran ders. _____ Klientt porosisin dy shishe uj natyral dhe nj shishe uj me gaz. _____ Kamarieri u tregon menyn. _____ Klientt porosisin sup me perime. _____ Ata marrin dhe nj sallat me perime t skars. _____ Peshku sht shum i freskt. _____ Klientt porosisin peshk t skars. _____ N restorant nuk ka gatime tradicionale. _____ Klientt porosisin dy biftek t skars, nj sallat me fruta deti, nj pjat me karkaleca t skuqur dhe nj tav kosi.

USHTRIMI 15.7 Answer the following questions based on Dialogu 15.2. 1. Me k po bisedon kamarieri? ____________________________________________________________ 2. Ku ulen klientt? ____________________________________________________________ 3. far duan t pin ata? ____________________________________________________________ 4. far ka n meny? ____________________________________________________________ 5. far sallatash porosisin ata? ____________________________________________________________ 6. far lloje peshku ka n restorant? ____________________________________________________________ 7. Si sht peshku? ____________________________________________________________ 8. far porosisin ata? ____________________________________________________________ 9. far mblsirash ka n restorant? ____________________________________________________________ 10. far marrin ata? ____________________________________________________________

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USHTRIMI 15.8 Put the noun phrases in bold in the ablative plural. 1. Studenti rri pran dritares. _____________________________________________________________ 2. Krahas ksaj detyre, ajo ka dhe detyra m t rndsishme. _____________________________________________________________ 3. Jemi shum t shqetsuar prej ktij informacioni. _____________________________________________________________ 4. Rreth ksaj ngjarjeje ka shum diskutime. _____________________________________________________________ 5. Sipas ksaj gazetareje situata sht e vshtir. _____________________________________________________________

USHTRIMI 15.9 Change the nouns in bold in the following sentences to the corresponding feminine form, as in the example. Make all other necessary changes. Un po rri pran msuesit. Un po rri pran msueses.

1. Krahas djemve n takim jan dhe disa vajza. _____________________________________________________________ 2. Ata po marrin sugjerime prej kamarierit. _____________________________________________________________ 3. Sipas studentit, msimi sht shum i vshtir. _____________________________________________________________ 4. Po diskutojn rreth kompozitorve shqiptar. _____________________________________________________________ 5. Krkojm edhe nj gazetare, prve ktyre gazetarve q kemi. _____________________________________________________________

USHTRIMI 15.10 Complete the following sentences with the appropriate form of the words in parentheses. Be careful: some prepositions require the accusative; others require the ablative. 1. Pas __________ (pranver) vjen __________ (ver). 2. Artani merr shum ___________ (letr) prej ___________ (nn) dhe ________ (motr). 3. Banojm afr ____________ (shkoll).

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4. _____________ (Libr) ____________ (gramatik) sht mbi ____________ (tryez) afr ______________ (dritare). 5. ___________ (Dollap) ___________ (rroba) sht n ____________ (dhom) _________ (i vogl). 6. _____________ (Libra) _____________ (prralla) jan mbi __________ (tryez). 7. Pran ____________ (shkoll) sht nj spital. 8. Mos __________ (v, ti) ___________ (revista) n ____________ (sirtar) __________ (tryez)! 9. Ne ___________ (marr) letra prej ______________ (prindr). 10. Ku do t __________ (shkoj, ti) nesr? Nesr do t _________ (shkoj) tek ________ (shoqe) pr ________ (dark). Do t _______ (vij) edhe ti?

LEXIMI 15.1
Restorantet

Menyja n restorantet shqiptare sht e larmishme. Ajo sht zakonisht nj kombinim i gatimeve tradicionale shqiptare me gatimet e vendeve t ndryshme. Gatimet tradicionale shqiptare ngjajn kryesisht me kuzhinn turke dhe greke ku produktet e mishit zn nj vend t rndsishm. Megjithat, vitet e fundit, prirja sht drejt kuzhins italiane. Prsa u prket pijeve, n restorante mund t gjesh verra shqiptare, franceze, italiane etj. Jan m shum se 120 lloje verrash q ofrojn sot restorantet n Shqipri, sidomos n Tiran. Nj pije tradicionale shqiptare sht rakia. mimet n restorante jan kryesisht n monedhn shqiptare, n lek. Ka nj problem me prdorimin e lekut, sepse n Shqipri njerzit asin me lek t reja dhe me lek t vjetra.12 Shifra n lek t reja ka nj zero m pak nga shifra me lek t vjetra, p.sh: me lek t reja mimi i nj sallate sht 250 Lek, kurse me lek t vjetra sht 2 500 Lek (rreth 3.125 USD). Zyrtarisht, t gjitha mimet jan me lek t reja, por njerzit asin shpesh me lek t vjetra. mimet variojn sipas restoranteve. Kshtu, mimet e antipastave variojn nga 400 deri n 1 200 lek, kurse supat kushtojn nga 150 n 800 lek. Pjatat me mish variojn nga 450 n 900 lek. Picat e llojeve t ndryshme variojn nga 300 lek n 700800 Lek. N restorante t mira mund t paguani dhe me kart krediti, ose n monedh t huaj. N kryeqytet dhe n qytetet kryesore ka kudo zyra t kmbimit valutor dhe makina ATM (bankomate).

12. Actually, instead of lek t reja, the grammatical version should be lek t rinj new lek, lek t vjetr old lek, since lek is a masculine noun, but in spoken Albanian we use lek t reja, lek t vjetra, as if it were a feminine noun.

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100 lek

200 lek

1 000 lek

5 000 lek

FJALOR antipst/, -a, -a bankomt, -i byrk, -u, - mm, -i, -e drjt hambrger, -i, - krt/, -a, -a krt kredti kmb/j, -va, -er kmbm valutr ksht kombinm, -i, -e kud i larmsh/m, e -me lk, -u, - megjthat mondh/, -a, -a mondh e haj appetizer ATM machine pie prize, cost toward hamburger card credit card to change, exchange money exchange thus, so, like this combination everywhere diverse lek (Albanian currency) however coin, currency foreign currency ngj/j, -va, -r p.sh., pr shmbull prdorm, -i, -e prk/s, -ta, -tur prsa i/u prkt pc/, -a, -a prrj/e, -a, -e rak, -a sistm, -i, -e shf/r, -ra, -ra vari/j, -va, -ar valutr v/r, -ra, -rra z, zra, zn z nj vnd zra e kmbmit zyrtarsht to resemble for example use belong regarding pizza tendency, trend brandy system gure, cipher to vary exchange (ofce) wine to take to take a place money ofcially, formally

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USHTRIMI 15.11 Indicate whether the following statements are true (T), false (F), or not mentioned (NM). Where they are false or not mentioned, briey explain why (in Albanian). 1. _____ Menyja n restorantet shqiptare sht e larmishme. 2. _____ Menyja n restorante sht zakonisht nj kombinim i gatimeve tradicionale shqiptare me kuzhinn e vendeve t ndryshme. 3. _____ Gatimet tradicionale shqiptare ngjasojn kryesisht me kuzhinn turke dhe kineze ku produktet e mishit zn nj vend t rndsishm. _____ Gjat viteve t fundit prirja sht drejt kuzhins gjermane. 4. 5. _____ Nj pije tradicionale shqiptare sht rakia. 6. _____ Zyrtarisht, n Shqipri t gjitha mimet jan me lek t reja. 7. _____ Npr restorante dhe npr dyqanet e reja mimet jan me sistemin e ri. 8. _____ mimet nuk variojn sipas restoranteve. 9. _____ N restorante t mira mund t paguani dhe me kart krediti. 10. _____ N kryeqytet dhe n qytetet kryesore ka kudo zyra t kmbimit valutor.

USHTRIMI 15.12 Answer the following questions. Expand your answers as much as possible. 1. Si sht menyja n restorantet shqiptare? ____________________________________________________________ 2. Si jan gatimet tradicionale? ____________________________________________________________ 3. Cila sht prirja gjat viteve t fundit? ____________________________________________________________ 4. A ka verra t huaja n Shqipri? ____________________________________________________________ 5. far sht rakia? ____________________________________________________________ 6. A mund t paguajm me monedh t huaj n restorantet shqiptare? ____________________________________________________________ 7. problem ka me mimet n Shqipri? Pse? ____________________________________________________________ 8. Ku mund t kmbejm para? ____________________________________________________________ 9. A variojn mimet sipas restoranteve? Jepni disa shembuj. ____________________________________________________________ 10. A ka bankomate n Tiran? ____________________________________________________________

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USHTRIMI 15.13 Create dialogues for the following situations. 1. You are seated in a restaurant and given the menu shown below. Have a conversation with the waiter during which he or she describes some of the dishes.
Meny taxi mimi

Byrek me spinaq Byrek me qep e me domate Patate t skuqura Tav dheu me mish vii Perime t skars Sup e dits Sup me perime Qofte Kore me pure
Pica taxi

100 lek 100 lek 100 lek 200 lek 200 lek 200 lek 120 lek 250 lek
mimi

Margarita (salc, djath) Proshut (salc, djath, proshut) Sallam (salc, djath, sallam) Vegjetariane (salc, djath, perime) Kapriioza (salc, djath, speca, kpurdha, proshuta) 4 stint (salc, 4 lloje djathrash) Ton (salc, djath, peshk ton)

300 lek 400 lek 400 lek 450 lek 500 lek 500 lek 500 lek

2. You must certainly have a favorite dish! Find out the ingredients you need and be prepared to give the recipe. 3. Do research on the Internet about food that is benecial for your health. Present a short report to your classmates.

INFORMACIONE KULTURORE During the Ottoman empire (14811912), the Albanians who moved to Istanbul took with them their knowledge of Albanian cuisine. Most Turkish dishes made of offal (a culinary term that refers to the internal organs and entrails of an animal) are of Rumeli13 origin. The famous appetizer known as Albanian liver is a favorite dish both in restaurants and at home. Also of Rumeli origin are the egg and lemon sauces that are used in many soups and stews. The famous Elbasan tava, a dish made with lamb and yogurt, is another good example of the Rumeli inuence in the method of food preparation.14

13. From the fteenth century on, the term Rumeli was used to refer to the southern Balkan region of the Ottoman Empire. Rumeli literally means land of the Romans, and it was used to refer to the Byzantine Empire. 14. http://www.thy.com/de-DE/corporate/skylife/article.aspx?mkl=267.

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Dollma (photo: Albes Fusha)

The vegetables used the most in Albanian cuisine are tomato, pepper, eggplant, potato, cabbage, onion, garlic, green bean, legumes, and cucumber. Usually they are fried, baked, or boiled. Among the legumes, beans are the most popular and traditional. They are usually cooked with vegetables or with meat. In some regions beans are also used to make pies. Peas and green beans are also used in many traditional dishes. Lemon, tomato, vinegar, and yogurt are very common in traditional Albanian cuisine. Milk and its by-products as well as eggs are also commonly found in Albanian dishes. Some traditional Albanian dishes are dried plum casserole (tav me pistil), Elbasani yogurt dish (tav kosi Elbasani), Tirana stew (frges Tirane), baked phyllo pie (byrek me pet t pjekura), turkey with bread crumbs (kaposh deti me prshesh), baked rice with milk (birjan me qumsht), and milky rice of Myzeqe (oriz qumshtor Myzeqejeyshmer), among many others. Albania is well known for its raki (a fruit brandy prepared by distilling fermented fruits, especially grapes and plums), wine (made from a variety of grapes), fruit juices, preserves, and compotes. The climate in the coastal area favors the cultivation of olives and citrus. In every home as well as in the restaurants of the whole region, olives are typically served as appetizers as well as in salads or accompanied by other vegetables.

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MSIMI 16
Pushime dhe histori
Vacations and history In this lesson you will learn: how to talk about actions in the past how to talk about historical tourist sites You will learn the following grammatical points: the imperfect indicative the imperfect subjunctive

DIALOGU 16.1: DIT PUSHIMESH Glauk: Ardian, far fotogrash po shikon? Ardian: Po shikoj disa fotogra q sapo mi drgoi nj shok me imejl. Jan nga pushimet e vers. Glauk: Ku ishit kt ver me pushime? Ardian: Ishim n nj kamp rinie. Glauk: Si kaluat? Ardian: Kaluam shum mir. N kamp kishte shum t rinj. N prgjithsi, t gjith ishin njerz shum aktiv dhe do dit organizonim aktivitete t ndryshme. Glauk: far bnit n mngjes? Ardian: N mngjes zgjoheshim hert dhe pasi hanim mngjes, shtisnim ose vraponim n breg t detit. Glauk: N or dilnit n plazh? Ardian: N plazh dilnim rreth ors 9:00 dhe rrinim deri n orn 12:00. Glauk: A bnit banja dielli pasdite? Ardian: Po, pasi hanim drek, dilnim srish n plazh. Laheshim n det, ose luanim me top. Kishte dhe nga ata q rrinin gjith kohn n adr dhe lexonin ose luanin me letra. Nganjher merrnim varkat dhe shkonim q t vizitonim gjire t vogla. Glauk: Po drek, ku hanit? Ardian: Drek hanim n kamp. Nganjher shkonim dhe n restorant. Glauk: A ju plqente ushqimi? Ardian: Po, sepse ne gatuanim t gjith bashk. Shpesh shtronim edhe tavolinat. Glauk: Po n mbrmje, far bnit? Ardian: N mbrmje, luanim ping- pong, basketboll, volejboll, futboll etj. Shihnim lmat q shfaqeshin n kamp dhe pastaj diskutonim pr tema t ndryshme. Bisedonim gjat dhe shkonim t inim shum von. Glauk: Ku init?

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Ardian: Flinim n adra. Glauk: Si ishin adrat? Ardian: adrat ishin t mdha dhe shum komode. Brenda n adr kishte krevate dhe ihej shum mir. Glauk: Po diskotek, a kishte atje? Ardian: Kishte diskotek, por ne mblidheshim n mbrmje n kamp dhe atje krcenim e kndonim s bashku. Glauk: Po t shkosh vitin tjetr, mund t vij dhe un me ju. Ardian: Shum mir do t bsh. Do t knaqesh.

FJALOR aktv, -e aktivitt, -i, -e bnj/, -a, -a bnja delli basketbll, -i brg, -u, brgje n brg t dtit d/r, -ra, -ra drg/j, -va, -ar diskotk/, -a, -a hej active activity bath, closet, toilet sunbaths basketball coast, shore on the seashore tent, umbrella to send disco, discotheque one could sleep (impersonal, lit., it was slept) soccer bay I was to pass, spend camp youth camp to be satised, pleased to bathe, swim in letter, card to play cards mbl/dh, -dha, -dhur mbl/dhem, u -dha, -dhur n prgjiths ping- pong po i ri, e re, t rnj, t rja rin, -a sap srsh Si kalat? sivjt shtr/j, -va, -ar shtrj tavolnn tm/, -a, -a tp, -i, -a ushqm, -i, -e vrk/, -a, -a verr, -e volejbll, -i to gather, collect to gather, meet in general Ping-Pong if young (people) youth just again How did it go? Did you have a good time? this year spread to set the table topic ball food boat, jolly boat summery volleyball

futbll, -i gji, -ri, -re sha kal/j, -va, -ar kmp, -i, -e kmp rine knq/em, u -a, -ur l/hem, u -va, -r lt/r, -ra, -ra laj me ltra

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GRAMATIK 100 The imperfect indicative of active verbs Consider the following examples from Dialogu 16.1: Ku ishe sivjet me pushime? Where were you on vacation this year? Kishte shum t rinj shqiptar q studionin jasht. There were many young Albanians who were studying abroad. Zgjoheshim hert dhe pasi hanim mngjes, shtisnim ose vraponim n breg t detit. We used to get up early, and after we ate breakfast, we used to go for a walk or to run on the beach. All the forms in bold above are in the imperfect indicative, which is used to express an action or condition that used to go on for a period of time in the past. The following chart contains the forms for class 1 (udhtoj to travel) and class 2 (dal to leave, go out) verbs. Both the present indicative and the imperfect indicative are given so that you can compare the forms:
Present Imperfect Present Imperfect

un ti ai, ajo ne ju ata, ato

udhtoj udhton udhton udhtojm udhtoni udhtojn

udhtoja udhtoje udhtonte udhtonim udhtonit udhtonin

dal del del dalim dilni dalin

dilja dilje dilte dilnim dilnit dilnin

Are the endings for the imperfect the same for class 1 and class 2 verbs? _______________________________________________________________ If they differ, in what person do they differ? _______________________________________________________________ The verb dal to leave has three different stems in the present indicative (dal, del, dil). Which form is taken as the base for the imperfect? What pronoun does that form correspond to? _______________________________________________________________ As you can see, the imperfect indicative endings are the same for class 1 and class 2 verbs. We take as the base the present indicative of the ju form. The only difference is in the third- person singular (ai/ajo), where we can have either -nte or just -te. Taking as the base the stem of the present indicative of ju (i.e., udhto-, dil-), use -nte if the stem ends in a vowel and -te if the stem ends in a consonant. Consider now the verbs dua to want and e to sleep (class 3 verbs) as well as marr to take and shoh to see (class 2 verbs). Why do we get the forms doja and merrja, respectively? Where do the stems of these forms come from? Why do we get the form donte but merrte? Complete the chart with the imperfect indicative of e sleep, shoh to see, and them to say:

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un ti ai, ajo ne ju ata, ato

dua doni doja doje donte donim donit donin

e ini _______ _______ _______ _______ _______ _______

marr merrni merrja merrje merrte merrnim merrnit merrnin

shoh shihni _______ _______ _______ _______ _______ _______

them thoni _______ _______ _______ _______ _______ _______

Below is the conjugation for l to leave. Please complete the forms for v to put (both verbs belong to class 3):
Present Imperfect Present Imperfect

un ti ai, ajo ne ju ata, ato

l l l lm lini ln

lija lije linte linim linit linin

_______ _______ _______ _______ _______ _______

_______ _______ _______ _______ _______ _______

For class 2 verbs that alternate s/t (see 46), we use the stem with a -t-, which is the stem typically found with the ju form. However, in the third- person singular, the -s- appears again.1 Flas to speak and pres to wait are conjugated for you below.2 Please complete the forms for shtis to walk, shes to sell, and vras to kill: as isni isja isje iste isnim isnit isnin pres prisni prisja prisje priste prisnim prisnit prisnin shtis shtitni _______ _______ _______ _______ _______ _______ shes shitni _______ _______ _______ _______ _______ _______ vras vritni _______ _______ _______ _______ _______ _______

un ti ai, ajo ne ju ata, ato

Class 4 verbs follow the same pattern. Following the model of iki to go, go away, complete the imperfect indicative forms of eci to walk and hipi to get on: iki ikni ikja ikje ikte iknim iknit iknin eci ecni _______ _______ _______ _______ _______ _______ hipi hipni _______ _______ _______ _______ _______ _______

un ti ai, ajo ne ju ata, ato

1. We are avoiding the form itte he or she used to speak or pritte he or she used to wait, which contain a -tt-. This spelling goes against the general phonotactics of Albanian. 2. You will also nd itja, itje, itnim, itnit, and itnin as well as pritni, pritja, pritje, pritnim, pritnit, and pritnin.

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There are only three class 5 (irregular) verbs in the imperfect indicative: jam to be, kam to have, and them to say. The chart below shows the forms of jam, kam, and them in the present and the imperfect indicative:
Present Imperfect Present Imperfect Present Imperfect

un ti ai, ajo ne ju ata, ato

jam je sht jemi jeni jan

isha ishe ishte ishim ishit ishin

kam ke ka kemi keni kan

kisha kishe kishte kishim kishit kishin

them thua thot themi thoni thon

thosha thoshe thoshte thoshim thoshit thoshin

For a discussion of class 6 verbs in the imperfect indicative, please see 101. The imperfect indicative forms can be preceded by the particle po (see 13) in order to emphasize the fact that an action was taking place at a certain moment in the past. Compare the following examples:3 Kur isha e vogl, shkoja n kopsht. When I was little, I used to go to kindergarten. Po lexoja dhe prandaj nuk po dgjoja far po bisedonin. I was reading; therefore, I wasnt listening to what they were discussing. 101 The imperfect indicative of class 6 verbs In Dialogu 16.1 you encountered some class 6 verbs in the imperfect indicative: Laheshim n det ose luanim me top. We used to bathe in the ocean, or we played with a ball.4 Ne mblidheshim n mbrmje n kamp dhe atje krcenim e kndonim s bashku. We would gather in the evening at the camp, and we would dance and sing together. The following chart shows the forms that class 6 verbs take in the imperfect indicative. The present indicative is also included for comparison.
Present Imperfect Present Imperfect

un ti ai, ajo ne ju ata, ato

gzohem gzohesh gzohet gzohemi gzoheni gzohen

gzohesha gzoheshe gzohej gzoheshim gzoheshit gzoheshin

nisem nisesh niset nisemi niseni nisen

nisesha niseshe nisej niseshim niseshit niseshin

3. We can get the same progressive effect by using the duke construction: Po lexoja nj libr. Isha duke lexuar nj libr. I was reading a book. I was reading a book.

Duke requires the use of a past participle. We will cover this construction in volume 2. 4. Notice that in English you could express this example with the auxiliary would: We would play in the ocean, or we would run on the beach.

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As you can see, the endings are essentially the same, the only difference being that we use -h- in the imperfect if the present also includes an -h-. Remember that -h- is used in the present if the active stem ends in a vowel (see 70). 102 The imperfect subjunctive You already encountered some imperfect subjunctive forms in Dialogu 16.1: Nganjher merrnim varkat dhe shkonim q t vizitonim gjire t vogla. Sometimes we used to take the boats, and we would go to visit other small bays. Bisedonim gjat dhe shkonim t inim shum von. We used to talk a lot, and we would go to sleep very late. An imperfect subjunctive is used when the subjunctive is required by the main verb and when the main verb is in the past. This requirement that both the main and the embedded verb be in the same tense is called the sequence of tenses. The imperfect subjunctive is formed simply by adding the particle t to the imperfect indicative, so you dont need to learn any new forms. You just need to keep in mind the sequence of tenses! Below are the imperfect forms of laj to wash and lahem to get washed in the imperfect indicative and the subjunctive.
Imperfect Indicative Subjunctive Imperfect Indicative Subjunctive

un ti ai, ajo ne ju ata, ato

laja laje lante lanim lanit lanin

t laja t laje t lante t lanim t lanit t lanin

lahesha laheshe lahej laheshim laheshit laheshin

t lahesha t laheshe t lahej t laheshim t laheshit t laheshin

Dua t lexoj nj libr. Doja t lexoja nj libr. Duhet t krihesh. Duhej t kriheshe.

I want to read a book. I wanted to read a book. You have to comb your hair. You had to comb your hair.

USHTRIMI 16.1 Indicate whether the following statements are true (T) or false (F) based on Dialogu 16.1. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. _____ Ardiani po shikon nj lm. _____ Ardiani ishte pr pushime n nj kamp rinie. _____ N kamp kishte shum fmij. _____ T gjith ishin njerz shum aktiv dhe do dit organizonin aktivitete t ndryshme. _____ N mngjes zgjoheshin hert dhe pasi hanin mngjes, shtisnin ose vraponin n breg t detit.

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6. 7. 8. 9.

_____ Ata dilnin n plazh n orn 7:00. _____ Nganjher merrnin varkat dhe shkonin q t vizitonin gjire t vogla. _____ N kamp gatuanin t gjith bashk. _____ N kamp nuk kishte diskotek.

USHTRIMI 16.2 Answer the following questions based on Dialogu 16.1. 1. Kush po shikon fotogra? ____________________________________________________________ 2. Ku ishte Ardiani me pushime? ____________________________________________________________ 3. Si i kaloi ai pushimet? ____________________________________________________________ 4. A kishte shum t rinj n kamp? ____________________________________________________________ 5. bnin ata n mngjes? ____________________________________________________________ 6. N or dilnin n plazh? bnin atje? ____________________________________________________________ 7. Po pasdite, a bnin banja dielli? ____________________________________________________________ 8. aktivitete t tjera bnin? ____________________________________________________________ 9. Po n mbrmje bnin? ____________________________________________________________ 10. Si ishin adrat? ____________________________________________________________

USHTRIMI 16.3 Complete the following sentences with the imperfect form of the verb in parentheses. 1. N or ___________ (zgjohem, ju) kur ___________ ( jam, ju) me pushime? _________ (Zgjohem, ne) n orn 8, por nuk __________ (ngrihem, ne) deri n orn 8.30. ___________ (bj, ju) pasi ____________ (ngrihem, ju)? ____________ (Rruhem, ne), ___________ (lahem), ________ (laj) dhmbt dhe ___________ (vishem). ___________ (Ha) mngjes shum shpejt dhe ____________ (nisem) pr pun.

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2. N or ___________ (zgjohem, ata) kur ___________ ( jam, ata) me pushime? ___________ (Zgjohem) n orn 8, por nuk __________ (ngrihem) deri n orn 8:30. ___________ (bj, ata) pasi ____________ (ngrihem, ata)? ____________ (Rruhem), ___________ (lahem), ________ (laj) dhmbt dhe ___________ (vishem). ___________ (Ha) mngjes shum shpejt dhe ____________ (nisem) pr n pun. 3. po __________ (bj) vajza? Po ___________ (vishem). ________ (Dua) t ____________ (luaj) pak. 4. po __________ (bj) djemt? Po ___________ (vishem). _____ (Dua) t ____________ (luaj) pak. 5. ________ (bj, ti) n llim: ___________ (rruhem) apo ___________ (krihem)? Zakonisht _____________ (rruhem) kur _______________ (bj) dush. Pastaj ___________ (krihem).

LEXIMI 16.1
Letr nga Shqipria

Tiran, m 15. 06. 2011 I dashur Arian, Po t shkruaj srish nga Shqipria. Para disa ditsh ishim n Butrint. Ky ishte udhtimi i fundit i programit ton turistik n Shqipri. Nga Tirana u nism hert n mngjes rreth ors 6:00 dhe udhtuam pr disa or gjat riviers s Jonit. Ishte nj udhtim shum i bukur. Para syve tan kalonin peizazhet e mrekullueshme t natyrs shqiptare. N kt udhtim na shoqronin student t historis. Ata ishin shum t sjellshm dhe u prgjigjeshin me shum knaqsi dhe dshir t gjitha pyetjeve tona pr vendet q shihnim. N Butrint arritm n mesdit. Te porta kryesore e Parkut Kombtar Arkeologjik t Butrintit pam shum turist t huaj. Shoqruesit tan na treguan n llim pr historin e Butrintit.5 Qyteti antik i Butrintit daton n shekullin VIII p.e.s. Ai prmendet dhe nga Virgjili n veprn e tij Eneida. Gjat vizits son n Parkun e Butrintit vizituam disa objekte dhe monumente arkeologjike q dshmojn pr lashtsin e tij. Grupit ton i bri prshtypje n veanti Teatri Antik i Butrintit, i ndrtuar n shekullin III p.e.s. N perndim ndodhej tempulli i Asklepit, disa shtpi me oborr etj, kurse n lindje kishte terma nga periudha romake. N fund vizituam dhe muzeun e pasur me objekte arkeologjike. Pasi vizituam parkun arkeologjik u lodhm n natyrn e mrekullueshme. Qyteti i Butrintit ndodhej n mes t gjelbrimit, buz liqenit karakteristik dhe bukuria e natyrs na trhoqi t gjithve. Kshtu kaluam nj dit shum t bukur n Butrint, nj vend q i prket trashgimis kulturore botrore dhe mbrohet nga UNESKO- ja. Shum t fala, Teuta

5. In colloquial Albanian, guid is used instead of shoqrues.

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FJALOR Asklp, -i bz ldh/em, u -a, -ur dat/j, -va, -ar dti Jon dshr/, -a, -a dshm/j, -va, -ar i,e fndit gjelbrm, -i Jon, -i knaqs, -a, ksht lashts, -a, lndj/e, -a liqn, -i, -e mbr/hem, u -jta, -jtur i mrekullesh/m, e -me i,e ndrtar nddh/em, u -a, -ur i,e psur peizzh, -i, -e perndm, -i p.e.s. (para ers son) Asclepius (Greek god of medicine) on the edge, close by to rest to date Ionian Sea desire, will bear witness last greenery Ionian Sea happiness, desire thus, so antiquity, ancientness east lake to be protected marvelous built to be located rich landscape west B.C. (lit., before our era) prgjgj/em, u -a, -ur prk/s, -ta, -tur prmnd/em, u -a, -ur prshtpj/e, -a, -e bj prshtpje prt/, -a, -a rivir/, -a, -a romk, -e srsh i sjllsh/m, e -me s, -ri, shoqr/ j, -va, -ar shoqres, -i, tn temp/ll, -lli, -j trma, -t trh/q, -qa, -qur tna trashgim, -a, turistk, e udhtm, -i, -e i,e vent vp/r, -ra, -ra to answer to belong to be mentioned impression to make an impression gate Riviera Roman again courteous, wellbehaved eye to accompany guide our (gen., dat., acc., abl., masc) temple thermal waters to attract our (gen., dat., acc., abl., fem) heritage tourist travel, trip special work

GRAMATIK 103 The genitive, dative, and ablative forms of possessive adjectives Consider the following phrases: udhtimi i fundit i programit ton para syve tan shoqruesit tan the nal trip of our program in front of our eyes our tour guides

These forms should all seem familiar! Lets now look at these forms in more detail starting with the masculine singular forms. As you can see below, the masculine forms in the genitive, dative, and ablative are the same as the forms that you learned for the accusative in 88. The only difference is the form of the adjectival article of the third persons, for which the accusative linking article e

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becomes t in the genitive, dative, and ablative. The differences from the accusative forms are indicated in bold:6
Nominative Accusative Genitive Dative Ablative

djali im djali yt djali i tij djali i saj djali yn djali juaj djali i tyre

djalin tim djalin tnd djalin e tij djalin e saj djalin ton djalin tuaj djalin e tyre

i/e djalit tim i/e djalit tnd i/e djalit t tij i/e djalit t saj i/e djalit ton i/e djalit tuaj i/e djalit t tyre

djalit tim djalit tnd djalit t tij djalit t saj djalit ton djalit tuaj djalit t tyre

(prej) djalit tim (prej) djalit tnd (prej) djalit t tij (prej) djalit t saj (prej) djalit ton (prej) djalit tuaj (prej) djalit t tyre

Consider now the feminine singular forms:


Nominative Accusative Genitive Dative Ablative

vajza ime vajza jote vajza e tij vajza e saj vajza jon vajza juaj vajza e tyre

vajzn time vajzn tnde vajzn e tij vajzn e saj vajzn ton vajzn tuaj vajzn e tyre

i/e vajzs sime i/e vajzs sate i/e vajzs s tij i/e vajzs s saj i/e vajzs son i/e vajzs suaj i/e vajzs s tyre

vajzs sime vajzs sate vajzs s tij vajzs s saj vajzs son vajzs suaj vajzs s tyre

(prej) vajzs sime (prej) vajzs sate (prej) vajzs s tij (prej) vajzs s saj (prej) vajzs son (prej) vajzs suaj (prej) vajzs s tyre

As you can see, the feminine forms vary more than the masculine form. An easy way to remember is that with the exception of tnde your (sing.), which remains invariable, the rst letter of the possessive accusative, t-, changes to s-. The linking article, on the other hand, changes from e to s.7 Below are the forms of the masculine plural possessors. If you memorize the nominative form, all you need to remember is that, with the exception of the linking article changing from e to t, all the other forms are the same in all ve cases. This certainly compensates for the excess of variety in the singular forms, doesnt it?
Nominative Accusative Genitive Dative Ablative

djemt e mi djemt e tu djemt e tij djemt e saj djemt tan djemt tuaj djemt e tyre

djemt e mi djemt e tu djemt e tij djemt e saj djemt tan djemt tuaj djemt e tyre

i/e djemve t mi i/e djemve t tu i/e djemve t tij i/e djemve t saj i/e djemve tan i/e djemve tuaj i/e djemve t tyre

djemve t mi djemve t tu djemve t tij djemve t saj djemve tan djemve tuaj djemve t tyre

(prej) djemve t mi (prej) djemve t tu (prej) djemve t tij (prej) djemve t saj (prej) djemve tan (prej) djemve tuaj (prej) djemve t tyre

6. Is there a way for you to remember all of these forms? (And these are just the masculine singular forms!) Memorize the nominative forms and remember that the second-person singular (your) is always tnd. Then remember that the forms for the third persons are tij, saj, and tyre and that they always need a linking article. Finally, think of the accusative forms as adding a t- to the nominative possessive forms. Then learn the following vowel rules: t + y = to t + j (vowel) = t + vowel t + yn = ton t + juaj = juaj

7. As with the masculine singular forms, there is an easy way to remember all these feminine forms. Memorize the nominative possessives. As with the masculine forms, remember that the second-person singular is tnde (same as the

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As with the masculine plural forms, the genitive, dative, and ablative forms for feminine plural nouns are the same as those in the accusative, except that instead of e, the linking article t is used throughout except with the forms tona and tuaja.
Nominative Accusative Genitive Dative Ablative

vajzat e mia vajzat e tua vajzat e tij vajzat e saj vajzat tona vajzat tuaja vajzat e tyre

vajzat e mia vajzat e tua vajzat e tij vajzat e saj vajzat tona vajzat tuaja vajzat e tyre

i/e vajzave t mia i/e vajzave t tua i/e vajzave t tij i/e vajzave t saj i/e vajzave tona i/e vajzave tuaja i/e vajzave t tyre

vajzave t mia vajzave t tua vajzave t tij vajzave t saj vajzave tona vajzave tuaja vajzave t tyre

(prej) vajzave t mia (prej) vajzave t tua (prej) vajzave t tij (prej) vajzave t saj (prej) vajzave tona (prej) vajzave tuaja (prej) vajzave t tyre

Below are all the different forms for each possessive adjective. Remember that the possessive adjective agrees in gender, number and case with the object possessed: My
Singular Masculine Feminine Plural Masculine Feminine

Nominative Accusative Genitive, Dative, Ablative Your (sing.)

im tim tim

ime time sime

e mi e mi t mi

e mia e mia t mia

Singular Masculine Feminine

Plural Masculine Feminine

Nominative Accusative Genitive, Dative, Ablative His

yt tnd tnd

jote tnde sate

e tu e tu t tu

e tua e tua t tua

Singular Masculine Feminine

Plural Masculine Feminine

Nominative Accusative Genitive, Dative, Ablative Her

i tij e tij t tij

e tij e tij s tij

e tij e tij t tij

e tij e tij t tij

Masculine

Singular Feminine

Plural Masculine Feminine

Nominative Accusative Genitive, Dative, Ablative

i saj e saj t saj

e saj e saj s saj

e saj e saj t saj

e saj e saj t saj

masculine form, but add -e because its a feminine form). As with the masculine forms, remember that the forms are tij, saj, and tyre and that the linking article is needed. As for the other forms, add t- in front of the accusative forms and s- in front of the genitive, dative, and ablative forms.

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Our
Singular Masculine Feminine Plural Masculine Feminine

Nominative Accusative Genitive, Dative, Ablative Your (pl.)

yn ton ton

jon ton son

tan tan tan

tona tona tona

Singular Masculine Feminine

Plural Masculine Feminine

Nominative Accusative Genitive, Dative, Ablative Their

juaj tuaj tuaj

juaj tuaj suaj

tuaj tuaj tuaj

tuaja tuaja tuaja

Singular Masculine Feminine

Plural Masculine Feminine

Nominative Accusative Genitive, Dative, Ablative

i tyre e tyre t tyre

e tyre e tyre s tyre

e tyre e tyre t tyre

e tyre e tyre t tyre

USHTRIMI 16.4 Indicate whether the following statements are true (T) or false (F) based on Leximi 16.1. _____ Teuta po i shkruan nj imejl Arianit nga Butrinti. _____ Teuta dhe turistt e tjer kaluan disa dit n Butrint. _____ Ata u nisn nga Tirana n orn 10:00 t mngjesit. _____ Turistt u shoqruan nga nj profesor historie. _____ N Butrint kisht shum turist t huaj. _____ Qyteti antik i Butrintit daton n shekullin V p.e.s. _____ Gjat vizits s tyre n Parkun e Butrintit, turistt vizituan disa objekte dhe monumente arkeologjike q dshmojn pr lashtsin e tij. 8. _____ Grupit ton i bri prshtypje n veanti Teatri Antik i Butrintit. 9. _____ Ata vizituan dhe muzeun e pasur me objekte arkeologjike. 10. _____ Pasi vizituan parkun arkeologjik, ata u lodhn n natyrn e mrekullueshme. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7.

USHTRIMI 16.5 Answer the following questions based on Leximi 16.1. 1. Pr far i tregon Teuta n imejlin e saj Arianit? _____________________________________________________________

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2. Kur u nisn ata nga Tirana? ____________________________________________________________ 3. Si ishte udhtimi? ____________________________________________________________ 4. Kush i shoqroi turistt pr n Butrint? ____________________________________________________________ 5. far vizituan ata n Butrint? ____________________________________________________________ 6. far u treguan shoqruesit? ____________________________________________________________ 7. far i bri prshtypje grupit t turistve? ____________________________________________________________ 8. Ku ndodhet tempulli i Asklepit? ____________________________________________________________ 9. far vizituan n fund t vizits? ____________________________________________________________ 10. Ku u lodhn ata? ____________________________________________________________

USHTRIMI 16.6 Complete the following sentences with the appropriate form of the noun phrases in parentheses. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. Po i as _____________ (vajza ime). Po ulem pran_____________ (babai i tij). Mora letr prej_____________ (shoku yt). Kjo sht shoqja e_____________ (vllai i saj). Erdha prej _____________ (shtpia e saj). Po u tregoj miqve_____________ (klasa jote). Ishin larg_____________ (msuesit e tyre). Po u shkruaj_____________ (studentt e tu). Po rri larg _____________ (problemet e tua). Ky sht msuesi i_____________ (klasa e tij).

USHTRIMI 16.7 Complete the following sentences with the appropriate form of the word in parentheses. 1. Para disa ditsh ______ (we are) n Butrint. 2. Ky ishte udhtimi i fundit ___________ (of our program) turistik n Shqipri. 3. Nga Tirana, ___________ (we left) hert n mngjes rreth ors 6:00 dhe ______ (we traveled) pr disa or ______________________ (along the riviera of the Ionian Sea).

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4. Para ______ (our eyes) kalonin peizazhet e mrekullueshme __________________ (of the Albanian nature). 5. N kt udhtim na ______ (accompanied us) student __________________ (of history). 6. Ata ishin shum ______ (gentle) dhe ________________ (answered) _____ ______ (with pleasure) dhe dshir ______ (to all of our questions) pr vendet _____________ (that we were seeing). 7. N Butrint (ne) ______ (we arrived) n mesdit. 8. __________________ (Our guides) na treguan n llim pr ____________ (of Butrints history). ______ (During our visit) n _______________ (Butrint Park) vizituam disa 9. objekte dhe ______ (archaeological monuments) ____________ (that witness) pr _____________ (its antiquity). 10. N perndim ndodhej ______ (the temple of Asclepius), disa shtpi me oborr etj. 11. N fund ______ (we visited), dhe muzeun _____________________ (rich with archaelogical objects). 12. Pasi vizituam parkun arkeologjik ______ (we rested), n _____________________ (the wonderful nature). 13. Qyteti i Butrintit ______ (is located), n mes ___________________ (of the greenery), _______________________ (on the edge of a lake) karakteristik dhe _________________ (the beauty of nature) _______________________ (attracted us all). ___________________ (Thus we spent), nj dit shum t bukur n Butrint. 14. 15. Ky vend i___________________ (belongs, is part of ) _____________________ (world cultural heritage) dhe _________________________ (is protected by Unesco).

LEXIMI 16.2: ROZAFATI8

Kshtjella e Rozafatit ndodhet n qytetin e Shkodrs.9 Pr t ka nj gojdhn t bukur dhe t hidhur q na vjen nga lashtsia. . . . Ishin tre vllezr. Ata po ndrtonin nj kshtjell. Ata e ndrtonin ditn, por kshtjella shembej natn. Nj dit kaloi atje nj plak i mir. Ai i uroi vllezrit pr punn e tyre. Ata i treguan se do nat kshtjella shembej dhe ata nuk dinin se far t bnin. Plaku i mir u mendua dhe i pyeti: A jeni t martuar? Po,- u prgjigjn tre vllezrit. Nse jeni t martuar, ather duhet t murosni n kshtjell gruan q do t sjell nesr ushqimin pr ju. Por nuk duhet tu tregoni sonte grave tuaja.
8. The text is adapted from Mitrush Kutelis Tregime t mome shqiptare. 9. Rozafa instead of Rozafatit is also used.

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Kshtu foli plaku i mir dhe shkoi. Dy vllezrit e mdhenj shkuan n shtpi dhe u treguan grave t tyre. Vetm vllai i vogl nuk i tregoi gruas s tij. N mngjes, nna i krkoi nj nga nj tri nuseve tu ojn ushqimin djemve. Nusja e madhe dhe nusja e dyt nuk pranuan t shkonin. Ato i than vjehrrs se kishin pun t tjera. Vetm nusja e vogl pranoi t shkonte. Ajo u nis t shkonte. Kur arriti tek kshtjella, kunati i madh i tregoi se ajo duhej t murosej q kshtjella t qndronte. Ather ajo u tha: Po ju l nj porosi. Ma lini syrin e djatht jasht, q kur djali t qaj, me nj sy ta shikoj. Ma lini dorn e djatht jasht q me nj dor ta ledhatoj. Ma lini kmbn e djatht jasht q me nj kmb ta tund djepin. Ma lini gjirin e djatht jasht q ti jap t pij. Vllezrit e murosn nusen n kshtjell dhe kshtjella qndroi e fort.

FJALOR /j, -va, -ar i,e djtht djp, -i, -e gjdhn/, -a, -a gj, -ri, -nj i,e hdhur krk/j, -va, -ar kshtjll/, -a, -a kun/t, -ti, -tr kunt/, -a, -a lashts, -a, ledhat/j, -va, -ar i,e mrtuar mend/hem, u -va, -ar murs, -a, -ur to carry right cradle, crib legend breast bitter to request castle brother- in-law sister- in-law antiquity to caress married to think to wall in ndrt/j, -va, -ar ns/e, -ja, -e plak, plku, pleq poros, -a, pran/j, -va, -ar q/j, -va, -r qndr/j, -va, -ar sjll, slla, sjll snte s- ri, shmb/em, u -a, -ur tnd, -a, -ur ur/j, -va, -ar ushqm, -i, -e vjh/rr, -rra, -rra to build bride old man order, request to accept to cry to stand to bring tonight eye to fall, collapse to rock to congratulate, wish food mother- in-law

USHTRIMI 16.8 Indicate whether the following statements are true (T), false (F), or not mentioned (NM). If they are false or not mentioned, briey explain why (in Albanian). 1. _____ Kshtjella e Rozafatit ndodhet n qytetin e Tirans. 2. _____ Pr t ka nj gojdhn t bukur dhe t hidhur q na vjen nga lashtsia. 3. _____ Ishin pes vllezr q po ndrtonin nj kshtjell.
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4. _____ Ata e ndrtonin ditn, por kshtjella shembej natn. 5. _____ Dy vllezrit e mdhenj shkuan n shtpi dhe u treguan grave t tyre pr plakun e mir. 6. _____ Vetm vllai i vogl nuk i tregoi gruas s tij. 7. _____ N mngjes, nna i krkoi nj nga nj tri nuseve tu ojn ushqimin djemve. 8. _____ Nusja e madhe dhe nusja e dyt pranuan t shkonin. 9. _____ Vetm nusja e vogl nuk pranoi. 10. _____ Kshtjella nuk qndroi e fort.

USHTRIMI 16.9 Answer the following questions. Expand your answers as much as possible. 1. Ku ndodhet Kshtjella e Rozafatit? ____________________________________________________________ 2. far ka pr kt kshtjell? ____________________________________________________________ 3. Nga vjen ajo? ____________________________________________________________ 4. far po bnin tre vllezrit? ____________________________________________________________ 5. far i treguan ata plakut t mir? ____________________________________________________________ 6. far u thot plaku i mir? ____________________________________________________________ 7. far bn dy vllezrit e mdhenj? Po vllai i vogl? ____________________________________________________________ 8. Po vllai i vogl? ____________________________________________________________ 9. far i than dy nuset e mdha nns? Po nusja e vogl? ____________________________________________________________ 10. far porosie u l ajo burrit dhe kunetrve? ____________________________________________________________

USHTRIMI 16.10 Prepare a short talk about each of the following situations. 1. Bring a picture of your last vacation to class. Be prepared to describe everyone in the picture and to tell the whole story about your trip. 2. What is the strangest or craziest adventure you have had in your life? Be ready to describe it in front of the class.

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Rozafat Castle, Shkodr, Albania (photo: Albes Fusha)

3. You have won the lottery and decided to travel around the world. Pick four countries you would like to visit. Do research on the Internet about places to visit. Tell your classmates about this imaginary but fun trip.

INFORMACIONE KULTURORE The Aeneid, a Latin epic poem written by Virgil in the late rst century B.C. (29 19 B.C.), tells the story of Aeneas, a Trojan who traveled to Italy and became the ancestor of all the Romans. According to Virgil (Aeneid 3.301 5), when Aeneas comes to Buthrotum, he nds that they have recreated the vanished city of Troy, an architectural alternative to the epics textual representations of the vanished past. The events in Racines (1639 99) classical tragedy Andromache, rst perfomed in 1667, take place in Butrint. In 1992 Butrint was declared a UNESCO World Heritage Site. The following description is found on UNESCOs World Heritage webpage: Inhabited since prehistoric times, Butrint has been the site of a Greek colony, a Roman city, and a bishopric. Following a period of prosperity under Byzantine administration, then a brief occupation by the Venetians, the city was abandoned in the late Middle Ages after marshes formed in the area. The present archaeological site is a repository of ruins representing each period in the citys development.10 Rozafat Castle is near the city of Shkodr in northwestern Albania. It rises imposingly on a rocky hill, 130 meters above sea level. It is surrounded by the Buna and Drini rivers. Shkodr is the capital of the district of Shkodr and is one of Albanias oldest and most historic towns as well as an important cultural and economic center. Due to its strategic location, the hill has been settled since antiquity. It was an Illyrian stronghold until it was captured by the Romans in 167 B.C. Rozafats castle is now the ruins of an Illyrian fortication.
10. For information on Butrint, see whc.unesco.org/en/list/570.

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MSIMI 17
Shndeti
Health In this lesson you will learn: how to talk about health problems how to talk to a doctor how to talk to a dentist You will learn the following grammatical points: the present perfect the present perfect subjunctive the future perfect the pluperfect

DIALOGU 17.1: SI JE ME SHNDET? Arian: Alo, Flladia. Si je? Mora t t pyes pse nuk ke ardhur sot n pun. Flladia: Jam smur, Arian. Nuk kam fjetur mbrm gjith natn. Kam pasur dhimbje t forta koke dhe temperatur t lart. Arian: Je vizituar? Flladja: Po. U vizitova sot n mngjes. Mjeku m tha se jam me grip. Duhet t kesh dhe ti shum kujdes, sepse ka rn nj viroz gripi dhe shum njerz jan prekur prej saj.1 Arian: N fakt, e kan dhn edhe lajmet sot n mngjes se ka rn nj viroz gripi, pasi temperaturat jan ulur n mnyr t menjhershme. Un kam br br nj vaksin antigrip, por megjithat sht mir t ruhem. Ti ke marr ndonj mjekim? Flladja: Kam pir aspirin dhe aj t nxeht. Arian: far t kshilloi mjeku? Flladja: M kshilloi t bj dhe banj me uj t ngroht. Arian: Po tani far po bn? Flladja: Jam shtrir n shtrat, sepse ndihem shum e pafuqishme. M dhemb gjith trupi dhe m djegin grykt. Tani m duket se kam djersitur pak. Arian: Po temperatur ke pasur? E ke vn termometrin? Flladja: N mngjes isha me 38.3, por tani m sht ulur n 37.5. Arian: Ke br kompresa t ftohta? Flladja: Po. Kam br edhe kompresa. Arian: Po koll ke pasur?

1. Virus gripi instead of viroz gripi is also correct.

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Flladja: Jo. Koll nuk kam pasur shum. Megjithat kam bler nj shurup pr koll q ta pi. Arian: Po lngje ke pir? Flladja: Po. Kam gjith ditn q pi vetm lngje, sepse kshtu m kshilloi edhe mjeku. Shpresoj t mos kem komplikacione t tjera, prandaj sht mir q t rri disa dit n shtpi. Arian: Sa dit pushim t ka dhn mjeku? Flladja: Tri dit. Arian: Mir. T shkuara dhe m telefono nse ke nevoj pr ndonj gj. Flladja: Faleminderit!

FJALOR bnj/, -a bj bnj j, -i, -ra dhmbj/e, -a, -e dhmbje fti dhmbje kke djeg, dgja, djgur m djgin grkt bath to take a bath tea pain sore throat headache to burn I have a sore throat (lit., My throat is burning). to sweat throat u throat medicine leg, foot to suggest, advise head cough complication pack, compress caution, carefulness news liquid however i menjhrsh/m, e -me mjekm, -i, -e ndhem, u ndjva, nder i,e nxht i pafuqsh/m, e -me prk/em, u -a, -ur prkem nga r/hem, u -ajta, -ajtur i,e smr simptm/, -a, -a s, -ri, T shkara! shpres/j, -va, -ar shqetsm, -i, -e shtrt, -i, shtretr shtr/hem, u -va, -r shurp, -i, -e temperatr/, -a, -a trp, -i, -a l/em, u -a, -ur vaksn/, -a, -a virz/, -a vizit/hem, u -va, -ar immediate, sudden medication, treatment to feel hot weak, feeble to be affected to be affected by to watch out sick symptom eye Get well soon! to hope discomfort bed to lie down syrup temperature, fever body to sit, pull down vaccine virus to see the doctor

djers/s, -ta, -tur ft, -i grp, -i grk/, -a, - il, -i, -e kmb/, -a, - kshill/j, -va, -ar kk/, -a, - kll/, -a komplikacion, -i, -e komprs/, -a, -a kujds, -i, -e ljm, -i, -e ln/g, -gu, -gje megjthat

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GRAMATIK 104 The present perfect of class 1 through class 5 verbs If you look at the structures in bold below, you will notice that all of them have two verbs: the verb kam to have and another verb that appears in the past participle form. Nuk kam fjetur mbrm gjith natn. I havent slept all night long. Kam pasur dhimbje t forta koke dhe temperatur t lart. I have had a strong headache and a high fever. Ke marr ndonj mjekim? Have you taken any medication? As you can see in the English translations, these forms are in the present perfect. The present perfect in Albanian, like in English, is typically used to indicate an action that starts in the past and whose effect continues on into the present. For class 1 through 5 verbs, the present perfect is formed with the present indicative of the verb kam to have and the past participle of the verb. The full paradigm for the present perfect of e to sleep is shown below:2 un ti ai, ajo ne ju ato, ata The past participle is formed in different ways: 1. Class 1 verbs a. Verbs of the rst conjugation that end in -oj form the participle by changing the -o into -ua and then adding the sufx -r. puno( j) lexo( j)

kam ke ka kemi keni kan

fjetur fjetur fjetur fjetur fjetur fjetur

punuar lexuar

(worked) (read)

b. Verbs of the rst conjugation that end in -ej form the participle by changing the -e into -ye and then adding -r: krce( j) kthe( j)

krcyer kthyer

(danced) (returned something)

2. The past participle form for regular and irregular verbs will be listed as the third form in the vocabulary list and glossary entry. For instance, for the verb e to sleep you will nd e, fjeta, fjetur. The rst form is the present indicative, the second form is the simple past, and the third form is the corresponding past participle.

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c. Monosyllabic verbs form the participle by adding -r to the stem: la( j) ble( j) hy( j)

lar bler hyr

(washed) (bought) (entered)

d. The verb vij has an irregular participle form: vij

ardhur

(come)

2. Class 2 verbs a. Some verbs of second conjugation ending in a consonant take -ur: hap mbyll pjek pres vesh njoh

hapur mbyllur pjekur pritur veshur njohur

(opened) (closed) (baked) (waited)3 (dressed) (known)

b. Verbs ending in -s/t form the participle by adding the sufx -tur: mas/mat pyes shtis

matur pyetur shtitur

(measured) (asked) (walked)

c. Some verbs take -: dal marr sjell


dal marr sjell

(left) (taken) (brought)

3. Class 3 verbs a. Verbs of the third conjugation usually have irregular forms of the participle. Verbs that end in - take -n: v z l

vn zn ln

(put) (nd, catch) (left, let)

b. Some class 3 verbs are irregular: ha pi rri


ngrn pir ndenjur

(eaten) (drunk) (stayed)

3. The verb pres can also mean to cut. The past particle for this verb is prer. The present, past, and past participle forms are shown below: to wait: pres, prita, pritur to cut: pres, preva, prer

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ngre e di

ngritur fjetur ditur

(raised) (slept) (known)

4. Class 4 verbs a. All three class 4 verbs take -ur: eci hipi iki

ecur hipur ikur

(gone) (climbed, gotten on) (left, departed)

5. Irregular verbs We include here the most irregular verbs, although they may belong to the previous classes. One way to remember these forms is to keep in mind their simple past indicative form:
Simple Past Past Participle

dua as e kam rri vdes vij bie ha jam jap them bie shoh

desha fola fjeta pata ndenja vdiqa erdha rash hngra qesh dhash thash prura pash

dashur folur fjetur pasur ndenjur vdekur ardhur rn ngrn qen dhn thn prur par

(wanted) (spoken) (slept) (had) (stayed) (died) (come) (fallen) (eaten) (been) (given) (said) (brought, caught) (seen)

105 The present perfect of class 6 verbs The present perfect of class 6 verbs (i.e., those verbs that end in -hem or -em) is formed by using the present indicative of the verb jam to be followed by the active past participle. Some examples are shown below: laj lahem marr merrem kreh krihem ngre ngrihem

kam lar jam lar kam marr jam marr kam krehur jam krehur kam ngritur jam ngritur

(I have washed) (I am washed, I have bathed) (I have taken) (I have been involved [with]) (I have combed [someones hair]) (I have combed my hair) (I have raised [someone/something]) (I have gotten up)

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vizitoj vizitohem

kam vizituar jam vizituar

(I have visited) (I have seen the doctor)

The following chart contains the present perfect of the verbs laj to wash and lahem to be washed, bathe: un ti ai, ajo ne ju ata, ato laj kam lar ke lar ka lar kemi lar keni lar kan lar lahem jam lar je lar sht lar jemi lar jeni lar jan lar

106 Uses of the present perfect As we mentioned above, the present perfect in Albanian is used like it is used in English. The main uses are summarized below: 1. The present perfect typically expresses an action that starts in the past and continues uninterrupted all the way to the present. Zonja Smith ka jetuar 10 vjet n Sqipri. Mrs. Smith has been living in Albania for ten years. 2. The present perfect is typically used with time expressions that connect the past to the present and when we want to emphasize that connection. Some of these expressions are ka nj jav q its been a week since . . ., kt jav this week, kto dit lately (lit., these days), q ather since then, q dje since yesterday, sivjet this year, sot today: Ka nj jav q nuk kam dal nga shtpia. I havent gone out of my house for a week. 3. It can be used with general time expressions when we want to express an action that we have or havent done from the past to the present. Some of these expressions are gjithmon always, kurr never, ndonjher never, shpesh often: N kt vend ka pasur gjithmon probleme politike. There have always been political problems in this country. Artani nuk ka shkuar ndonjher n kish. Artan has never gone to church. A ke qen shpesh ktu? Have you been here often? Nuk jam ngritur kurr kaq hert. I have never gotten up so early.

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USHTRIMI 17.1 Indicate whether the following statements based on Dialogu 17.1 are true (T), false (F), or not mentioned (NM). Where they are false or not mentioned, briey explain why (in Albanian). 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. ________ Flladia sht e smur. ________ Flladia nuk ka fjetur gjith natn. ________ Ajo ka pasur dhimbje kmbe. ________ Flladia u vizitua pasdite. ________ Mjeku i tha se kishte grip. ________ Ka rn nj viroz gripi, pasi temperaturat jan ulur n mnyr t menjhershme. ________ Flladia ka br nj vaksin antigrip. ________ Flladja ka pir aspirin dhe aj t ftoht. ________ Flladia ka pasur koll t fort. ________ Ajo nuk ka pir lngje.

USHTRIMI 17.2 Answer the following questions based on Dialogu 17.1. 1. Kush e merr Flladian n telefon? ____________________________________________________________ 2. Pse nuk ka shkuar ajo n pun? ____________________________________________________________ 3. A sht vizituar ajo tek mjeku? ____________________________________________________________ 4. far i tha ai? ____________________________________________________________ 5. A ka Flladia temperatur t lart? ____________________________________________________________ 6. Pse ka rn viroz gripi? ____________________________________________________________ 7. A ka marr Flladia ndonj mjekim? ____________________________________________________________ 8. far i kshilloi mjeku Flladias? ____________________________________________________________ 9. Sa dit pushim i dha asaj mjeku? ____________________________________________________________ 10. far i tha asaj Ariani? ____________________________________________________________

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USHTRIMI 17.3 Complete the following sentences with the participle forms of the verbs in parentheses. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. Mora t t pyes pse nuk ke ____________(vij) sot n pun. Flladia sht ____________(smurem). Ajo nuk ka ____________(e) gjith natn. Ti ke ____________(kam) dhimbje t forta koke dhe temperatur t lart. Mjeku i ka ____________(them) se ajo sht me grip. Ka ___________(bie) nj viroz gripi dhe shum njerz jan ___________ (prekem) prej saj. Temperaturat jan ____________(ulem) n mnyr t menjhershme. Un kam ____________(bj) nj vaksin antigrip, por megjithat sht mir t ruhem. Ke ____________(pi) ndonj ila? Mjeku m ka ____________(kshilloj) t bj dhe banj me uj t ngroht.

USHTRIMI 17.4 Complete the following text with the present perfect of the verbs in parentheses. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. Djemt ____________(marr) disa her n telefon. ____________(Krkoj, ne) kartolina nga Shqipria. Un u ____________(prgjigjem) t gjitha pyetjeve. Ajo ____________(shtrihem) n shtrat. Vajzat ____________(ulem) n karrige. Ti ____________(them) shum gjra interesante. Un____________(e) shum mbrm. Kngtart ____________(kndoj) shum bukur. Ju ____________(krcej) shum bukur. Qyteti ____________(ndryshoj) n kto vite.

DIALOGU 17.2: TEK DENTISI Sekretarja: Mirdita! Si mund tju ndihmoj? Pacientja: Kam ardhur pr nj kontroll. Sekretarja: Keni ln orar? Pacientja: Po. Ju kam telefonuar para disa ditsh dhe m keni thn q t vij sot n orn 17:00. Sekretarja: Si e keni emrin, ju lutem? Pacientja: Era. Sekretarja: Mir. Mund t futeni brenda. Po ju pret mjeku. Dentisti: Mirdita. Uluni, ju lutem. far shqetsimesh keni pasur? Pacientja: Kam pasur dhimbje t forta dhmballe. Dentisti: Cila dhmball ju dhemb?
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Pacientja: Dhmballa e fundit lart, djathtas. Dentisti: E shoh. Ju ka ngacmuar dhe her t tjera? Pacientja: Po. Sidomos kur m shkon ushqimi atje. Besoj se do ti ket rn mbushja, se e ndiej me gjuh. Dentisti: Po, i ka rn mbushja. Duhet t keni koh q nuk e keni mjekuar. Para se ta mbushim sht mir ti bni nj gra. Po ktu, ndieni dhimbje? Pacientja: Jo. Nuk ndiej dhimbje. Dentisti: Nuk ju ka dhembur asnjher? Pacientja: Nuk mbaj mend t kem pasur ndonjher dhimbje nga kjo dhmball. Kam hequr nj dhmb para disa kohsh dhe dua t v nj dhmb porcelani. Dentisti: N llim, do t bjm mbushjen e dhmbit dhe pastaj do tju marr masat pr dhmbin e porcelanit. Pacientja: Kam ndonj problem tjetr, doktor? Dentisti: Duhet tju pastroj edhe dhmbt nga gurzat. Duhet t bni m shum kujdes me mishrat e dhmbve. Ju del gjak? Pacieti: Nganjher kur i pastroj dhmbt me ll dentar. Dentisti: Duhet t kini m shum kujdes pr higjienn e gojs, sepse nj higjien e mir parandalon smundjet e gojs, prishjen e dhmbve dhe t mishrave t tyre. Pacientja: Ju faleminderit pr kontrollin dhe pr kshillat!

FJALOR dentr, -e dhmb, -i, - dhmbll/, -a, - dhmblla e pjekurs dhmbj/e, -a, -e f/ll, -lli, -je ll dentr fu/s, -ta, -tur gjk, -u gjh/, -a, - gj, -a, - graf, -a, grz, -a, -a heq, hqa, hqur higjin/, -a infeksin, -i, -e kontrll, -i, -e lart mbj, -ta, -tur mbaj mend dental tooth molar wisdom tooth pain string dental oss to get in, to come in blood tongue, language mouth X- ray plaque, scale to take off hygiene infection control high, up to keep, hold to remember mbsh, -a, -ur mbshj/e, -a, -e msh, -i, -ra mshra dhmbsh mjek/j, -va, -ar ndej, ndjva, nder ngacm/j, -va, -ar orr, -i, -e l orr pacint/e, -ja, -e parandal/j, -va, -ar pjekur, -a porceln, -i prshj/e, -a, -e smndj/e, -a, -e sidoms shqetsm, -i, -e l/em, u -a, -ur zm/r, -ra, -ra to ll in lling meat gums to cure, treat to feel to bother, cause pain timetable, schedule to make an appointment patient to prevent maturity porcelain decay disease, illness especially trouble, disturbance to sit down heart

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GRAMATIK 107 The future perfect and present perfect subjunctive Consider the following sentences: Nuk mbaj mend t kem pasur ndonjher dhimbje nga kjo dhmball. I dont remember ever having (lit., to have ever had) pain in this molar. Besoj se do ti ket rn mbushja. I believe that the lling has fallen out. In these sentences the verb is in the present perfect subjunctive. For class 1 through 5 verbs the present perfect subjunctive is formed with the verb kam to have in the present subjunctive followed by the past participle of the main verb. Here is the full paradigm for the rst example above with the present perfect subjunctive: Nuk mbaj mend t kem pasur dhimbje nga kjo dhmball. mban mend t kesh pasur mban mend t ket pasur mbajm mend t kemi pasur mbani mend t keni pasur mbajn mend t ken pasur Class 6 verbs require jam to be in the present subjunctive: Nuk mbaj mend t jem takuar me kt burr. I dont remember having met with this man. The full paradigm for the sentence above is shown below: Nuk mbaj mend t jem takuar me kt burr. mban mend t jesh takuar mban mend t jet takuar mbajm mend t jemi takuar mbani mend t jeni takuar mbajn mend t jen takuar Consider now the future perfect. The future perfect for verb classes 1 through 5 is formed by conjugating the verb kam to have in the future, followed by the past participle. The future perfect typically indicates an action that is completed before another action or before a particular point in time in the future. Do t kem mbaruar detyrat para darks. I will have nished the assignments before dinner. The full paradigm is shown below:

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Do t kem mbaruar detyrat par darks. Do t kesh mbaruar Do t ket mbaruar Do t kemi mbaruar Do t keni mbaruar Do t ken mbaruar For class 6 verbs, the future indicative of the verb jam to be is used instead. Do t jem takuar me ket burr para darks. I will have met with that man before dinner. The future perfect of the verb takohem to meet with is shown below: Do t jem takuar me ket burr para darks. Do t jesh takuar Do t jet takuar Do t jemi takuar Do t jeni takuar Do te jen takuar 108 The pluperfect The pluperfect is the equivalent past form of the present perfect. It is formed either with the imperfect of the verb kam to have for class 1 to 5 verbs and with the imperfect of the verb jam to be for verbs that belong to class 6. Kur arriti Dritani, un kisha dal. When Dritan arrived, I had left. Kur arriti Dritani, un isha ngritur. When Dritani arrived, I had already gotten up. (dal to leave) (ngrihem to get up)

The chart below contains the full paradigm for both of these verbs in the pluperfect: dal kisha dal kishe dal kishte dal kishim dal kishit dal kishin dal ngrihem isha ngritur ishe ngritur ishte ngritur ishim ngritur ishit ngritur ishin ngritur

1. The pluperfect is used to indicate an action that took place before another action in the past: Kur erdha n shtpi, nna kishte vn pjatat mbi tryez. When I arrived home, my mother had already put the dishes on the table. Kur ata erdhn n shtpi, ne ishim veshur. When they arrived home, we had already gotten dressed.

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2. The pluperfect is used to indicate an action that took place before a point in the past. It is typically used with time expressions such as asokohe at the time, at vit that year, gjer ather until then, gjer at dit until that day, q at dit since that day, and so on. At vit, ajo kishte qndruar disa muaj n Paris. That year, she had spent some months in Paris. Gjer ather, ata sishin nisur. Until then, they hadnt arrived. The pluperfect is used to indicate indirect speech that is originally in the past or in the present perfect: Ai m tha: Dje punova deri von. He told me, Yesterday I worked late. Ai m tha se dje kishte punuar deri von. He told me that he had worked until late. Ai m tha: Jam takuar me Artanin. He told me, I have met with Artan. Ai m tha se ishte takuar me Artanin. He told me that he had met with Artan. (direct speech in the present perfect) (direct speech in the past)

USHTRIMI 17.5 Answer the following questions based on Dialogu 17.2. 1. Ku ka shkuar pacientja? _____________________________________________________________ 2. Pr se ka shkuar ajo atje? _____________________________________________________________ 3. N far ore e ka ln orarin? _____________________________________________________________ 4. far i dhemb asaj? _____________________________________________________________ 5. Cila dhmball i dhemb? _____________________________________________________________ 6. far do t vr ajo? _____________________________________________________________ 7. far do ti pastroj dentisti? _____________________________________________________________ 8. Me se i pastron ajo dhmbt? _____________________________________________________________

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9. far i kshillon mjeku pr higjienn e gojs? ____________________________________________________________ 10. far problemesh ka ajo me mishrat e dhmbve? ____________________________________________________________

USHTRIMI 17.6 Change the verbs in bold to the present perfect subjunctive. 1. Ai duhet t jet me grip. _____________________________________________________________ 2. Mund t ket shum probleme me shndetin. _____________________________________________________________ 3. sht mir t lini nj takim me mjekun, thjesht pr nj kontroll. _____________________________________________________________ 4. Nuk sht e vshtir t ruash higjienn e gojs. _____________________________________________________________ 5. Duhet t mjekosh dhmbt. _____________________________________________________________

USHTRIMI 17.7 Complete the following sentences with the present perfect of the verbs in parentheses. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. Un __________ (vij) pr nj kontroll. Ai __________ (lahem) vet. Ata e __________ (l) orarin n orn 17:00. Ata i __________ (telefonoj) sekretares dhe ajo u __________ (them) q t shkojn n orn 15:00. Ndrtesa __________ (mbahet) me kujdes. far shqetsimesh __________ (kam, ti)? M __________ (dhemb) dhmbi. Asaj i __________ (dal) dhmballa e pjekuris. Duket ti __________ (bie) mbushja. Ti __________ (heq) nj dhmb para disa kohsh. Ne i __________ (mbush) dhmbt para disa kohsh. Mjeku i __________ (pastroj) dhmbt pacientes.

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USHTRIMI 17.8 Change the sentences above into the pluperfect. Start your sentences with Ata menduan se . . . They thought that . . . 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. ____________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________

USHTRIMI 17.9 Complete the following sentences with the future perfect of the verb indicated in parentheses. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. Kur t vish ti, ____________ (iki) un. ____________ (shkaktoj) ata kt dram. Para se t vijn ata, un ____________ (mbaroj) msimet. Ajo ____________ (mbyllur) me koh kt histori. ____________ (Jap) edhe ajo mendimin e saj. Mbase ____________ (krkoj) un kt gj. Njerzit tregojn se nuk ____________ (kam) informacione pr aktivitetin. Them se ata ____________ (nisem) patjetr. Fakti q nuk m kan marr n telefon, tregon se nuk ____________ (pranoj). T premtoj se ____________ (mbaruar) punt, derisa t vish ti.

USHTRIMI 17.10 Connect the following pairs of sentences as in the example. Artani arriti n shkoll. Msuesja arriti prpara. Kur Artani arriti n shkoll, msuesja kishte arritur. 1. Vajza mbaroi msimin. Djali ishte n shtpi. _____________________________________________________________ 2. Shkuam tek mjeku. Mjeku mbaroi punn. _____________________________________________________________ 3. Ne arritm. Filmi mbaroi. _____________________________________________________________
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4. Pushimet mbaruan. Ajo mori letrn e tij. _____________________________________________________________ 5. Ti u takove. Ajo foli me t. _____________________________________________________________

LEXIMI 17.1
Kshilla mjeksore

Studiuesit ne Shtetet e Bashkuara t Ameriks kan arritur t prgatisin nj udhzues me sugjerime pr nj jetgjatsi deri n 100 vjet. Shkenctart theksojn se ky udhzues sht br publik pas nj krkimi t gjat n kt fush. Pr kt studim, ata kan punuar pr rreth 30 vjet. Jan testuar shum njerz t kategorive te ndryshme. Disa nga kto sugjerime jan dhn m posht:
Ushqimet

1. Kshillohet konsumi i perimeve dhe i frutave dhe shmangia e ushqimeve t skuqura dhe me yndyr. 2. Duhet t konsumohen t paktn nj her n dit produkte t freskta t gjelbra si: spinaqi, lakra, sallata jeshile, etj.
Sporti

Sipas studiuesve, sht shum e rndsishme q trupi i njeriut t jet gjithnj n lvizje. 1. Merruni me ushtrime zike n mnyr t rregullt. Mbani nj pesh ideale (pesha ideale sht ajo q keni pasur kur keni qen 25 vje). 2. Kshillohet ecja e leht n natyr. Bni do dit t paktn 30 minuta ecje. Ecja e prditshme n mngjes dhe n mbrmje sht shum e kshillueshme, sidomos pr organet tona t brendshme: mlin, stomakun dhe mushkrit. 3. Ushtrimet zike ju ndihmojn t ulni kolesterolin dhe t ruani n kt mnyr nj pesh trupi ideale. 4. Ushtrimet e lehta gjimnastikore ndihmojn dhe n shrimin e reumatizms.

FJALOR i brndsh/m, e -me diabt, -i ditr, -e cj/e, -a, -e fsh/, -a, -a gjimnastikr, -e gjithnj i kshillesh/m, e -me jetgjats, -a internal diabetes daily walk eld gymnastic always advisable longevity kategor, -a, kolesterl, -i konsm, -i, -e lk/r, -ra, -ra lvzj/e, -a, -e mbj, -ta, -tur mbrj, -ta, -tur ml, -a, mjeksr, -e category cholesterol consumption cabbage motion, movement to keep to defend, protect liver medical

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mushkr, -a, ngr/hem, u -ta, -tur normalizm, -i, -e orgn, -i, -e orgnet e brndshme paks/j, -va, -ar i,e pangpur psh/, -a, -a i prdtsh/m, e -me prqndj/e, -a, -a psht qarkullm, -i qarkullmi i gjkut redukt/j, -va, -ar reumatz/m, -mi ruj, -ta, -tur sallt/, -a, -a sallt jeshle i,e skqur spinq, -i

lung to stand up normalization organ internal organs to reduce, diminish unsatiated, hungry weight daily percentage below, underneath circulation blood circulation to reduce rheumatism to maintain salad lettuce fried spinach

stomk, -u, - studies, -i, sugjerm, -i, -e shrm, -i, -e shikm, -i, -e shkenctr, -i, - shmng, -a, -ur shmng/ie, -a, - ie sht/j, -va, -ar tensin, -i testj, -va, -ar t pktn theksj, -va, -ar udhzes, -i, ushq/hem, u -va, -er ushtrm, -i, -e vkt, -i, -e yndr/, -a

belly, stomach researcher suggestion cure sight, vision scientist to avoid avoidance to increase (blood) pressure to test at least to stress manual to feed, be nourished exercise meal, mealtime fat, grease

USHTRIMI 17.11 Indicate whether the following statements are true (T), false (F), or not mentioned (NM). Where they are false or not mentioned, briey explain why (in Albanian). 1. ________ Studiuesit n Evrop kan arritur t prgatisin nj udhzues me sugjerime pr nj jetgjatsi deri n 100 vjet. 2. ________ Shkenctart theksojn se ky udhzues sht br publik pas nj krkimi t gjat n kt fush. 3. ________ Pr kt studim, ata kan punuar pr rreth 20 vjet. 4. ________ Pr kt studim jan testuar pak njerz. 5. ________ Studiuesit kshillojn konsumin e perimeve dhe t frutave dhe shmangien e ushqimeve t skuqura dhe me yndyr. 6. ________ Studiuesit kshillojn t konsumohen t paktn nj her n tri dit produkte t freskta t gjelbra si: spinaqi, lakra, sallata jeshile, etj. 7. ________ Trupi i njeriut duhet t jet gjithnj n lvizje. 8. ________ Studiuesit kshillojn ecjen n natyr. 9. ________ Ata kshillojn q njerzit t bjn 10 minuta ecje n dit. 10. ________ Ecja e prditshme n mngjes dhe n mbrmje sht shum e kshillueshme, sidomos pr organet tona t brendshme: mlin, stomakun dhe mushkrit.

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USHTRIMI 17.12 Answer the following questions based on Leximi 17.1. 1. far kan prgatitur studiuesit n Shtetet e Bashkuara? _____________________________________________________________ 2. far kshillojn ata? _____________________________________________________________ 3. A kshillohet konsumi i perimeve dhe i frutave? _____________________________________________________________ 4. far kshillohet q t konsumohet t paktn nj her n dit? _____________________________________________________________ 5. Si duhet t jet trupi i njeriut? _____________________________________________________________ 6. Pse kshillohet ecja n natyr? _____________________________________________________________ 7. Pr far ndihmojn ushtrimet zike? _____________________________________________________________ 8. Pr far ndihmojn ushtrimet e lehta zike? _____________________________________________________________

USHTRIMI 17.13 Complete the following summary of Leximi 17.1 with the appropriate form of the word in parentheses. 1. Studiuesit n ____________ (United States) kan prgatitur nj ______________ (manual) me ____________ (suggestions) pr njerzit q t ken nj ____________ (longevity) deri n 100 vjet. 2. _______________ (It is recommended) konsumi ____________ (of vegetables) dhe i frutave dhe _______________________ (the avoidance of fried foods) dhe ____________ (greasy). 3. Duhet t ____________ (to be consumed) t paktn nj her n dit ____________ (fresh green vegetables) si: ____________ (spinach), ____________ (cabbage), ____________ (lettuce), etj. 4. ____________ (According to researchers), sht shum ____________ (important), q ______________ (the body of the individual/person) t jet gjithnj _________________ (in movement). 5. ____________ (It is advised) ecja ____________ (light) n natyr. Bni ____________ (every day), _____________ (at least) 30 minuta ecje. ____________ (A daily walk), n mngjes dhe n mbrmje sht shum e kshillueshme, ____________ (especially) pr ______________________ (your internal organs): mlin, stomakun dhe mushkrit.

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6. ____________ (The physical exercises) ju ndihmojn t _______________ (lower your cholesterol) dhe ______________ (to maintain this way) nj _________________ (ideal body weight). 7. Ushtrimet e lehta gjimnastikore ndihmojn dhe n ____________ (the cure for rheumatism).

USHTRIMI 17.14 Create dialogues for the following situations. 1. You are visiting Albania and you have gotten sick. You have a high fever and an upset stomach. Call the doctors ofce to make an appointment. Describe your symptoms to the doctors secretary and make an appointment to see the doctor as soon as possible. 2. You go to see a doctor and tell him or her your symptoms. The doctor asks you how you got sick. Invent an appropriate situation. The doctor gives you advice. 3. While eating some almonds (bajame), you lost a lling. You go to see a dentist. Have a conversation with her or him.

Pilgrims in Shna Ndo, La, Albania (photo: Bevis Fusha)

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MSIMI 18
Prsritje
Review LEXIMI 18.1
Zbulimi i vlerave arkeologjike n Shqipri1

Interesi pr vlerat arkeologjike t Shqipris nis n shek. XIX kur studiues t gjeogras historike iu kushtuan identikimit t t dhnave nga burimet antike. Kshtu, i pari q viziton Shqiprin sht francezi Pouqueville.2 Anglezi Martin Leake, nga shtitja q bri n Shqiprin e Jugut deri n Apoloni, botoi nj prshkrim t hollsishm t objekteve arkeologjike q i ran n sy.3 M von arkeologu francez L. Heuzey vizitoi Shqiprin dhe n studimin e tij u ndal kryesisht mbi Durrsin e Apolonin.4 N llim t shek. XX vizitoi Apolonin dhe rrethinat e Vlors ballkanologu C. Patsch.5 Ai sht i pari q zbuloi qytetin e Amantias dhe m pas botoi nj studim t hollsishm mbi antikitetet q pa n Bylis, Klos, Berat etj. Gjat Lufts s Par Botrore erdhn n Shqipri arkeologt austriak C. Praschniker e A. Schober t cilt lluan krkimet nga Veriu i Shqipris n drejtim t Jugut dhe u kushtuan vmendje edhe monumenteve e qendrave arkeologjike ilire.6 M 1924, nj mision arkeologjik francez, nn drejtimin e Leon Rey, llon grmimet sistematike n Apoloni, t cilat vazhduan deri m 1938 dhe rezultatet u botuan n revistn Albania.7 Nj mision tjetr arkeologjik italian m 1926 lloi grmimet n qytetin antik t Foinikes dhe m von n Butrint. N llim, misioni u drejtua nga L. Ugolini e m pas nga Markoni e Mustili.8 Pas Lufts s Dyt Botrore deri m 1990 krkimet e studimet arkeologjike u bn nga arkeolog shqiptar. M 1948 u krijua n Tiran Muzeu Arkeologjik-Etnograk, m pas m 1976 u formua Qendra e Studimeve Arkeologjike. M 1991 u formua Instituti i Arkeologjis. Vitet e fundit, kan ardhur n Shqipri, t organizuar n ekspedita t shumta, ekspert t instituteve t arkeologjis dhe t universiteteve nga e gjith bota. Grupe t ardhura nga Italia, Franca, Gjermania, Izraeli, Britania, Turqia, SHBA- ja, etj., kan nisur q nga viti 2006 punn pr zbulimin e mistereve t nntoks n vendin ton, e cila, ka shum pasuri arkeologjike. Krkimet jan prqendruar edhe n pasurit nnujore q ndodhen n afrsi t brigjeve prgjat Adriatikut dhe Jonit.
1. Partially adapted from Myzafer Korkutis Arkeologjia. 2. F. C. H. L. Pouqueville, Voyage dans la Grce, comprenant la description ancienne et moderne de lEpirde, de lIllyrie grecque etc., vol. 5 (Paris, 1820 21). 3. W. M. Leake, Travels in Northern Greece, vol. 4 (London, 1835). 4. L. Heuzey and H. Daument, Le mission archologique de Macdoine (Paris, 1876). 5. C. Patsch, Das Sandschak Berat in Albanien (Vienna, 1904). 6. C. Praschniker and A. Schober, Archologische Forschungen in Albanien und Montenegro (1919; Vienna: C. Praschniker, Muzakia und Malakastra, 1920). 7. L. Rey, Albanie, Revue darchologie (Paris, 1925 39). 8. L. Ugolini, Albania antica (Rome, 1927 42); D. Mustili, La civilta preistorica dellAlbania (Rome, 1940).

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FJALOR afrs, -a, n afrs t i,e rdhur arkeologjk, -e bot/j, -va, -ar breg, -u, brgje burm, -i, -e drejtm, -i, -e n drejtm t nn drejtmin e drejt/hem, u -ova, -ar ekspedt/, -a, -a form/hem, u -va, -ar grmm, -i, -e i hollssh/m, e -me identikm, -i, -e krkm, -i, -e krij/hem, u-va, -ar kusht/hem, u-va, -ar (+ dat.) closeness in the vicinity of, close to come archaeological to publish coast source direction toward under the direction of to be led by expedition to be formed, developed digging detailed identication research to be created to be dedicated lft/, -a, -ra Lfta e Pr Botrre Lfta e Dt Botrre misin, -i, -e mistr, -i, -e ndl/em, u -a, -ur nntk/, -a, -a nnujr, -e nis, -a, -ur pasur, -a, prgjt prqendr/hem, u-va, -ar prshkrm, -i, -e rrethn/, -a, -a shek., shku/ll, -lli -j i,e shmt vmndj/e, -a, -e vlr/, -a, -a zbul/j, -va, -ar zbulm, -i, -e war First World War Second World War mission mystery to stop underground underwater to begin, start wealth along to be concentrated description suburbs, environs century multiple, various attention value to discover discovery

USHTRIMI 18.1 Indicate whether the following statements are true (T), false (F), or not mentioned (NM). Where they are false or not mentioned, briey explain why (in Albanian). 1. _____ Interesi pr vlerat arkeologjike t Shqipris nis n shek. XX. 2. _____ I pari q vizitoi Shqiprin ishte francezi Pouqueville. 3. _____ Anglezi Martin Leake, nga shtitja q bri n Shqiprin e Jugut deri n Durrs, botoi nj prshkrim t hollsishm t objekteve arkeologjike q i ran n sy. 4. _____ Arkeologu francez L. Heuzey vizitoi Shqiprin dhe n studimin e tij u ndal kryesisht mbi Tirann. _____ N llim t shek. XXI vizitoi Apolonin dhe rrethinat e Vlors ballkanologu 5. C. Patsch. 6. _____ Ai sht i pari q zbuloi qytetin e Amantias dhe m pas botoi nj studim t hollsishm mbi antikitetet q pa n Bylis, Klos, Berat etj. _____ Gjat Lufts s Par Botrore erdhn n Shqipri arkeologt italian C. Praschniker e 7. A. Schober.
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8. ______ M 1924 lloi grmimet nj mision arkeologjik francez. 9. ______ Nj mision tjetr arkeologjik turk m 1926 lloi grmimet n qytetin antik t Foinikes dhe m von n Butrint. 10. ______ N llim, misioni u drejtua nga L. Ugolini e m pas nga Markoni e Mustili.

USHTRIMI 18.2 Answer the following questions based on Leximi 18.1. 1. Kur nisi interesi pr vlerat arkeologjike t Shqipris? ____________________________________________________________ 2. Cili ishte i pari q vizitoi Shqiprin? ____________________________________________________________ 3. far botoi anglezi Martin Leake? ____________________________________________________________ 4. Ku u ndal n studimin e tij arkeologu francez Heuzey? ____________________________________________________________ 5. Ku lloi grmimet sistematike misioni arkeologjik francez n vitin 1924? ____________________________________________________________ 6. Ku u botuan rezultatet? ____________________________________________________________ 7. Kur i lloi punimet misioni italian? ____________________________________________________________ 8. Kur u formua Instituti i Arkeologjis? ____________________________________________________________ 9. Nga jan ekspertt q kan ardhur vitet e fundit n Shqipri? ____________________________________________________________ 10. Ku jan prqendruar krkimet? ____________________________________________________________

USHTRIMI 18.3 Complete the following text with the appropriate form of the linking article or clitic pronoun. Spaces that require clitic pronouns are indicated as <___>. Interesi pr vlerat arkeologjike ___ Shqipris nis n shek. XIX kur studiues ___ gjeogras historike iu kushtuan identikimit ___ t dhnave nga burimet antike. Kshtu, ___ pari q viziton Shqiprin sht francezi Pouqueville. Anglezi Martin Leake, nga shtitja q bri n Shqiprin ___ Jugut deri n Apoloni, botoi nj prshkrim ___ hollsishm ___ objekteve arkeologjike q <___> ran n sy. M von arkeologu francez L. Heuzey vizitoi Shqiprin dhe n studimin ___ tij <___> ndal kryesisht mbi Durrsin e Apolonin. N llim ___ shek. XX vizitoi Apolonin dhe rrethinat ___ Vlors ballkanologu C. Patsch. Ai sht ___ pari q zbuloi qytetin ___ Amantias dhe m pas botoi nj studim ___ hollsishm mbi antikitetet q pa n Bylis, Klos, Berat etj.

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Gjat Lufts ___ Par Botrore erdhn n Shqipri arkeologt austriak C. Praschniker e A. Schober ___ cilt lluan krkimet nga Veriu ___ Shqipris n drejtim ___ Jugut dhe <___> kushtuan vmendje edhe monumenteve ___ qendrave arkeologjike ilire. M 1924 nj mision arkeologjik francez, nn drejtimin ___ Leon Rey, llon grmimet sistematike n Apoloni, ___ cilat vazhduan deri m 1938 dhe rezultatet <___> botuan n revistn Albania. Nj mision tjetr arkeologjik italian m 1926 lloi grmimet n qytetin antik ___ Foinikes dhe m von n Butrint. N llim, misioni <___> drejtua nga L. Ugolini e m pas nga Markoni e Mustili. Pas Lufts ___ Dyt Botrore deri m 1990 krkimet ___ studimet arkeologjike <___> bn nga arkeolog shqiptar. M 1948 <___> krijua n Tiran Muzeu Arkeologjik-Etnograk, m pas m 1976 <___> formua Qendra ___ Studimeve Arkeologjike. M 1991 <___> formua Instituti ___ Arkeologjis. Vitet ___ fundit, kan ardhur n Shqipri, ___ organizuar n ekspedita ___ shumta, ekspert ___ instituteve ___ arkeologjis dhe ___ universiteteve nga ___ gjith bota. Grupe ___ ardhura nga Italia, Franca, Gjermania, Izraeli, Britania, Turqia, SHBA- ja, etj., kan nisur q nga viti 2006 punn pr zbulimin ___ mistereve ___ nntoks n vendin ton, ___ cila, ka shum pasuri arkeologjike. Krkimet jan prqendruar edhe n pasurit nnujore q ndodhen n afrsi ___ brigjeve prgjat Adriatikut dhe Jonit.

USHTRIMI 18.4 Complete the following sentences with the appropriate form of the nouns and adjectives. Interes___ pr vler___ arkeologjike t Shqipri___ nis n shek. XIX kur studiues___ t gjeogra___ historik___ iu kushtuan identikim___ t t dhn___ nga burim___ antik___. Kshtu, i par___ q viziton Shqipri___ sht francez___ Pouqueville. Anglez___ Martin Leake, nga shtit___ q bri n Shqipri___ e Jug___ deri n Apoloni, botoi nj prshkrim___ t hollsish___ t objekt___ arkeologjik___ q i ran n sy. M von arkeolog___ francez L. Heuzey vizitoi Shqipri___ dhe n studim___ e tij u ndal kryesisht mbi Durrs___ e Apoloni___. N llim t shek. XX vizitoi Apoloni___ dhe rrethin___ e Vlor___ ballkanolog___ C. Patsch. Ai sht i par___ q zbuloi qytet___ e Amanti___ dhe m pas botoi nj studim t hollsish___ mbi antikitet___ q pa n Bylis, Klos, Berat etj. Gjat Luft___ s Par___ Botror___ erdhn n Shqipri___ arkeolog___ austriak___ C. Praschniker e A. Schober t cilt lluan krkim___ nga Veri___ i Shqipri___ n drejtim t Jug___ dhe u kushtuan vmend___ edhe monument___ e qend___ arkeologjik___ ilir___. M 1924 nj mision arkeologjik___ francez___, nn drejtim___ e Leon Rey, llon grmim___ sistematik___ n Apoloni, t cil___ vazhduan deri m 1938 dhe rezultat___ u botuan n revist___ Albania. Nj mision tjetr arkeologjik___ italian___, m 1926, lloi grmim___ n qytet___ antik___ t Foinik___ dhe m von n Butrint___. N llim___, mision___ u drejtua nga L. Ugolini e m pas nga Markoni e Mustili. Pas Luft___ s Dyt Botror___ deri m 1990 krkim___ e studim___ arkeologjik___ u bn nga arkeolog___ shqiptar___. M 1948 u krijua n Tiran___ Muze___ ArkeologjikEtnograk, m pas m 1976 u formua Qend___ e Studim___ Arkeologjik___. M 1991 u formua Institut___ i Arkeologji___.
Msimi 18: Prsritje

301

Vit___ e fundit, kan ardhur n Shqipri___, t organizuar n ekspedit___ t shumt___, ekspert___ t institut___ t arkeologji___ dhe t universitet___ nga e gjith bot___. Grupe t ardhura nga Itali___, Franc___, Gjermani___, Izrael___, Britani___, Turqi___, SHBA- ja, etj., kan nisur q nga vit___ 2006 pun___ pr zbulim___ e mister___ t nntok___ n vend___ ton, e cila, ka shum pasuri___ arkeologjik___. Krkim___ jan prqendruar edhe n pasuri___ nnujor____ q ndodhen n afrsi t brigj___ prgjat Adriatik____ dhe Jon___.

USHTRIMI 18.5 Complete the following sentences. Pay attention to the verb endings. Interesi pr vlerat arkeologjike t Shqipris nis____ n shek. XIX kur studiues t gjeogras historike iu kusht____ identikimit t t dhnave nga burimet antike. Kshtu, i pari q vizito____ Shqiprin sht francezi Pouqueville. Anglezi Martin Leake, nga shtitja q bri n Shqiprin e Jugut deri n Apoloni, bot____ nj prshkrim t hollsishm t objekteve arkeologjike q i ra____ n sy. M von arkeologu francez L. Heuzey vizit____ Shqiprin dhe n studimin e tij u ndal____ kryesisht mbi Durrsin e Apolonin. N llim t shek. XX vizit____ Apolonin dhe rrethinat e Vlors ballkanologu C. Patsch. Ai sht i pari q zbul____ qytetin e Amantias dhe m pas bot____ nj studim t hollsishm mbi antikitetet q pa n Bylis, Klos, Berat etj. Gjat Lufts s Par Botrore erdh___ n Shqipri arkeologt austriak C. Praschniker e A. Schober t cilt ll____ krkimet nga Veriu i Shqipris n drejtim t Jugut dhe u kusht____ vmendje edhe monumenteve e qendrave arkeologjike ilire. M 1924 nj mision arkeologjik francez, nn drejtimin e Leon Rey, ll____ grmimet sistematike n Apoloni, t cilat vazhd____ deri m 1938 dhe rezultatet u botuan n revistn Albania. Nj mision tjetr arkeologjik italian m 1926 ll____ grmimet n qytetin antik t Foinikes dhe m von n Butrint. N llim, misioni u drejt____ nga L. Ugolini e m pas nga Markoni e Mustili. Pas Lufts s Dyt Botrore deri m 1990 krkimet e studimet arkeologjike u b____ nga arkeolog shqiptar. M 1948 u krij____ n Tiran Muzeu Arkeologjik-Etnograk, m pas m 1976 u form____ Qendra e Studimeve Arkeologjike. M 1991 u form___ Instituti i Arkeologjis. Vitet e fundit, ka___ ardh___ n Shqipri, t organiz___ n ekspedita t shumta, ekspert t instituteve t arkeologjis dhe t universiteteve nga e gjith bota. Grupe t ardh___ nga Italia, Franca, Gjermania, Izraeli, Britania, Turqia, SHBA- ja, etj., ka___ nis___ q nga viti 2006 punn pr zbulimin e mistereve t nntoks n vendin ton, e cila, ka shum pasuri arkeologjike. Krkimet ja___ prqendr___ edhe n pasurit nnujore q ndodh___ n afrsi t brigjeve prgjat Adriatikut dhe Jonit.

302 Discovering Albanian 1

The theater at Butrint (photo: Albes Fusha)

USHTRIMI 18.6 Create a description for each of the following situations. 1. One of your friends from Albania is planning to visit your country. Recommend four places for her to visit. Describe those places and tell her about their history. 2. Many of the monuments and relics of antiquity can be found in the major museums in Europe. Find pictures of these objects on the Internet and describe them, including their origin and the period they date from. Finish your presentation by arguing in favor of or against returning these objects to the countries from which they were taken.

Msimi 18: Prsritje

303

APPENDIX 1
Personal pronouns and clitic pronouns

First-Person Singular Nominative Accusative Dative Ablative1 un mua, m mua, m (prej) meje First-Person Plural Nominative Accusative Dative Ablative ne ne, na neve, na (prej) nesh

Second-Person Singular ti ty, t ty, t (prej) teje Second-Person Plural ju ju, ju juve, ju (prej) jush

Third-Person Singular (masc.) ai at, e atij, i (prej) atij Third-Person Plural (masc.) ata ata, i atyre, u (prej) atyre

Third-Person Singular (fem.) ajo at, e asaj, i (prej) asaj Third-Person Plural (fem.) ato ato, i atyre, u (prej) atyre

1. For genitive (possessive) forms, please see appendix 3.

305

APPENDIX 2
Demonstrative pronouns and adjectives

Near the speaker (this, these) Masculine Singular Nominative Accusative Dative Genitive Ablative ky kt ktij i,e ktij (prej) ktij Feminine Singular kjo kt ksaj i,e ksaj (prej) ksaj Masculine Plural kta kta ktyre i,e ktyre (prej) ktyre Feminine Plural kto kto ktyre i,e ktyre (prej) ktyre

Far from the speaker (that, those) Masculine Singular Nominative Accusative Dative Genitive Ablative ai at atij i,e atij (prej) atij Feminine Singular ajo at asaj i,e asaj (prej) asaj Masculine Plural ata ata atyre i,e atyre (prej) atyre Feminine Plural ato ato atyre i,e atyre (prej) atyre

306

APPENDIX 3
Possessive adjectives

My Masculine Singular Nominative Accusative Genitive, Dative, Ablative Your (informal possessor) Masculine Singular Nominative Accusative Genitive, Dative, Ablative His Masculine Singular Nominative Accusative Genitive, Dative, Ablative Her Masculine Singular Nominative Accusative Genitive, Dative, Ablative Our Masculine Singular Nominative Accusative Genitive, Dative, Ablative yn ton ton Feminine Singular jon ton son Masculine Plural tan tan tan Feminine Plural tona tona tona i saj e saj t saj Feminine Singular e saj e saj s saj Masculine Plural e saj e saj t saj Feminine Plural e saj e saj t saj i tij e tij t tij Feminine Singular e tij e tij s tij Masculine Plural e tij e tij t tij Feminine Plural e tij e tij t tij yt tnd tnd Feminine Singular jote tnde sate Masculine Plural e tu e tu t tu Feminine Plural e tua e tua t tua im tim tim Feminine Singular ime time sime Masculine Plural e mi e mi t mi Feminine Plural e mia e mia t mia

307

Your (formal or plural possessor) Masculine Singular Nominative Accusative Genitive, Dative, Ablative Their Masculine Singular Nominative Accusative Genitive, Dative, Ablative i tyre e tyre t tyre Feminine Singular e tyre e tyre s tyre Masculine Plural e tyre e tyre t tyre Feminine Plural e tyre e tyre t tyre juaj tuaj tuaj Feminine Singular juaj tuaj suaj Masculine Plural tuaj tuaj tuaj Feminine Plural tuaja tuaja tuaja

308 Appendix 3

APPENDIX 4
The interrogative and relative pronouns cili which and kush who

Masculine Singular Nominative Accusative Dative Genitive Ablative cili cilin cilit i,e cilit (prej) cilit

Feminine Singular cila ciln cils i,e cils (prej) cils

Masculine Plural cilt cilt cilve cilve (prej) cilve

Feminine Plural cilat cilat cilave i,e cilave (prej) cilave kush k kujt i,e kujt (prej) kujt

309

APPENDIX 5
Masculine nouns

Masculine nouns ending in -k, -g, or -h Indenite form Singular Nominative Accusative Dative Genitive Ablative Denite form Singular Nominative Accusative Dative Genitive Ablative shoku shokun shokut i,e shokut (prej) shokut Plural shokt shokt shokve i,e shokve (prej) shokve (nj) shok (nj) shok (nj) shoku i,e (nj) shoku (prej) (nj) shoku Plural (disa) shok (disa) shok (disa) shokve i,e (disa) shokve (prej) (disa) shoksh

Masculine nouns ending in -r Indenite form Singular Nominative Accusative Dative Genitive Ablative Denite form Singular Nominative Accusative Dative Genitive Ablative libri librin librit i,e librit (prej) librit Plural librat librat librave i,e librave (prej) librave (nj) libr (nj) libr (nj) libri i,e (nj) libri (prej) (nj) libri Plural (disa) libra (disa) libra (disa) librave i,e (disa) librave (prej) (disa) librash

310

Masculine nouns ending in a consonant other than -k, -g, -h, or -r Indenite form Singular Nominative Accusative Dative Genitive Ablative Denite form Singular Nominative Accusative Dative Genitive Ablative studenti studentin studentit i,e studentit (prej) studentit Plural studentt studentt studentve i,e studentve (prej) studentve (nj) student (nj) student (nj) studenti i,e (nj) studenti (prej) (nj) studenti Plural (disa) student (disa) student (disa) studentve i,e (disa) studentve (prej) (disa) studentsh

Appendix 5

311

APPENDIX 6
Feminine nouns

Feminine nouns ending in - Indenite form Singular Nominative Accusative Dative Genitive Ablative Denite form Singular Nominative Accusative Dative Genitive Ablative anta antn ants i,e ants (prej) ants Plural antat antat antave i,e antave (prej) antave (nj) ant (nj) ant (nj) ante i,e (nj) ante (prej) (nj) ante Plural (disa) anta (disa) anta (disa) antave i,e (disa) antave (prej) (disa) antash

Feminine nouns ending in -e Indenite form Singular Nominative Accusative Dative Genitive Ablative Denite form Singular Nominative Accusative Dative Genitive Ablative studentja studenten studentes i,e studentes (prej) studentes Plural studentet studentet studenteve i,e studenteve (prej) studenteve (nj) studente (nj) studente (nj) studenteje i,e (nj) studenteje (prej) (nj) studenteje Plural (disa) studente (disa) studente (disa) studenteve i,e (disa) studenteve (prej) (disa) studentesh

312

Feminine nouns ending in stressed -i Indenite form Singular Nominative Accusative Dative Genitive Ablative Denite form Singular Nominative Accusative Dative Genitive Ablative shtpia shtpin shtpis i,e shtpis (prej) shtpis Plural shtpit shtpit shtpive i,e shtpive (prej) shtpive (nj) shtpi (nj) shtpi (nj) shtpie i,e (nj) shtpie (prej) (nj) shtpie Plural (disa) shtpi (disa) shtpi (disa) shtpive i,e (disa) shtpive (prej) (disa) shtpish

Feminine nouns ending in -r, -l, -ll, or -rr Indenite form Singular Nominative Accusative Dative Genitive Ablative Denite form Singular Nominative Accusative Dative Genitive Ablative motra motrn motrs i,e motrs (prej) motrs Plural motrat motrat motrave i,e motrave (prej) motrave (nj) motr (nj) motr (nj) motre i,e (nj) motre (prej) (nj) motre Plural (disa) motra (disa) motra (disa) motrave i,e (disa) motrave (prej) (disa) motrash

Appendix 6

313

APPENDIX 7
Linking articles with class 2 adjectives

Masculine nouns Denite form Singular Nominative Accusative Dative Genitive Ablative Indenite form Singular Nominative Accusative Dative Genitive Ablative Feminine nouns Denite form Singular Nominative Accusative Dative Genitive Ablative Indenite form Singular Nominative Accusative Dative Genitive Ablative (nj) vajz e bukur (nj) vajz t bukur (nj) vajze t bukur i,e (nj) vajze t bukur (prej) (nj) vajze t bukur Plural (disa) vajza t bukura (disa) vajza t bukura (disa) vajzave t bukura (disa) vajzave t bukura (prej) (disa) vajzash t bukura vajza e bukur vajzn e bukur vajzs s bukur i,e vajzs s bukur (prej) vajzs s bukur Plural vajzat e bukura vajzat e2 bukura vajzave t bukura vajzave t bukura (prej) vajzave t bukura (nj) djal i bukur (nj) djal t bukur (nj) djali t bukur i,e (nj) djali t bukur (prej) (nj) djali t bukur Plural (disa) djem t bukur (disa) djem t bukur (disa) djemve t bukur (disa) djemve t bukur (prej) (disa) djemsh t bukur djali i bukur djalin e bukur djalit t bukur i,e djalit t bukur (prej) djalit t bukur Plural djemt e bukur djemt e1 bukur djemve t bukur djemve t bukur (prej) djemve t bukur

1. This adjectival article e becomes t if the adjective does not immediately follow the denite noun. 2. See previous note.

314

APPENDIX 8
Present and imperfect verb forms

Class 1 verbs punoj to work Present Indicative un ti ai, ajo ne ju ata, ato punoj punon punon punojm punoni punojn Present Subjunctive/(Future) (do) t punoj (do) t punosh (do) t punoj (do) t punojm (do) t punoni (do) t punojn Imperfect punoja punoje punonte punonim punonit punonin

Class 2 verbs hap to open Present Indicative un ti ai, ajo ne ju ata, ato hap hap hap hapim hapni hapin Present Subjunctive/(Future) (do) t hap (do) t hapsh (do) t hap (do) t hapim (do) t hapni (do) t hapin Imperfect hapja hapje hapte hapnim hapnit hapnin

Class 3 verbs ha to eat Present Indicative un ti ai, ajo ne ju ata, ato ha ha ha ham hani han Present Subjunctive/(Future) (do) t ha (do) t hash (do) t haj (do) t ham (do) t hani (do) t han Imperfect haja haje hante hanim hanit hanin

Class 4 verbs iki to go Present Indicative un ti ai, ajo ne ju ata, ato iki ikn ikn ikim ikni ikin Present Subjunctive/(Future) (do) t iki (do) t iksh (do) t ik (do) t ikim (do) t ikni (do) t ikin Imperfect ikja ikje ikte iknim iknit iknin

315

Class 5 verbs jam to be Present Indicative un ti ai, ajo ne ju ata, ato jam je sht jemi jeni jan Present Subjunctive/(Future) (do) t jem (do) t jesh (do) t jet (do) t jemi (do) t jeni (do) t jen Imperfect isha ishe ishte ishim ishit ishin

kam to have Present Indicative un ti ai, ajo ne ju ata, ato kam ke ka kemi keni kan Present Subjunctive/(Future) (do) t kem (do) t kesh (do) t ket (do) t kemi (do) t keni (do) t ken Imperfect kisha kishe kishte kishim kishit kishin

dua to want Present Indicative un ti ai, ajo ne ju ata, ato dua do do duam doni duan Present Subjunctive/(Future) (do) t dua (do) t duash (do) t doj (do) t duam (do) t doni (do) t duan Imperfect doja doje donte donim donit donin

them to say Present Indicative un ti ai, ajo ne ju ata, ato them thua thot themi thoni thon Present Subjunctive/(Future) (do) t them (do) t thuash (do) t thot (do) t themi (do) t thoni (do) t thon Imperfect thosha thoshe thoshte thoshim thoshit thoshin

Class 6 verbs Verbs ending in -hem zgjohem to wake up Present Indicative un ti ai, ajo ne ju ata, ato zgjohem zgjohesh zgjohet zgjohemi zgjoheni zgjohen Present Subjunctive/(Future) (do) t zgjohem (do) t zgjohesh (do) t zgjohet (do) t zgjohemi (do) t zgjoheni (do) t zgjohen Imperfect zgjohesha zgjoheshe zgjohej zgjoheshim zgjoheshit zgjoheshin

316 Appendix 8

Verbs ending in -em nisem to depart Present Indicative un ti ai, ajo ne ju ata, ato nisem nisesh niset nisemi niseni nisen Present Subjunctive/(Future) (do) t nisem (do) t nisesh (do) t niset (do) t nisemi (do) t niseni (do) t nisen Imperfect nisesha niseshe nisej niseshim niseshit niseshin

Appendix 8

317

APPENDIX 9
Most common regular and irregular verbs

Present Indicative

Present Indicative (Secondand ThirdPerson Singular)

Present Indicative (SecondPerson Plural)

Present Subjunctive (SecondPerson Singular)

Present Subjunctive (ThirdPerson Singular)

Imperative (SecondPerson Singular)

Imperfect (FirstPerson Singular)

English

bj bie blej dal di dua eci as e gjej ha hipi hyj iki jam jap kam l luaj marr ngre njoh paguaj pi pres pres punoj pyes rri sjell shes shkoj shkruaj shoh

bn bie blen del di do ecn et e gjen ha hipn hyn ikn je/sht jep ke/ka l luan merr ngre njeh paguan pi pret pret punon pyet rri sjell shet shkon shkruan sheh

bni bini blini dilni dini doni ecni isni ini gjeni hani hipni hyni ikni jeni jepni keni lini luani merrni ngrini njihni paguani pini pritni pritni punoni pyesni rrini sillni shitni shkoni shkruani shihni

t bsh t biesh t blesh t dalsh t dish t duash t ecsh t assh t esh t gjesh t hash t hipsh t hysh t iksh t jesh t japsh t kesh t lsh t luash t marrsh t ngresh t njohsh t paguash t pish t pressh t pressh t punosh t pyessh t rrish t sjellsh t shessh t shkosh t shkruash t shohsh

t bj t bjer t blej t dal t dij t doj t ec t as t ej t gjej t haj t hip t hyj t ik t jet t jap t ket t lr t luaj t marr t ngrej t njoh t paguaj t pij t pres t pres t punoj t pyes t rrij t sjell t shes t shkoj t shkruaj t shoh

bj bjer bli dil di duaj ec fol i gjej ha hip hyr ik ji jep ki lr luaj merr ngri njih paguaj pi prit pre, prit puno pyet rri sill shit shko shkruaj shih

bja bija blija dilja dija doja ecja itja1 ija gjeja haja hipja hyja ikja isha jepja kisha lija luaja merrja ngrija njihja paguaja pija pritja2 pritja punoja pyesja rrija sillja shitja3 shkoja shkruaja shihja

do fall buy leave know want walk speak sleep nd eat get on enter go be give have leave play take lift know pay drink wait cut work ask stay bring sell come write see

1. Also isja. 2. Also prisja.

318

them thrras vdes vesh v vij vras zbres zgjedh

thua/thot thrret vdes vesh v vjen vret zbret zgjedh

thoni thrrisni vdisni vishni vini vini vritni zbritni zgjidhni

t thuash t thrrassh t vdessh t veshsh t vsh t vish t vrassh t zbressh t zgjedhsh

t thot t thrras t vdes t vesh t vr t vij t vras t zbres t zgjedh

thuaj thirr vdis vish vr eja vrit zbrit zgjidh

thosha thirrja vdisja vishja vija vija vritja zbritja zgjidhja

say call die wear put come kill get off choose

3. Also shisja.

Appendix 9

319

APPENDIX 10
Past tense of regular and irregular verbs

Class 1 verbs blej to buy bleva bleve bleu blem blet blen laj to wash lava lave lau lam lat lan fshij to sweep fshiva fshive fshiu fshim fshit fshin fryj to blow fryva fryve fryu frym fryt fryn punoj to work punova punove punoi punuam punuat punuan shkruaj to write shkrova shkrove shkroi shkruam shkruat shkruan thyej to break theva theve theu thyem thyet thyen

un ti ai, ajo ne ju ata, ato

Some common irregular class 1 verbs bj to do: bra, bre, bri, bm, bt, bn hyj to enter: hyra, hyre, hyri, hym, hyt, hyn arrij to arrive: arrita, arrite, arriti, arritm, arritt, arritn gjej to nd: gjeta, gjete, gjeti, gjetm, gjett, gjetn luaj to play: luajta, luajte, luajti, luajtm, luajtt, luajtn ruaj to protect: ruajta, ruajte, ruajti, ruajtm, ruajtt, ruajtn Class 2 verbs un ti ai, ajo ne ju ata, ato hap to open hapa hape hapi hapm hapt hapn brtas to shut brtita brtite brtiti brtitm brtitt brtitn njoh to know njoha njohe njohu njohm njoht njohn

Some common irregular class 2 verbs godas to hit, strike: godita, godite, goditi, goditm, goditt, goditn paraqes to introduce: paraqita, paraqite, paraqiti, paraqitm, paraqitt, paraqitn pres to wait: prita, prite, priti, pritm, pritt, pritn1 pyes to ask: pyeta, pyete, pyeti, pyetm, pyett, pyetn shes to sell: shita, shite, shiti, shitm, shitt, shitn trokas to knock: trokita, trokite, trokiti, trokitm, trokitt, trokitn
1. There are two verbs pres, one meaning to cut, which is regular, and another meaning to wait, which is irregular, as shown below: to cut: preva, preve, preu, prem, pret, pren to wait: prita, prite, priti, pritm, pritt, pritn The verb vras to kill, murder takes similar endings to the rst pres to cut in the preterit: to kill, murder: vrava, vrave, vrau, vram, vrat, vran

320

zbres to get off, go down: zbrita, zbrite, zbriti, zbritm, zbritt, zbritn dal to go out: dola, dole, doli, dolm, dolt, doln djeg to burn: dogja, dogje, dogji, dogjm, dogjt, dogjn as to speak: fola, fole, foli, folm, folt, foln hedh to throw: hodha, hodhe, hodhi, hodhm, hodht, hodhn marr to take: mora, more, mori, morm, mort, morn ndjek to follow: ndoqa, ndoqe, ndoqi, ndoqm, ndoqt, ndoqn nxjerr to take out/off: nxora, nxore, nxori, nxorm, nxort, nxorn pjek to grill, bake, roast: poqa, poqe, poqi, poqm, poqt, poqn sjell to bring: solla, solle, solli, sollm, sollt, solln vjedh to steal: vodha, vodhe, vodhi, vodhm, vodht, vodhn zgjedh to choose: zgjodha, zgjodhe, zgjodhi, zgjodhm, zgjodht, zgjodhn vesh to dress (someone): vesha, veshe, veshi, veshm, vesht, veshn zhvesh to undress (someone): zhvesha, zhveshe, zhveshi, zhveshm, zhvesht, zhveshn thrras to call: thirra, thirre, thirri, thirrm, thirrt, thirrn kreh to comb (someones hair): kreha, krehe, krehu, krehm, kreht, krehn vdes to die: vdiqa, vdiqe, vdiq, vdiqm, vdiqt, vdiqn Class 3 verbs un ti ai, ajo ne ju ata, ato pi to drink piva pive piu pim pit pin di to know dita dite diti ditm ditt ditn v to put vura vure vuri vum vut vun

Some common irregular class 3 verbs e to sleep: fjeta, fjete, fjeti, fjetm, fjett, fjetn ngre to lift: ngrita, ngrite, ngriti, ngritm, ngritt, ngritn bie to bring: prura, prure, pruri, prum, prut, prun ha to eat: hngra, hngre, hngri, hngrm, hngrt, hngrn shpie to bring: shpura, shpure, shpuri, shpum, shput, shpun z to catch: zura, zure, zuri, zum, zut, zun Class 4 verbs un ti ai, ajo ne ju ata, ato eci to go eca ece eci ecm ect ecn hipi to get on hipa hipe hipi hipm hipt hipn iki to go away ika ike iki ikm ikt ikn

Appendix 10

321

Class 5 verbs Class 5 is composed of irregular verbs by denition, so all these verbs will be irregular in the past tense as well. dua to want: desha, deshe, deshi, deshm, desht, deshn bie to fall: rash, re, ra, ram, rat, ran jam to be: qesh, qe, qe, qem, qet, qen jap to give: dhash, dhe, dha, dham, dhat, dhan l to leave: lash, le, la, lam, lat, lan shoh to see: pash, pe, pa, pam, pat, pan them to say: thash, the, tha, tham, that, than rri to stay: ndenja, ndenje, ndenji, ndenjm, ndenjt, ndenjn kam to have: pata, pate, pati, patm, patt, patn vete to go: vajta, vajte, vajti, vajtm, vajtt, vajtn vij to come: erdha, erdhe, erdhi, erdhm, erdht, erdhn Class 6 verbs takohem to meet u takova u takove u takua u takuam u takuat u takuan kthehem to return u ktheva u ktheve u kthye u kthyem u kthyet u kthyen hapen to be opened u hapa u hape u hap u hapm u hapt u hapn merrem to be busy with u mora u more u mor u morm u mort u morn bhem to become u bra u bre u b u bm u bt u bn ngrihem to get up u ngrita u ngrite u ngrit u ngritm u ngritt u ngritn

un ti ai, ajo ne ju ata, ato

Some common class 6 verbs afr/ohem, u -ova, -uar ank/ohem, u -ova, -uar bhem, u bra (u b), br cakt/ohem, u -ova, -uar lir/ohem, u -ova, -uar lodh/em, u -a, -ur /ohem, u -ova, -uar udit/em, u -a, -ur dashur/ohem, u -ova, -uar deh/em, u -a, -ur detyr/ohem, u -ova, -uar digjem, u dogja, djegur elimin/ohem, u -ova, -uar emr/ohem, u -ova, -uar fal/em, u -a, -ur fej/ohem, u -ova, -uar fsh/ihem, u -eha, -ehur ft/ohem, u -ova, -uar ftoh/em, u -a, -ur fundos/em, u -a, -ur habit/em, u -a, -ur inatos/em, u -a, -ur interes/ohem, u -ova, -uar- ova, -uar to go closer to complain to become to be appointed to be liberated to rest to stand up, wake up to be surprised to be/fall in love to get drunk to be obliged to be burned to be eliminated to be nominated to be forgiven, pray to get engaged to someone to hide oneself, dry oneself to be invited, get a cold to get a cold to sink to be surprised to get angry to be interested

322 Appendix 10

jepem, u dhash, dhn kujt/ohem, u -ova, -uar knaq/em, u -a, -ur krihem, u kreha, krehur kth/ehem, u -eva, -yer kujdes/em, u -a, -ur lag/em, u -a, -ur la/hem, u -va, -r lajmr/ohem, u -ova, -uar larg/ohem, u -ova, -uar lind/em, u -a, -ur lodh/em, u -a, -ur lut/em, u -a, -ur merrem, u mora, marr mart/ohem, u -ova, -uar mend/ohem, u -ova, -uar mrzit/em, u -a, -ur ms/ohem, u -ova, -uar ndihem, u ndjeva, ndier ndodh/em, u -a, -ur ngri/hem, u -ta, -tur ngjit/em, u -a, -ur nis/em, u -a, -ur njihem, u njoha, njohur ofend/ohem, u -ova, -uar pag/uhem, u -ova, -uar paraqit/em, u -a, -ur pastr/ohem, u -ova, -uar pend/ohem, u -ova, -uar prdor/em, u -a, -ur prfaqs/ohem, u -ova, -uar prgatit/em, u -a, -ur prgjigj/em, u -a, -ur prpiqem, u prpoqa, prpjekur prqendr/ohem, u -ova, -uar plagos/em, u -a, -ur pran/ohem, u -ova, -uar puth/em, u -a, -ur qeth/em, u -a, -ur qu/hem, u -ajta, -ajtur regjistr/ohem, u -ova, -uar rrit/em, u -a, -ur rruhem, u rrova, rruar smur/em, u -a, -ur shihem, u pash, par shqets/ohem, u -ova, -uar shtri/hem, u -va, -r tak/ohem, u -ova, -uar tall/em, u -a, -ur

to devote oneself to remember to enjoy something, be pleased with to comb ones hair to return, come back to care, take care of to get wet to get washed to be announced, be informed to move away, leave to be born to get tired to beg, pray to get involved, occupy oneself, deal with to get married to think (about) to get bored to get used to to feel to be situated to get up to ascend, climb to depart, set out to acquaint oneself with to be offended to be paid to introduce oneself, appear to be cleaned to regret, repent to be used to represent to be prepared to answer, respond to try, make an effort to concentrate to get wounded to be accepted to kiss each other to get ones hair cut to be called to register to grow up, be increased to shave to get sick to see each other to worry about, be concerned to lie down, lie on to meet with to make fun of, kid

Appendix 10

323

tremb/em, u -a, -ur thirr/em, u -a, -ur udhh/iqem, u -oqa, -equr ul/em, u -a, -ur vendos/em, u -a, -ur vishem, u vesha, veshur von/ohem, u -ova, -uar vritem, u vrava, vrar zbul/ohem, u -ova, -uar zemr/ohem, u -ova, -uar zgjat/em, u -a, -ur zgj/idhem, u -odha, -edhur zgj/ohem, u -ova, -uar zihem, u zura, zn zhduk/em, u -a, -ur zhvill/ohem, u -ova, -uar zhvishem, u zhvesha, zhveshur

to be frightened, be scared to be called out to be led, be guided to sit down to be put, be placed to get dressed to be late to be killed to uncover/reveal oneself to get angry to get taller, continue, extend to be elected to wake up to ght, to quarrel to disappear to be developed, take place to undress, take ones clothes off

324 Appendix 10

APPENDIX 11
Answers to selected exercises

Msimi 1
Ushtrimi 1.1 1. Un. Ti. 2. Ne. 3. Ju. Un. 4. Ajo, ai. 5. Ata. 6. Ato. 7. Ata. Ushtrimi 1.2 1. Jam. 2. Jeni, jemi. 3. Jan. 4. Jam. Je. Jam. 5. sht. 6. Jemi. 7. Jan. 8. Jan. 9. Jan. 10. sht, sht. Ushtrimi 1.4 1. Ora sht shtat. 2. Ora sht dhjet. 3. Ora sht nnt. 4. Ora sht njmbdhjet. 5. Ora sht dymbdhjet. 6. Ora sht pes. 7. Ora sht tre. 8. Ora sht nj. 9. Ora sht dy. 10. Ora sht katr. 11. Ora sht gjasht. 12. Ora sht tet. Ushtrimi 1.6 1. (A) jeni ju Drini? Po, un jam Drini. 2. (A) jeni ju Genta? Po, un jam Genta. 3. (A) jeni ju Iliri? Po, un jam Iliri. 4. (A) jeni ju Arbri? Po, un jam Arbri. 5. (A) jeni ju Vesa? Po, un jam Vesa. 6. (A) jeni ju Edoni? Po, un jam Edoni. 7. (A) jeni ju Besmiri? Po, un jam Besmiri. 8. (A) jeni ju Entela? Po, un jam Entela. 9. (A) jeni ju Kaltrina? Po, un jam Kaltrina. 10. (A) jeni ju Ermali? Po, un jam Ermali. Ushtrimi 1.7 1. (A) je ti Drini? Po, un jam Drini. 2. (A) je ti Genta? Po, un jam Genta. 3. (A) je ti Iliri? Po, un jam Iliri. 4. (A) je ti Arbri? Po, un jam Arbri. 5. (A) je ti Vesa? Po, un jam Vesa. 6. (A) je ti Edoni? Po, un jam Edoni. 7. (A) je ti Besmiri? Po, un jam Besmiri. 8. (A) je ti Entela? Po, un jam Entela. 9. (A) je ti Kaltrina? Po, un jam Kaltrina. 10. (A) je ti Ermali? Po, un jam Ermali. Ushtrimi 1.8 1. (A) sht ai Drini? Jo, ai nuk sht Drini./Jo, ai ssht Drini. Ai sht Brizi. 2. (A) sht ajo Drita? Jo, ajo nuk sht Drita./Jo, ajo ssht Drita. Ajo sht Persida. 3. (A) sht ajo Dhurata? Jo, ajo nuk sht Dhurata./ Jo, ajo ssht Dhurata. Ajo sht Manjola. 4. (A) sht ai Kastrioti? Jo, ai nuk sht Kastrioti./Jo, ai ssht Kastrioti. Ai sht Shptimi. 5. (A) sht ai Genci? Jo, ai nuk sht Genci./Jo, ai ssht Genci./Ai sht Mondi. Ushtrimi 1.9 1. (A) jan ata Artani dhe Beni? Jo, ata nuk jan Artani dhe Beni. Ata jan Edi dhe Arditi. 2. (A) jan ato Qndresa dhe Lirza? Jo, ato s jan Qndresa dhe Lirza. Ato jan Flaka dhe Kaltrina. 3. (A) jan ata Liridoni dhe Trimi? Jo, ata nuk jan Liridoni dhe Trimi. Ata jan Amli dhe Kevini. 4. (A) jan ato Manjola dhe Alma? Jo, ato sjan Manjola dhe Alma. Ato jan Dhurata dhe Andra. 5. (A) jan ato Lura dhe Jonida? Jo, ato sjan Lura dhe Jonida. Ato jan Eni dhe Kristina. Ushtrimi 1.10 1. Mirmngjes, iljeta! Mirmngjes ____. iljeta, sa sht ora? Ora sht dhjet. 2. Mirmngjes, Erjon! Mirmngjes ____. Erjon, sa sht ora? Ora sht nnt. 3. Mirmngjes, Agron! Mirmngjes ____.

325

Agron, sa sht ora? Ora sht tet. 4. Mirmngjes, Gzim! Mirmngjes ____. Gzim, sa sht ora? Ora sht dymbdhjet. 5. Mirmngjes, Jehona! Mirmngjes ___. Jehona, sa sht ora? Ora sht gjasht.

Msimi 2
Ushtrimi 2.2 1. Zonja Paola sht nga Italia. 2. Zonja Paola et italisht. 3. Jo, zonja Paola nuk sht nga Franca. 4. Jo, Drini nuk sht nga Italia. 5. Drini et shqip. 6. Jo, Drini nuk sht francez. 7. Drini sht shqiptar. 8. Zonja Paola et italisht. 9. Drini et shqip. 10. Po, zoti Pjer sht nga Franca. Ushtrimi 2.3 1. Italia. 2. Italisht. 3. Franca. 4. Frngjisht. 5. Shqipria. 6. Shqip. 7. Frngjisht. 8. Shqiptar. 9. Italiane. 10. Francez. Ushtrimi 2.4 1. Ai sht nga Shqipria; sht shqiptar. Ajo sht nga Shqipria; sht shqiptare. 2. Ai sht nga Anglia; sht anglez. Ajo sht nga Anglia; sht angleze. 3. Ai sht nga Bullgaria; sht bullgar. Ajo sht nga Bullgaria; sht bullgare. 4. Ai sht nga Gjermania; sht gjerman. Ajo sht nga Gjermania; sht gjermane. 5. Ai sht nga Kina; sht kinez. Ajo sht nga Kina; sht kineze. Ushtrimi 2.5 1. Ahmeti sht nga Turqia; (ai) sht turk. 2. Gzimi sht nga Shqipria; (ai) sht shqiptar. 3. Mingu sht nga Kina; (ai) sht kinez. 4. Elena sht nga Gjermania; (ajo) sht gjermane. 5. Melita sht nga Greqia; (ajo) sht greke. Ushtrimi 2.9 Paola Pjer Ava Besa nga . . . Italia Franca Franca Shqipria kombsi italiane francez franceze Shqiptare italisht x frngjisht x x x x gjermanisht x x shqip

Ushtrimi 2.13 1. Drini dhe un asim shqip. Ne jemi nga Shqipria. 2. A isni ju greqisht? Jo, ne nuk asim greqisht. Ne asim spanjisht dhe pak shqip. 3. A jan Pjeri dhe Ava nga Egjipti? Jo, nuk jan nga Egjipti. Jan nga Franca. Mohamedi sht nga Egjipti. Nga je ti? Un jam nga Anglia. 4. Pse isni ju shqip? Ne asim shqip, sepse jemi nga Shqipria! Nga jeni ju? Un jam nga Suedia dhe as suedisht.

Msimi 3
Ushtrimi 3.2 1. Paola dhe zoti Marko jan nga Roma. Ata banojn n Rom. 2. Paola sht n Shqipri me pushime. 3. Jo, Zoti Pjer nuk sht nga Parisi. 4. Zoti Pjer banon n Paris. 5. Zoti Pjer po mson shqip n universitet. 6. Drini sht nga Tirana. 7. Drini/Ai nuk banon n Tiran. Ai banon n Sarand. 8. Po, zoti Pjer sht i martuar. 9. Eduardi sht 12 vje. 10. Maria sht 10 vjee. Ushtrimi 3.3 1. Italia. Roma. Rom. 2. Franca. Paris, Parisi. Lioni. 3. Shqipria. Tirana, Tiran. Sarand. 4. Amerika. Bostoni, Shqipri. Kor. Kora. 5. Austria. Vjena, Vjen. Shqipri, Vlor.

326 Appendix 11

Ushtrimi 3.4 1. Banoj. 2. Banoni, banojm. 3. Banojn. 4. Banoj, banoj. 5. Banon. 6. Banojm. 7. Banojn. 8. Banojn. 9. Banojn. 10. Banon, banon. Ushtrimi 3.5 1. Bni, msojm. 2. Bn, punon. 3. Bjn, asin. 4. Bn. Msoj. 5. Bjn, msojn. Ushtrimi 3. 7 Drilona po vjen nga puna. 2. Ajo po shkon n shtpi. 3. Gzimi po shkon te Sokoli. 4. Sokoli ka dy fmij. 5. Vajza e Sokolit sht 8 vjee. 6. Djali i Sokolit sht 10 vje. 7. Jo, ata nuk shkojn n universitet. 8. Po, Drilona ka nj vajz. 9. Vajza e Drilons sht 5 vjee. 10. Po, ajo shkon n kopsht. Ajo shkon n kopsht me biiklet. 11. N mbrmje, Drilona lexon, shikon televizor ose gatuan. 12. Gzimi lexon ose shikon televizor. Ushtrimi 3.8 1. Vjen, Vlora, banon, punon, Tiran. 2. Vjen, Durrsi, banon, punon, Tiran, shkon, shkon, autobus, ka. 3. Kemi, banojn, punojn, lexojn, shikojn. 4. Shkon, shkoj, shkon, shkoj. 5. Bn, shkoj, shkon, shkoj. 6. Vini, vijm, sht. 7. Shkon./Shkoni, shkoj/shkojm. Ushtrimi 3.10 1. Bjn tetdhjet e tre. 2. Bjn njqind e tridhjet e dy. 3. Bjn gjashtqind e shtatdhjet e pes. 4. Bjn tetqind e njzet. Ushtrimi 3.12 Sknderi, Shqipria, Vlora, Tiran, punon, Tiran, kupton, mson, kupton, msuese, punon, Sknderi, punon, punon, llon, mbaron, kan, shkon, djali, mson, luan.

Msimi 4
Ushtrimi 4.2 1. Alma, Doruntina dhe Adea jan mjeke. 2. Beni sht inxhinier dhe punon n fabrik. 3. Pjeri dhe Ava jan dentist. Ata jan francez. 4. Tomi dhe Stefania jan ekonomist dhe punojn n nj bank n Boston, n Shtetet e Bashkuara. 5. Elena sht msuese n nj shkoll n Kor. Ajo punon t hnn, t martn, t mrkurn, t enjten dhe t premten. 6. T shtunn pushon. 7. Jo, ata nuk punojn bashk. Elena punon n Kor, kurse burri i saj, Johani, punon n Tiran. 8. Bledi dhe Bora jan kosovar. Ata punojn n teatr. Ushtrimi 4.3 1. Ky burr sht kuzhinier. sht italian dhe punon n Kor. Kta burra jan kuzhinier. Jan italian dhe punojn n Kor. 2. Ky burr sht artist. sht rumun dhe punon n Berat. Kta burra jan artist. Jan rumun dhe punojn n Berat. 3. Ky burr sht piktor. sht portugez dhe punon n Elbasan. Kta burra jan portugez. Jan piktor dhe punojn n Elbasan. 4. Ky burr sht muzikant. sht gjerman dhe punon n Durrs. Kta burra jan muzikant. Jan gjerman dhe punojn n Durrs. 5. Ky burr sht shofer. sht egjiptian dhe punon n Kor. Kta burra jan shofer. Jan egjiptian dhe punojn n Kor. 6. Kjo grua sht sekretare. sht greke dhe punon n Vlor. Kto gra jan sekretare. Jan greke dhe punojn n Vlor. 7. Kjo grua sht kameriere. sht kineze dhe punon n Kruj. Kto gra jan kamariere. Jan kineze dhe punojn n Kruj. Ushtrimi 4.5 1. E hn, e shtun. 2. E enjte, e premte, e mart, e hn. 3. E mart, e mrkur, e diel. 4. E diel, e premte, e enjte.

Appendix 11

327

Ushtrimi 4.6 1. pun bjn ata? Jan valltar. Kur vallzojn ata? Vallzojn do fundjav. 2. pun bn ti? Jam futbollist. Kur luan futboll? Luaj futboll t dieln. 3. pun bn ajo? sht pastruese. Kur pastron ajo? Ajo pastron do dit. 4. far profesioni ka ai? sht shkrimtar. Kur shkruan ai romane? Ai shkruan romane t hnn dhe t mrkurn. 5. profesion ka zonja Dodona? sht msuese. Kur shpjegon ajo? Ajo shpjegon t hnn, t martn, t mrkurn, t enjten, t premten. Ajo shpjegon nga e hna deri t premten. 6. po bn kjo gazetare? Ajo po raporton nj aksident. Kur po raporton ajo? Tani. 7. pun bn zoti Pjer? Zoti Pjer sht kuzhinier. Kur gatuan zoti Pjer? Zoti Pjer gatuan t shtunn dhe t dieln. Ushtrimi 4.8 1. Agimi dhe Mira po bjn shtitje. 2. Mira ka nj fotogra. 3. Gjergji sht 48 vje. Ai punon n spital. 4. Teuta sht gazetare. Ajo sht 41 vjee. 5. Ajo punon n nj gazet. 6. Mira ka nj vlla. Ai sht student. 7. Brikena punon n fundjav. 8. Albani sht 18 vje. 9. Agimi ka dy bileta pr n kinema. Ushtrimi 4.9 1. Bjn, bjn, gjejn, hyjn. 2. Shkoni, shkojm, shkon, shkoj. 3. Dshironi, dua, do, dua, duam, vjen. Ushtrimi 4.11 1. Agroni sht shqiptaro- amerikan dhe jeton n Amerik. 2. Jo, nuk banon n Shqipri. 3. Babai i tij sht shqiptar, kurse nna e tij sht amerikane. 4. Jo, n shtpi nuk asin shqip. 5. Agroni nuk et shqip n shtpi, sepse nna e tij nuk et asnj fjal shqip. 6. Agroni studion shqip n universitet. 7. Ai studion shqip do dit, sepse gjuha shqipe sht e vshtir. 8. Jo, Agroni nuk banon n shtpi. Ai banon n konvikt. 9. Ai ka disa shok shqiptar. 10. Ai nuk et shqip me ata, sepse ai et shqip me vshtirsi. 11. N mbrmje shkon n bibliotek. 12. T shtunn shkon n kinema ose n diskotek. 13. Bledi sht vllai i tij (i Agronit). Ai sht nxns dhe shkon n shkoll nga e hna deri t premten. 14. Bora sht motra e tij (e Agronit). 15. Po, motra e Agronit sht e martuar. Burri i saj sht avokat. Ai jep edhe msim n universitet.

Msimi 5
Ushtrimi 5.2 1. Ku sht zogu? Zogu sht djathtas. 2. Ku sht studenti? Studenti sht n universitet. 3. Ku sht peshku? Peshku sht n frigorifer. 4. Ku sht kolltuku? Kolltuku sht n dhom. 5. Ku sht lapsi? Lapsi sht n tryez. 6. Ku sht shtpia? Shtpia sht afr. 7. Ku sht frigoriferi? Frigoriferi sht n kuzhin. 8. Ku sht vajza? Vajza sht n shkoll. 9. Ku sht televizori? Televizori sht n dyqan. 10. Ku sht shkolla? Shkolla sht afr. 11. Ku sht shahu? Shahu sht mbi tryez. 12. Ku sht studentja? Studentja sht n universitet. 13. Ku sht elsi? elsi sht mbi tryez. 14. Ku sht amuri? Flamuri sht jasht. 15. Ku sht msuesi? Msuesi sht n shkoll. 16. Ku sht etorja? Fletorja sht n shtpi. 17. Ku sht karrigia? Karrigia sht n dhom. 18. Ku sht kutia? Kutia sht mbi karrige. 19. Ku sht tryeza? Tryeza sht n oborr. 20. Ku sht luga? Luga sht mbi tryez. Ushtrimi 5.3 1. A ka nj pirun ktu? Po, ktu ka nj pirun. Ku sht piruni? Piruni sht mbi tryez. 2. A ka nj lule ktu? Po, ktu ka nj lule. Ku sht lulja? Lulja sht n vazo. 3. A ka nj makin ktu? Po, ktu ka nj makin. Ku sht makina? Makina sht n garazh. 4. A ka nj etore ktu? Po, ktu ka nj etore. Ku sht etorja? Fletorja sht mbi tryez. 5. A ka nj mjek ktu? Po, ktu ka nj mjek. Ku sht mjeku? Mjeku sht n spital. 6. A ka nj kolltuk ktu? Po, ktu ka nj kolltuk. Ku sht kolltuku? Kolltuku sht n shtpi. 7. A ka nj els ktu? Po, ktu ka nj els. Ku sht elsi? elsi sht ktu. 8. A ka nj got ktu? Po, ktu ka nj got. Ku sht gota? Gota sht n kuzhin. 9. A ka nj pem ktu? Po, ktu ka nj pem. Ku sht pema? Pema sht n oborr. 10. A ka nj dritare ktu? Po, ktu ka nj dritare. Ku sht dritarja? Dritarja sht atje.

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Ushtrimi 5.5 1. Dea sht nga Tirana. 2. Martini sht nga Shngjini. 3. Tirana sht nj qytet i madh dhe i bukur. 4. Shngjini sht nj qytet i vogl bregdetar. 5. Koha n dimr nuk sht e keqe. Nuk bn shum ftoht, por bie shpesh shi. Shum rrall bie edhe bor. 6. Vera n Tiran sht e nxeht. Bn shum vap dhe rrallher bie shi. 7. Martini thot se vjeshta sht stin e trishtuar, sepse qielli sht shpesh gri dhe nganjher ka dhe mjegull. 8. Koha n pranver sht e ngroht dhe natyra sht e bukur. Qielli sht i kaltr; dielli ndrion. Dita sht e gjat; nata sht e shkurtr. 9. Po, n dimr n Tiran bie shpesh shi. 10. N ver, dielli ndrion, deti sht blu dhe qyteti sht plot jet. Ushtrimi 5.7 1. Qyteti sht i madh dhe i bukur. 2. Rruga sht e zhurmshme. 3. Natyra sht e kndshme n pranver. 4. Pranvera sht stin e bukur. 5. Dimri sht i ftoht. 6. Dita sht e gjat. 7. Shtpia sht e qet. 8. Vjeshta sht e bukur dhe pak e trishtuar. 9. Qielli sht i kaltr. 10. Qyteti sht i qet. Ushtrimi 5.8 1. Fletorja e kuqe sht mbi tryez. 2. Gazeta e sotme sht ktu. 3. Djali i vogl tani shkon n shkoll. 4. Libri i bardh sht mbi tryez. 5. Tryeza sht e kuqe. 6. Kjo birr sht e ftoht, kurse ajo sht e ngroht. 7. Msimi i ri sht i leht. 8. Diskoteka e re sht e hapur, kurse diskoteka e vjetr sht e mbyllur. 9. Studenti i ri nuk sht i shndetshm, ai sht shpesh i smur. 10. Lulja sht e verdh; nuk sht e gjelbr. Ushtrimi 5.9 1. Sa vajz e bukur! 2. Sa djal i gjat! 3. Sa grua e zgjuar! 4. Sa ushtrim i leht! 5. Sa makin e shtrenjt! 6. Sa shtpi e vjetr! 7. Sa dimr i ftoht! 8. Sa ver e nxeht! 9. Sa libr i vshtir! 10. Sa qytet i vjetr! Ushtrimi 5.10 1. Xhimi sht nga Shtetet e Bashkuara dhe tani sht n Sarand. 2. sht muaji gusht. sht ver. 3. Data sht 15 gusht 2012. 4. Xhimi sht me pushime n Sarand. Ai sht n hotel Cosmopole. 5. Koha sht e mir. N mngjes, temperatura sht 20 grad. Nuk bn vap. 6. Dhoma nuk sht si dhoma e tij n Uashington. Dhoma ka pamje nga deti. 7. N ballkon ka dy karrige, nj tryez dhe nj adr. 8. N dhom ka frigorifer dhe televizor. 9. Jo, Xhimi shikon vetm kanale shqiptare sepse do t msoj shqip mir. 10. Ai blen do dit dy gazeta. 11. Ai ka dy shok. Ata punojn n Sarand n ver. Valdeti punon si kamerier n nj hotel afr, kurse Toku sht murator. Valdeti sht nga Tirana dhe Toku sht nga Prishtina (nga Kosova). 10. Tani n Sarand ka kryesisht turist nga Ballkani, por jo nga Evropa Perndimore.

Msimi 6
Ushtrimi 6.2 1. Po, Pamela sht nga Uashingtoni. 2. Babai i saj sht dentist dhe punon n nj klinik dentare. 3. Nna e saj sht pedagoge. Punon n universitet. Jep letrsi. 4. Pamela ka nj motr dhe nj vlla. Ata shkojn n shkoll. 5. Pamela studion n universitet. Ajo studion pr matematik. 6. Kt semestr ajo ka katr lnd. 7. Pamela studion shqip, sepse babai i saj sht shqiptar. 8. Po, ajo ka burs nga universiteti. 9. T shtunn n mngjes noton n pishin ose vrapon. Pastaj studion pak. N mbrmje shkon n diskotek ose n kinema. 10. T dieln shkon n bibliotek.

Msimi 7
Ushtrimi 7.2 1. Klasa ka 15 student. 2. Po, studentt jan llestar. 3. Studentt msojn shqip pr shum arsye. Disa student po msojn shqip, sepse jetojn n Shqipri. Disa po msojn shqip sepse jan studiues dhe po bjn krkime n Shqipri. N klas ka edhe dy prkthyes. Ata asin disa gjuh dhe tani po msojn edhe shqip.

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4. Studiuesit bjn krkime. 5. Studentt asin shqip, lexojn tekste, bjn ushtrime dhe shpesh shohin n televizor emisione kulturore. 6. Jo shum. 7. Po, ata shohin lma n klas. 8. Po, ata bjn diskutime pr lmat q shohin. 9. Po, ata japin mendime pr tekstet q lexojn n klas. 10. Klasa duket shum interesante dhe informuese. Ushtrimi 7.3 gabim, gabimi, gabime, gabimet; prkthyes, prkthyesi, prkthyes, prkthyesit; ushtrim, ushtrimi, ushtrime, ushtrimet; televizor, televizori, televizor, televizort; lm, lmi, lma, lmat; studiues, studiuesi, studiues, studiuesit; krkim, krkimi, krkime, krkimet; mendim, mendimi, mendime, mendimet. Ushtrimi 7.4 1. Kta kngtar jan nga Turqia. 2. Un njoh disa kuzhinier n hotel. 3. Ata msojn disa msime do dit. 4. Ne lexojm disa libra. 5. Un njoh disa djem. 6. Ne shohim disa lma n mbrmje. 7. Universitetet jan n kryeqytete. 8. Takimet mbarojn n orn katr. 9. Kuzhiniert po gatuajn dark. 10. Msuesit po shikojn disa emisione n televizor. Ushtrimi 7.5 1. Zakonisht bj disa gabime kur shkruaj. 2. Prkthyesit po prkthejn disa libra 3. Kta burra po shohin disa lma. 4. Ku jan vllezrit? 5. Ushtrimet jan n etore. 6. Tani po lexojm disa tekste. 7. Ku jan gjyshrit dhe baballart? 8. Un njoh disa studiues gjerman. 9. Nxnsit jan n klas. 10. Msuesit po shpjegojn disa ushtrime. Ushtrimi 7.7 1. Po sheh lajmet n televizor. 2. Lajmet po japin nj kronik pr nj olimpiad ballkanike. 3. sht nj olimpiad ballkanike n matematik. 4. Po, ka dhe nj ekip me nxns shqiptar. 5. Rezultatet e tyre jan shum t mira. (Ata po arrijn rezultate shum t mira.) 6. Msuesit e tyre thon se kta djem t rinj dhe vajza t reja jan krenaria jon. 7. Vet nxnsit thon se n olimpiad ka shum vajza t talentuara dhe djem t talentuar, prandaj konkurrenca sht shum e fort. 8. Nxnsit studiojn disa or n dit, sepse ushtrimet jan shum t vshtira. 9. Po, ata jan shum t gzuar q kan rezultate t larta. 10. Po, ekipet shqiptare jan t suksesshme n aktivitete t rndsishme ballkanike dhe botrore. Ushtrimi 7.8 1. Nxnsit jan t mir. 2. Rezultatet jan t larta. 3. Ekipet shqiptare jan t suksesshme. 4. Kto vajza t gzuara po asin n telefon. 5. Kto aktivitete jan t rndsishme. 6. Studentt jan shum t gzuar. 7. Djemt e rinj nuk jan n shtpi. 8. Kto vajza t reja po diskutojn. 9. Msueset jan t knaqura me nxnsit. 10. Msuesit jan t knaqur me nxnsit. Ushtrimi 7.9 1. Qytetet jan t mdha dhe t bukura. 2. Djemt jan t mdhenj. 3. Ditt jan t kndshme n pranver. 4. Nett jan t ngrohta. 5. Ushtrimet jan t gjata. 6. Shtpit jan t qeta. 7. Msimet jan t vshtira. 8. Studentet jan t talentuara. 9. Nxnsit jan t mir. 10. Librat jan t bukur. Ushtrimi 7.10 1. Djali i vogl tani shkon n shkoll. Djemt e vegjl tani shkojn n shkoll. 2. Fletorja e kuqe sht mbi tryez. Fletoret e kuqe jan mbi tryez. 3. Lulja sht e verdh; nuk sht e gjelbr. Lulet jan t verdha, nuk jan t gjelbra. 4. Libri i bardh sht mbi tryez. Librat e bardh jan mbi tryez. 5. A sht i shtrenjt apo i lir ai fjalor? A jan t shtrenjt apo t lir ata fjalor? 6. Kjo birr sht e ftoht, kurse ajo sht e ngroht. Kto birra jan t ftohta, kurse ato jan t ngrohta. 7. Kjo valixhe sht e leht, ndrsa ajo atje sht e rnd. Kto valixhe jan t lehta, ndrsa ato atje jan t rnda. 8. Msimi i ri sht i leht. Msimet e reja jan t lehta. 9. Ky dyqan sht i hapur, kurse ai atje sht i mbyllur. Kto dyqane jan t hapura, kurse ato atje jan

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t mbyllura. 10. Kjo revist sht shum e shtrenjt. Kjo revist, nga ana tjetr, sht e lir. Kto revista jan shum t shtrenjta. Kto revista, nga ana tjetr, jan t lira. Ushtrimi 7.12 1. Tirana sht nj qytet i madh dhe i bukur. 2. N Tiran ka shum ndrtesa t reja dhe t vjetra. 3. Ndrtesat e reja jan t larta dhe moderne. 4. Ndrtesat e vjetra jan kryesisht t ulta dhe me ngjyra t forta. 5. N ditt e sotme, Tirana sht nj qytet plot me hotele, restorante, bare dhe kafene. 6. N shesh ndodhen Muzeu Historik Kombtar, Pallati i Kulturs, Hotel Tirana, Xhamia e Ethem Beut, Kulla e Sahatit. 7. Kulla e Sahatit sht 35 metra e lart. 8. Po, kulla sht e hapur pr turistt. 9. Qendra t rndsishme kulturore jan Teatri i Opers dhe i Baletit, Teatri Kombtar, Galeria e Arteve etj. 10. Klima n Tiran sht e mir. Temperaturat n dimr nuk jan shum t ulta. Kurse n ver jan t larta. Ushtrimi 7.13 Tirana sht nj qytet i madh dhe i bukur. N Tiran ka shum ndrtesa t reja dhe t vjetra. Ndrtesat e reja jan t larta dhe moderne, kurse ndrtesat e vjetra jan kryesisht t ulta dhe me ngjyra t forta. N ditt e sotme, Tirana sht nj qytet plot me hotele, restorante, bare dhe kafene. Tirana ka n qendr nj shesh t madh dhe t bukur. Ky sht sheshi Sknderbej. Atje ndodhen Muzeu Historik Kombtar, Pallati i Kulturs, Hotel Tirana, Xhamia e Ethem Beut, Kulla e Sahatit. Kulla e Sahatit sht 35 metra e lart. Kulla sht e hapur pr turistt. Nga kjo kull turistt shohin pamje shum t bukura. Muzeu Historik Kombtar sht nj muze shum i rndsishm dhe me shum objekte historike. N Tiran ka disa kisha dhe xhami. Teatri i Opers dhe i Baletit, Teatri Kombtar, Galeria e Arteve etj., jan qendra t rndsishme kulturore. N Tiran ka universitete publike dhe private. Tirana ka klim t mir. Dimri sht i shkurtr dhe i but. Temperaturat n dimr nuk jan shum t ulta. Kurse vera sht e nxeht dhe me temperatura t larta.

Msimi 8
Ushtrimi 8.2 1. Bojkeni sht n zyr. 2. Eanda sht n shtpi. 3. Eanda ka nevoj pr disa gjra. 4. Eanda po prgatit nj byrek dhe nj mblsir me mjalt dhe arra. 5. Bojkeni shkon n dyqan. 6. Eanda do dy kilogram miell. 7. Bojkeni blen n dyqan dy kilogram sheqer. 8. Po, ai blen dy pako kafe dhe nj kuti kakao. 9. Po, ai blen 2 litra vaj ulliri. 10. Po, ata kan disa kuti me aj n shtpi. Ushtrimi 8.3 1. Kush po hap dritaret? Un po hap dritaret. 2. far po prgatitni ju? Ne po prgatisim nj mblsir. Po ata, far po prgatisin? 3. Ku po shtitni ju? Ne po shtisim n qytet. 4. Kush po mbyll dyert? Djali po mbyll dyert. 5. far po matni ju? Ne po masim nj shtpi. 6. N far ore dalin ata nga zyra? Ata dalin n orn 17:00. Po ju, kur dilni? Ne dalim pr nj or. 7. Ti po merr nj shoqe n telefon. 8. Un po marr nj kilogram arra n dyqan. 9. Ju po dilni nga shtpia dhe po shkoni n zyr. 10. Kush po merr n telefon? Nj shok po merr n telefon. Ushtrimi 8.4 1. Gjyshi sht m i smur se gjyshja. 2. Kjo zyr sht m e madhe se dhoma ime. 3. Kjo fotogra sht m e bukur se ajo. 4. Gzimi sht m i gjat se vllai i tij. 5. Kjo kafe sht m e keqe se ajo. 6. Ky msim sht m i leht se ai. 7. Dona dhe Besa jan m t zna se Sokoli. 8. Artani sht djali m i lumtur nga t gjith. 9. Shtpia ime sht m e re se shtpia jote. 10. Kto valixhe jan m t rnda se ato. Ushtrimi 8.6 1. Ana do t blej dy kilogram domate. 2. Domatet jan shum t mira. 3. Po, n dyqan ka speca t kuq. 4. Ana blen edhe nj kilogram qep t bardha dhe dy kilogram tranguj. 5. Bizelet jan shum t freskta. 6. Po, Ana blen dy kilogram qershi, nj shalqi dhe dy pjepra t vegjl. 7. Qershit jan shum t mbla.

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8. Jo, kajsi nuk ka. 9. Dardhat jan pak t forta, por jan shum t shijshme. 10. Po, Ana blen nj kilogram moll t kuqe. Ushtrimi 8.7 1. Ato po shkojn q t blejn fruta. 2. Ti duhet t assh me shokt q t vijn sonte n koncert. 3. Ne po presim q t takojm msueset dhe t bisedojm pr detyrat. 4. Ti duhet t shkosh n disa dyqane, derisa t gjesh at q dshiron. 5. sht mir t asim bashk pr kto probleme. 6. sht e nevojshme q t dgjoni edhe studentt, para se t jepni rezultatet. 7. Ti duhet t dalsh nga zyra, sepse ktu ne nuk mund t bisedojm. 8. Kur t vij nna, po vij dhe un. 9. Flasim kur ju t shkoni atje. 10. Po llojn t dalin shum probleme. Ushtrimi 8.9 1. Pr njerzit sht shum e rndsishme nj diet e shndetshme dhe e rregullt. 2. Njerzit duhet t ken do dit n tryez frutat, perimet e freskta dhe drithrat. 3. Njerzit e shndetshm duhet t konsumojn katr deri n gjasht gota uj n dit. 4. Nj diet e mir duhet t ket vitamina dhe kripra minerale q jan shum t nevojshme. 5. Mjekt, n dimr, kshillojn t prdorim sa m shum perime dhe fruta t freskta q kan vitamina A dhe C. 6. Mandarina, kivi, spinaqi, kungulli dhe karota kan vitamina A dhe C. 7. Vitamin E kan gruri, bajamet, arrat, patatet dhe lajthit. 8. N ver sht mir t konsumojm shum perime dhe fruta, sepse kan uj. 9. N situata stresi mjekt kshillojn nj diet me buk, makarona, oriz, sallat jeshile, qep, djath, kos, vez dhe qumsht. 9. N kto situata sht mir t mos prdorim kafe, aj, kakao apo okollata. 10. Po, alkooli sht shum i dmshm.

Msimi 9
Ushtrimi 9.2 1. Arturi banon n Tiran. 2. Ai po et me agjencin imobiliare Tirana. 3. Agjencia imobiliare Tirana. 4. Arturi po krkon nj apartament me dy dhoma dhe nj kuzhin. 5. Po, agjencia ofron vetm nj apartament n rrugn Mine Peza. 6. Apartamenti sht i pamobiluar. 7. mimi sht rreth 25 000 lek. 8. Po, Arturi sht shum i interesuar pr kt apartament. 9. Ai do t shoh apartamentin. 10. Ai shkon n agjenci n orn dhjet. Ushtrimi 9.3 1. Kush sht kjo? Kjo sht Drita. bn ajo? Ajo po takon nj vajz. far ka vajza? Vajza ka nj mace. 2. Kush jan ata? Ata jan Erdriti, Vera, Beni dhe Igli. far bjn ata? Ata po bisedojn. Pr far po bisedojn ata? Ata po bisedojn pr nj raport ekonomik. 3. Kush sht ajo? Ajo sht Moza. far po bn Moza? Moza po luan golf. Me k po luan Moza? Moza po luan vetm. 4. Kush sht kjo? Kjo sht Sara. far po bn Sara? Sara po et n telefon. Me k po et n telefon Sara? Sara po et n telefon me Rean. 5. Kush sht ky? Ky sht Agimi. far bn Agimi? Agimi mson shqip. Ku mson shqip Agimi? Agimi mson shqip n shkoll. Ushtrimi 9.4 1. K, Drinin. 2. Kush, kjo, kjo, ajo, Erjonin, Albanin, Besartin. 3. far, msuesit, kto. 4. K, kta, kta, nj sportist. 5. Ciln, Enteln, studente. Ushtrimi 9.7 1. Klara po bisedon me recepsionisten. 2. Klara telefonon sepse do t bj nj rezervim. 3. Rezervimi sht pr datat 10 15 tetor. 4. Klara rezervon dy dhoma. 5. Klara preferon (paraplqen) katin e tet dhe katin e dhjet. 6. mimi prfshin qndrimin n hotel dhe mngjesin. 6. Po, hoteli ka nj restorant shum t mir. 8. Klara mund t paguaj me kart. 9. Klara krkon taksi pr datn 10 tetor. 10. Recepsionistja thot se duhet t din orn e sakt kur vjen avioni, si dhe linjn ajrore.

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Ushtrimi 9.8 1. Do t shkoni, do t shkojm, do t ham. 2. T pini, kemi, t pim. 3. Ha, ha. 4. Flini, em, en. 5. Flisni, ham, asim. Ushtrimi 9.9 1. Un banoj n katin e par. 2. Dhoma sht n katin e tret. 3. Po as me msuesen e re. 4. Po dgjoj msimin e ri. 5. Hoteli sht i madh dhe i bukur. 6. Qndrimi n hotel nuk sht i gjat. 7. Po shikojm dritaren e hapur. 8. mimet jan t larta. 9. Ky sht hoteli im i preferuar. 10. Dhomat jan shum t mira.

Msimi 10
Ushtrimi 10.2 1. N Republikn e Shqipris ka disa festa zyrtare. 2. Festat fetare jan: Pashkt Katolike, Pashkt Ortodokse, Dita e Novruzit, Bajrami i Madh, Bajrami i Vogl dhe Krishtlindjet. 3. Dita e Novruzit ose Dita e Sulltan Novruzit, sht festa e bektashinjve. 4. Bektashizmi sht nj sekt fetar islamik. 5. Dita e Vers sht nj fest pagane. 6. Ajo simbolizon largimin e dimrit dhe ardhjen e pranvers. 7. Dita e Vers sht fest tradicionale n qytetin e Elbasanit. 8. Dita e Pavarsis sht m 28 Nntor. 9. Dita e lirimit sht m 29 Nntor. 10. Dita e Puntorve sht m 1 Maj. 11. Emri i vrtet i Nn Terezs sht Gonxhe Bojaxhi. 12. Pes Maji sht Dita e Dshmorve. 13. Shtat Marsi sht Dita e Msuesit. 14. Dita Ndrkombtare e Fmijve sht m 1 Qershor. 15. sht Dita e Lumturimit t Nn Terezs. Ushtrimi 10.4 1. Fletorja e vajzs sht mbi karrige./Fletoret e vajzave jan mbi karrige. 2. Libri i djalit sht mbi televizor./Librat e djemve jan mbi televizor. 3. Ky sht lapsi i studentit./Kta jan lapsat e studentve. 4. Po lexoj librin e shkrimtarit shqiptar./Po lexoj librat e shkrimtarve shqiptar. 5. Ai po shikon djalin e motrs./ Ai po shikon djemt e motrave. 6. Shikoj nga dritarja vajzn e shoqes./Shikoj nga dritarja vajzat e shoqeve. 7. Biikleta e nns sht blu./Biikletat e nnave jan blu. 8. Kjo sht dhoma e hotelit./Kto jan dhomat e hoteleve. 9. Krkoj fjalorin e anglishtes./Krkoj fjalort e anglishtes./10. Po takoj baban e djalit./Po takoj baballart e djemve. Ushtrimi 10.6 1. N Tiran ka shum aktivitete kulturore. 2. N Teatrin e Opers dhe t Baletit ka nj shfaqje shum t bukur. 3. Koncerti llon n orn 20:00. 4. Po, n Akademin e Arteve t Bukura ka nj koncert recital. 5. sht koncerti i nj pianisteje shqiptare. 6. N Pallatin e Kongreseve llon Festivali i Kngs n RadioTelevizion. 7. Po, ka bileta pr n festival. 8. Trupa e Teatrit Kombtar shfaq nj shfaqje t re. 9. sht e nj dramaturgu rumun. 10. Punimet jan t piktorve shkodran: Kol Idromeno dhe Zef Kolombi. Ushtrimi 10.7 1. Kjo sht klasa e nxnses. Kto jan klasat e nxnseve. Un shikoj klasn e nxnses. Un shikoj klasat e nxnseve. 2. Kjo sht galeria e artit. Kto jan galerit e arteve. Un shikoj galerin e artit. Un shikoj galerit e arteve. 3. Kjo sht vajza e shoqes. Kto jan vajzat e shoqeve. Un shikoj vajzn e shoqes. Un shikoj vajzat e shoqeve. 4. Ky sht fjalori i nj studenti. Kta jan fjalort e disa studentve. Un shikoj fjalorin e nj studenti. Kta jan fjalort e disa studentve. 5. Kjo sht lulja e parkut. Kto jan lulet e parqeve. Un shikoj lulen e parkut. Un shikoj lulet e parqeve. Ushtrimi 10.8 1. Fletorja e vajzs sht mbi tryez. 2. Koncerti i pianistes sht i bukur. 3. Shpjegimi i msueses sht i mir. 4. Po takoj shoqen e klass. 5. Aktoret e teatrit luajn bukur. 6. Ai po bisedon me pianisten e re. 7. Po dgjoj kngn e nj kompozitoreje shqiptare. 8. Takimi i studenteve sht i rndsishm. 9. A sht kjo adresa e ksaj mjekeje? 10. Ne po asim me msueset e shkolls.

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Msimi 11
Ushtrimi 11.2 1. Jeta po bisedon me Mimozn. 2. Jeta do t shkoj n dyqan. 3. Mimoza pyet se mund t shkoj edhe ajo me Jetn dhe Krenarin. 4. Mimoza ngrihet menjher nga krevati sepse do t bhet gati. 5. Jeta po hekuros rrobat. 6. Mimoza do t lahet dhe do t krihet. 7. Jeta merr Norn n telefon. 8. Nora martohet muajin tjetr. 9. Jeta do t blej nj fund dhe nj bluz. Mimoza do t blej nj kostum t zi. 10. Vajzat shqetsohen sepse Nora nuk prgjigjet n telefon. Ushtrimi 11.3 1 N or zgjohesh do dit? Zgjohem n orn 7, por nuk ngrihem deri n orn 7:15. bn pasi ngrihesh? Rruhem, lahem, laj dhmbt dhe vishem. Ha mngjes shum shpejt dhe nisem pr pun. 2. N or zgjohet Artani do dit? Zgjohet n orn 7, por nuk ngrihet deri n orn 7:15. bn pasi ngrihet? Rruhet, lahet, lan dhmbt dhe vishet. Ha mngjes shum shpejt dhe niset pr n pun. 3. N or zgjoheni do dit? Zgjohemi n orn 7, por nuk ngrihemi deri n orn 7:15. bni pasi ngriheni? Rruhemi, lahemi, lajm dhmbt dhe vishemi. Ham mngjes shum shpejt dhe nisemi pr n pun. 4. N or zgjohen Sokoli dhe Artani do dit? Zgjohen n orn 7, por nuk ngrihen deri n orn 7:15. bjn pasi ngrihen? Rruhen, lahen, lajn dhmbt dhe vishen. Han mngjes shum shpejt dhe nisem pr n pun. 5. po bn djali? Po vishet. Do t luaj pak. 6. po bjn djemt? Po vishen. Duan t luajn pak. 7. bn ti n llim: rruhesh apo krihesh? Zakonisht rruhem kur bj dush. Pastaj krihem. 8. Zonja dhe zotrinj! Po afrohemi n qytetin e Sarands dhe do t lodhemi atje pr 20 minuta, para se vazhdojm udhtimin pr n qytetin e Vlors. 9. do t bhet vllai yt? Do t bhet ekonomist. Ushtrimi 11.5 1. Mimoza dhe Jeta shkojn n dyqan. 2. Ato provojn rrobat. 3. Jeta provon n llim fundin. 4. Fundi i rri shum bukur, kurse bluza i rri e vogl. 5. Mimozs i rri shum mir kostumi. 6. N vitrin ka nj pal kpuc. 7. Jo, n dyqan nuk ka bluza t bardha. 8. Jeta do t shkoj n restorant, sepse i hahet. 9. Mimoza do t blej izme. 10. Ato i telefonojn Nors. Ushtrimi 11.6 1. Vajza m thot mua dika t rndsishme. 2. Shitsja i tregon asaj nj fund t bukur. 3. Ty t duket ky dyqan i bukur. 4. Neve na plqejn gjrat e reja. 5. Juve ju vjen keq pr Dritanin. 6. Atij i rrin shum bukur rrobat. 7. Po u shpjegoj atyre problemin. 8. Vajza po i thot atij dika t rndsishme. 9. Shitsja ju tregon juve nj libr t ri. 10. Neve na duket ky dyqan pak i shtrenjt. 11. Mua nuk m plqejn gjrat e vjetra. 12. Asaj i vjen keq pr nnn. 13. Ty t shkon shum ajo kmish. Po mua, si m rrin kto pantallona? 14. Atyre u dhemb koka. Po ty, far t dhemb? Ushtrimi 11.7 1. Andi i shkruan nj kartolin Vilms. 2. Djali u drgon miqve disa libra. 3. Po u japim msime studentve. 4. Ne po u asim shqiptarve. 5. Djemve u plqen sporti. 6. Djalit i plqen basketbolli. 7. Vajzs i plqen baleti. 8. Vajzave u plqejn gjuht e huaja. 9. Ktyre studentve u duket i vshtir msimi. 10. Ksaj msueseje i duket i leht msimi. 11. Babait i dhemb koka, kurse nns i dhembin kmbt. 12. Kjo bluz i shkon shum Bess. 13. po i thot nna Sokolit? 14. Artani po i blen Entels nj CD me muzik shqiptare. 15. Juve ju duket se po bie shi? 16. Prindrve u vjen mir kur un marr nota t mira n shkoll. 17. Msuesja po i shpjegon atij studenti gramatikn. 18. Polici po i tregon asaj gruaje adresn q po krkon. 19. Gjyshit nuk i plqen shahu. Po gjyshes? 20. Ajo po u shkruan disa shoqeve nj kartolin. Ushtrimi 11.9 1. N Tiran ka disa qendra tregtare, ku banort e kryeqytetit kan mundsin t blejn ushqime, veshje, pajisje elektronike etj. 2. Po, n kto qendra tregtare ka dyqane me mallra t rmave t njohura t huaja dhe

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shqiptare. 3. Po, dyqanet e veshjeve numrojn me mijra klient. 4. Dyqanet ofrojn veshje t prditshme, veshje sportive dhe veshje elegante. 5. Po, ka dyqan t veanta pr veshjet e brendshme, rrobat e banjs, getat e orapet. 6. Po, dyqanet pr fmij trheqin shum klient. 7. Po, prindrit mund t plotsojn nevojat dhe dshirat e fmijve me produkte t larmishme, me cilsi t lart. 8. mime jan konkurruese. 9. Po, n kto qendra kryejn aktivitetin e tyre dhe banka, kompani celulare, agjenci turistike etj.

Msimi 12
Ushtrimi 12.2 1. Martini me Ulpjann po bisedojn pr Prishtinn. 2. Martini sht i interesuar pr Prishtinn sepse di pak pr t. 3. Prishtina sht qytet shum i vjetr. 4. Prishtina sht nj qytet modern. Tani ka shum ndrtesa t reja dhe t larta. sht qytet me shum gjallri, sepse sht qendr shum e rndsishme administrative, kulturore dhe universitare. 5. Grmia sht nj vend shum i bukur me pyje, ku prishtinasit kalojn kohn e lir. Atje ka nj liqen dhe restorante t ndryshme. 6. Muzeu i Kosovs ndodhet n nj ndrtes t vjetr. 7. Galeria e Arteve sht shum e mir. 8. Ajo organizon do vit ekspozita kombtare dhe ndrkombtare, publikime, katalog etj. 9. Po, n Prishtin ka 21 monumente q mbrohen nga shteti. 10. Disa nga kto objekte jan: Sahat kulla, Shadrvani, Hamami i Madh etj. 11. Prishtina ka klim kontinentale. 12. N dimr bn ftoht. Shpesh bie bor dhe temperaturat shkojn deri n minus zero grad Celsius. Ushtrimi 12.3 1. Prizreni sht nj qytet i lasht me vlera t shumta historike, kulturore dhe arkitekturore. 2. T dhnat arkeologjike dshmojn se Prizreni sht nj nga qytetet m t vjetra n Evropn Juglindore. 3. Prizreni sht i prmendur n shum burime historike si n dokumente me karakter ekonomik ose politik dhe n kronika, apo vepra fetare dhe shkencore. 4. N periudha t ndryshme historike, Prizreni del me emra t ndryshm: n dokumentet latine emrin Prisrien, Prisrenum etj. 5. N dokumentet osmane Prizreni del me emrat Tarzerin, Perserin etj. 6. Po, n Prizren ka monumente nga periudha romake. 7. Ato jan terma dhe mure nga periudha romake (tek Sahat Kulla), si dhe mozaik. Ushtrimi 12.4 Please see Leximi 12.1.

Msimi 13
Ushtrimi 13.2 1. Drini bisedon me Brizin. 2. Brizi ishte me disa miq t huaj n nj udhtim npr Shqipri. 3. N llim vizituan Durrsin. 4. N Durrs vizituan amteatrin dhe muzeun arkeologjik. 5. N Kruj blen shum suvenire, veshje tradicionale, qilima etj. Atje bn dhe shum fotogra. 6. N Shkodr qndruan vetm nj nat. 7. Po, shkuan n Jug. 8. N Berat, u lan mbresa t forta shtpit n kala dhe Muzeu Kombtar Onufri. 9. Po, plazh bn n Potam, Ksamil dhe Sarand. 10. Po, Butrinti ishte pjes e rndsishme e ktij udhtimi. Atje pan qytetin antik, kurse n mbrmje ndoqn nj shfaqje teatrale n Teatrin e Butrintit. Ushtrimi 13.3 1. Ata shkuan n plazh. 2. Studentt lexuan librat e rinj. 3. Atyre u plqeu shum udhtimi. 4. Ne pam vende shum t bukura. 5. Turistt udhtuan npr Shqipri. 6. N pazar ajo bleu disa suvenire. 7. N autobus knduam shum kng. 8. Ju that se sot sht pushim. 9. Djali vuri antn mbi bank. 10. Piva nj aj t ftoht. 11. Ku shkuan ata? 12. far more nga Shqipria? 13. Nuk doln dje nga shtpia. 14. Pse nuk erdht me ne? 15. U dham disa informacione t rndsishme. 16. Sot nuk hngrm mngjes. 17. Ndenja gjith fundjavn n shtpi. 18. Ku qe/ishe ti dje? 19. Mbylln dern e shtpis. 20. N muze pati/kishte shum turist.

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Ushtrimi 13.4 1. Ajo udhtoi npr Shqipri. 2. Ne vizituam disa vende t bukura turistike. 3. Ata nuk patn/kishin shum informacione pr Shqiprin. 4. T plqeu Durrsi? 5. Un ndenja gjith ditn n qytet. 6. Ata bn vizita n muze. 7. Hngrm dark ktu. 8. Ata mbetn t mahnitur nga bukuria e natyrs shqiptare. 9. Pam Kalan e Ali Pash Tepelens. 10. Ti more informacione pr Sknderbeun. 11. Un pash disa dokumente. 12. Qndroi vetm nj nat. Ushtrimi 13.6 1. Dialogu zhvillohet n librari. 2. Genti krkon t blej libra, sepse e ka porosi nga disa miq q nuk jetojn n Shqipri q t blej libra nga shkrimtar t ndryshm shqiptar. Ata duan ti pasurojn bibliotekat e tyre me libra n gjuhn shqipe, q fmijt e tyre ta njohin letrsin shqipe. 3. Ai interesohet pr libra nga shkrimtar t ndryshm shqiptar. 4. Shitsi i sugjeron veprn e poetit Naim Frashri. 5. Vepra e Faik Konics sht n katr vllime. 6. Ai interesohet pr librin Kronik n gur. 7. Po, ai blen librin Tregime t mome shqiptare. 8. Po, ai blen antologjin e poezis bashkkohore shqiptare. 9. Ai i thot shitsit se do t vij srish nesr, nse do ti krkojn t blej libra t tjer. 10. Autori i librit Kronik n gur sht Ismail Kadare. Ushtrimi 13.7 1. Po t pyes pr librat. 2. Ai m mori dje n telefon. 3. Si mund t t ndihmoj? 4. Ata duan ti pasurojn bibliotekat e tyre. 5. far m kshilloni t marr? 6. Ju kshilloj t merrni veprn e poetit Naim Frashri. 7. Ata po m dgjojn. 8. Sa mir q e kujtuat librin Tregime t mome shqiptare. 9. Ai na pa i uditur. 10. E takova dje. Ushtrimi 13.8 1. Po e krkoj at pr nj pun. 2. M mori mua n telefon. 3. far t pyeti ty? 4. Kjo histori na kujtoi ne pr at nat. 5. far e keni at? 6. Ju kshillova ju t blini nj libr me poezi. 7. Nse i dgjoni ata, mos shkoni n Durrs nesr. 8. I pash ato n shkoll. Ushtrimi 13.9 1. d. 2. c. 3. a. 4. e. 5. b. Ushtrimi 13.10 1. Gjergj Kastrioti Sknderbeu sht heroi kombtar i shqiptarve. 2. Ai vlersohet si prijsi m i madh n historin e Shqipris, por edhe si sundimtar, diplomat, strateg ushtarak. 3. Marin Barleti e shkroi veprn e tij pr Sknderbeun n vitet 1508 1510. 4. N vitin 1443 luftoi me Janosh Huniadin. Ushtria osmane humbi luftn dhe Sknderbeu, bashk me kalors shqiptar dhe me nipin e tij Hamza Kastrioti, shkoi n Dibr, dhe m pas n Kruj. 5. Lidhja Shqiptare e Lezhs ishte nj aleanc politike dhe ushtarake e snikve shqiptar. 6. Pr njzet e pes vjet me radh Sknderbeu mbrojti vendin e tij dhe Evropn Perndimore nga pushtimi osman. 7. Sknderbeu ishte 63 vje kur vdiq, m 17 janar 1468, prandaj mendohet se ai lindi n vitin 1405. 8. Emri i tij i vrtet sht Gjergj Kastrioti.

Msimi 14
Ushtrimi 14.2 1. Dita po bisedon n telefon me Vesn. 2. Dita u zgjua nga gjumi n orn 9:00. 3. Pasi u zgjua nga gjumi, hngri nj mngjes t mir dhe pastaj u mor me punt e shtpis. 4. Po, u lodh se pastroi gjith shtpin 5. Pasi i mbaroi gjith punt, prgatiti dhe drekn. 6. Dita u takua pasdite me dy shoqe. 7. Ajo shkoi n kinema n orn 19:00. 8. Ato pan dy lma t shkurtr: nj lm shqiptar dhe nj lm italian. 9. Filmat ishin lma shum t bukur. 10. Filmat u shoqruan me diskutime q ngjalln shum interes tek publiku n sall. 11. U diskutua pr mesazhet e lmave. 12. Diskutimet zgjatn gati nj or. 13. Vesa ishte n Vlor se kishte

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nj mbledhje. 14. Ajo u nis pr n Vlor hert n mngjes. 15. Vesa shkoi n Vlor, sepse kishte nj mbledhje n orn 10:00. Ushtrimi 14.3 1. Ti u nise pr n shkoll. 2. Ata u knaqn shum n kinema. 3. Vajza u largua nga kinemaja n orn 21:00. 4. Fmijt u lan n det. 5. Aktiviteti u organizua shum bukur. 6. N takim u diskutua pr shum probleme. 7. Filmi u shoqrua me diskutime. 8. Djali u ngrit nga gjumi n orn 7:00. 9. Vesa u la, u kreh dhe u b gati pr n pun. 10. Ne u mrzitm shum n shtpi. Ushtrimi 14.5 1. Indriti po bisedon me Neritanin. 2. Pyetja e tij sht: a e more imejlin tim? 3. Jo, Neritani nuk e lexoi imejlin e Indritit sepse nuk pati koh. 4. Ai i ruajti materialet n kompjuter. 5. Ata u habitn sepse pan se kishte disa libra t vjetr pr gjuhn shqipe dhe historin e Shqipris, t cilt mund t shkarkohen falas nga interneti. 6. Neritani u drgon me imejl miqve librat pr gjuhn shqipe dhe historin e Shqipris. 7. Neritani mendon se librat elektronik jan me interes pr motrn e tij, sepse ajo sht msuese dhe mund ti prdor kto materiale pr nxnsit e saj. 8. Indriti e drgon informacionin pr librat elektronik me imejl. 9. Po, ka dhe libra elektronik me prralla. 10. Indriti dhe Neritani do t komunikojn me imejl. Ushtrimi 14.6 1. Djemt e mi jetojn n Tiran. 2. Shokt e tu po studiojn n universitet. 3. Msueset e tij shpjeguan msimin. 4. Vajzat e saj po shikojn nj fotogra. 5. Motrat e mia po bhen gati pr pun. 6. Shoqet e mia po shkruajn detyrn pa gabime. 7. Shtpit e tua jan larg q ktej. 8. Televizort e tyre jan t shtrenjt. 9. Hotelet e tyre jan t mdha. 10. Shoqet e tyre shkuan n shkoll. Ushtrimi 14.7 1. Vajza ime jeton n Tiran. 2. Nna e tij sht mjeke e njohur. 3. Mikja jote do t vij tani. 4. Motra e saj do t takohet me ne. 5. Vajzat e mia studiojn n Rom. 6. Msueset e tyre jan t shqetsuara pr msimin. 7. Studentet e tua po bjn detyrat. 8. Mjeket e tij jan shum t prgatitura. 9. Msueset e mia jan shum t mira. 10. Shoqet e saj duan t shkojn n kinema. Ushtrimi 14.8 1. Po takoj vajzn time. 2. Bisedoj me baban e tij. 3. Fola me shokun tnd. 4. Krkova vllan e saj. 5. Shkova n shtpin e saj. 6. Vizitova nenn tnde. 7. Po takohem me mesuesit e tyre. 8. Shoh studentt e tu. 9. Mrzitem pr problemet e tua. 10. Gjeta librat e tij.

Msimi 15
Ushtrimi 15.2 1. Pranvera blen djath Gjirokastre. 2. Pranvera provon djathin e Gjirokastrs. 3. N dyqan ka gjalp me pako. 4. Po, n dyqan ka gjiz. 5. Gjiza sht shum e mir. sht gjiz pa krip. 6. Po, Pranvera blen dyqind gram salc kosi. 7. N dyqan ka salsie vendi. 8. Po, n dyqan ka suxhuk Kosove. 9. N dyqan ka mish vii, mish qengji, mish lope, mish derri, mish deleje dhe pula. 10. Pranvera blen mish vii pa kocka. Ajo blen dhe nj gjysm pule. 11. Po, mishi i viit sht shum i freskt. 12. Po, Pranvera blen dhe katrqind gram mish t grir. Ushtrimi 15.3 1. N dyqan ka mish pule. 2. Vajzat po han mish qengji. 3. Po blej salc kosi. 4. N restorant ha shpesh brinj qengji. 5. Bleva disa lloje djathrash. 6. Ka disa lloje shtpish n projekt. 7. Ky model zyre, m plqen.

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Ushtrimi 15.4 1. far dite sht sot? 2. N far ore sht takimi? 3. far msimi kemi nesr? 4. Pr far problemi po diskutoni? 5. N far vendi jeni? Ushtrimi 15.5 1. Hyr/hyni! 2. Dil/dilni! 3. Mso/msoni! 4. Kalo/kaloni! 5. Ha/hani! 6. Hap/hapni! 7. Merr/merrni! 8. Shko/ shkoni! 9. Ki/kini! 10. Ji/jini! Ushtrimi 15.7 1. Kamarieri po bisedon me klientt. 2. Klientt ulen tek tavolina afr dritares. 3. Ata duan t pin dy shishe uj natyral dhe nj shishe uj me gaz. 4. N meny ka lloje t ndryshme supash: sup me perime, sup peshku, sup me domate, etj. Ka dhe disa lloje sallatash: sallat me perime t skars ose t ziera: sallat me domate, tranguj, ullinj; sallat me speca turshi; sallat mikse etj. 5. Ata marrin nj sallat me perime t skars dhe nj sallat mikse. 6. Restoranti ka lloje t ndryshme peshku: levrek, koran, gjuhz, barbun, etj. 7. Peshku sht shum i freskt. 8. Ata porosisin dy biftek t skars, nj sallat me fruta deti, nj pjat me karkaleca t skuqur dhe nj tav kosi. 9. N restorant ka mblsira tradicionale si bakllavaja dhe kadai, si edhe krem karamel, torta t ndryshme, akullore. 10. Ata marrin nga nj mblsir t ndryshme pr secilin prej tyre. Ushtrimi 15.8 1. Studenti rri pran dritareve. 2. Krahas ktyre detyrave, ajo ka dhe detyra m t rndsishme. 3. Jemi shum t shqetsuar prej ktyre informacioneve. 4. Rreth ktyre ngjarjeve ka shum diskutime. 5. Sipas ktyre gazetareve situata sht e vshtir. Ushtrimi 15.9 1. Krahas vajzave n takim jan dhe disa vajza/djem. 2. Ata po marrin sugjerime prej kamarieres. 3. Sipas studentes, msimi sht shum i vshtir. 4. Po diskutojn rreth kompozitoreve shqiptare. 5. Krkojm edhe nj gazetare, prve ktyre gazetareve q kemi. Ushtrimi 15.10 1. Pas pranvers vjen vera. 2. Artani merr shum letra prej nns dhe motrs. 3. Banojm afr shkolls. 4. Libri i gramatiks sht mbi tryezn afr dritares. 5. Dollapi i rrobave sht n dhomn e vogl. 6. Librat e prrallave jan mbi tryez. 7. Pran shkolls sht nj spital. 8. Mos vr revista n sirtarin e tryezs! 9. Ne marrim letra prej prindrve. 10. Ku do t shkosh nesr? Nesr do t shkoj tek shoqja pr dark. Do t vish edhe ti?

Msimi 16
Ushtrimi 16.2 1. Ardiani po shikon fotogra. 2. Ardiani ishte me pushime n nj kamp rinie. 3. Ai i kaloi shum mir pushimet. 4. Po, n kamp kishte shum t rinj. 5. N mngjes zgjoheshin hert dhe pasi hanin mngjes, shtisnin ose vraponin n breg t detit. 6. N plazh dilnin rreth ors 9:00 dhe rrinin deri n orn 12:00. 7. Po, pasi hanin drek, dilnin srish n plazh. 8. Laheshin n det ose luanin me top. Kishte dhe nga ata q rrinin gjith kohn n adr dhe lexonin ose luanin me letra. Nganjher merrnin varkat dhe shkonin q t vizitonin gjire t vogla. 9. N mbrmje luanin pingpong, basketboll, volejboll, futboll etj. 10. adrat ishin t mdha dhe shum komode. Ushtrimi 16.3 1. N or zgjoheshit kur ishit me pushime? Zgjoheshim n orn 8, por nuk ngriheshim deri n orn 8.30. bnit pasi ngriheshit? Rruheshim, laheshim, lanim dhmbt dhe visheshim. Hanim mngjes shum shpejt

338 Appendix 11

dhe niseshim pr pun. 2. N or zgjoheshin kur ishin me pushime? Zgjoheshin n orn 8, por nuk ngriheshin deri n orn 8:30. bnin pasi ngriheshin? Rruheshin, laheshin, lanin dhmbt dhe visheshin. Hanin mngjes shum shpejt dhe niseshin pr n pun. 3. po bnte vajza? Po vishej. Donte t luante pak. 4. po bnin djemt? Po visheshin. Donin t luanin pak. 5. bje n llim: rruheshe apo kriheshe? Zakonisht rruhesha kur bja dush. Pastaj krihesha. Ushtrimi 16.5 1. Teuta i tregon Arianit pr udhtimin e saj n Butrint. 2. Ata u nisn nga Tirana hert n mngjes rreth ors 6:00. 3. Udhtimi ishte shum i bukur. 4. Turistt i shoqruan student t historis. 5. N Butrint ata vizituan disa objekte dhe monumente arkeologjike q dshmojn pr lashtsin e tij. 6. Shoqruesit u treguan pr historin e Butrintit. 7. Grupit t turistve i bri prshtypje n veanti Teatri Antik i Butrintit, i ndrtuar n shekullin III p.e.s. 8. Tempulli i Asklepit ndodhet n perndim. 9. N fund t vizits vizituam dhe muzeun e pasur me objekte arkeologjike. 10. Ata u lodhn n natyrn e mrekullueshme. Ushtrimi 16.6 1. Po i as vajzs sime. 2. Po ulem pran babait t tij. 3. Mora letr prej shokut tnd. 4. Kjo sht shoqja e vllait t saj. 5. Erdha prej shtpis s saj. 6. Po u tregoj miqve klasn tnde. 7. Ishin larg msuesve t tyre. 8. Po u shkruaj studentve t tu. 9. Po rri larg problemeve t tua. 10. Ky sht msuesi i klass s tij. Ushtrimi 16.7 1. Para disa ditsh ishim n Butrint. 2. Ky ishte udhtimi i fundit i programit ton turistik n Shqipri. 3. Nga Tirana, u nism hert n mngjes rreth ors 6:00 dhe udhtuam pr disa or gjat riviers s Jonit. 4. Para syve tan kalonin peizazhet e mrekullueshme t natyrs shqiptare. 5. N kt udhtim na shoqruan student t historis. 6. Ata ishin shum t sjellshm dhe u prgjigjeshin me knaqsi dhe dshir t gjitha pyetjeve tona pr vendet q shihnim. 7. N Butrint ne arritm n mesdit. 8. Shoqruesit tan na treguan n llim pr historin e Butrintit. 9. Gjat vizits son n Parkun e Butrintit vizituam disa objekte dhe monumente arkeologjike q dshmojn pr lashtsin e tij. 10. N perndim ndodhej tempulli i Asklepit, disa shtpi me oborr etj. 11. N fund vizituam, dhe muzeun e pasur me objekte arkeologjike. 12. Pasi vizituam parkun arkeologjik u lodhm, n natyrn e mrekullueshme. 13. Qyteti i Butrintit ndodhet n mes t gjelbrimit, buz liqenit karakteristik dhe bukuria e natyrs na trhoqi t gjithve. 14. Kshtu kaluam nj dit shum t bukur n Butrint. 15. Ky vend i prket trashgimis kulturore botrore dhe mbrohet nga UNESKOja.

Msimi 17
Ushtrimi 17.2 1. Ariani e merr Flladian n telefon. 2. Ajo nuk ka shkuar n pun, sepse sht smur. 3. Po, ajo sht vizituar tek mjeku n mngjes. 4. Mjeku i tha se sht me grip. 5. Po, Flladia ka temperatur t lart. 6. Ka rn viroz gripi, sepse jan ulur temperaturat n mnyr t menjhershme. 7. Po, Flladia ka pir aspirin dhe aj t nxeht. 8. Mjeku i kshilloi t bj dhe banj me uj t nxeht. 9. Mjeku i dha tri dit pushim. 10. Ariani i tha t shkuara dhe ti telefonoj nse ka nevoj pr ndonj gj. Ushtrimi 17.3 1. Mora t t pyes pse nuk ke ardhur sot n pun. 2. Flladia sht smur. 3. Ajo nuk ka fjetur gjith natn. 4. Ti ke pasur dhimbje t forta koke dhe temperatur t lart. 5. Mjeku i ka thn se ajo sht me grip. 6. Ka rn nj viroz gripi dhe shum njerz jan prekur prej saj. 7. Temperaturat jan ulur n mnyr t menjhershme. 8. Un kam br nj vaksin antigrip, por megjithat sht mir t ruhem. 8. Ke pir ndonj ila? 9. Mjeku m ka kshilluar t bj dhe banj me uj t ngroht. Ushtrimi 17.4 1. Djemt kan marr disa her n telefon. 2. Kemi krkuar kartolina nga Shqipria. 3. Un u jam prgjigjur t gjitha pyetjeve. 4. Ajo sht shtrir n shtrat. 5. Vajzat jan ulur n karrige. 6. Ti ke thn shum gjra Appendix 11

339

interesante. 7. Un kam fjetur shum mbrm. 8. Kngtart kan knduar shum bukur. 9. Ju keni krcyer shum bukur. 10. Qyteti ka ndryshuar n kto vite. Ushtrimi 17.5 1. Pacientja ka shkuar te dentisti. 2. Ajo ka shkuar atje pr nj kontroll. 3. Ajo e ka ln orarin n orn 17:00. 4. Asaj i dhemb nj dhmball. 5. Asaj i dhemb dhmballa e fundit lart. 6. Ajo do t vr nj dhmb porcelani. 7. Dentisti do ti pastroj dhmbt nga gurzat. 8. Ajo i pastron dhmbt me ll dentar. 9. Mjeku i thot t ket m shum kujdes me higjienn e gojs. 10. Nganjher i del gjak nga mishrat e dhmbve. Ushtrimi 17.6 1. Ai duhet t ket qen me grip. 2. Mund t ket pasur shum probleme me shndetin. 3. sht mir t keni ln nj takim me mjekun, thjesht pr nj kontroll. 4. Nuk sht e vshtir t kesh ruajtur higjienn e gojs. 5. Duhet t kesh mjekuar dhmbt. Ushtrimi 17.7 1. Un kam ardhur pr nj kontroll. 2. Ai sht lar vet. 3. Ata e kan ln orarin n orn 17:00. 4. Ata i kan telefonuar sekretares dhe ajo u ka thn q t shkojn n orn 15:00. 5. Ndrtesa sht mbajtur me kujdes. 6. far shqetsimesh ke pasur? 7. M ka dhembur dhmbi. 8. Asaj i ka dal dhmballa e pjekuris. 9. Duket ti ket rn mbushja. 10. Ti ke hequr nj dhmb para disa kohsh. 11. Ne i kemi mbushur dhmbt para disa kohsh. 12. Mjeku i ka pastruar dhmbt pacientes. Ushtrimi 17.9 1. Kur t vish ti, do t kem ikur un. 2. Do ta ken shkaktuar ata kt dram. 3. Para se t vijn ata, un do t kem mbaruar msimet. 4. Ajo do ta ket mbyllur me koh kt histori. 5. Do t ket dhn edhe ajo mendimin e saj. 6. Mbase do t kem krkuar kt gj. 7. Njerzit tregojn se nuk do t ken pasur informacione pr aktivitetin. 8. Them se ata do t jen nisur patjetr. 9. Fakti q nuk m kan marr n telefon, tregon se nuk do t ken pranuar. 10. T premtoj se do ti kem mbaruar punt, derisa t vish ti.

Msimi 18
For solutions to Ushtrimi 18.3, 18.4, and 18.5 please see Leximi 18.1

340 Appendix 11

VOCABULARY LIST

Adjectives are shown in their corresponding masculine and feminine singular forms. Nouns are shown in their indenite, denite, and plural indenite forms. Verbs are shown in the present indicative, past indicative, and past participle forms. Prepositions are shown with the corresponding case they require: + nom. = nominative, + acc. = accusative, + abl. = ablative. Other abbreviations: adj. = adjective, adv. = adverb, dat. = dative, fem. = feminine, gen. = genitive, masc. = masculine, pl. = plural, sing. = singular. A a administrativ, -e admirim, -i aeroplan, -i, - aeroport, -i, -e afr (+ abl.) afrm, -i (i), afrm (t) t afrmit e familjes afrsi, -a, n afrsi t afrim, -i, -e afr/ohem, u -ova, -uar aftsim, -i aftsim teknologjik agjenci, -a, agencia e lajmeve agjenci imobiliare agjenci turistike agjenci udhtimesh ai aj/ r, -ri ajr i pastr n ajr t pastr ajr i kondicionuar ajo ajror, -e linj ajrore akademi, -a, akoma aksident, -i, -e aktiv, -e aktivitet, -i, -e aktor, -i, - aku/ ll, -lli, -j akullor/e, -ja, -e aleanc/ , -a, -a alkool, -i ambasad/ , -a, -a ambulanc/ , -a, -a amerikan, -i, - amteat/ r, -ri, -ro amtar, -e gjuh amtare an/ , -a, - nga ana tjetr ank/ohem, u -ova, -uar ansamb/ l, -li, -le antik, -e antikitet, -i antipast/ , -a, -a antologji, -a, apartament, -i, -e apo Apo jo? aq ar, -i arbresh, -e ardhj/e, -a, -e i ardhsh/ m, e -me i,e ardhur argjend, -i arkeolog, -u, - arkeologjik, -e ark/ , -a, -a arkitekturor, -e arom, -a, -a arsim, -i actor ice ice cream alliance alcohol embassy outpatient clinic American amphitheater native mother tongue side on the other hand to complain ensemble ancient antiquity appetizer anthology apartment or Is that right? so gold Albanian of southern Italy arrival next, coming newcomer silver archaeologist archaeological cash register architectural avor, perfume education

interrogative particle administrative admiration airplane airport near(by) relatives (family) close relatives closeness in the vicinity of approach, proximity to reach, approach qualication, skill technology class agency news agency housing agency tourist agency travel agency he, this (masc.) air fresh air in the open air air conditioning she, this (fem.) air (adj.) airline academy still accident active activity, show

341

arsy/e, -ja, -e pr kt arsye i arsyesh/ m, e -me i,e art artiku/ ll, -lli, -j artist, -i, - artistik, -e arri/ j, -ta, -tur as as . . . as asaj asgj Asgj! Asklep, -i asnj asnjher ashtu ata ather atij atje atmosfer/ , -a, -a ato atyre autobus, -i, - autoritet, -i, -e avion, -i, - avokat, -i, - B baba, -i, baballar bajam/e, -ja, -e Bajrami i Madh Bajrami i Vogl bakllava, -ja, balet, -i, -e ballkanik, -e ballkon, -i, -e ballokum/e, -ja,- e banan/e, -ia, -e banim, -i, -e banj/ , -a, -a banj dielli bj banj bankar, -e bank/ , -a, -a banknot/ , -a, -a bankomat, -i, -e ban/oj, -ova, -uar banor, -i, -

reason for this reason reasonable golden article artist artistic to attain, arrive neither, not even neither . . . nor to her (abl., dat., gen.) nothing Youre welcome! Asclepius any, not a single, none never thus they (masc.) then, in that case to him (abl., dat., gen.) there atmosphere they (fem.) to them (abl., dat., gen.) bus authority airplane lawyer

father almond Eid ul-Fitr Eid Mubarak baklava ballet Balkan (adj.) balcony special sweet banana residence, dwelling bathroom, toilet, bath sunbath to take a bath banking bank banknote, bill ATM machine to live resident, inhabitant

i,e banuar barazim, -i, -e baraz/ohem, u -ova, -uar barbu/n, -ni, -nj i,e bardh basketboll, -i basketbollist, -i, - bashk bashkkohor, -e i,e bashklidhur s bashku bektashi, -u, -nj bektashiz/ m, -mi beqar, -e bes/ , -a, -a jap besn mbaj besn bes/oj, -ova, -uar b/ hem, u -ra, -r bhem gati bhem von b/ j, -ra, -r bj detyrat bj fotogra bj prshtypje bj plazh bj shtitje bn ngroht bm/ , -a, -a brt/as, -ita, -itur brxoll/ , -a, -a brxoll derri brxoll vii bibliotek/ , -a, -a biiklet/ , -a, -a bie, rash, rn bie bor bie n sy bie shi biftek, -u, - bij/ , -a, -a bilet/ , -a, -a bilet autobusi bilet avioni bind/em, u -a, -ur bi/ r, -ri, -j birr/ , -a, -a bised/oj, -ova, -uar biskot/ , -a, -a

inhabited tie, draw to end in a tie red mullet white basketball basketball player together contemporary attached together Bektashi (Moslem sect) Bektashism single oath to give an oath to keep an oath to believe, think to become to get ready to be late I do, to do to do homework to take pictures to make an impression to take a sunbath to take a walk its warm (weather) deed, action to shout chop pork chop beef steak library bicycle to ring, fall to snow to catch the eye to rain steak daughter ticket bus ticket airplane ticket to be convinced son beer to talk, discuss cookie

342 Vocabulary List

bizel/e, -ja, -e ble/ j, -va, -r blerj/e, -a, -e bluz/ , -a, -a bor/ , -a bosh, -e botanik, -e bot/ , -a botror, -e botim, -i, -e bot/oj, -ova, -uar breg, -u, brigje n breg t detit bregdet, -i, -e bregdetar, -e brenda brenda n (+ acc.) i brendsh/ m, e-me t brendshmet brinj/ , -a, - brinj qengji britm/ , -a, -a brokoli budalla, -qe bufe, -ja, buk/ , -a, - i,e bukur bukuri, -a, burim, -i, -e bur/oj, -ova, -uar burs/ , -a, -a burr/ , -i, -a i,e but buz byrek, -u, - C celular, -i, - celular, -e kompani celulare telefon celular ceremoni, -a, cil/a, -at cilsi, -a, cilsor, -e cil/ i, -t kombsi

bean, pea to buy buying, purchasing blouse snow empty botanical world world (adj.), worldwide edition, publication to publish coast, shore on the beach coast(line) maritime, coastal inside inside interior underwear rib lamb ribs exclamation, scream broccoli stupid cupboard bread pretty, beautiful beauty source to ow out scholarship man, husband mild, soft, weak on the edge, close by pastry lled with meat, etc.

profesion ad/ r, -ra, -ra aj, -i am, -e araf, -i, - do do gj e/ k, -ku, -qe ek udhtimi ek, -e els, -i, -a erek, -u, - far far gjuhe far kombsie far profesioni ifteli, -a, izm/e, -ja, -e ka lirim, -i, -e lodh/em, u -a, -ur mim, -i, -e mime simbolike oj, ova, uar okollat/ , -a, -a orap/e, -ja, -e D dakord dal, dola, dal dal nga msimi Nuk dalin. dardan, -e dardhar, -e dardh/ , -a, -a dark/ , -a, -a ha dark dasm/ , -a, -a dashuri, -a, dat/ , -a, -a dat/oj, -ova, -uar daull/e, -ja, -e debat, -i, -e deg/ , -a, - del/e, -ja, -e mish deleje dentar, -e dentist, -i, -

what profession parasol, umbrella, tent tea related to the am population (adj.) bedsheet every everything check travelers check Czech key quarter what what language what nationality what profession two- stringed lute knee- high boot so- so liberation to rest price very low prices to carry, take chocolate socks

cell phone cellular (adj.) cellular companies cell phone ceremony which (fem.) quality of good quality which (masc.)

what what nationality

all right to go out, be enough to get out of school They are not enough. Illyrian tribe related to Dardha and its inhabitants (adj.) pear dinner to have dinner wedding love date to date drum debate branch, afuent ewe, goat goat meat dental dentist

Vocabulary List

343

der, -a, dyer deri deri m sot deri von derisa derr, -i, -a mish derri det, -i, -e Deti Jon detyr/ , -a, -a detyr shtpie dgj/oj, -ova, -uar i dmsh/ m, e -me drg/oj, -ova, -uar dshir/ , -a, -a dshir/oj, -ova, -uar dshm/oj, -ova, -uar dshmor, -i, - di, -ta, -tur diabet, -i dialekt, -i, -e e diel, -a, -a t dieln die/ ll, -lli, -j me diell diet/ , -a, -a diku dim/ r, -ri, -ra diplomat, -i, - disa diskotek/ , -a, -a diskutim, -i, -e diskut/ohem, u -ova, -uar diskut/oj, -ova, -uar i diskutuesh/ m, e -me dit/ , -a, - Dita e lirimit Dita e Dshmorve Dita e Lumturimit t Nn Terezs Dita e Novruzit Dita e Pavarsis Dita e Puntorve Ditn e mir! ditor, -e dituri, -a dituri natyre divan, -i, -e

door until until today until late until, as long as pig pork meat sea Ionian Sea assignment, duty homework to listen harmful to send desire to desire to witness, testify martyr to know diabetes dialect Sunday on Sunday sun sunny diet somewhere winter diplomat some discotheque discussion to be discussed to discuss negotiable day Liberation Day Martyrs Day Mother Teresas Beatication Day (Sultan) Novrusis Day Independence Day Labor Day Good- bye! daily knowledge science class sofa, couch

djal/ , -i, djem djath/ , -i, -ra djath i bardh djath kakavall djathtas i,e djatht djeg, dogja, djegur M djegin grykt. djep, -i, -e djersi/s, -ta, -tur dokument, -i, -e dokumentar, -i, - dollap, -i, - domat/e, -ja, -e dor/ , -a, duar do t dot dramaturg, -u, - drejt (+ abl.) e drejt/ , -a, t -a kam t drejt drejtim, -i, -e n drejtim t nn drejtimin e drejt/ohem, -ova, -uar drek/ , -a, -a dritar/e, -ja, -e drith/ , -i, -ra dua, desha, dashur dukem duket m duket durim, -i dy t dy, t dyja dykatsh, -e dyqan, -i, -e dysh, -e dyshim, -i, -e i,e dyt Dh dhall/ , -a dhe, edhe, e dhemb, -a, -ur dhmb, -i, - dhmball/ , -a, -

son, boy cheese feta cheese fat cheese to the right right to burn I have a sore throat (lit., my throat is burning). cradle, crib to swear document documentary wardrobe tomato hand future marker (= will) at all, cant playwright, dramatist toward law, right to be right, have the right direction toward under the direction of to be led by lunch window cereal to want, love to look, seem it seems, looks it seems to me patience two both (masc., fem.) two- story store double doubt second

buttermilk and to hurt, ache tooth molar

344 Vocabulary List

dhmballa e pjekuris e dhn/ , -a, t dhna dhimbj/e, -a, -e dhimbje fyti dhimbje koke i,e dhjet dhjetor, -i dhom/ , -a, -a dhom dyshe dhom e lir dhom teke E ec/ i, -a, -ur ecj/e, -a, -e edukat/ , -a edukt zke ekonomi, -a ekonomi shtpiake edhe, dhe, e edhe . . . edhe edhe pse edhe un ekip, -i, -e ekonomik, -e ekonomist, -i, - ekskursion, -i, -e ekspedit/ , -a, -a ekspozit/ , -a, -a ekspozit pikture ekzekutues, -e elegant, -e elektricitet, -i elektronik, -e em/ r, -ri, -ra emision, -i, -e ende e enjt/e, -ja, -e t enjten estetik, -e etj/e, -a kam etje euro i,e mbl mblsir/ , -a, -a nd/ rr, -rra, -rra

wisdom tooth datum, data pain sore throat headache tenth December room double room a free/cheap room single room

to go, walk walk education physical education economics home economics class and both . . . and even though me too team, group economic economist excursion expedition exhibition painting exhibit executive elegant electricity electronic name TV/ radio show, program still, yet Thursday on Thursday aesthetic thirst to be thirsty euro

sweet (adj.) sweet, dessert dream

F fabrik/ , -a, -a fajtor, -e fakt, -i, -e n fakt fal, -a, -ur M fal! falas falnder/oj, -ova, -uar Faleminderit! i,e famsh/ m, e -me fanell/ , -a, -a faq/e, -ja, -e faqe interneti fare fat, -i, -e pr fat t mir i favorshm, e -me fe, -ja, fej/ohem, u -ova, -uar fej/oj, -ova, -uar fem/ r, -ra, -ra fest/ , -a, -a festival, -i, -e Festivali i Kngs fest/oj, -ova, -uar fetar, -e fet/ , -a, -a fmij/ , -a, - let/ , -a, -a let pule let vii lm, -i, -a ll, -i, je ll dentar llestar, -i, - llim, -i, -e n llim llimisht ll/oj, -ova, -uar nanciar, -e rm/ , -a, -a s, -i, -e snik, -u, - t/oj, -ova, -uar tor/e, -ja, -e tues, -e tues, -i, -

factory guilty fact in fact to excuse Excuse me! free, gratis to thank Thank you! famous annel shirt, undershirt page webpage, website at all fate, destiny, luck luckily favorable religion, faith to get engaged to get someone engaged female party, holiday festival Song Festival to celebrate religious slice (of bread, cheese) child/children llet chicken llet beef llet lm thread dental oss beginner beginning at the beginning at the beginning to start, begin nancial rm tribe nobleman, knight to earn, win victory, triumph victorious, winning the winner

Vocabulary List

345

zik/ , -a fjal/ , -a, - fjali, -a, fjalor, -i, - fjetj/e, -a, -e ak/ , -a, - amur, -i, - as, fola, folur e, fjeta, fjetur etor/e, -ja, -e itet ok, -u, - oktor/e, -ja, -e ori, -ri, -nj utur/oj, -ova, -uar lad, -i, -e form/ , -a, -a form/ohem, u -ova, -uar i,e fort forum, -i, -e fotogra, -a, Franc/ , -a francez, -i, - francez, -e frngjisht i,e freskt freskues, -e frigorifer, -i, - frik/ , -a, - frut/ , -a, -a fruta deti fry/ j, -va, -r Fryn er. i,e ftoht ft/oj, -ova, -uar fund, -i, -e fund i drejt fund i gjat fund i shkurtr fund me pala fund xhins i,e fundit fundjav/ , -a, -a fuqi, -a, fur/ , -a, -a furnizim, -i, -e furr/ , -a fu/s, -ta, -tur fustan, -i, -e

physics word sentence vocabulary, dictionary sleep ame ag to speak to sleep notebook it is said hair hairdresser gold to y light breeze form to be formed strong, hard forum photograph France French French (nationality) French (language) fresh refreshing refrigerator fear, dread fruit seafood to blow It is windy. cold to invite skirt, end, bottom hobble skirt long skirt short skirt pleated skirt jeans skirt last weekend power brush furnishing, supplies stove to put in, let in, get in dress

fustan nusrie fustanell/ , -a, -a fush/ , -a, -a futboll, -i futbollist, -i, - fyt, -i G gabim, -i, -e gadishu/ ll, -lli, -j galeri, -a, galeria e arteve garazh, -i, -e gati gatim, -i, -e gatishmri, -a gat/uaj, -ova, -uar gaz, -i, -e gazet -a, -a gazetar, -i, - get/ , -a, -a grmim, -i, -e gzim, -i, -e i,e gzuar godin/ , -a, -a goj/ , -a, - gojdhn/ , -a, -a got/ , -a, -a grad/ , -a, -a gra, -a, Greqi, -a gri grip, -i i,e grir mish i grir grua, gruaja, gra grup, -i, -e grur/ , -i gryk/ , -a, - gur, -i, - gurz, -a, -a gusht, -i Gj gjak, -u gjalp/ , -i, -e gjalp me krip gjallri, -a i,e gjasht gjat

wedding dress kilt eld soccer football player throat

mistake peninsula gallery art gallery garage almost cooking readiness to cook gas newspaper journalist panty hose digging happiness glad, happy, joyful building mouth legend glass degree X- ray Greece gray u minced mincemeat woman, wife group grain, wheat throat stone plaque August

blood butter salty butter hustle and bustle sixth long, for a long time

346 Vocabulary List

i,e gjat gjatsi, -a, gjat (+ abl.) gje/ j, -ta, -tur gje/ndem, u -ta, -tur i,e gjelbr gjelbrim, -i gjeograk, -e gjerman, -i, - gjerman, -e gjermanisht gjeth/e, -ja, -e gj, -ja, -ra do gj gji,- ri, -nj gji, -ri, -re gjigand, -i, - gjimnastikor, -e t gjitha gjithashtu t gjith gjithmon gjithnj gjithsesi gjiz/ , -a gjiz me krip gjiz pa krip gjuaj, -ta, -tur gjuh/ , -a, - gjuhz, -a, -a gjum/ , -i gjurm/ , -a, - gjykats, -i, gjysm/ , -a, -a gjysh, -i, -r gjysh/e, -ja, -e H ha, hngra, ngrn ha dark ha drek ha mngjes m hahet i,e habitur hamburger, -i, - hapsir/ , -a, -a hapj/e, -a, -e i,e hapur harmonik, -e

long length during to nd to nd oneself, be present green greenery geographic German (nationality) German (adj.) German (language) leaf thing everything breast gulf, bay giant gymnastic, adj. everybody, all (fem., pl.) also, similarly everybody, all (masc., pl.) always always in any case, anyhow curd, cottage cheese salted curd unsalted curd to hunt tongue, language tongue sleep trace, track judge half grandfather grandmother

n mnyr harmonike harr/oj, -ova, -uar hedh, hodha, hedhur hekuros, -a, -ur heq, hoqa, hequr H! e hn/ , -a, -a t hnn her/ , -a, - hera e par nj her nj her n muaj pr her t par hert hero, -i, -nj i hersh/ m, e -me heshtj/e, -a i,e hidhur higjien/ , -a hip/ i, -a, -ur historik, -e holl, -i, -e t holla hollsi, -a, me hollsi i hollsish/ m, e -me hotel, -i, -e i,e huaj hudh/ r, -ra, -ra humb, -a, -ur humbj/e, -a -e i,e hutuar hy/ j, -ra, -r hyj brenda I i ide, -ja, identikim, -i, -e ik/ i, -a, -ur ikonograk, -e ila, -i, -e ilir, -e im ime imejl, -i, -e individual, -e infeksion, -i, -e

in a harmonic way to forget to throw to iron to take off Hey! Monday on Monday time, while the rst time once once a month for the rst time early hero early, ancient silence, calm bitter hygiene to get on historic(al) hall money (always pl.) detail in detail detailed hotel foreign garlic to miss, lose loss confused to go in to go inside

to eat to have dinner to have lunch to have breakfast to be hungry surprised, astonished hamburger space opening open harmonic, balanced

her, to her idea identication to go (away), pass iconographic medicine Illyrian my (masc.) my (fem.) e- mail individual infection

Vocabulary List

347

informativ, -e inform/oj, -ova, -uar institucion, -i, -e instrument, -i, -e intensivisht interes, -i, -a me interes shfaq interes interesant, -e interes/ohem, u -ova, -uar i,e interesuar internet, -i interpretim, -i, -e interpret/oj, -ova, -uar interpretohet (pass.) inxhinier, -i, - Itali, -a italian, -e italian, -i, - italisht itinerar, -i, -e J ja . . . Ja, ku jan! jam, qesh, qen jam me fat jam von janar, -i jap, dhash, dhn jap fjaln jap mendime jap me qira jap msim jastk, -u, - jasht (+ abl.) jav/ , -a, - pes dit n jav jelek, -u, - jeshil, -e jet/ , -a, - jetgjatsi, -a, jet/oj, -ova, -uar jo Jo keq! jo . . . m Jon, -i

informative to inform institution instrument intensively interest of interest to show interest interesting to be interested in interested Internet interpretation to interpret to be interpreted engineer Italy Italian Italian (nationality) Italian (language) itinerary

jon jote ju juaj jug, -u juglindor, -e jugperndim, -i juridik, -e jurist, -i, - jush juve K kabin/ , -a, -a kabin telefoni kadaif, -i kaf/e, -ja, -e kafene, -ja, kajsi, -a, kakao, -ja kala, -ja, kalendar, -i, - kal/ , -i, kuaj kal/oj, -ova, -uar kalors, -i, i,e kaltr kallamar, -i, - kam, pata, pasur ka kam etje kam nevoj pr kam t drejt kam uri ka teatr nuk ka shum kamarier, -i, - kamp, -i, -e kamp rinie kana/e, -ja, -e kanal, -i, -e kanion, -i, -e kapel/ , -a, -a kaq karakter, -i, -e karakteristik, -e karkalec, -i, -a karot/ , -a, -a kart/ , -a, -a kart krediti kartvizit/ , -a, -a

our (fem.) your (fem.) you (pl.) your south southeastern southwestern legal, judicial lawyer you (abl.) to you (dat.)

here is . . . They are over there! to be to be lucky to be late January to give to promise to give an opinion to rent out to teach pillow outside, abroad week ve days a week vest, waistcoat green life longevity to live no, not Not bad! not . . . anymore Ionian (Sea)

booth telephone booth kadai, a type of sweet coffee coffee shop apricot cocoa fortress, palace calendar horse to spend time, pass by rider, horseman blue, azure, sky blue squid to have there is, there are to be thirsty to need to be right to be hungry theres a play not long ago waiter camp youth camp can, tin channel canyon hat, cap so (much, many) character, nature typical, peculiar shrimp carrot card, paper credit card business card

348 Vocabulary List

karrig/e, -ia, -e kat, -i, -e katalog, -u, - kategori, -a, i,e katrt katolik, -e katror, -e metra katror i keq, e/t kqij e keqe, e/t kqija k kmb/ej, -eva, -yer kmb/ , -a, - kmbim, -i, -e kmbim valutor kmish/ , -a, - knaq, -a, -ur knaqsi, -a, Knaqsia ime! i,e knaqur knaq/em, u -a, -ur knd/oj, -ova, -uar i kndsh/ m, e -me kng/ , -a, - kngtar, -i, - kpuc/ , -a, - kpuc me cilsi kpurdh/ , -a, -a krc/ej, -eva, -yer krkes/ , -a, -a krkim, -i, -e krk/oj, -ova, -uar krk/ohet, u -ova, -uar kshill/oj, -ova, -uar i kshilluesh/ m, e -me kshtjell/ , -a, -a kshtu kta kt kt jav kt vit kto ktu kikirik, -u, - kilogram, -i, - kilomet/ r, -ri, -ra kilometra katror kimi, -a

chair oor catalog category fourth Catholic square square meters bad (masc.) bad (fem.) whom to change, exchange leg, foot exchange money exchange shirt to satisfy pleasure, satisfaction My pleasure! satised to be satised to sing, go well comfortable song singer shoe quality shoes mushroom to dance request, petition research to look for it is asked for to advise advisable castle thus, so, like this these (masc.) this (acc., sing.) this week this year these (fem.) here peanut kilogram kilometer square kilometers chemistry

kinema, -ja, kish/ , -a, -a kivi kjo klient, -i, - klim/ , -a, -a klinik/ , -a, -a kock/ , -a, -a pa kocka koh/ , -a, - koka- kola (kola) kok/ , -a, - kok/ rr, -rra, -rra koleg, -u, - kolesterol, -i koll/ , -a kolltuk, -u, - kombsi, -a, kombinim, -i, -e komedi, -a, komod, -e kompani, -a, kompjuter, -i, -a komplikacion, -i, -e kompres/ , -a, -a komunik/oj, -ova, -uar komunitet, -i, -e konferenc/ , -a, -a konrm/oj, -ova, -uar konrmim, -i, -e konfuzion, -i, -e kongres, -i, -e konkurrenc/ , -a konkurrent, -i, - konkurrues, -e konkurrues, -i, konsider/oj, -ova, -uar konsu/ ll, -lli, -j konsum, -i, -e komsum/oj, -ova, -uar kontakt/oj, -ova, -uar kontrat/ , -a, -a kontribut, -i, -e kontroll/oj, -ova, -uar kontroll, -i, -e

cinema church kiwi this (fem.) client climate clinic bone boneless time, weather Coca-Cola head piece, unit (of fruit), grain, bean colleague cholesterol cough armchair nationality combination comedy comfortable company computer complication pack, compress to communicate community conference to conrm conrmation confusion convention competition competitor competing, competitive competitor to consider consul consumption to consume to contact contract, agreement contribution to control, inspect, examine control

Vocabulary List

349

konvikt, -i, -e kopj/e, -a, -e kopsht, -i, -e koran, -i, - korrigj/oj, -ova, -uar korrik, -u kos, -i kosovar, -i, - Kosov/ , -a kostum, -i, -e kostum pr burra kostum pr gra kostum popullor krah, -u, - krahas (+ abl.) krahas/oj, -ova, -uar krap, -i, krep kreh, -a, -ur krem karamel krenari, -a krevat, -i, -e krihem, u kreha, krehur krij/ohem, u -ova, -uar krik/ ll, -lla, -lla krip/ , -a, -ra i,e krishter Krishtlindj/e, -a, -e kriz/ , -a, -a kronik/ , -a, -a kryej, kreva, kryer kryeqytet, -i, -e kryesi, -a, kryesisht kryesor, -e kth/ehem, u -eva, -yer kthim, -i, -e ku kuad/ r, -ri, -ro kued/ r, -ra, -ra kudo ku, -ri, -j n ku me kujdes, -i, -e kujt/ohem, u -ova, -uar

dorm copy kindergarten, nursery school; garden trout to correct July yogurt Kosovar (inhabitant of Kosovo) Kosovo costume, suit mens suit womens costume traditional costume arm along with, in addition to to compare carp to comb (someones hair) caramel cream pride bed to comb ones hair, be combed to be created mug, jug salt Christian Christmas crisis chronicle, news to carry out capital city headship, directorate mainly main, principal to return return where frame, setting Hydra, monster everywhere border at the border with care to remember

kujt/oj, -ova, -uar kukull, -a, -a kultur/ , -a, -a kulturor, -e kull/ , -a, -a kumbull, -a, -a kun/at, -ati, -etr kunat/ , -a, -a kundr (+ abl.) kungu/ ll, -lli, -j kupt/oj, -ova, -uar kuqezi kur kurdo kureshtar, -e kurs, -i, -e kursi i ndrrimit kurse kush kusht/oj, -ova, -uar kusht/ohem, u -ova, -uar kuti, -a, kuvend, -i, -e kuzhin/ , -a, -a kuzhinier, -i, - ky L laborator, -i, - i,e lagsht lagshti, -a lagshtir/ , -a la/ hem, u -va, -r lahut/ , -a, -a la/ j, -va, -r lajm, -i, -e lajmrim, -i, -e lajthi, -a, lak/ r, -ra, -ra laps, -i, -a larg (+ abl.) i,e largt largim, -i, -e larg/ohem, u -ova, -uar i larmish/ m, e -me

to remind puppet culture cultural tower plum brother- in-law sister- in-law opposite, against pumpkin, squash to understand red and black (referring to the Albanian ag) when whenever curious rate, course exchange rate whereas, as, while who to cost to be dedicated box assembly, convention kitchen cook this (masc.)

laboratory humid humidity humidity to wash oneself, bathe, swim lute to wash (something), bathe (someone) news notication hazelnut cabbage pencil far (from) distant departure, removal to leave, depart varied, diversied

350 Vocabulary List

lart i,e lart lartsi, -a, i,e lasht lashtsi, -a, latin, -e latino- amerikan, -e ledhat/oj, -ova, -uar legjend/ , -a, -a i,e leht lek, -u, - lesh, -i let/ r, -ra, -ra letrsi, -a, levrek, -u, - lexim, -i lexim letrar lex/oj, -ova, -uar l, lash, ln l mbres/mbresa l orar lkur/ , -a, - lnd/ , -a, - ln/g, -gu, -gje lng frutash lsh/oj, -ova, -uar lvizj/e, -a, -e lib/ r, -ri, -ra librari, -a, lidh, -a, -ur lidhj/e, -a, -e ligj, -i, -e limon, -i, - lind, -a, -ur lindj/e, -a lindj/e, -a, -e linj/ , -a, -a Lion, -i liqen, -i, -e i,e lir lirisht lit/ r, -ri, -ra lodh/em, u -a, -ur i,e lodhur loj/ , -a, -ra lojtar, -i, - lokal, -i, -e lop/ , -a, - mish lope

high, up high, up height ancient antiquity Latin Latin American to caress legend easy, light lek (Albanian currency) wool letter, card literature bass reading literature class in elementary school to read to leave to make an impression to make an appointment skin, leather courses, subjects juice, liquid fruit juice to let out motion, movement book bookstore to join, bind connection, league law lemon to be born east birth line Lyon (France) lake cheap, free, not busy uently liter to get tired tired play, playing player premises, room cow beef

luaj, -ta, -tur luaj me letra luft/ , -a, -a Lufta e Par Botrore Lufta e Dyt Botrore luft/oj, -ova, -uar lug/ , -a, - luhet lul/e, -ja, -e luleshtrydh/e, -ja, -e lulisht/e, -ja, -e i,e lumtur lumturim, -i lus/ lut, luta, lutur Ll lloj, -i, -e M mac/e, -ja, -e maok, -u, - madje i madh, e/t mdhenj e madhe, e/t mdha madhshti, -a i,e mahnitur maj, -i majtas makarona, -t makin/ , -a, -a mal, -i, -e Mali i Zi mall, -i, -ra mall, -i mandarin/ , -a, -a Maqedoni, -a mars, -i e mart/ , -a, -a t martn mart/ohem, u -ova, -uar mart/oj, -ova, -uar i,e martuar marr, mora, marr marr me qira marr n telefon

to play to play cards war First World War Second World War to ght spoon it is played ower strawberry (public) garden, ower garden happy beatication to ask, beg

type

female cat male cat even big (masc.) big (fem.) majesty, grandiosity amazed May to the left pasta car mountain Montenegro goods longing tangerine Macedonia March Tuesday on Tuesday to get married to marry, make someone get married married to take to rent to call on the phone

Vocabulary List

351

marr nj vendim marr pjes marrveshj/e, -a, -e marrj/e, -a ma/s, -ta, -tur mas/ , -a, -a pa mas mashkull, -i, meshkuj matematik/ , -a material, -i, -e i,e matur mbaj, -ta, -tur mbaj mend mbarkombtar mbar/oj, -ova, -uar mbase mbasi mbe/s, -ta, -tur mbes i knaqur mbes i mahnitur mbet/em, u -a, -ur mbi (+ acc.) mbl/edh, -odha, -edhur mbledhj/e, -a, -e mbl/ idhem, u -odha, -edhur mbres/ , -a, -a l mbres, mbresa mbret, -i, -r mbretresh/ , -a, -a mbretri, -a, Mbretria e Bashkuar mbrmj/e, -a, -e n mbrmje mbro/ hem, u -jta, -jtur mbroj, -ta, -tur i,e mbrojtur mbush, -a, -ur mbushj/e, -a, -e i,e mbushur mbyll, -a, -ur i,e mbyllur me (+ acc.) me aeroplan me autobus me biiklet

to make a decision to take part agreement taking to measure size, measure immensely male mathematics material cautious, moderate to carry, wear, hold, keep to remember nationwide to end, nish perhaps after to remain, stay, be to be satised to be amazed to remain, be left, be on, on top of to gather, collect meeting to gather, get together impression to make an impression king queen kingdom United Kingdom evening in the evening to be protected to defend, protect protected to ll in lling stuffed to close closed by (transportation), with by plane by bus by bicycle

me makin me pushime me qira me se me shndet me vshtirsi megjithat megjithse meje menaxher, -i, - mendim, -i, -e jap mendime mend/ohem, u -ova, -uar mend/oj, -ova, -uar menjher i menjhersh/ m, e -me mens/ , -a, -a meny, -ja, meq merrem, u mora, marr merrem me mes (+ abl.) n mes (+ abl.) mesatar, -e mesatarisht mesazh, -i, -e Mesdhe, -u mesdhetar, -e i mes/ m, e -me mesjetar, -e metra katror mezi Mezi po pres. m (+ acc.) m M falni! m m pas m shum nuk . . . m mli, -a, mndafsh, -i mngjes, -i, -e mnyr/ , -a, -a n mnyr q meq

by car on vacation renting, for rent how (transportation) healthy, with health with difculty, not uently however, anyway although me (abl.) manager opinion, thought to give an opinion to think to think immediately immediate cafeteria, canteen menu since to be busy, have a job to engage in among, across in the midst of average (adj.) on the average message Mediterranean Mediterranean (adj.) central, middle medieval square meters hardly, scarcely I can hardly wait. in, on me, to me Excuse me! more afterward more (comparing quantities) not . . . anymore liver silk morning, breakfast manner, way so that, in order to since

352 Vocabulary List

e mrkur/ , -a, -a t mrkurn msim, -i, -e msimor, -e program msimor ms/oj, -ova, -uar msues, -i, e mi e mia miell, -i, -ra mijra miks, -e miliard, -i, - miliarder, -i, - milion, -i, - milioner, -i, - minist/ r, -ri, -ra Ministri, -a, miqsor, -e mir Mir se t vini! i/e mir Mirdita! Mirmngjes! Mirmbrma! Mirupafshim! Mirupashim nesr mision, -i, -e mister, -i, -e mish, -i, -ra mishra dhmbsh mit, -i, -e mjaft i mjaftuesh/ m, e -me mjaft/oj, -ova, -uar mjalt/ , -i mjedis, -i, -e mjegull, -a, -a mjek, -u, - mjeksor, -e mjekim, -i, -e mjek/oj, -ova, -uar mobilj/e, -a, -e i,e mobiluar i mo/ m, e -me modern, -e mod/ , -a moll/ , -a, -

Wednesday on Wednesday lesson instructive, teaching curriculum, syllabus to study, learn teacher my my our thousands mixed thousand million multimillionaire million millionaire minister ministry friendly, amicable well You are welcome (any time)! good Good afternoon! Good morning! Good evening! Good- bye! See you tomorrow! mission mystery meat gums myth fairly, rather sufcient, enough to be sufcient honey premises, environment fog doctor medical medication, treatment to cure, treat furniture furnished ancient, old modern fashion apple

moment, -i, -e monedh/ , -a, -a monedh e huaj monument, -i, -e mos mosh/ , -a, - mot/ r, -ra, -ra mozaik, -u, - mrekulli, -a, i mrekulluesh/ m, e -me mua muaj, -i, muajin e ardhshm muajin q vjen mund mundsi, -a, kam mundsi munges/ , -a, -a murator, -i, - muros, -a, -ur mushkri, -a, muze, -u, muzikant, -i, - muzikor, -e mysliman, -e N Na ishte na mos ishte . . . nat/ , -a, net natn Natn e mir! natyr/ , -a Natyrisht q po! natyror, -e ndaj (+ abl.) nda/ j, -va, -r ndal/em, u -a, -ur ndal/oj, -ova, -uar i,e ndezur ndr (+ acc.) ndrkoh ndrkombtar, -e ndrsa ndrt/oj, -ova, -uar i,e ndrtuar ndrrim, -i, -e ndrr/oj, -ova, -uar

moment coin, currency foreign currency monument not, do not, perhaps age sister mosaic miracle marvelous to me month next month next month to be able possibility to have the possibility absence stonemason, bricklayer to wall in lung museum musician musical Moslem

Once upon a time there was . . . night at night Good night! nature Of course! natural toward to split, come between to stop to stop (someone, something) aglow among while, in the meantime international whereas to build built change, exchange to change

Vocabulary List

353

ndiej, ndjeva, ndier ndi/ hem, u -va, -er ndihm/ , -a, -a ndihm/oj, -ova, -uar ndjek, ndoqa, ndjekur ndodh, -a, -ur ndodh/em, u -a, -ur ndonse ndonj ndonj gj Ndonj gj tjetr? ndoshta ndri/oj, -ova, -uar i ndrysh/ m, e -me ndrysh/oj, -ova, -uar ne nesr nesh net neve nevoj/ , -a, -a kam nevoj pr i nevojsh/ m, e -me n (+ acc.) n far ore n or n lidhje me n mbrmje n mngjes n mnyr q n orn n prgjithsi n qoft se n rregull n Shtetet e Bashkuara nn (+ acc.) nn/ , -a, -a nnshkr/uaj, -ova, -uar i,e nnt nntok/ , -a nntor, -i nnujor, -e npr (+ acc.) nse nga (+ nom.)

to feel to feel help to help to attend, follow to happen to be located, be found although any anything Anything else? maybe, possibly to shine different to change we tomorrow (to) us (abl.) nights to us (dat.) necessity to need necessary in, at what time what time in connection with in the evening in the morning in order to, so that at (to express time) (lit., at the hour) in general in case that all right in the United States under mother to sign fth underground November underwater about, around, among, up and down if from, from where

nga ana tjetr nga 500 gram ngacm/oj, -ova, -uar ngadal nganjher ngaq ngr/e, -ita, -itur ngri/ hem, u -ta, -tur ngroht i,e ngroht ngja/ j, -va -r ngjall, -a, -ur ngjarj/e, -a, -e ngjit/em, u -a, -ur ngjyr/ , -a, -a nip, -i, -a nis, -a, -ur nis/em, u -a, -ur normalizim, -i, -e notar, -i, - not/ , -a, -a not/oj, -ova, -uar nuk nuk ka shum numr/oj, -ova, -uar nus/e, -ja, -e nusri, -a fustan nusrie i,e nxeht nx, nxuri, nxn nxns, -i, nxitim, -i, -e me nxitim nxit/oj, -ova, -uar nxjerr, nxora, nxjerr Nj nj nj erek nj her njher njngjyrsh, -e njerz, -it njerzim, -i njeri, -u, njerz njri- tjetri, njratjetra nj/ihem, u -oha, -ohur

on the other side 500 grams each to bother, cause pain slowly sometimes because to raise to get up, rise, stand warmly (adv.) warm (adj.) to resemble to create, inspire, arouse event, happening to ascend color nephew to start, begin to leave, set out normalization swimmer grade, mark, note to swim not not long ago to count bride belonging to the bride wedding gown hot to hold, contain pupil rush, haste in a rush to hurry to take out

one a quarter one time rst, once monochromatic people, mankind humanity man, person, people one another, each other to be known, become acquainted

354 Vocabulary List

njoftim, -i, -e njoft/oj, -ova, -uar njoh, -a, -ur i,e njohur O objekt, -i, -e oborr, -i, -e ofert/ , -a, -a ofr/oj, -ova, -uar oper/ , -a, -a oper/oj, -ova, -uar oral, -e orar, -i, -e l orar or/ , -a, - organ, -i, -e organet e brendshme organiz/oj, -ova, -uar organizohet origjin/ , -a, -a oriz, -i ortodoks, -e ose osman, -e P p.e.s. (para ers son) p.sh. = pr shembull pa (+ acc.) pa mas pacient, -i, - pacient/e, -ja, -e padurim, -i i,e paduruar i pafuqish/ m, e -me pages/ , -a, -a pag/uaj, -ova, -uar pajisj/e, -a, -e pak m pak pas pak i,e paknaqur paks/oj, -ova, -uar paket/ , -a, -a paket turistike pako, -ja, -

announcement, ad to announce, inform to know famous, well- known

t paktn pal/ , -a, -a pal/ , -a, - nj pal kpuc pallat, -i, -e Pallati i Kongreseve pallto, -ja, pambuk, -u pamj/e, -a, -e ka pamje nga me pamje nga i,e pamobiluar pamor, -e i,e pangopur pantallona, -t pantallona (blu)xhins papaga/ ll, -lli, -j para (+ abl.) para se (+ sentence) para, -ja, me para n dor paradite parandal/oj, -ova, -uar paraplq/ej, -eva, -yer i,e paraplqyer paraqes, -ita, -itur paraqit/em, u -a. -ur parashik/oj, -ova, -uar i,e par m par Paris, -i par/ k, -ku, -qe parlament, -i, -e parukeri, -a, pas (+ abl.) m pas pas Krishtit pas pak pasdite pasi pasion, -i, -e pasnesr pastaj

objects yard offer to offer opera to operate oral time, schedule to make an appointment clock organ internal organs to organize it is organized origin, source rice Orthodox or Ottoman

at least pleat, crease pair pair of shoes building (block of apartments), palace Convention Center overcoat cotton view to have a view (to) with a view to, facing without furniture visual unsatiated, hungry pants jeans parrot before before money with cash in the morning, before noon to prevent to prefer preferred to introduce, present to present oneself to foresee, predict rst before, rst Paris park parliament hairdressers after, back afterward A.D. (lit., after Christ) soon in the afternoon after, when; since, because passion, with emotion day after tomorrow afterward

B.C. (lit., before our era) for example, for instance without immensely patient (masc) patient (fem) impatience impatient weak, feeble payment to pay equipment, device a little less soon unsatised to reduce, diminish package tourist package packet, pack, parcel

Vocabulary List

355

i,e pastr pastr/oj, -ova, -uar pastrues, -i, i,e pasur pasuri, -a, pasur/oj, -ova, -uar Pashkt patat/e, -ja, -e patate t skuqura patatin/ , -a, -a patllxhan, -i, - patjetr pavarsi, -a Dita e Pavarsis pazar, -i, -e pedagog, -u, - peizazh, -i, -e pem/ , -a, - pen/g, -gu, -gje perndim, -i perndimor, -e perime perime t skars perime t ziera periudh/ , -a, -a person, -i, -a personalitet, -i, -e i,e pest pesh/ k, -u, peshq peshkatar, -i, - pesh/oj, -ova, -uar plq/ej, -eva, -yer pr (+ acc.) pr fat t keq pr fat t mir pr qind prafrsisht prball (+ abl.) i,e prbashket prbrj/e, -a, -e i,e prcaktuar prdit i prditshm, e -me prdor, -a, -ur prdorim, -i, -e prfaqs/ohem, u -ova, -uar prfaqs/oj, -ova, -uar

clean to clean cleaning person rich wealth to enrich Easter potato French fries (fried potatoes) potato chips eggplant, aubergine surely, certainly independence Independence Day bazaar, marketplace teacher, professor (at the university level) landscape tree pledge, hostage, pawn west western vegetables grilled vegetables stewed vegetables period, time person personality fth sh sherman to weigh to like for, about unfortunately luckily percent approximately in front, opposite joint structure, composition dened, determinate daily daily to use use, usage to be represented to represent

prfaqsues, -i, prfshi/ j, -va, -r i,e prfshir prfundim, -i, -e prfundimtar, -e prgati/s, -ta, -tur prgatitj/e, -a, -e prgatitor, -e prgzim, -i, -e Prgzime! prgjat (+ abl.) prgjegjsi, -a, prgjigj/em, u -a, -ur prgjithsi, -a n prgjithsi prjashta prk/as, -ita, -itur prsa i/u prket prkatsisht prk/oj, -ova, -uar prkth/ej, -eva, -yer prkthim, -i, -e prkthyes, -i, prkujtimor, -e prkushtim, -i, -e i,e prkushtuar prmbledhj/e, -a, -e i,e prmbledhur prmend, -a, -ur prmend/em, u -a, -ur i,e prmendur prmes (+ abl.) prmetar, -e pr nga prpara (+ abl.) i prpar/m, e -me pr/piqem, u -poqa, -pjekur prqendr/ohem, u -ova, -uar prqendr/oj, -ova, -uar prqindj/e, -a, -e prsa i/u prket prse Ska prse!

representative to include included completion nal, conclusive to prepare preparation preparatory compliment Congratulations! along responsibility to answer generalization in general outside, outdoors to belong regarding respectively to coincide to translate translation translator commemorative devotion devoted summary collected to mention to be mentioned mentioned through related to Prmet and its inhabitants (adj.) with in front of frontal, in the front to try to be concentrated to concentrate percentage regarding why, what for You are welcome! Not at all!

356 Vocabulary List

prsri prshnde/s, -ta, -tur prshndetje, -a, -e prshkrim, -i, -e prshkr/uaj, -ova, -uar prshkruhet i prshtatsh/ m, e -me prshtypj/e, -a, -e bj prshtypje prurim, -i, -e prur/oj, -ova, -uar prve (+ abl.) prvoj/ , -a, -a prrall/ , -a, -a pesh/ , -a, -a pesh/oj, -ova, -uar pi, -va, -r pi duhan pianist/e, -ja, -e pic/ , -a, -a pij/e, -a, -e pikant, -e pik/ , -a, -a pikrisht piktor, -i, - piktur/ , -a, -a ping- pong piper, -i pirun, -i, - pist/ , -a, -a pishin/ , -a, -a pishtar, -i, - pjat/ , -a, -a pjekuri, -a pjep/ r, -ri, -ra pjes/ , -a, - pjesmarrs, -i, pjesmarrs, -e (adj.) pjesmarrje, -a plak, plaku, pleq plan, -i, -e plas, -a, -ur plazh, -i, -e plot plot me i,e plot plots/oj, -ova, -uar

again to greet greetings description to describe to be described suitable impression to make an impression inauguration to inaugurate besides, except for experience fairy tale, folktale weight to weigh to drink to smoke pianist pizza drink, beverage spicy point exactly painter painting Ping-Pong, table tennis pepper fork lane, oor swimming pool torchlight plate, dish maturity honeydew melon part participant participating participation old man plan to explode beach full full of, with whole, complete to complete

po poet, -i, - polifoni, -a, politik, -e politik/ , -a, -a popullor, -e por porcelan, -i porosi, -a, porosit, -a, -ur porsa port/ , -a, -a portoka/ ll, -lli, -j post/ , -a, -a post elektronike posht poture, -t pozicion, -i, -e pozit/ , -a, -a pra pra/g, -gu, -gje prandaj pran (+ abl.) i pranish/ m, e -me pran/oj, -ova, -uar pranver/ , -a, -a prapa (+ abl.) prap prefer/oj, -ova, -uar i,e preferuar prej (+ abl.) prek/em, u -a, -ur e premt/e, -ja, -e t premten premtim, -i, -e prenotim, -i, -e pres, prita, pritur pre/s, -va, -r pres okt pretendent, -i, - pretendent/e, -ja, -e prezantim prezant/ohem, u -ova, -uar prijs, -i, prill, -i prishj/e, -a, -e prit/em, u -a, -ur i,e preferuar principat/ , -a, -a

and, yes, if poet polyphony political policy popular but porcelain order to order since gate orange mail, post ofce, post electronic mail below, underneath pants (traditional) position position so, then (door)step, threshold therefore near, close present to accept spring behind, back again to prefer favorite from, because of to be affected Friday on Friday promise reservation to wait to cut to get a haircut contender contender (fem.) presentation to introduce oneself leader, commander April decay to be expected preferred principality, princedom

Vocabulary List

357

prind, -i, -r prirj/e, -a, -e prishtinas, -i, Prishtin/ , -a privat, -e problem, -i, -e prodhim, -i, -e program, -i, -e propoz/oj, -ova, -uar proshut/ , -a, -a prov/ , -a, -a dhoma e provs provim, -i, -e prov/oj, -ova, -uar proz/ , -a, -a pse edhe pse p.sh., pr shembull publik, -u publik, -e publikim, -i, -e pul/ , -a, -a gjysm pule pun/ , -a, - punt e shtpis punim, -i, -e pun/oj, -ova, -uar punoj si pup/ l, -la, -la pushim, -i, -e me pushime push/oj, -ova, -uar pushtet, -i -e pushtim, -i, -e pusht/ohem, u -ova, -uar pye/s, -ta, -tur pyet/ je, -a, -e py/ ll, -lli, -je Q qa/ j, -va, -r qarkullim, -i, -e i,e qart qelesh/e, -ja, -e qelq, -i qen, -i, qend/ r, -ra, -ra qendror, -e qengj, -i

parent tendency inhabitant of Prishtina Prishtina private problem production program to propose ham test, experiment, tting tting room test, exam to try prose why even though for example, for instance general public, audience public (adj.) publication chicken half a chicken work house chores work, construction to work to work as feather vacation, break on vacation to rest power invasion to be invaded, embrace to ask question forest

mish qengji qep/ , -a, - qershi, -a, qershor, -i qes/e, -ja, -e i,e qet qeveri, -a, q q (t) q nga qndrim, -i, -e qndr/oj, -ova, -uar qie/ ll, -lli, -j qilim, -i, -a qindra qira, -ja, jap me qira marr me qira qoft/e, -ja, -e qoft n qoft se qu/ hem, u -ajta, -ajtur quhet qumsht, -i qytet, -i, -e R radio, -ja, radh/ , -a, - me radh raki, -a raport/oj, -ova, -uar rast, -i, -e n rast se re, -ja, e re, e/t reja recepsionist/e, -ja, -e reciprokisht recital, -i, -e reel, -i, -e redukt/oj, -ova, -uar i rehatsh/ m, e -me relativisht repart, -i, -e restorant, -i, -e reumatiz/ m, -mi, -ma revist/ , -a, -a

lamb onion cherry June bag quiet government that, who, which so as to (starting) from stay to stay, stand sky carpet hundreds rent, lease to rent out to rent meatball whether in case that to be called he/she is called milk city

to cry circulation clear traditional skullcap glass dog center central lamb

radio row in a row, consecutively brandy to report case, event, occasion in case that cloud young, new (fem.), young woman receptionist (fem.) reciprocally recital jam to reduce comfortable, cosy relatively, somewhat department, unit restaurant rheumatism magazine

358 Vocabulary List

rezervim, -i, -e rezerv/oj, -ova, -uar rezultat, -i, -e i,e rnd rndsi, -a, jam me rndsi i rndsish/ m, e -me i ri, e re i ri, e/t rinj rini, -a rigon, -i Rilindj/e, -a rimkmbj/e, -a -e ringjallj/e, -a, -e rini, -a, rivier/ , -a, -a rol, -i, -e romak, -e roman, -i, -e Rom/ , -a ruaj, -ta, -tur ru/ hem, u -ajta, -ajtur Rr rrall rrallher i,e rregullt rreth (+ abl.) rrethin/ , -a, -a rri, ndenja, ndenjur M rri. M rri i/e vogl. rrit/em, u -a, -ur i/t rritur rrob/ , -a, -a rroba banje rruaj, rrova, rruar rrug/ , -a, - n rrugn . . . rr/uhem, u -ova, -uar rrush, -i S Ska problem! sa sa her

reservation to reserve result heavy importance to be important important young young, new (masc.), young man youth oregano Renaissance rebuilding, reestablishment revival youth Riviera role Roman novel Rome to save, protect; to maintain to watch out

Sa keq! sa m shum Sa mir q . . . sa or sa vje(e) sa i/e vjetr i,e saj sakt i,e sakt saktsi, -a, me saktsi salc/ , -a, -a salc kosi salsi/e, -ja, -e salsie vendi sallam, -i, -e sallat/ , -a, -a sallat frutash sallat jeshile sall/ , -a, -a sandal/e, -ja, -e sandui, -i, - sapo i,e sapoprfunduar Sarand/ , -a se secil/ i, -a sekretar, -i, - sekt, -i, -e semest/ r, -ri, -ra seminar, -i, -e sepj/e, -a, -e sepse seri, -a, serm, -i sesa sezon, -i, -e s bashku (me) smundj/e, -a, -e i,e smur srish s shpejti sd/ , -a, -a slat/ , -a sl/oj, -ova, -uar si Si jeni me shndet? Si kaluat?

rarely, seldom rarely regular around suburbs, environs to stay, remain, live, t It suits me, it ts me. Its too small for me. to grow up adult, grown-up clothes bathing suit to shave (someone) street on . . . Street to shave oneself grapes

It doesnt matter! how many how often, how many times

What a pity! as much as possible Its good that . . . , its a good thing that . . . how long how old how old (for objects) her exactly exact exactitude exactly sauce sour cream sausage local sausages sausage salad fruit salad green salad lobby, auditorium, room sandals sandwich immediately after, just as completed recently Saranda that, than, because each one, every single one secretary sect semester seminar cuttlesh because series silver than season together (with) disease, sickness sick again soon challenge walking onstage walk onstage how How are you? Did you have a good time? How did it go?

Vocabulary List

359

Si quheni ju? si si dhe sidomos siguri, -a, me siguri Sigurisht! i,e sigurt sikur po sikur simbolik, -e simboliz/oj, -ova, -uar simptom/ , -a, -a sipas (+ abl.) sipas dshirs sipr (+ abl.) siprfaq/e, -ja, -e sirtar, -i, - sistem, -i, -e situat/ , -a, -a sivjet sjell, solla, sjell i sjellsh/ m, e -me skar/ , -a, -a skedar, -i, - sken/ , -a, -a skuad/ r, -ra, -ra i,e skuqur social, -e solemn, -e sonte sot i sot/ m, e -me spec, -i, -a speca turshi specik/ , -a, -a spektak/ l, -li, -le spektator, -i, - spinaq, -i spital, -i, -e strvit/ je, -a, -e stilograf, -i, - stin/ , -a, - stomak, -u, - strateg, -u, - strategjik, -e stres, -i studim, -i, -e

What is your name? as, like, how as well as especially certainty certainly Of course! certain, sure as if what if symbolic, very cheap to symbolize symptom according to, in conformity with at will above, on surface drawer system situation, condition this year to bring courteous, well- behaved grill folder scene, stage team fried social gala, solemn tonight today todays, of today (adj.) pepper pickled peppers specic feature show spectator spinach hospital practice, training, workout (fountain) pen season (of the year) stomach strategist strategic stress study

studio, -ja, studi/oj, -ova, -uar studiues, -i, sugjerim, -i, -e sugjer/oj, -ova, -uar sukses, -i, -e Suksese! i suksessh/ m, e -me sulltan, -i, - Sulltan Novruzi sundimtar, -i, - sup/ , -a, -a sup me perime sup peshku suvenir, -i, -e suxhuk, -u, - sy, -ri, bie n sy Sh shah, -u shalqi, -ri, -nj shef, -i, -a shek., sheku/ ll, -lli, -j shemb/em, u -a, -ur shembu/ ll, -lli, -j pr shembull sheqer, -i shes, shita, shitur shesh, -i, -e shndet, -i i shndetsh/ m, e -me shn/oj, -ova, -uar shrbim, -i, -e shrim, -i, -e shti/s, -ta, -tur shtitj/e,- a, -e shfaq, -a, -ur shfaq/em, u -a, -ur shfaqj/e, -a, -e shi, -u, -ra Bie shi. shif/ r, -ra, -ra shigjet/ , -a, -a shihem, u pash, par Shihemi m von!

studio to study researcher suggestion to suggest success, achievement Good luck! successful sultan Sultan Novrus ruler soup vegetable soup sh soup souvenir hot dog, sausage eye to catch the eye, stand out

chess watermelon boss, chief century to fall, collapse example for instance, for example sugar to sell square health healthy to mark, indicate service cure to walk walk, stroll, promenade to show, put on to show, display, appear show, performance rain It rains. gure, cipher arrow to see each other See you later!

360 Vocabulary List

i shijsh/ m, e -me shikim, -i, -e shik/oj, -ova, -uar shish/e, -ja, -e shishqebap, -i, -e shits, -i, shitj/e, -a, -e shkakt/oj, -ova, -uar shkark/oj, -ova, -uar shkel, -a, -ur shkenctar, -i, - shkencor, -e shkmb, -i, -inj shkodran, -e shk/oj, -ova, -uar shkoj n pun shkoj pr ski T shkon shum. shkoll/ , -a, -a i,e shkret shkrimtar, -i, - shkr/uaj, -ova, -uar T shkuara! shkurt, -i i,e shkurtr shmangi/e, -a, -e shofer, -i, - shoh, pash, par shok, -u, - shoq/e, -ja, -e shoqr/ohem, u -ova, -uar shoqr/oj, -ova, -uar shoqror, -e shoqrues, -i, shpal/os, -a, -ur shpall, -a, -ur shpall/em, u -a, -ur shpat/ , -a, -a shpejt i,e shpejt shpell/ , -a, -a shpesh shpie, shpura, shpn shpjeg/oj, -ova, -uar shpreh, -a, -ur shpreh/em, u -a, -ur shpres/ , -a, -a shpres/oj, -ova, -uar

delicious, tasty sight, vision to see, watch bottle shish kebab seller sale to cause to download to step in, trespass scientist scientic cliff, rock someone from Shkodr to go to go to work to go skiing It suits you very well. school poor, miserable writer to write Get well soon! February short avoidance driver to see friend female friend to be accompanied to accompany social tour guide to display to declare, proclaim to be declared sword fast (adv.) fast (adj.) cavern, cave often to send, take to explain to express to express, declare oneself hope to hope

shpresohet shqetsim, -i, -e shqets/oj, -ova, -uar shqets/ohem, u -ova, -uar i,e shqetsuar shqip, -e Shqipri, -a shqiptar, -i, - i,e shtat shtator, -i shtet, -i, -e Shtetet e Bashkuara shtpi, -a, shtiz/ , -a, -a sht/oj, -ova, -uar shtrat, -i, shtretr i,e shtrenjt shtri/ hem, u -va, -r shtri/ j, -va, -r shtrirj/e, -a shtr/oj, -ova, -uar shtroj tavolinn e shtun/ , -a, -a t shtunn shtyp, -i shum nuk ka shum shum mir shum pak i shumllojsh/ m, e -me shumllojshmri, -a shumngjyrsh, -e shums shumic/ , -a, -a i,e shumt shurup, -i, -e T tabel/ , -a, -a takim, -i, -e tak/ohem, u -ova, -uar tak/oj, -ova, -uar taksi, -a, i,e talentuar tan

it is hoped discomfort, trouble to disturb, bother to worry, be disturbed worried Albanian (language) Albania Albanian (nationality) seventh September country, state United States house lance, spear to increase bed expensive to lie down to expand extension to lay, spread, set to set the table Saturday on Saturday press many, very not long ago very well very little various, diverse variety, diversity colorful plural majority, multitude multiple, various syrup

(black)board meeting to meet with to meet (someone) taxi talented our

Vocabulary List

361

tani tarrac/ , -a, -a tashm taulant, -i, - tav/ , -a, -a tav dheu tavolin/ , -a, -a te/tek (+ nom.) te Sokoli teat/ r, -ri, -ro Teatri Kombtar teatral, -e teje tek, -e teknik, -e teknologji, -a, tekst, -i, -e telefon, -i, -a telefonat/ , -a, -a telefon/oj, -ova, -uar telenovel/ , -a, -a televizor, -i, - tem/ , -a, -a temperatur/ , -a, -a tempu/ ll, -lli, -j tendenc/ , -a, -a tension, -i tepr terma, -t i,e tet tetor, -i t t dy, t dyja t fala tnd tnde tr/ heq, -hoqa, -hequr trheqs, -e ti tifoz, -i, - i,e tij tim time Tiran/ , -a tirqe titu/ ll, -lli, -j t tjer/ , -a tjetr, -, t tjer, t tjera

now terrace already Taulanti (an Illyrian tribe) pan Albanian traditional dish table to, at to, at Sokolis house theater, play National Theater theatrical you (abl.) single (room) technical technology text telephone telephone call to phone soap opera television, TV theme, topic temperature temple tendency, trend blood pressure too much, excessively therm, thermal waters eighth October you, to you both of them greetings, regards your your to attract attractive you (sing.) fan, supporter his my (acc.) my (acc.) Tirana traditional pants title other other, else, something else

tok/ , -a tona ton top, -i, -a tort/ , -a, -a tradicional, -e tradit/ , -a, -a tragjedi, -a trangu/ ll, -lli, -j transfert/ , -a, -a trashgimi, -a, tre/g, -gu, -gje tregim, -i, -e treg/ohem, u -ova, -uar treg/oj, -ova, -uar tregoj interes t tregon . . . tregtar, -e qendr tregtare tregti, -a, tren, -i, -a i,e tret trev/ , -a, -a triko, -ja, i,e trishtuar trojan, -i, - trok/as, -ita, -itur trup, -i, -a trup/ , -a, -a tryez/ , -a, -a e tu e tua tuaj tuaja tuf/ , -a, -a tund, -a, -ur turist, -i, - turistik, -e turshi, -a, speca turshi ty tym, -i, -ra i,e tyre Th tha/ j, -va, -r tha/ hem, u -va, -r theks/oj, -ova, -uar i,e thell

ground, earth our our ball cake traditional tradition tragedy cucumber transfer, transaction patrimony, heritage market story to show oneself to show, indicate; narrate to show interest it looks . . . on you commercial commercial center trade train third region sweater sad, gloomy Trojan to knock body troupe, company table your your your your bouquet to rock tourist touristic pickle pickled peppers to you smoke their

to dry to dry oneself to stress deep

362 Vocabulary List

them, thash, thn thrr/as, -ta, -itur thik/ , -a, -a i,e thjesht thuhet thyej, theva, thyer U Uashington, -i udhtar, -i, - udhtim, -i, -e udhtim turistik udht/oj, -ova, -uar udhzues, -i, uj/ , -i, -ra i,e ult ul/em, u -a, -ur ulj/e, -a, -je ulje mimi ulli, -ri, -nj unaz/ , -a, -a un universitar, -e universitet, -i, -e urat/ , -a, -a Urdhro! uri, -a M vjen uria. ur/oj, -ova, -uar ushq/ehem, -eva, -yer ushqim, -i, -e ushtarak, -u, - ushtri, -a, ushtrim, -i, -e ushtroj, -ova, -uar uzin/ , -a, -a V vaj, -i vaj ulliri vajtje- ardhje vajz/ , -a, -a vaksin/ -a, -a vakt, -i, -e valixh/e, -ja, -e vall/e, -ja, -e valltar, -i, - vallzim, -i, -e vallz/oj, -ova, -uar

to say, tell to call knife simple it is said to cash; to break

Washington passenger, traveler trip touristic trip to travel manual water, the water low to sit down, pull down discount, decrease on sale olive ring I university (adj.) university blessing yes hunger I get hungry. to wish, congratulate to feed, be nourished food military, ofcer army exercise to exercise plant

vanilj/e, -a vap/ , -a sht vap. Kam vap. var, -a, -ur variant, -i, -e vari/oj, -ova, -uar vark/ , -a, -a varr, -i, -e vazo, -ja, vazhdimisht vazhd/oj, -ova, -uar vdekj/e, -a, -e vdes, vdiqa, vdekur i,e veant veanti, -a n veanti veg/ l, -la, -la vegjetal, -e vend, -i, -e vendas, -e vendbanim, -i, -e vendim, -i, -e marr vendim vendor vendos, -a, -ur vep/ r, -ra, -ra vepr e plot veprimtari, -a, verand/ , -a, -a i,e verdh ver/ , -a, -a ve/ r, -ra, -rra veri, -u verilindor, -e verior, -e veror, -e vesh, -a, -ur veshj/e, -a, -e veshje sportive veshjet e brendshme vet/e, -ja, -e vete, vajta, vajtur vet/ , -a, -a vet vet nxnsit vetm vetj/e, -a

oil olive oil round trip girl, daughter vaccine meal, mealtime suitcase dance dancer dancing to dance

vanilla heat It is hot (weather). I am hot. to hang variant, variation to vary boat grave, tomb vase continuously to continue, go on death to die special peculiarity especially, in particular tool, instrument vegetable (adj.) place, area, country, region local settlement decision to make a decision local to decide; to place, set work complete work(s) activity, action terrace, veranda yellow summer wine north northeastern northern summer (adj.) to put on, wear; to dress someone clothing sports clothes underwear self, oneself to go person (one)self the students themselves only myself

Vocabulary List

363

vez/ , -a, - v, vura, vn vlla, -i, vllezr vllim, -i, -e vmendj/e, -a, -a i vmendsh/ m, e -me vrtet i,e vrtet i,e vshtir vshtirsi, -a, me vshtirsi vi, -i, -a mish vii vij, erdha, ardhur M vjen mire q . . . m vjen keq T vjen keq t . . . ? vij/ , -a, -a vil/ , -a, -a violin/ , -a, -a viroz/ , -a, -a vishem, u vesha, veshur vit, -i, -e Viti i Ri vitin e ardhshm vitin i kaluar vitin q vjen vitamin/ , -a, -a vitrin/ , -a, -a vizatim, -i, -e viz/ , -a, -a vizit/ , -a, -a vizit/ohem, u -ova, -uar vizit/oj, -ova, -uar vizitor, -i, - vje, vjee vjeh/ rr, -rra, -rra vjesht/ , -a, -a i,e vjetr vjetor, -e vler/ , -a, -a vlers/ohem, u -ova, -uar i,e vogl,

egg to put brother volume attention careful, attentive indeed, really, truly true difcult difculty not uently, with difculty calf veal to come I am glad that . . . Im sorry Is it inconvenient for you to . . . ? line, stripe villa violin virus to get dressed year New Year next year last year next year vitamin shop window drawing visa visit to see the doctor to visit visitor years old (masc., fem.) mother- in-law fall, autumn old annual value to be appreciated, be appraised young, small (sing.)

e/t vegjl, e/t vogla volejboll, -i von von/oj, -ova, -uar vrapim, -i, -e vrap/oj, -ova, -uar vrapues, -i, vra/s, -va, -r vritem, u vrava, vrar Xh xhamadan, -i, - xhami, -a, xhep, -i, -a xhinse, -t Y yll, -i, yje yndyr/ , -a yn yt Z zakonisht i zakonsh/ m, e -me zarzavat/e, -ja, -e zbres, zbrita, zbritur zbritj/e, -a, -e zbukurim, -i, -e i, e zbukuruar zbulim, -i, -e zbul/oj, -ova, -uar i,e zbuluar zem/ r, -ra, -ra z, -ri, -ra z, zura, zn i,e zn zgjat (zgjas), -a, -ur zgjedh, zgjodha, zgjedhur zgjedhj/e, -a, -e i,e zgjedhur zgjidh/ je, -a, -je zgj/ohem, u -ova, -uar zgjoj, -ova, -uar i,e zgjuar

young, small (pl.) volleyball late to delay, be late, take long running to run runner to kill, shoot dead, murder to be killed

doublet (vest for men) mosque pocket jeans, denim

star fat, grease our your

usually normal, usual vegetables, greens to go down discount decoration decorated, garnished discovery to discover discovered heart sound, voice to take, hold, catch busy to last, lengthen, prolong to choose, pick choice, pick selected solution to wake up to wake (someone) up intelligent, smart

364 Vocabulary List

i zi, e zinj e zez, e zeza i,e zier zon, -a, -a zonja zoti i zoti, e zonja zyr/ , -a, -a zyra e kmbimit valuator zyrtar, -e zyrtarisht

black (masc.) black (fem.) boiled zone, area, region Mrs. Mr. skillful ofce money exchange ofce ofcial ofcially, formally

zyrtariz/oj, -ova, -uar Zh zhgnj/ehem, u -eva, -yer zhgnj/ej, -eva, -yer i zhurmsh/ m, e -me zhvill/oj, -ova, -uar zhvillohet

to make ofcial

to be disappointed to disappoint noisy to develop it takes place, it is developed

Vocabulary List

365

GRAMMATICAL INDEX

The numbers following each entry indicate the section(s) where the topic is treated. ablative case, 89 92, 95 99 accusative feminine plural denite, 41, 54 feminine plural indenite, 40, 54 feminine singular denite, 53 feminine singular indenite, 53 masculine plural denite, 38, 54 masculine plural indenite, 37, 54 masculine singular denite, 53 masculine singular indenite, 53 prepositions with accusative, 55 adjectival article. See article adjectives class 1, 7, 39 class 2, 31 33, 42 45, 58, 59 comparative constructions, 48 demonstrative forms, 21, 56, 69, 77, app. 2 nationalities, 7, 20, 39 possessive forms, 87, 88, 103, app. 3 superlative constructions, 47 ai, demonstrative, app. 2 ablative forms, 98 accusative forms, 56 dative forms, 77 genitive forms, 69 nominative forms, 21 article accusative denite nouns, 58 accusative indenite nouns, 44, 59 days of the week, 22 denite, 8, 9, 18, 27, 28, 38, 41, 54, 62, 63, 66, 69, 75, 77, 95, 98 genitive forms, 66 linking or adjectival adjective, app. 7 nominative denite nouns, 31, 42 nominative indenite nouns, 33, 44 case. See also individual cases ablative forms, 89 92, 95 99 accusative forms, 37 38, 40 41, 53 59 dative forms, 73 78 genitive forms, 62 69 nominative forms, 1, 8, 17, 27, 28 vocative forms, 9 cili, app. 4 ablative forms, 97 accusative forms, 57 dative forms, 78 genitive forms, 68 nominative forms, 57 clitic (pronouns) accusative forms, 83 85 dative forms, 73 comparative adjectives, 48 countries, 7 far, 92 dative case basic uses, 74 dative pronouns/clitics, 73 dative on nouns, 75 days of the week, 22 demonstratives, app. 2 ablative case, 98 accusative case, 56 dative case, 77 genitive case, 69 nominative case, 21 future perfect. See tense future tense. See tense genitive basic uses, 64 denite nouns, 62, 63, 66 indenite nouns, 67 whose?, 65 imperative, 93 94 imperfect, app. 8 imperfect indicative, 100, 101 imperfect subjunctive, 102 interrogative pronouns, 57 sentences, 5

367

irregular verbs, app. 9, 10 ka, 29 k, 57 (i/e/t) kujt, 65 kush, app. 4 ablative forms, 97 accusative forms, 57 dative forms, 78 genitive forms, 68 nominative forms, 1, 57 ky, demonstrative, app. 2 ablative forms, 98 accusative forms, 56 dative forms, 77 genitive forms, 69 nominative forms, 21 linking article. See article me, 55 mbi, 30, 55 months of the year, 35 mos, 49, 72 mood imperative. See imperative indicative. See tense subjunctive. See subjunctive nationalities, 7, 20, 39 negative sentences, 5 n, 14, 55 nn, 30, 55 nga, 8 nominative feminine plural indenite, 40 feminine plural denite, 41 feminine singular denite, 8, 27 feminine singular indenite, 8 masculine plural denite, 38 masculine plural indenite, 37 masculine singular denite, 8, 28 masculine singular indenite, 8 nouns case. See case countries, 7, 8 days of the week, 22 feminine nouns, app. 6 languages, 7 masculine nouns, app. 5 months of the year, 35 professions, 20 seasons of the year, 35

numbers cardinal 0 12, 3 13 99, 10 100 1 000, 19 1 000 10 000, 26 ordinal, 60 pa, 55 particles future, 52 po, 13 subjunctive, 49 passive constructions, 71 past tense. See tense personal pronouns. See pronouns pr, 55 pluperfect. See tense plural adjectives, 20, 42 45 nouns, 20, 38, 54, 63, 67. See also case professions and nationalities, 20 po, 13 possessive adjectives, app. 3 ablative forms, 103 accusative forms, 88 dative forms, 103 genitive forms, 103 nominative forms, 87 prepositions afr, 96 gjat, 96 jasht, 96 krahas, 96 kundr, 96 larg, 96 mbi, 30, 55 me, 55 n, 14, 55 nn, 30, 55 nga, 8 pa, 55 para, 96 pas, 96 pr, 55 prball, 96 prgjat, 96 prpara, 96 prve, 96 pran, 96

368 Grammatical Index

prapa, 96 prej, 96 rreth, 96 sipas, 96 tek, 18 present perfect. See tense present tense indicative. See tense present tense subjunctive. See tense professions, 20 pronouns, app. 1 ablative forms, 99 accusative forms, 83 85 dative forms, 73 demonstrative forms, 21 nominative forms, 1 subject forms, 1 sa vje(e), 15 seasons, 35 s, 89 subjunctive imperfect, 102 pluperfect, 105 present, 49 51 present perfect, 107 superlative adjectives, 47 tek, 18 tense future perfect, 107 future, 52 imperfect indicative, 100, 101 imperfect subjunctive, 102

past, 79 82, 86 pluperfect, 108 present perfect indicative, 104 6 present perfect subjunctive, 107 present subjunctive, 49 51, 72 present indicative, 2, 6, 12, 16, 17, 23, 24, 36, 70, 72 t contractions with clitics, 85 future marker, 52 linking article, 22, 31 33, 42 45, 47, 48, 58 60, 65, 66 subjunctive marker, 51 there is/there are, 29 time (at) what time?, 25 telling time, 4, 11 verbs, apps. 8 10 class 1, 6, 12, 49, 52, 79, 93, 100, 104, 107, 108 class 2, 46, 49, 52, 81, 93, 100, 104, 107, 108 class 3, 49, 52, 61, 80, 93, 100, 104, 107, 108 class 4, 49, 52, 6, 93, 100, 104, 107, 108 class 5, 49, 52, 82, 93, 100, 104, 107, 108 class 6, 49, 52, 70, 72, 86, 93, 101, 105, 107, 108 irregular verbs, apps. 8 10 most common verbs, app. 9 passive constructions, 71 vocative case, 9 weather, 34 what time?, 25 whose?, 65

Grammatical Index

369