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Tekla Structures

Detailing Manual

Product version 16.1 June 2010


2010 Tekla Corporation

2010 Tekla Corporation and its licensors. All rights reserved. This Software Manual has been developed for use with the referenced Software. Use of the Software, and use of this Software Manual are governed by a License Agreement. Among other provisions, the License Agreement sets certain warranties for the Software and this Manual, disclaims other warranties, limits recoverable damages, defines permitted uses of the Software, and determines whether you are an authorized user of the Software. All information set forth in this manual is provided with the warranty set forth in the License Agreement. Please refer to the License Agreement for important obligations and applicable limitations and restrictions on your rights. Tekla does not guarantee that the text is free of technical inaccuracies or typographical errors. Tekla reserves the right to make changes and additions to this manual due to changes in the software or otherwise. In addition, this Software Manual is protected by copyright law and by international treaties. Unauthorized reproduction, display, modification, or distribution of this Manual, or any portion of it, may result in severe civil and criminal penalties, and will be prosecuted to the full extent permitted by law. Tekla, Tekla Structures, Xcity, Xengineer, Xpipe, Xroad, Xpower, Xsteel, and Xstreet are either registered trademarks or trademarks of Tekla Corporation in the European Union, the United States, and/or other countries. Other product and company names mentioned in this Manual are or may be trademarks of their respective owners. By referring to a third-party product or brand, Tekla does not intend to suggest an affiliation with or endorsement by such third party and disclaims any such affiliation or endorsement, except where otherwise expressly stated. Portions of this software: D-Cubed 2D DCM 2008 Siemens Product Lifecycle Management Software III (GB) Ltd. All rights reserved. EPM toolkit 1995-2004 EPM Technology a.s., Oslo, Norway. All rights reserved. XML parser 1999 The Apache Software Foundation. All rights reserved. Project Data Control Library 2006 - 2007 DlhSoft. All rights reserved. DWGdirect, DGNdirect and OpenDWG Toolkit/Viewkit libraries 1998-2005 Open Design Alliance. All rights reserved. FlexNet Copyright 2010 Flexera Software, Inc. and/or InstallShield Co. Inc. All Rights Reserved. This product contains proprietary and confidential technology, information and creative works owned by Flexera Software, Inc. and/or InstallShield Co. Inc. and their respective licensors, if any. Any use, copying, publication, distribution, display, modification, or transmission of such technology in whole or in part in any form or by any means without the prior express written permission of Flexera Software, Inc. and/or InstallShield Co. Inc. is strictly prohibited. Except where expressly provided by Flexera Software, Inc. and/or InstallShield Co. Inc. in writing, possession of this technology shall not be construed to confer any license or rights under any Flexera Software, Inc. and/or InstallShield Co. Inc. intellectual property rights, whether by estoppel, implication, or otherwise. The software is protected by U.S. Patent Nos. 7,302,368 and 7,617,076. Also elements of the software described in this Manual may be the subject of pending patent applications in the European Union and/or other countries including U.S. patent applications 2004267695, 2005285881, 20060004841, 20060136398, 20080189084, and 20090189887.

Conventions used in this guide


Typographical conventions

The following typographical conventions are used in this guide:

Font
Bold

Usage Any text that you see in the user interface appears in bold. This font is used, for example, for window and dialog box titles, box and button names, and list items. New terms are in italic bold when they appear in the current context for the first time. Extracts of program code, HTML, or other material that you would normally edit in a text editor, appear in monospaced font. This font is also used for file names and folder paths, and for any text that you should type yourself.

Italic bold Monospace

Noteboxes

The following types of noteboxes are used in this guide:

A tip might introduce a shortcut, or suggest alternative ways of doing things.

A note draws attention to details that you might easily overlook. It can also point you to other information in this guide that you might find useful.

You should always read very important notes and warnings, like this one. They will help you avoid making serious mistakes, or wasting your time.

This symbol indicates advanced or highly technical information that is usually of interest only to advanced or technically-oriented readers.

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Contents
Conventions used in this guide ........................................................................................................................... 3

Getting Started........................................................................................... 9
1.1 Basics of components............................................................................................................................. 9 Component concepts ....................................................................................................................... Component dialog box ..................................................................................................................... Selection order ................................................................................................................................. Up direction ...................................................................................................................................... Automatic and default properties ..................................................................................................... General tab ...................................................................................................................................... Design and Design type tabs ........................................................................................................... 1.2 Using the component catalog........................................................................................................... Symbols ..................................................................................................................................... Pop-up menus ........................................................................................................................... Thumbnail images............................................................................................................................ Descriptions and keywords .............................................................................................................. Grouping components...................................................................................................................... Copying components to another folder ............................................................................................ Customizing and saving components .............................................................................................. 1.3 Creating components ....................................................................................................................... Example: Adding an end plate ......................................................................................................... Example: Adding a base plate and anchor rods .............................................................................. Example: Adding a beam to column connection .............................................................................. Viewing components ........................................................................................................................ Modifying components ..................................................................................................................... Conceptual components .................................................................................................................. Converting a conceptual component to a detailed component .................................................. Tips on working with components .................................................................................................... 1.4 Using the dialog box......................................................................................................................... Dimensioning parts .......................................................................................................................... Plates ........................................................................................................................................ Beams .......................................................................................................................................
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10 11 13 13 14 15 16 18 19 20 21 21 22 22 22 24 24 25 26 27 27 27 28 29 29 30 30 30
4

Component catalog............................................................................................................................... 17

Using components ................................................................................................................................ 23

Defining parts and plates ...................................................................................................................... 29

Part position number ................................................................................................................. Using the Components tab ........................................................................................................ Defining materials ............................................................................................................................ Using the Components tab ........................................................................................................ 1.5 Using the Bolts tab ........................................................................................................................... Defining bolts ................................................................................................................................... Increasing bolt length ................................................................................................................ Creating holes.................................................................................................................................. Number of bolts and spacing ........................................................................................................... Bolt group orientation ....................................................................................................................... Bolt group pattern............................................................................................................................. Edge distance .................................................................................................................................. Bolt position...................................................................................................................................... Vertical bolt position .................................................................................................................. Horizontal bolt position .............................................................................................................. Defining slotted holes....................................................................................................................... Deleting bolts ................................................................................................................................... Defining bolt assemblies .................................................................................................................. Welds ............................................................................................................................................... 1.6 1.7

31 31 32 33 33 35 35 35 36 36 37 37 37 38 38 39 40 41 41

Defining bolts and welds....................................................................................................................... 33

AutoConnection .................................................................................................................................... 42 Using AutoConnection ..................................................................................................................... 42 AutoDefaults ......................................................................................................................................... 45 Using AutoDefaults .......................................................................................................................... How to use AutoDefaults effectively................................................................................................. Checking AutoDefaults properties.................................................................................................... Checking AutoDefaults rules............................................................................................................ 45 46 46 46 47 47 47 48 48 49 49 50 50 50 51 54 55 56
5

1.8

Using the joints.def file.......................................................................................................................... 46 About joints.def ................................................................................................................................ How joints.def works ................................................................................................................. How to read joints.def ................................................................................................................ Entering values .......................................................................................................................... Defining general defaults ................................................................................................................. Defining bolt diameter and number of rows ..................................................................................... Clip angle, shear plate, and end plate connections ................................................................... Gusset connections ................................................................................................................... Diagonal connections ................................................................................................................ Defining other bolt and part properties............................................................................................. Gusset connection properties .................................................................................................... Diagonal connection properties ................................................................................................. Profile type-dependent bolt dimensions .................................................................................... How Tekla Structures uses joints.def...............................................................................................
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Connections that use joints.def ........................................................................................................ 56 1.9 Using Excel in connection design ......................................................................................................... 57 Setting up Excel files ........................................................................................................................ 58 Sample implementation.................................................................................................................... 58 Indicating component status............................................................................................................. 60

Custom Components .............................................................................. 61


2.1 Defining custom components................................................................................................................ 62 Exploding components ..................................................................................................................... Defining a custom component.......................................................................................................... Custom component types................................................................................................................. Custom component basic properties................................................................................................ 2.2 62 62 66 68

Editing custom components.................................................................................................................. 69 Custom component editor ................................................................................................................ 69 Custom component browser ............................................................................................................ 71

2.3

Defining variables.................................................................................................................................. 73 Creating distance variables .............................................................................................................. Creating reference distances ........................................................................................................... Using magnetic construction planes................................................................................................. Creating parameter variables ........................................................................................................... Creating parameters that use formulae............................................................................................ 75 77 79 80 81 82 83 83 84 85 86 86 88 88

2.4

Functions to use in formulas ................................................................................................................. 82 Arithmetic operators ......................................................................................................................... Logical statement ............................................................................................................................. Reference function ........................................................................................................................... Mathematical functions..................................................................................................................... Statistical functions........................................................................................................................... Data type conversions...................................................................................................................... String operations .............................................................................................................................. Trigonometric functions .................................................................................................................... Framing condition functions .............................................................................................................

2.5

Defining custom component properties................................................................................................. 90 Adding an option to create parts ...................................................................................................... 90 Defining bolt size and standard ........................................................................................................ 91 Defining bolt group location.............................................................................................................. 92 Replacing a sub-component............................................................................................................. 94 Changing the properties file ............................................................................................................. 96 Defining meshes in custom components.......................................................................................... 97 Creating surface treatments in custom components ...................................................................... 100

2.6

Managing and using custom components........................................................................................... 100 Custom component dialog box....................................................................................................... 100

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Customizing the dialog box ............................................................................................................ Changing the order of fields .................................................................................................... Changing the location of fields ................................................................................................ Renaming tabs ........................................................................................................................ Adding more tabs .................................................................................................................... Adding pictures ........................................................................................................................ Preventing modifications ......................................................................................................... Using a custom component............................................................................................................ Managing custom components ...................................................................................................... Exporting and importing .......................................................................................................... Protecting custom components with passwords ............................................................................ Performing actions on custom components ................................................................................... Using Excel with custom components............................................................................................ Using ASCII files with custom component ..................................................................................... Tips on working with custom components ..................................................................................... 2.7 Detailing > Component > Define Custom Component... ................................................................ Position type................................................................................................................................... Display variables ........................................................................................................................... Browser .......................................................................................................................................... Plane types .................................................................................................................................... Construction plane ........................................................................................................................ Custom component settings........................................................................................................... Create distance ............................................................................................................................. Create reference distance ............................................................................................................. Automatic distances ......................................................................................................................

102 103 103 104 104 105 105 106 106 107 108 108 109 109 110 112 114 115 119 120 121 122 123 124 125

Custom components reference........................................................................................................... 111

Reinforcement ....................................................................................... 127


3.1 3.2 Getting started with reinforcement...................................................................................................... 127 Basic reinforcement properties ........................................................................................................... 128 Hooks ............................................................................................................................................. Concrete cover............................................................................................................................... Spacing reinforcing bars ................................................................................................................ Omitting reinforcing bars ................................................................................................................ User-defined attributes of reinforcement........................................................................................ Meshes........................................................................................................................................... 3.3 Placing reinforcement .................................................................................................................... Attaching reinforcement to parts .................................................................................................... Modifying reinforcement................................................................................................................. Changing reinforcement shape ............................................................................................... Using reinforcement handles ...................................................................................................
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129 131 132 132 133 133 134 135 135 135 136
7

Working with reinforcement ................................................................................................................ 134

Using adaptivity ....................................................................................................................... Ungrouping a reinforcement .................................................................................................... Grouping reinforcements ......................................................................................................... Adding points to a reinforcement ............................................................................................. Removing points from a reinforcement .................................................................................... Splitting reinforcing bar groups ................................................................................................ Splitting reinforcing bars in a group ......................................................................................... Combining two reinforcing bars or reinforcing bar groups into one ......................................... Exploding reinforcement .......................................................................................................... Reinforcement geometry validity .................................................................................................... Conceptual reinforcements ............................................................................................................ Converting conceptual reinforcements to detailed reinforcements .......................................... Customizing reinforcement meshes ............................................................................................... Defining custom reinforcement components .................................................................................. Numbering reinforcement............................................................................................................... What affects reinforcement numbering .................................................................................... How reinforcement affects part numbering .............................................................................. 3.4 Reinforcing bar ............................................................................................................................... Reinforcing bar group..................................................................................................................... Curved reinforcing bar group.......................................................................................................... Circular reinforcing bar group......................................................................................................... Reinforcement mesh ...................................................................................................................... Reinforcement strand pattern......................................................................................................... Reinforcement splice......................................................................................................................

137 139 141 142 143 144 144 144 144 145 145 145 145 147 147 147 148 149 150 152 153 154 156 159

Single bars, bar groups, and meshes ................................................................................................. 148

Reinforcing bar bending types ............................................................ 161


4.1 Reinforcement in templates ................................................................................................................ 182

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Getting Started

Introduction

Once you have created a frame of parts in your Tekla Structures model, you will need to connect those parts to complete the model. Tekla Structures contains a wide range of components that you can use to automate the process of creating a model. This chapter explains the basics about components - what they are and how to create them using Tekla Structures. We will begin with the basic concepts, followed by a general description of components properties. Finally, we will show you how to use components in practice.

Contents

This chapter is divided into the following topics:

Basics of components (p. 9) Component catalog (p. 17) Using components (p. 23) Defining parts and plates (p. 29) Defining bolts and welds (p. 33) AutoConnection (p. 42) AutoDefaults (p. 45) Using the joints.def file (p. 46) Using Excel in connection design (p. 57)

1.1 Basics of components


Introduction

Components are tools that you can use to automatically create the parts, welds, and bolts required to connect parts. They are linked to main parts, so, when you modify a main part, the associated component also changes. The main benefits of working with components are: 1. You can save the properties of a component using an easily-identifiable name and keep it for future use. For example, you could save the properties of a W12x65 column base plate connection as W12x65.j*, and use it for several projects. When you modify the size of a profile, Tekla Structures automatically modifies the relevant components.

Benefits

2.

TEKLA STRUCTURES 16 Getting Started

3.
Topics

When you copy or move objects, Tekla Structures automatically includes all the associated components.

Component concepts (p. 10) Component catalog (p. 17) Component dialog box (p. 11) Selection order (p. 13) Up direction (p. 13) Automatic and default properties (p. 14) General tab (p. 15) Design and Design type tabs (p. 16)

Component concepts
Components are tools that automate tasks and group objects so that Tekla Structures treats

them as a single unit. Components adapt to changes in the model, so that Tekla Structures automatically modifies a component if you modify the parts it connects. This is an example of how to apply a connection:

Select the main part. Select the secondary part. To see information about the connection, click the connection symbol. The connection automatically creates the required parts, fittings, bolts, etc.
Component types

Components have the following subtypes:

Item Connection

Description Connects two or more parts, and creates all the required objects such as cuts, fittings, parts, bolts, and welds.

Examples Two-sided clip angle, bolted gusset.

Symbol

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Item Modeling tool

Description Automatically creates and assembles the parts to build a structure, but does not connect the structure to existing parts. Modeling tools can include connections and details. Adds a detail to a main part. A detail is only connected to one part. When you create a detail, Tekla Structures prompts you to select a part, followed by a point to locate the detail.

Examples Stairs, frames, towers

Symbol

Detail

Stiffeners, base plates, lifting hooks

System and custom components

Tekla Structures contains hundreds of system components by default. You can also create your own components, custom components. They have following subtypes:

connection detail part seam

All components are stored in the Component catalog (p. 17). To open the component catalog, use the keyboard shortcut Ctrl + F.
See also

Custom Components (p. 61) Exploding components (p. 62)

Component dialog box


The component dialog box is in two sections.
Upper part

Use the upper section of the dialog box to save and load predefined settings. For more information, see Save, Load, Save as buttons. For some components the upper section also contains buttons for accessing the bolt, weld and DSTV dialog boxes. For information on handling the saved properties, see Connection properties files.

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11

Tabs Tekla Structures uses the automatic property value The parts the component creates appear in yellow The green symbol indicates the correct direction for the connection or detail. The parts you select appear in blue. Tekla Structures uses the default property value
Lower part

The lower section of the dialog box is divided into tabs. This is where you define the properties of the parts and bolts that the component creates. The most common tabs that appear here are:

Picture illustrates the component. It shows just one example, but you can usually use one

component in many situations.


Parts is where you define the properties of the parts the component creates Parameters is where you set parameters to control the component (for example, for stiffeners, end plates, chamfers, etc.) Bolts is where you define the number of bolts and their edge distances General is where you define the direction of the connection or detail and AutoDefaults

rules

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See also

Defining parts and plates (p. 29) Defining bolts and welds (p. 33)

Selection order
To create a connection you need to select or pick existing parts or points. The default selection order for a connection is: 1. 2. 3. Main part Secondary part(s) If there is more than one secondary part, click the middle mouse button to finish selecting parts and create the connection.

Some connection dialog boxes illustrate the selection order for parts using numbers, as shown below. Select the parts in the order shown in the picture:

Details

The default selection order for a detail is: 1. 2. Main part. A point in the main part to show the location of the detail.

Modeling tools

The default picking order for a modeling tool is: 1. Pick one to three point(s) to show the location of the objects the modeling tool creates.

Up direction
The up direction of a connection or a detail indicates how the connection is rotated around the secondary part, relative to the current work plane. If there are no secondary parts, Tekla Structures rotates the connection around the main part. The options are: +x, -x, +y, -y, +z, -z. The Picture tab in the dialog box shows the up direction Tekla Structures will use. Tekla Structures also indicates the up direction in the connection symbol:

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13

Manually defining up direction

To manually define the up direction: 1. 2. 3. Double-click the connection symbol to open the connection dialog box. On the General tab, change the x, y, or z direction. Try positive directions first. Click Modify to use the new values.

Automatic and default properties


Some connection dialog boxes contain list boxes that show property options as graphics. You can select system defaults, AutoDefaults, or have Tekla Structures automatically set the properties.
System default properties

If you leave fields in connection dialog boxes blank, Tekla Structures uses the system default properties. Manual entries, default, automatic and properties in the joints.def file, all override these system defaults. You cannot change system default properties.

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Default and automatic properties

Icon

Description To have Tekla Structures use a default property in a connection, select the option marked with this symbol. If you use AutoDefaults for the connection, Tekla Structures uses the property defined in the AutoDefaults rules. If you are not using AutoDefaults, Tekla Structures creates the connection using the system default property. If AutoDefaults have been used, the actual picture in the default option does not necessairly match the outcome. To have Tekla Structures automatically determine which option to use for a property, select the option marked with this symbol. Example, Boomerang bracing connection (60):

More information Using AutoDefaults (p. 45)

Use the Automatic option on the


Gussetbolt1 tab to have Tekla

Structures determine how the clip angle is connected to the gusset plate and beam.
See also

Using the joints.def file (p. 46)

General tab
Connections and details have the same General tab. It contains the following properties:

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15

Field
Up direction

Description Rotates the connection around the secondary part or detail around the main part. The fields next to the image define rotation angle around the x- and y-axis of the secondary. The upper one is for y- and the lower one for x.

More information Up direction

Position in relation to primary part

Available only for details. Select a checkbox next to the images to indicate the position of the definition point of the detail, relative to the main part. Use the Horizontal offset and Vertical offset fields to define the horizontal and vertical alignment of the detail, relative to the main part.

Locked Class

Prevents modifications. A number given to all parts the connection creates. You can use class to define the color of parts in the model. Identifies the connection. Tekla Structures can display this connection code in connection marks in drawings. Automatically sets connection properties according to the selected rule group. To switch AutoDefaults off, select the rule group None. Automatically switches the connection to another according to the selected rule group.

Locking objects Color settings for parts

Connection code

AutoDefaults Rule Group

Using AutoDefaults

AutoConnectio n Rule Group

Design and Design type tabs


Some component dialog boxes include a Design tab, others include a Design type tab. Use the options on these pages to check if the component will bear the UDL (uniform distributed load), according to AISC (ASD) specifications. This design check is intended for use with imperial units. The Design tab also contains options to:

Use AutoDefaults rule groups to automatically modify component properties to take the calculated load. To define which AutoDefaults rule group to use, go to the General tab and select the rule in the AutoDefaults rule group list box. For more information, see Reaction forces and UDL.

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Use information in an Excel spreadsheet to check connection design and automatically update component properties to bear the UDL. This is useful when you want to check connection design according to other design codes. See Using Excel in connection design.

Design tab

To check the design of a component that has a Design tab page: 1. 2. 3. 4. Go to the Design tab and select Yes in the Use UDL listbox. To use information in an Excel spreadsheet in the UDL calculation, select Excel in the External design listbox. Enter the information you want to use in the calculation in the remaining fields. Select a connection in the model and click Modify. To view the results of the check, rightclick the component symbol and select Inquire from the pop-up menu.The inquire object window opens, which contains a summary of the design checks and related information.

See also Using Excel in connection design.


Design type tab

To check the design of a component that has a Design type tab page: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Open the component properties dialog box. Go to the Design type tab and select Yes in the Check connection list box. Tekla Structures will check the connection each time it is used or changed in a model. Enter the information you want to use in the calculation in the remaining fields. Select a connection in the model and click Modify. Tekla Structures checks the component. A green component symbol indicates that the connection will bear the UDL, red indicates it will not. To view the results of the check, right-click the component symbol and select Inquire from the pop-up menu.The inquire object window opens, which contains a summary of the design checks and related information, for example:

Primary angle, Gross shear [AISC ASD F4-1 (p5-49)] applied = 250.00, allowable = 190.80, capacity = 1.31 FAIL (t = 0.5000, tmin = 0.6551) Example of design check information in the Inquire object dialog box.

The first row shows the part checked, the name of the check and a reference to the AISC specification. The second row shows the applied and allowed force and how much capacity has been used. The third row shows the results and possible solutions. In this example the primary angle plate was not thick enough. Tekla Structures has indicated the minimum thickness required to bear the UDL.

1.2 Component catalog


Tekla Structures contains a component catalog, where all components and sketched cross sections are stored. See also Sketched cross sections. To open the component catalog, use the keyboard shortcut Ctrl + F, or click the Search component icon on the component toolbar (see Component catalog example (p. 18)).
Topics

Using the component catalog (p. 18) Thumbnail images (p. 21) Descriptions and keywords (p. 21)

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17

Grouping components (p. 22) Customizing and saving components (p. 22)

Using the component catalog


To open the component catalog, use the keyboard shortcut Ctrl + F, or click the Search
component icon on the component toolbar.

You can do the following with components and sketched cross sections:


Component catalog example

search using name, number, or keywords start creating view properties collect your own favorites define keywords edit or add descriptions import/export

This example shows the search results for the search term "Part":

Search View folders View details View thumbnails

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Show/ hide descriptions Create a component using the component tool you used last with its current properties. Double-click the name to set the properties and create the component. Component description Custom components have yellow symbols. System components have blue symbols. To sort a column, click the header cell.

You can create a list of favorite components. To add a component to your list, right-click the component name in the component catalog, and then select Add to Favorites in the pop-up menu.

Creating new folders

By default, components are grouped in folders based on their type and framing condition. You can add and remove components, and create folders and subfolders. To create new folders in the Folders tree view, right-click a level in the tree and select an option from the pop-up menu:

Create New Folder to create folder at the same level Create New Sub-folder to create a folder one level below

Information on the folders you create is stored in the ComponentCatalogTreeView.txt file that is located in the ..\TeklaStructuresModels\<model>\attributes\ folder. For more information, see Copying components to another folder (p. 22).
Modifying Search and Folders views

The default view settings for the Search view are stored in the ComponentCatalog.txt file that is located in the ..\Tekla Structures\<version>\environments\<environment>\system folder. If you modify the file, the Search view and the Search results branch in the Folders view change. The default tree settings for the Folders view are stored in the ComponentCatalogTreeView.txt file that is located in the ..\Tekla Structures\<version>\environments\<environment>\system folder. If you modify the file, the Folders view changes.

Symbols
The first column in the catalog indicates the component types with following symbols:

Symbo l

Component type System connections System detail System modeling tool

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19

Symbo l

Component type Custom connections and seams Custom details Custom parts Sketched cross sections

Pop-up menus
System components

Right-click a system component in the Search view list to open a pop-up menu containing the following commands:


Custom components

Properties... Edit keywords... Add to Favorites Add to Search result... Remove from Search result Change picture... AutoDefaults Import

Right-click a custom component in the Search view list to open a pop-up menu containing the following commands:


Sketched cross sections

Properties... Edit keywords... Add to Favorites Add to Search result... Remove from Search result Change picture... AutoDefaults Export Import Edit custom component Delete custom component

Right-click a sketch in the Search view list to open a pop-up menu containing the following commands:


See also

Properties... Edit keywords... Add to Favorites Add to Search result... Remove from Search result Export Import Delete cross section sketch

Thumbnail images (p. 21)

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TEKLA STRUCTURES 16 Getting Started

Descriptions and keywords (p. 21) Grouping components (p. 22) Managing custom components (p. 106) Sketched cross sections

Thumbnail images
Most system components have a default thumbnail image in the component catalog, which shows you a typical situation where the component can be used. For example, this is what the thumbnail image for Bolted gusset (11) connection looks like:

To edit a thumbnail image for a component: 1. Create an image and save it in bmp format in ..\Tekla Structures\<version>\nt\bitmaps folder. To create the image, you can use Create View > Default Views of Component and Screenshot commands, for example.

2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

Press Ctrl + F to open the component catalog. Right-click the component and select Change picture... Locate the thumbnail and select it. Click OK. Tekla Structures links the thumbnail to the component.

Descriptions and keywords


Descriptions

To view a component description, select the component in the Component catalog. Use the button to show or hide descriptions.

You can create new descriptions and edit existing ones:


Keywords

The default component descriptions are stored in the xslib.db1 file, located in the model folder. To add or edit a description, type text in the description field. When you select another component in the component catalog, Tekla Structures prompts you to save the description you added or edited. After you have saved the description, save the model also. Edited component descriptions are model-specific.

To add or edit keywords, right-click a component in the component catalog, and select Edit
keywords...

Keywords you add or edit are saved in ComponentCatalog.txt file in the current model folder.

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21

You can combine ComponentCatalog.txt files and move them to the system folder:..\Tekla Structures\<version>\environments\<environment>\system.

Grouping components
To create a new folder based on the results of a search:

1. 2. 3. 4.
Removing components from groups

In the Component catalog, enter your search criteria and click Search. To group the search results in a new folder, click Store. In the Store search result dialog box, enter a name for the folder and click OK. The new folder appears in the tree.

To remove components from a group, right-click the component and select:

or

Remove, if it is a default group.

Remove from search result if the folder was created from a search.

Copying components to another folder


To copy components from one folder to another: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. In the component catalog, click the Folders icon to open the Folders view. Go to the folder where the component to be copied is located. Select the component, right-click and select Copy. Go to the folder where you want to copy the component. Right-click and select Paste. If the copying does not succeed for some reason, store the component temporarily to a new folder. 1. 2. 3. Click the Search icon and search for the component to be copied. Select the component and click Store to create a new folder for the component. In the Folders view, go to the new folder and copy the component from there to the desired folder.

Customizing and saving components


Many components are suitable for use in different situations. You can define the properties of a component to use in a specific situation, then save a copy in the component catalog to use in similar situations. For example, well use the Bolted gusset (11) component to connect a single brace at the base plate of column.

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1.

To save a copy of the component, well right-click the component symbol in the model, and select Publish in catalog.... The Publish in catalog dialog box appears.

2. 3.

We can add the component to a specific group. By default, the component is added to the All group. By default the component uses the same thumbnail image as the original component. To change the thumbnail, see Thumbnail images (p. 21).

1.3 Using components


Introduction Topics

This section explains how to use components. It also includes examples. Creating components (p. 24) Example: Adding an end plate (p. 24) Example: Adding a base plate and anchor rods (p. 25) Example: Adding a beam to column connection (p. 26) Viewing components (p. 27) Modifying components (p. 27) Conceptual components (p. 27) Converting a conceptual component to a detailed component (p. 28) Tips on working with components (p. 29)

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23

Creating components
You create different types of component in different ways. For example, you select existing parts to indicate which members a connection or a detail is attached to. You need to pick points to indicate the location or length of a detail or a modeling tool. See also Selection order (p. 13). When you create connections, Tekla Structures prompts you to select the main part (the part secondary parts connect to), then the secondary part(s). For an example of using a connection, see Example: Adding an end plate (p. 24).
Status

Tekla Structures uses different-colored component symbols to show the status of connections and details:

Color

Status Component created successfully.

Tip

Green Component created, but has problems. Yellow Component failed. A common reason is that the up direction is not appropriate. See Up direction (p. 13). Often occurs when bolts or holes have an edge distance less than the default value for that component.

Red

When applying a component that you are unfamiliar with, accept the default properties and apply the component. Then look to see what needs to be modified. This is quicker than trying to set the values for the component before seeing what the component actually creates.

Example: Adding an end plate


This example shows how to create an end plate connection. The End plate (144) connection connects two beams, or a beam to a column, using a bolted end plate. To create the end plate connection: 1. 2. 3. 4. In the component catalog, enter 144 and click Search. Double-click the End plate (144) component. Tekla Structures displays the component dialog box and starts the End plate (144) command. Click Apply to create the component using the default properties. Tekla Structures prompts you to select the main part (column) and then the secondary part (beam). Tekla Structures creates the connection.

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TEKLA STRUCTURES 16 Getting Started

5.

Select the next main part or interrupt the command.

If you need to change the number of bolts or plate dimensions, for example, you need to modify the component. For more information, see Modifying components (p. 27). If you use incorrect properties, Tekla Structures may fail to create the component. For more information, see Creating components (p. 24).

Example: Adding a base plate and anchor rods


Component catalog contains several base plate details. This example shows how to create a base plate and anchor rods. Before you start:


1. 2. 3.

create a column create an elevation view Open an elevation view. Open the component catalog. Enter base plate in the Search field and click Search.

To add a base plate to a column:

4.

To view pictures of the components in the search results, click the Thumbnails icon

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25

5. 6. 7.

Click Base plate (1004). This component creates a base plate with anchor bolts. The prompt Pick part appears on the status bar. Select the column. The prompt Pick position appears on the status bar. Pick the point at the base of the column to indicate where to create the base plate. 8. Tekla Structures creates the base plate. 9. Examine the component to see if you need to make any changes. 10. Check that the connection symbol is green, which indicates that the connection was created successfully. 11. Change the dimensions of the anchor rods. To make it easier to select components, click the Select component icon .

12. Double-click the component to open the Tekla Structures Base plate (1004) dialog box. 13. Go to the Anchor rods tab. Change the dimensions of the anchor rods. 14. To change only this base plate, select Ignore other types in the list in the top section of the dialog box:

15. 16. 17. 18.

Click Modify. Tekla Structures changes the dimensions of the anchor rods. Click OK to close the dialog box. Right-click and select Interrupt from the pop-up menu to end the command. Check that the connection symbol is green, which indicates that the connection was created successfully.

Example: Adding a beam to column connection


Component catalog contains several beam to column connections. This example shows how to create a beam to column connection. Before you start:


1.

create a beam and a column create an elevation view Open the component catalog.

To create a beam to column connection:

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TEKLA STRUCTURES 16 Getting Started

Select Beam to column connections in the list. The list of beam to column connections appears in the main pane. 3. Select Column with stiffeners (186). 4. The prompt Pick main part appears on the status bar. Select the column. 5. The prompt Pick secondary part appears on the status bar. Select the beam. 6. Tekla Structures creates the connection. 7. Click OK to close the dialog box. 8. Right-click and select Interrupt from the pop-up menu to end the command. 9. Check that the connection symbol is green, which indicates that the connection was created successfully. 10. Examine the component to see if you need to make any changes.

2.

Viewing components
You can create several views of a component to view it from different viewpoints. To create views of a component: 1. 2. Click the component symbol to select the component. To create views, right-click and select Create View > Default Views of Component in the pop-up menu. Tekla Structures creates four views: front, end, top, and perspective.

To check dimensions, such as bolt locations and edge distances, work in the Component front view and use the Measure tool.

Modifying components
To modify a component, double-click the component symbol in the model. The component dialog box appears. This is where you modify the component properties.

If you have Select component switched on , you do not have to pick component symbol, but you can just pick any object belonging to a component. This is the only method for selecting custom parts, because they do not have any symbol. You can also indicate which connections and details are affected by the modifications:

Modify connection type: If you have selected several connections details, clicking the Modify button modifies all the selected connections and details irrespective of their type. If

the connection type is not the same as in the dialog box, Tekla Structures changes the connection type. Ignore other types: Tekla Structures only modifies connections and details of the type shown in dialog box.

Conceptual components
Conceptual components are meant to be used as reference information for further fabrication detailing. Conceptual components look similar to detailed components but do not include the option to change part numbering or assembly numbering settings.

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27

Conceptual components can be created only with Engineering and Reinforced Concrete Detailing configurations. However, you can edit conceptual components in Full, Steel Detailing, or Precast Concrete Detailing configurations. Conceptual components can be converted to detailed components that include all the information needed for fabrication, such as assemblies, cast units, and reinforcing bars. The conversion to detailed components can be done in Full, Steel Detailing, or Precast Concrete Detailing configurations. Modifying part properties, such as the size of the component main part, does not automatically convert a detailed component to a conceptual one, or vice versa. For example, if you use the Engineering configuration and modify the model, detailed components do not convert back to conceptual components.

Component Conceptual

Symbol

Configuration Engineering Reinforced Concrete Detailing

Description Conceptual component does not create assemblies or cast units. The dialog box is the same as in detailed component, but does not contain fields for part and assembly positions.

Rectangular Detailed Full Steel Detailing Precast Concrete Detailing

Detailed component contains part and assembly numbering fields, and creates needed assemblies and cast units.

Round

Detailed components can be converted to conceptual components in Engineering and Reinforced Concrete Detailing configurations.

See also

Converting a conceptual component to a detailed component (p. 28)

Converting a conceptual component to a detailed component


An individual conceptual component that has been created with Engineering or Reinforced Concrete Detailing configuration can be converted to a detailed component in Full, Steel Detailing, and Precast Concrete Detailing configurations. To convert a conceptual component to a detailed component: 1. 2. Select the component symbol. Click Detailing > Component > Convert to Detailing Component. If you want to convert a detailed component to a conceptual component in Engineering or Reinforced Concete Detailing configuration, rightclick and select Convert to Conceptual Component.

See also

Conceptual components (p. 27)

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TEKLA STRUCTURES 16 Getting Started

Tips on working with components


No component created

If you have difficulty applying a component, check the status bar for prompts. For example, you may need to click the middle mouse button to stop selecting parts, before Tekla Structures creates the component. If you are applying a connection that only allows for one secondary member, you may see the message Many parts found on the status bar. This means that Tekla Structures cannot determine which parts to connect. You may have several parts in the same location, or the view may be set too deep. If the component does not create the parts you need by default (for example, stiffener plates), look for a switch to turn them on. If there is no switch, try entering a value in the thickness field for that part (for example, on the Stiffeners tab). If the component creates parts you do not need, look for the switch to turn them off. If there is no switch, enter a zero (0) in the thickness field for that part.

Many parts found

Switch parts on/ off

Default: Tekla Structures creates stiffeners or uses value retrieved from AutoDefaults. Automatic: Tekla Structures creates or omits stiffeners depending on the situation in the model.

Tekla Structures does not create stiffeners

Tekla Structures creates stiffeners.

Entering valid profiles

You need to specify profiles for some components. If a component fails, try entering a valid profile.

1.4 Defining parts and plates


Use the Parts tab to define the parts that Tekla Structures creates when you use a component.
Topics

Using the dialog box (p. 29) Dimensioning parts (p. 30) Defining materials (p. 32)

Using the dialog box


Some components list all parts on one tab, others list parts on separate tabs as shown in the following examples.
One Parts tab

Where there is one tab, the label is usually Parts or Plates.

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29

Several Parts tabs

Plates can also appear on separate tabs. For example, in connection 56, Corner tube gusset, the parts appear on both the Gusset and Brace conn tabs.

Dimensioning parts
Use the Parts tabs to dimension specific part types in components.

To delete a part, enter zero (0) in the t (thickness) field.

Plates
Enter the following dimensions for plates:

Dimension
t b h

Description Plate thickness Plate width Plate height

You do not have to enter these dimensions for every component type, as Tekla Structures determines the plate shape differently for different components. For example, in end plate connections, Tekla Structures calculates width and height using the number of bolts and bolt edge distances. Click Help in a component dialog box to check which dimensions you need to enter.

Beams
To specify a library or parametric profile to use for beams:

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TEKLA STRUCTURES 16 Getting Started

Enter the profile name. Or click , and select a profile from the profile catalog.

The profile must exist in the profile catalog.

Part position number


Use the Pos_no field to enter the part position number for each part the component creates. This overrides the settings on the Tools > Options > Options... > Components tab. Specify a prefix and a start number, as shown below.

Prefix Start number Some component dialog boxes have a second row of Pos_no fields for you to enter the assembly position number.

Using the Components tab


To set the default prefix and start number for all the parts that components create, click Tools > Options > Options... > Components. You define different prefixes and start numbers according to the parts relationship to other parts in the component. Separate the prefix and part number using the \ character (for example, p\1).

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Prefix Part number

Defining materials
To define the materials for the parts that components create, click against the Material field. Tekla Structures opens the Select Material dialog box. Click a material type, then click the material to use for the part.

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TEKLA STRUCTURES 16 Getting Started

Using the Components tab


To set the default part material for the parts that components create, click Tools > Options > Options... > Components tab, and use the Part material field. Tekla Structures uses this default if you leave the Material field blank in the component dialog box when you apply the component.

1.5 Defining bolts and welds


Use the Bolts or Welds tabs to define which bolts, assemblies, and welds to use in specific components.
Topics

Using the Bolts tab (p. 33) Defining bolts (p. 35) Creating holes (p. 35) Number of bolts and spacing (p. 36) Bolt group orientation (p. 36) Bolt group pattern (p. 37) Edge distance (p. 37) Bolt position (p. 37) Defining slotted holes (p. 39) Deleting bolts (p. 40) Defining bolt assemblies (p. 41) Welds (p. 41)

Using the Bolts tab


This illustration shows the properties you can set on the Bolts tab of component dialog boxes:

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Slotted hole dimensions Slotted to create slotted hole in part Check bolt components to include (bolt, washer, screw). Shank length protruding from the nut Bolt spacing - vertical Number of bolts

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TEKLA STRUCTURES 16 Getting Started

Enter bolt order number of bolt to delete. Edge distance Bolt spacing (horizontal) Number of bolts Bolt group pattern Horizontal Vertical

Defining bolts
Use the following fields on the Bolts tab to specify the type of bolts to use in individual components:

Dialog box text


Bolt size Bolt standard Tolerance Thread in mat

Description Must be defined in the bolt assembly catalog. See also The bolt and bolt assembly catalogs. The bolt standard to use inside the component. Must be defined in the bolt assembly catalog. Gap between bolt and hole. Indicate if the thread can be inside bolted parts when using bolts with a shaft. Has no effect if using full-threaded bolts. Location where bolts should be attached.

Site/Workshop

Increasing bolt length


To allow for additional material thickness, increase the length of the bolt on the Bolts tab. For example, you could use this for painted parts. Enter extra bolt length

Tekla Structures uses this value in bolt length calculation. See Bolt length calculation.

Creating holes
To only create a hole, deselect all the components in the illustration on the Bolts tab.

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Number of bolts and spacing


Use the Bolts tab to specify the number of bolts and bolt spacing, both horizontally and vertically. Enter the number of bolts in the shorter field, and the spacing between bolts in the longer field, as shown below. Use a space to separate bolt spacing values. Enter a value for each space between bolts.
Example

For example, if there are 3 bolts, enter 2 values.

Number of bolts Bolt spacing The settings above result in this bolt group layout:

Bolt group orientation


Some connections include the following options on the Bolts tab to orientate bolt groups:

Option

Description Square. Staggered in the direction of the secondary part.

Sloped in the direction of the secondary part.

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TEKLA STRUCTURES 16 Getting Started

Bolt group pattern


For some components you can select different bolt group patterns. You have the following options:

Option

Edge distance
Edge distance is the distance from the center of a bolt to the edge of the part. Enter top, bottom, left, and right edge distances on the Bolts tab. A dimension line on the illustration shows each dimension. See also Using the joints.def file (p. 46).

Edge distance dimension line Enter edge distances here

Bolt position
In the list box on the Bolts tab, select an option to indicate how to measure dimensions for vertical and horizontal bolt position. Then enter the dimension in the fields indicated below. If you leave this field blank, Tekla Structures uses a system default value.

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Enter dimensions Measure dimension from....

Vertical bolt position


Use these options to indicate how Tekla Structures measures vertical dimensions:

Option
Top

Dimension from Upper edge of secondary part to uppermost bolt.

Illustration

Middle

Centerline of bolts to centerline of secondary part.

Bottom

Lower edge of secondary part to lowest bolt.

Horizontal bolt position


Use these options to indicate how Tekla Structures measures horizontal dimensions:

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TEKLA STRUCTURES 16 Getting Started

Option
Left

Dimension from Left edge of secondary part to far left bolt.

Illustration

Middle

Centerline of bolts.

Right

Right edge of secondary part to far right bolt.

Defining slotted holes


To define slotted holes in components: 1. 2. 3. 4. Open the component properties dialog box and click on the Bolts tab. Different bolt groups may appear on different tabs in different dialog boxes. Set Hole type to Slotted. Select which parts have slotted holes from the Slots in list box. Select No to create round holes. To shape slotted holes, enter the x or y dimensions of the hole. To produce a round hole, enter zero (0) for both dimensions.

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39

Slotted hole length = x or y dimension + Bolt size + Tolerance

For some components you can specify which parts have slotted holes using the Bolts tab. For example, Clip angle (141), Shear plate simple (146).

You can also use the Bolt command to modify bolt groups after creating components. For more information, see Holes.

Deleting bolts
To delete bolts from a bolt group: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.
Example

Double click the component symbol to open the component dialog box. Go to the Bolts tab. Check Delete. Enter the bolt number(s) of the bolt(s) to delete, separated by a space. Bolt numbers run left to right and top down. Click Modify to change the selected component. Click OK to exit the component dialog box.

You start with this bolt group:

You enter the following bolt numbers:

The bolt group now looks like this:

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TEKLA STRUCTURES 16 Getting Started

Defining bolt assemblies


On the illustration on the Bolts tab, check the pieces to use in the bolt assembly (bolt, washers, and nuts).

To change the bolt assemblies in the current component: 1. 2. 3. 4. Click the component symbol to select it. Check the pieces to use. Check Effect in modify. Click the Modify button.

Welds
To define the properties of the welds Tekla Structures uses in a component, click the Welds button in the component properties dialog box. Tekla Structures displays the appropriate weld dialog box. The illustration identifies each weld using a number. For each weld, use row 1 to define the arrow side of the weld, and row 2 for the other side.

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See also

Welds

1.6 AutoConnection
Introduction

Use AutoConnection to automatically select and apply connections with predefined properties to selected parts. Use AutoConnection to have Tekla Structures automatically create similar connections for similar framing conditions. Using AutoConnection (p. 42)

Topics

Using AutoConnection
Use AutoConnection to have Tekla Structures automatically create connections using a predefined set of rules, or rule group.
Creating connections

To create connections using AutoConnection: 1. 2. 3. Pick the parts to connect. Click Detailing > AutoConnection... to display the AutoConnection dialog box. Select a rule group in the first list box on the Rule groups tab as shown below.

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TEKLA STRUCTURES 16 Getting Started

Rule group for AutoConnection Rule group for AutoDefaults 4. Click the Create connections button.

When you use AutoConnection, Tekla Structures ignores the properties in the connection dialog boxes and creates connections using the properties defined in the rule group. Tekla Structures does not modify existing connections. You can change the properties of connections you create using AutoConnection.
Additional options

Use the options on the Advanced tab to indicate which rule groups you want to use for each Framing condition (beam to beam web, beam to beam flange, etc.). You also have the option not to apply a rule group, or to apply a specific connection.

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Example

You can use a rule group for all framing types other than beam to column flange, and indicate a particular connection to use for that framing type. Use Connection selection to indicate your preferences for each framing condition. You have the following options:

Options

Option
None AutoConnection

Result Tekla Structures does not create a connection. Tekla Structures applies the connection defined in the rule group you have indicated in the first list box on the Rule groups tab. Click Select to pick from a list of available connections. Click a connection, then OK. Tekla Structures creates the connection you specify using the default properties. See Automatic and default properties (p. 14).

A named connection

Use Parameters selection to indicate which connection properties you want to use. The options are:

Option AutoDefaults

Result Tekla Structures applies the properties of the rule group you have indicated in the first list box on Rule groups tab. Tekla Structures applies the default connection properties. See Automatic and default properties (p. 14).

No AutoDefaults

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1.7 AutoDefaults
Introduction

Use AutoDefaults to automatically apply connections. When you use AutoDefaults, Tekla Structures automatically creates connections with predefined properties. For example, you can use AutoDefaults to automatically adjust the thickness of each base plate you create, according to the main part profile. If the main part profile changes, Tekla Structures will also automatically adjust the thickness of the base plate.

Topics

Using AutoConnection (p. 42) Using AutoDefaults (p. 45) How to use AutoDefaults effectively (p. 46) Checking AutoDefaults properties (p. 46) Checking AutoDefaults rules (p. 46)

Using AutoDefaults
With AutoDefaults you can have Tekla Structures apply connection properties using a predefined set of rules. You can use AutoDefaults together with AutoConnection to define connection properties, or separately to define the properties of a single connection. To use AutoDefaults for a single connection: 1. 2. 3. 4. Open the connection dialog box. On the General tab, select a rule group (the rule group cannot be None). On all the tabs, set the fields that you want AutoDefaults to override to Default by selecting the options marked with the arrow symbol. Click Apply to create the connection using AutoDefaults.

To quickly set all the fields in a dialog box to Default, load <Defaults> in the connection dialog box.

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How to use AutoDefaults effectively


Use default values when you create a connection, then use AutoDefaults to modify the properties. If you manually modify connection properties after using AutoDefaults, Tekla Structures will not automatically update the connection properties, even if AutoDefaults is active. AutoDefaults does not change connection properties that have been modified. It only modifies connection properties in fields containing the default properties. For example, you have manually set a base plate thickness of 20 mm in the Base plate dialog box of a connection. AutoDefaults is active and sets plate thickness according to the main part profile. If you modify the main part profile, Tekla Structures does not update the base plate thickness. It remains at 20 mm.

Checking AutoDefaults properties


To check the properties AutoDefaults has applied to a connection: 1. 2. 3. Double-click the connection symbol to open the connection dialog box. In the list box in the upper left corner of the dialog box, select <AutoDefaults>. Click Load. Tekla Structures shows the applied properties in the fields. You can also see all the combined properties used for that connection.

Checking AutoDefaults rules


You can check which rules AutoDefaults has used for a particular connection. 1. 2. Select the connection symbol and right-click. Select Inquire.

Tekla Structures shows the rule group and rule sets that the connection passed. You can also see all the properties files used for that connection.

1.8 Using the joints.def file


This section explains how to use the joints.def text file to set the default properties for different connection types. Not all connections use joints.def.

If you are new to using joints.def, we suggest you read each of the topics in this section thoroughly before making any changes.

Topics

About joints.def (p. 47) Defining general defaults (p. 48) Defining bolt diameter and number of rows (p. 49) Defining other bolt and part properties (p. 50) How Tekla Structures uses joints.def (p. 56) Connections that use joints.def (p. 56)

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About joints.def
Changing the joints.def file changes the default values for different connection types. You can open the joints.def file in any standard text editor.

Tekla Structures only uses the values in joints.def for blank fields. AutoDefaults and manual entries override joints.def.

If you use joints.def, you can still use some system default properties. To force Tekla Structures to use the system default for a particular property, give it the value -2147483648 in joints.def. By default, Tekla Structures includes the joints.def file in the system folder. Tekla Structures searches for joints.def in the standard search order.

How joints.def works


For each connection type, Tekla Structures follows these steps to assign bolt and part properties. 1. Tekla Structures determines bolt diameter and number of bolts according to the following criteria: According to Secondary beam height Secondary beam height Secondary beam height Length of angle profile Height of angle profile

Connection type Clip angle Shear plate End plate Gusset Diagonal 2.

Tekla Structures uses bolt diameter to assign other bolt and part properties.

How to read joints.def


Lines beginning with // are comment lines. They are there to help you read the file, Tekla Structures does not use the information in comment lines. The first few lines contain some general settings: Set the following line to the unit of measure appropriate to the version you are using (for example, inches in the Imperial version).

To have Tekla Structures use the default values in joints.def, set the following line to 1. Set it to 0 to have Tekla Structures use the system defaults.

Properties for each connection type appear in individual sections, as shown below. Each section begins with a header row containing the column labels. Do not add columns to the file.

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Entering values
When you edit joints.def:

Enter absolute values or names Do not use feet and inch symbols Ensure that profiles exist in the profile catalog Ensure bolts exist in the bolt catalog.

Defining general defaults


If Tekla Structures cannot find a property for a connection in the connection-specific sections of joints.def, it looks for the default property in the General section.
Example

In clip angles, Tekla Structures uses the default bolt diameter in the General section if the secondary beam height is larger than the highest value in the Clip angle section of joints.def. The properties in the General section of joints.def are:

Properties
boltdia pitch clipweld angle-cc-inc

Description Bolt diameter. Distance from the center of one bolt to the center of the next. Weld size. Tekla Structures adds bolt to bolt distance and web thickness, then rounds the result up by this value. Complies with US AISC standard. Tekla Structures rounds the angle profile gap up by this value. Complies with US AISC standard. Size of the angle profile. Determines notch size. Determines notch size. Edge distance. Haunch plate height (h). Haunch plate width (b). Distance from the upper edge of the angle profile to the top of the secondary beam. No longer used. Edge distance for bolts (clip angles only). No longer used. Shear plate thickness. End plate thickness. Size of weld. Size of angle profile (clip angles only). Flange cut clearance. Size of slotted hole.

lprofgapinc lsize copedepth copelength boltedge webplatelen webplatewid beamedge knifeclr clipedge gap shearplatethk endplatethk shearweld cliplsize flangecutclear slotsize

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TEKLA STRUCTURES 16 Getting Started

Properties
clipslots

Description Which part gets slotted holes: 1 for beam 2 for angle profiles 3 for both Refers to the Slots in list box options on the Bolts tab. See individual connection help for details.

clipattach

How the clip angle is attached to the secondary and main parts: 1 is Both bolted 2 is Main bolted / Secondary welded 3 is Main not welded 4 is Main welded / Secondary bolted 5 is Both welded 6 is Main not bolted 7 is Secondary not welded 8 is Secondary not bolted 9 is Both bolted / welded Refers to the attachment type list box options on the Bolts tab. See individual connection help for details.

copedepthinc copelengthinc

Tekla Structures rounds cope depth up using this value. Tekla Structures rounds cope length using this value.

Defining bolt diameter and number of rows


Before you start, read How joints.def works (p. 47). Use the rows beginning with BOLTHEIGHT in each connection-specific section of joints.def to define the default bolt diameter and default number of horizontal bolt rows for the following connection types:

Clip angle, shear plate, and end plate connections (p. 49) Gusset connections (p. 50) Diagonal connections (p. 50)

Clip angle, shear plate, and end plate connections


Tekla Structures calculates the default bolt diameter and number of rows horizontally according to the height of the secondary beam. You can enter the following properties:

Property
name part sec.beam.height diameter number_of_bolts

Description Use the name BOLTHEIGHT Use the part name ANGLECLIP Height of secondary beam Bolt diameter. Must exist in the bolt catalog. Number of bolts horizontally

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Gusset connections
Tekla Structures calculates the default bolt diameter and number of bolt rows horizontally according to the length of the angle profile. You can enter the following properties:

Property
name part lproflength

Description Use the name BOLTHEIGHT Use the part name GUSSET Length of angle profile

or
angleproflength diameter number_of_bolts

Bolt diameter. Must exist in bolt catalog Number of bolts horizontally

Diagonal connections
Tekla Structures calculates the default bolt diameter and number of bolt rows horizontally according to the height of the angle profile. You can enter the following properties:

Property
name part profileheight diameter number_of_bolts

Description Use the name BOLTHEIGHT Use the part name DIAGONAL Height of angle profile Bolt diameter. Must exist in bolt catalog. Number of bolts (horizontally)

Defining other bolt and part properties


Before you start, read How joints.def works (p. 47). Once Tekla Structures has used joints.def to calculate bolt diameter, it uses the result to assign other properties to bolts and parts, according to connection type.
Example

Enter the default properties for bolts and parts in clip angle connections in the rows beginning ANGLECLBOLTPART in the CLIP ANGLE section of joints.def. The table below lists the properties you assign for bolts and parts for each connection type. Gusset and diagonal connections have additional properties. See Gusset connection properties (p. 51) and Diagonal connection properties (p. 54).

Properties lookup table

Key to lookup table

Connection type
C S E G D

Full name Clip angle Shear plate End plate Gusset Diagonal

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TEKLA STRUCTURES 16 Getting Started

Connection Type Property


name

Description Identifies the connection type. Example GUSSETBOLTPART for gusset connections.

C *

S *

E *

G *

D *

bolt diameter

Bolt diameter. Must exist in the bolt catalog. See also Profile typedependent bolt dimensions (p. 55)

shear plate thickness end plate thickness gusset thickness conn. plate thickness angle profile

Thickness of shear plate Thickness of end plate Thickness of the gusset Thickness of the connection plate Name of the angle profile to use: *

* * * * * *

or L profile


number

Must exist in the profile catalog Enter the exact name Example:
L100*100*10

Number of bolts in each row:


pitch

vertically horizontally * * * * *

Distance between bolts from the center of each bolt. For vertical and horizontal bolts Distance from the center of a bolt to the edge of the part. For vertical and horizontal bolts Position of the first vertical row of bolts

edge distance

vert.bolt firsthole

Gusset connection properties


Enter these additional default properties in the row beginning GUSSETDEFDIM. Not all gusset connections use all these properties:

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Option
name boltdia_def

Description GUSSETDEFDIM Bolt diameter for all bolt groups. Leave the Bolt size field blank in the dialog box to have Tekla Structures use the value in joints.def. See illustration. See illustration. Clearance between the first secondary part selected and the main part. Perpendicular distance from last secondary part selected to the nearest secondary. See illustration. See illustration. Clearance between braces. Bolt edge distance for the bolt groups on the Gusset tab. See illustration. See illustration. On the Gusset tab:

Affects plate shape

tol_prim tol_sec dist_diag_prim dist_diag_sec

angle_first_corner angle_sec_corner dist_between_diag first_bolt_from_lin e corner_dx corner_dy movey

Yes Yes

movey movez

On the Gusset tab:

movez dist1

The length of the edge of the gusset plate that is perpendicular to the lowest brace. The length of the edges of the gusset plate perpendicular to the braces. The length of the edge of the gusset plate perpendicular to the uppermost brace. See illustration. Tolerance of stiffener. Dimensions of stiffener chamfer on the Gusset tab:
chamfer_corner_dx chamfer-corner_dy

Yes

dist2 dist3

Yes Yes

tol_lprof tol_stiffener chamfer_dx chamfer_dy chamfer_corner_dx chamfer_corner_dy

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Option
side_length diafit_length

Description

Affects plate shape

Fit length in connection 19. Leave the Distance gusset flanges cut field blank in the dialog box to have Tekla Structures use the value in joints.def.

The illustration below shows the properties on the Picture tab of the Boomerang wrapped diagonal (58) connection dialog box.

tol_lprof corner_dy corner_dx dist_diag_sec tol_sec angle_sec_corner dist3 dist_between_diag dist2 dist1

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53

dist_diag_prim tol_prim

Diagonal connection properties


Enter these additional default properties for bolts and parts in the rows beginning DIAGDEFDIM. Not all diagonal connections use all these properties:

Property
name boltdia_def

Description
DIAGDEFDIM

Bolt diameter for all bolt groups. Leave the Bolt size field blank in the dialog box to have Tekla Structures use the value in joints.def. Gap between the gusset plate and the brace. If tube profiles are closed with end plates, the gap between the gusset plate and the end plate. Depth of the cut in the brace. Enter a negative value to prevent the connection plate from being inside the tube brace. Distance from the edge of the brace to the edge of the connection plate. This dimension changes the width of the connection plate. On the Tube diag tab:

dist_gus_diag

dist_in

dist_dv

sec_cut_tol slot_length_tol

sec_cut_tol slot_length_tol tube_cut_tol

On the Tube diag tab:

tube_cut_tol conn_cut_dx conn_cut_dy

On the Tube diag tab:


conn_cut_dy

conn_cut_dx round_plate_tol

On the Tube diag tab:


end_plate_thk

flanges_cut_angle dist_flanges_cut dist_skew_cut

On the Brace conn tab:


flanges_cut_angle dist_flanges_cut dist_skew_cut

end_plate_thk

End plate field t in the Tube diag tab.

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This illustration shows the properties that appear on the Picture tab of the Tube crossing (22) connection:

dist_dv dist_in dist_gus_diag

Profile type-dependent bolt dimensions


For some connections, Tekla Structures calculates bolt size according to profile size. For example, Clip angle (141) and Two sided clip angle (143) connections. In this type of connection, Tekla Structures takes bolt size from the PROFILE TYPEDEPENDENT BOLT DIMENSIONS section of joints.def, if you leave the corresponding fields blank on the Bolts tab in the connection dialog box, as shown below:

The options are:

Property
width one bolt firsthole two bolts firsthole pitch

Description Width of the profile For single bolts, distance from the heel of the profile angle to the first hole. For two bolts, distance from the heel of the profile angle to the first hole. Distance between bolts from the center of each bolt. For vertical and horizontal bolts.

Example

To find the bolt dimensions to use with an L6X6X1/2 profile in a clip angle connection: 1. Tekla Structures searches the rows beginning PROFILEBOLTDIM for L6X6X1/2 in the PROFILE TYPE-DEPENDENT BOLT DIMENSIONS section of joints.def.

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55

2.

If there is no match, Tekla Structures searches the rows beginning ANGLECLBOLTPART in the CLIP ANGLE section of joints.def.

How Tekla Structures uses joints.def


This example explains how Tekla Structures calculates bolt diameter and other properties using joints.def. We are using a Bolted gusset (11) connection. The height of the diagonal profile is 10".

Tekla Structures calculates bolt size and number of bolts according to profile height. It searches the BOLTHEIGHT rows for a profile height of 10". The profile height is greater than 8.0 but less than 12.0, so Tekla Structures uses the row with the profile height 8.0. This sets the bolt diameter to 0.75.

Tekla Structures assigns the bolt and part properties according to the bolt diameter. It searches the DIAGBOLTPART rows for a bolt diameter of 0.75.

Result

Property Bolt diameter Number of bolts horizontally Edge distance horizontally Edge distance vertically Distance between bolts horizontally Distance between bolts vertically

Value 0.75 2 1.5 1.5 2.5 system default

Tekla Structures does not use the connection plate thickness or angle profile properties in this connection.

Connections that use joints.def


Only the following connections use joints.def

Connections Two sided angle cleat (25) Beam with stiffener (129) Column with shear plate (131) Bolted moment connection (134) Clip angle (141) Two sided end plate (142) Two sided clip angle (143)

Connections Boomerang bracing cross (60) Corner bolted gusset (57) Boomerang tube diagonal (59) Corner tube gusset (56) Boomerang wrapped diagonal (58) Corner wrapped gusset (63) Bolted gusset (11)

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Connections End plate (144) Shear plate simple (146) Welded to top flange (147) Welded to top flange S (149) Moment connection (181) Column with stiffeners W (182) Full depth (184) Full depth S (185) Column with stiffeners (186) Column with stiffeners S (187) Column with stiffeners (188) Bent plate (190) Shear plate tube column (189)

Connections Bracing cross (19) Tube gusset (20) Tube crossing (22) Gusset wrapped cross (62) Wrapped cross (61) Welded gusset (10)

1.9 Using Excel in connection design


You can link system components and Excel spreadsheets, so when a component is applied or modified, an associated Excel spreadsheet application can be run. The configuration information is passed from the component to the spreadsheet, calculation run within the spreadsheet and component properties passed back to the connection.

You can use Excel in connection design for all steel components that have the Design tab in their properties dialog box.

Tekla Structures includes sample spreadsheet for connection design and a template spreadsheet you should use to create your own spreadsheet applications to use with Tekla Structures components. Before you start:

Create the connections and parts. Create the Excel spreadsheet for connection type, or use a predefined file. See more in Setting up Excel files (p. 58). Double-click the connection to open the connection properties dialog box. Go to the Design (or Design type) tab and select Excel in the External design list box. Click Modify. The connection properties are transferred from Tekla Structures to a connection type specific Excel spreadsheet, where the properties are calculated. The calculated properties are saved to an output file. The modified properties are transferred back to Tekla Structures and the connection is modified according to the changes.

To use the Excel spreadsheet for connection design: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.


Topics

Setting up Excel files (p. 58) Sample implementation (p. 58)

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57

Indicating component status (p. 60)

Setting up Excel files


The following list describes what kind of files are needed for performing connection design with Excel:

Visual Basic script file linking Tekla Structures with external software. Excel spreadsheet containing calculations.

Component type specific spreadsheet, which contains predefined calculations. When you run the connection design, the connection properties and information of the main and secondary parts are transferred to the Input and Component sheets of the spreadsheet.

Connection specific result file, which displays the modified connection properties is stored to model folder.


File names and locations

This file is created automatically from the Calculation sheet of the spreadsheet. The file is updated each time you modify the connection. Calculation results can be stored as Excel spreadsheet, HTML or PDF format, depending on how calculation spreadsheet is configured.

Excel.vb file (located in the ..\Tekla Structures\<version>\environments\common\exceldesign folder) defines the Excel spreadsheet file names and the locations. Excel searches for the spreadsheet in the following order and with following name: 1. File named component_ + number or name + .xls, from the current model folder: ..\<model>\exceldesign For example, ..\test_model\exceldesign\component_144.xls File name and path defined with advanced option XS_EXTERNAL_EXCEL_DESIGN_PATH: XS_EXTERNAL_EXCEL_DESIGN_PATH (=%XS_DIR%\environments\common\exceldesign\) + "component_" + number + ".xls" By default, the result file is stored in the model folder and named with component ID. For example, component_9502_res.xls.

2.

Sample implementation
Below is descibed the contents of an Excel spreadsheet which is used for End plate (144) connection: When user clicks Modify in the End plate (144) properties dialog box, Excel.vb file calls Excel spreadsheet named component_144.xls.
Contents

The sample spreadsheet includes the following sheets:


Inputs (user inputs on connection dialog).

Tekla Structures transfers the component properties from the component properties dialog box to this sheet.

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Component

Tekla Structures transfers the component geometry and information on the main and secondary parts (for example, part profiles) into this sheet. The component attributes in the spreadsheet are the same as in the corresponding .inp file. See more about .inp files in Input files. This sheet includes calculations (the calculations can be as Visual Basic macros in the sheet).

Calculation

Summary of calculation is collected to the Calculation sheet. This page or full Excel spreadsheet can be stored as a report of the calculation.

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59

Outputs

Excel adds the modified values to the Output sheet. These values are tranferred back to the connection and connection in the model is modified accordingly.

Indicating component status


When you use Excel in connection design, you can have Tekla Structures use different colored component symbols to indicate the status of a component in the model. To do this, include the error attribute on the Output page of the Excel spreadsheet for the component. The possible values are:

Value
1

Color Green

Status Bolt edge distances are sufficient. Passes the connection design check using the UK and US design codes embedded in the system.

Yellow

Bolt edge distances are insufficient according to the value in Tools > Options > Options... > Components. Tekla Structures cannot calculate the component properties. Possible reasons include:

Red

Incorrect connection direction Incorrect workplane Inappropriate connection selected The connection design check was carried out using the embedded UK and US design codes and the connection cannot support the loading defined by the user.

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Custom Components

Introduction

Tekla Structures contains a set of tools for defining intelligent connections, parts, seams, and details, called custom components. You can create your own components, similar to Tekla Structures system components. Tekla Structures creates a dialog box for the custom component, which you can easily customize, if required. You can then use custom components in the same way as any Tekla Structures system component.

You can also edit custom components to create parametric custom components that automatically adjust to changes in the model.
Audience Contents

This chapter is aimed at people who know how to use Tekla Structures components. This chapter includes the following topics, which are the steps you follow to create custom components:

Defining custom components (p. 62) Editing custom components (p. 69) Defining variables (p. 73) Functions to use in formulas (p. 82) Defining custom component properties (p. 90) Managing and using custom components (p. 100) Custom components reference (p. 111)

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2.1 Defining custom components


Introduction

You can build custom components either by exploding and modifying an existing component, or by creating the component objects individually. You then define a custom component by selecting the objects to include in the custom component, and specifying the information the user needs to input, for example, main part, secondary parts, or points they need to pick. You can now apply the custom component in a similar location in the model to where it was originally created.

To create a parametric custom component, you need to do some more editing. For more information, see Editing custom components (p. 69).

Go to Detailing > Component > Define Custom Component to define the properties of a new custom component. To browse a list of custom components, 1. 2.
Topics

Press Ctrl + F to open the Component catalog. Select Search results > Custom.

Exploding components (p. 62) Defining a custom component (p. 62) Custom component types (p. 66) Custom component basic properties (p. 68)

Exploding components
Explode Component is a very useful command to use when defining custom components. It

ungroups the objects in an existing component, you can then remove and modify parts and other objects in the component. To explode a component: 1. 2. 3. Click Detailing > Component > Explode component. Select the component to explode. Tekla Structures ungroups the objects in the component.

Defining a custom component


You can define and save custom components in the component library. Before you can define a custom component, you need to create a sample component in the model containing all the necessary component objects, such as parts, fittings, bolts, and so on.

To quickly create a custom component, explode a similar existing component, then change it to suit your needs. See Exploding components (p. 62).

Use the Custom Component Wizard on the Detailing menu to define the properties of a new custom component. See the following example.

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Follow the steps in the custom component wizard. Some steps are different for different types of custom component.

Example

In the following example we will create a custom component based on an existing end plate component that we have exploded.

To explode a component, select the component, right-click and select Explode Component from the pop-up menu.

1.

Click Detailing > Component > Define Custom Component... to open the Custom Component Wizard dialog box.

2. 3.

4. 5.

On the Type/Notes tab, set Type to Connection. Enter a Name for the custom component. On the Position and Advanced tabs, set the Position type and other properties for the custom component. For more information on other properties, see Detailing > Component > Define Custom Component... (p. 112). Click Next. Select the objects to use in the custom component and click Next.

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63

You can use area select to select the objects to include. Tekla Structures ignores the main part, secondary parts, grids and component symbols when you are selecting objects to include in the custom component. 6. Select the main part and click Next.

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7.

Select the secondary part(s). To select several secondary part(s), hold down the Shift key while you select the parts. The maximum number of secondary parts in a custom component is 30. Pay attention to the order in which you select secondary parts. The custom component will use the same selection order when you use it in a model.

8.

Click Finish.

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65

9.

Tekla Structures displays a component symbol for the new component.

You have now defined a simple custom component, which you can use in similar locations to where it was originally created. This component is not parametric and Tekla Structures does not adjust dimensions to suit any changes in the model. To create a parametric custom component, see Editing custom components (p. 69).
See also

Custom component basic properties (p. 68) Custom component types (p. 66)

Custom component types


Custom component types are:

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Type
Connection

Description Creates connection objects and connects secondary part(s) to a main part. Component symbol is green.

Example

Detail

Creates detail objects and connects them to a main part at a picked location. Component symbol is green.

Seam

Creates seam objects and connects parts along a line picked with two points. Component symbol is green.

Part

Creates a group of objects which may contain connections and details. Gets no symbol, has same position properties as beams.

Main part Secondary part

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67

Custom component basic properties


Tekla Structures automatically creates each custom component with a set of basic properties, which we describe in this section. To view the properties of a custom component: 1. 2. 3.
Basic properties of custom connections, seams, and details

Press Ctrl + F to open the Component catalog. In the Search result listbox, select Custom. A list of custom components appears in the lower pane. Double-click a custom component on the list to open its properties dialog box.

Custom connections, seams, and details have the following basic properties:

Field
Up direction Position in relation to secondary part

Description Rotates the component. The creation point of the component relative to the main part. Available for details by default. To use this property in connections and seams, select the Allow
multiple instances of connection between same parts checkbox on the Advanced tab when you create

More information Up direction (p. 13) General tab (p. 15)

the component.
Class Connection code

The class of the parts that the custom component creates. Identifies the connection. Tekla Structures can display this connection code in connection marks in drawings. The rule group used for setting the connection properties. The rule group Tekla Structures uses to select the connection.

About parts Mark elements

AutoDefaults rule group AutoConnection rule group Basic properties of custom parts

Using AutoDefaults (p. 45) Using AutoConnection (p. 42)

Custom parts have the following basic properties:

Field
On plane Rotation

Description Changes part location on work plane. Rotates part in steps of 90 degrees.

More information Position on the work plane Rotation

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Field
At depth Show third handle

Description Changes part location perpendicular to work plane. Sets the third handle of a nested custom part to be visible in the desired direction. You can bind the third handle in the desired direction and thus force the part to follow the rotation of another part. You have the following options:

More information Position depth Part handles

Above: the handle is shown

See also

above the first handle in custom part local coordinate system. On the left: the handle is shown on the left-hand side of the first handle in custom part local coordinate system. No: the third handle is not shown.

Defining a custom component (p. 62) Using a custom component (p. 106) Detailing > Component > Define Custom Component... (p. 112)

2.2 Editing custom components


Introduction

To make a simple custom component parametric, so that it adapts to changes in the model, you must edit it in the Custom component editor. Here you can build dependencies between component objects and model objects. For example, you could specify that the size of a stiffener depends on the size of the beam. So, if you change the size of the beam, the size of the stiffener also changes. You can also add distance variables, for example to specify the gap between a plate and a beam. Custom component editor (p. 69) Plane types (p. 120) Construction plane (p. 121)

Topics

Custom component editor


Use the custom component editor to modify custom components and create intelligent, parametric custom components. First, create a custom component in the model.
Opening the editor

To open the custom component editor: 1. 2. Click Detailing > Component > Edit Custom Component. Select the custom component. The Custom component editor opens. It shows the Custom component editor toolbar, the Custom component browser and four views of the custom component.

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69

Custom parts do not have a component symbol. To be able to select custom parts, make sure the Select components switch is active.

Custom component toolbar

The toolbar contains the following icons and list boxes:

Icon/ List box

Description Creates a distance. Creates a reference distance. Creates distances automatically. Creates a construction plane. Creates a construction line.

Plane types

Displays plane types you can use when defining distance variables. For more information, see Plane types (p. 120). Define the position (or origin) of the custom component, relative to the main part. For more information, see Position type (p. 114). Allows you to edit the type or the position of a custom component or add notes after you have created the component. Shows all created variables. Displays Custom component browser. Saves the custom component with another name. Saves and updates the existing component(s) in the model. Closes the editor.

Position types

For more information on these tools, see Custom components reference (p. 111).
Editing properties

You can add and edit many custom component properties:

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Editing task Create fields for material grade, profile, bolt size, and other properties that will be visible in the custom component dialog box. Define part dimensions, spacings, gaps, etc. that will be visible in the custom component dialog box. Bind component objects to model objects so that component objects adjust for new beam size or profile. Create formulas to calculate values, for example for calculating bolt edge distance using bolt size.
Library component vs. model component

More information Creating parameter variables (p. 80)

Creating distance variables (p. 75) Automatic distances (p. 125) Creating distance variables (p. 75) Creating parameters that use formulae (p. 81)

Use the custom component editor to modify custom component. You can open a custom component in the editor even if you have already used it in a model. When you have edited the custom component, you can choose to apply the changes to all copies of the custom component, or to save the component with a new name.

To apply your changes to the library and to all copies of the custom component in the model, use the Copy component to library command. To save the edited custom component with a new name, use the Copy component to library with new name command and enter a new name for the custom component.Tekla Structures does not apply the changes to the other copies of the custom component in the model.

Closing the editor

To close the custom component editor: 1. 2. . Click the Close icon Tekla Structures asks if you want to save the custom component with its original name.

If you click Yes, Tekla Structures will overwrite the copies of the custom component in the library and the model.

Creating automatic backup files

When you modify a custom component, Tekla Structures automatically creates a backup file of the custom component. The backup files have the extension .inp_bak, and they are located in the model folder. Tekla Structures displays a notification when the backup file is created. See also Custom component browser (p. 71)

Custom component browser


The Custom component browser shows the contents of a custom component in a hierarchical, tree-like structure. The Custom component browser works with Custom component editor views. Click a part in the view and Tekla Structures highlights it in the browser, or click a part in the browser to have Tekla Structures highlight it in the view. The Custom component browser contains the following information about a custom component:

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71

Model objects, to which custom component is attached The objects the custom component creates You can create links between custom component variables and component object properties You can create links between custom component parameter variables and component object properties. For example, variable "m" defines the material grade for all plates in your component. It appears as "Material = m" in the Custom component browser (see above illustration). "m" is also a field in the custom component dialog box. When a user enters a value in the "m" field in the dialog box for plates, Tekla Structures saves the value to the part properties in the model.
Popup menu

You can also use the popup menu in the Custom component browser to copy names, values, and references from main and secondary parts in the component. Then use them in the Variables dialog box to define the properties of custom components. For example, to report how many secondary parts to pick when applying a component, you can use a variable called Number of secondaries. You can then use the variable in formulas, and copy the name, value and reference to other custom components.

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Copies just the value the object currently has Copies the link to the property. Link is dynamic, so when the property later changes the reference reflects the change
Using custom part properties

If you have created a custom part in to your model, you can access the object properties of the custom part when the custom part is used an input part. You can access the name, profile, material and class of the input custom part, and use the properties of the input part in the component objects. This is useful in cases where the material for a new part needs to be taken from the inner or outer layer of an existing part. Defining variables (p. 73) Creating parameter variables (p. 80) Creating parameters that use formulae (p. 81)

See also

2.3 Defining variables


Variables are the properties of a custom component. Some of them appear in the custom component dialog box, others are hidden and are only used in calculations. There are two types of variable:

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Variable type
Distance

Description Distance between two planes or between a point and a plane. Binds parts together or works as a variable reference distance. All other properties, including name, material grade, bolt size, etc. Also used in calculations.

See also Creating distance variables (p. 75) Creating reference distances (p. 77) Creating parameter variables (p. 80) Creating parameters that use formulae (p. 81)

Parameter

Viewing variables

To see all distance and parameter variables in a component, in the custom component editor, click the Display variables icon The Variables dialog box appears:

The Component parameters category lists all distances and parameters that belong to the current custom component. The Model parameters category lists all distances and parameters in the current model.

When you select a distance variable from a list, Tekla Structures highlights it in the model. To delete the selected distance or parameter, click Delete. To add a new parameter variable, click Add. For more information to other properties, see Display variables (p. 115).
Topics

Creating distance variables (p. 75) Creating reference distances (p. 77)

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Using magnetic construction planes (p. 79) Creating parameter variables (p. 80) Creating parameters that use formulae (p. 81)

Creating distance variables


Use distance variables to bind handles, fittings, cuts, and so on, to planes so that the custom component can adapt to different situations, such as different main profile shapes and sizes. You can create a distance variable from point to plane or from plane to plane. These distances can be visible or hidden. Use visible distances when you want the user to enter a distance value in the custom component dialog box. To simply bind objects to planes, use hidden distances. You can bind the corners of polygon plates also in directions other than the plane of the plate. You can, for example, bind the corner of a contour plate in the z direction.

Use the automatic distances command to automatically create distances for the handles of picked components:

For more information, see Automatic distances (p. 125).


How

In this example we will create a distance variable that binds the upper edge of the end plate to the upper flange of the secondary part. Whenever you create this custom component in the model, the end plate will follow the upper flange, regardless of the profile or size the secondary part. Before you start, ensure that the part representation is set to rendered. Part surfaces and available planes can be selected only in rendered views. To create the distance variable: 1. Select the object from which to measure the distance. This object will follow the plane to which you bind it. In this example, select the plates topmost reference point (magenta or yellow) Click the Create distance icon or right-click the reference point and select Bind to Plane from the pop-up menu. Move the mouse cursor over a view to see the available planes.

2. 3.

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75

Highlighted boundary plane You can change plane types before selecting the plane

You can also use the Hide Part command if the plane is not accessible.

4.

To create the distance, click when the plane you want to use is highlighted. Tekla Structures draws a distance symbol in the views of the custom component editor. Tekla Structures displays a distance symbol in the custom component editor views. You can bind one object to a maximum of three planes.

Distance object 5. 6. To end the command, right-click and select Interrupt. Double-click the distance object. The Distance properties dialog box appears.

7.

Enter a descriptive Name for the distance. To test the distance variable, enter different values and click Modify to see the changes in the model.

8.

Click Cancel.

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9.

To hide or show the distance variable in the dialog box and to set the other properties, click to open the Variables dialog box. For more information, see Display variables (p. 115).

Limitations

You cannot pick points in secondary or main parts. You cannot change an existing distance binding. You must delete the distance and then rebind it.

To be able to select distances, make sure the Select distances switch is active.

See also

Create distance (p. 123)

Creating reference distances


Use reference distances to measure the distance between two points or a point and a plane. You can then use the reference distance in calculations, for example, to determine the spacing of rungs on a ladder. A reference distance changes as you move the objects it refers to. Tekla Structures displays reference distances in orange. You cannot move objects by changing their reference distances.

To be able to select reference distances, make sure the Select distances switch is active.

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Example

In this example we will define several variables: distances, reference distances, and parameters, and use them in a custom component that creates a ladder with rungs spaced at set intervals, for any length of ladder. Here is how the variables appear in the Variables dialog box:

1. 2. 3. 4.

Create a ladder frame with one rung 285 mm from the bottom of the frame. To make the ladder a custom component, select Detailing > Define custom component... and follow the steps in the Custom component wizard. Right-click the ladder and select Edit custom component... from the popup menu. In the Custom component editor, use the Array of objects (29) component to create the rest of the rungs. Use the Create distance tool to bind the bottom rung to the bottom of the ladder frame (D1 and D2 in the in the Variables dialog box). See Create distance (p. 123) for step-by-step instructions.

5.

Use the Create reference distance tool to create a reference distance from a handle on the bottom rung to the plane at the top of the ladder. Select a rung handle


6. 7. 8.

On the Custom component editor toolbar, click the Create reference distance icon

Bind the handle to the horizontal plane at the top of the ladder frame.

This distance appears as D3 in the Variables dialog box. Go to the Variables dialog box. Add a parameter (P1) to define rung spacing. Give it the value 250. Add another parameter (P2) to define the distance from the bottom of the ladder to the first rung. Give it the value 285. 9. Give the distances D1 and D2 the formula =P2. This forces both distances to be the value defined by P2. 285 in this case. 10. Add a new parameter (P3) to define the number of rungs. Give it the formula =(D3-P2)/P1. 11. We want the number of rungs to be an integer, so add a new parameter (P4) and give it the formula =ceil (15.52).This rounds P3 up to the nearest integer.

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12. Add a new parameter (P5) to calculate the distance between the rungs. Give it the formula =(D3-P2)/P4. This formula subtracts the distance from the bottom of the ladder to the bottom rung from the reference distance (D3) and divides the result by the number of rungs (P4). 13. Go to the Custom component browser and link the following properties of the Array of objects (29) component to parameters P4 and P5, as shown below:

When you use this custom component to create a ladder in a model, Tekla Structures automatically calculates the correct spacing for the rungs.
See also

Create reference distance (p. 124) Defining custom components (p. 62)

Using magnetic construction planes


You can bind several objects at one time using magnetic construction planes. The objects directly on a magnetic plane will move with the plane. So you only need to create a distance variable for the plane and not for each object separately. As you can see from the example below, it is much easier and faster to use magnetic user planes than to bind handles with individual distance variables.
Example

Different methods of binding chamfers to the inner face of a flange:

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79

Option 1: Control the stiffeners by using 4 magnetic construction planes - one in each direction. Then you only bind each magnetic plane with one distance variable Option 2: Bind each chamfer separately - a total of 32 bindings For more information on magnetic construction planes, see Construction plane (p. 121).

By default, the handles of contour plates are not visible. To show them, set the advanced option XS_DRAW_CHAMFERS_HANDLES to HANDLES.

Creating parameter variables


You can use parameter variables to set basic properties for objects that custom component creates, for example, name, material, profile, position number, etc.
Example

In this example we create a parameter variable "Weldsize" that sets all welds in a custom component to a given size: 1. 2. 3. On the Custom component editor toolbar, click Click the Add button. Enter following information: Name = Weldsize to open the Variables dialog box.


4. 5.

Formula = Value = 0.0 Variable type = parameter Value type = length Visibility = Show (this makes Weldsize visible in the dialog box) Label in dialog box = WeldSize

Click OK button to close the dialog box. In the Custom component browser, click Component objects > Weld > General properties and right-click Size above line and select Add equation. Type after the equal sign "Weldsize". Repeat this step for all welds.

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6. 7.

Click Save. Click Close icon to exit the Custom component editor.

Your custom component dialog box should now contain the field WeldSize. When anyone creates the component, all welds are of the size you enter in the WeldSize field.

Creating parameters that use formulae


This example shows how to create a hidden parameter variable that includes a formula to set weld size to half the thickness of the secondary part flange. This variable will not be visible in the custom component dialog box. When you create the component, Tekla Structures uses the thickness of the secondary part flange to calculate the size of the weld(s). 1. In the Custom component browser, click Input objects > Secondary parts > Part > Profile properties and right-click Flange thickness 1 and then select Copy reference. Tekla Structures copies the reference to secondary part flange thickness to the Windows Clipboard.

2. 3. 4. 5.

In the Custom component editor toolbar, click

to open the Variables dialog box.

Click Add button. Set Variable name to w. Click the Formula field, type =, then right-click and select Paste. Tekla Structures pastes the reference to flange thickness from the Clipboard. Now enter *0.5. Formula should now read:

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=fP(Flange thickness 1.1525)*0.5.

6.

Set other values:


7.

Variable type = Parameter Value type =Length Visibility = Hide

8.

In the Custom component browser, click Component Objects > Weld > General properties and right-click Size above line and select Add equation. Type in after the equal sign "w". Click OK button to close the dialog box.

2.4 Functions to use in formulas


This section lists all the functions you can use in formulas in custom components. Formulas always begin with the equals character (=). You can use the following functions in formulas:

Reference function (p. 83) Mathematical functions (p. 84) Statistical functions (p. 85) Data type conversions (p. 86) String operations (p. 86) Trigonometric functions (p. 88) Framing condition functions (p. 88)

Arithmetic operators
You can use the following arithmetic operators:

Operator + -

Description addition subtraction

Notes Use also to create strings of parameters.

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Operator *

Description multiplication

Notes Multiplication is faster than division, so it is faster to use =D1*0.5 rather than =D1/2.

division

Logical statement
You can use if-then-else statements to test a condition and set the value according to the result:
=if (D1>200) then 20 else 10 endif

You can also use the operators && (the logical AND operator) and || (the logical OR operator) inside the if statement.

&& - both conditions must be true || only one condition must be true

For example to use a value 6:


=if (D1==200 && D2<40) then 6 else 0 endif

D1 must be 200 and D2 must be less than 40.


=if (D1==200 || D2<40) then 6 else 0 endif

D1 must equal 200, or D2 must be less than 40.

Reference function
A reference function refers to the property of another object, such as the plate thickness of a secondary part. Tekla Structures refers to the object on the system level, so if the object property changes, so does the reference function value. fP(propertyname, ObjectId) To ensure the function includes the correct parameters, cut and paste it from the Custom
component browser:

1. 2.

Right-click the property in the Custom component browser and select Copy reference. Right-click the Formula cell in the Variables dialog box and select Paste.

Note that template attribute and user-defined attribute names must be written inside double quotation marks:

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Name fTpl("template attribute", object ID)

Description Returns the value of template attribute with given object ID. For a list of available template attributes, see Template attributes reference.

Example fTpl("WEIGHT",6290) returns the weight of object, whose ID is 6290.

fP("user-defined attribute", object ID)

Returns the value of userdefined attribute with given object ID.

fP("comment", 741) returns the user-defined attribute comment of object, whose ID is 741.

Mathematical functions
The mathematical functions are:

Name fabs(parameter)

Description Returns the absolute value of the specified parameter. Returns e raised to the specified power. Natural logarithm of the specified parameter (base number neper). Returns the logarithm of the specified parameter (base number 10). Returns the square root of the specified parameter. Modulo Returns base number raised to the specified power.

Example fabs(D1) returns 15 if D1 = -15 exp(D1) returns 7.39 if D1=2 ln(P2) returns 2.71 if P2=15 log(D1) returns 2 if D1=100 sqrt(D1) returns 4 if D1=16 mod(D1, 5) returns 1 if D1=16 pow(D1, D2) returns 9 if D1=3 D2=2

exp(power) ln(parameter)

log(parameter)

sqrt(parameter)

mod(dividend, divider) pow(base number, power)

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Name hypot(side1,side2)

Description

Example hypot(D1, D2) returns 5 if D1=3 D2=4

side1 hypotenuse side2 n!() round(parameter, accuracy) fMarketSize(materi al, thickness, extrastep) Factorial Round off according to given accuracy. Returns the next available market size for the material from the marketsize.dat file, based on the thickness you specify. Insert the material in the parentheses. For extrastep enter a number to define the increment to the next size (default is 0). n!(4) returns 24 (=1*2*3*4) round(P1, 0.1) returns 10.600 if P1=10.567 fMarketSize("S235JR", 10, 0) See also Using market sizes.

Statistical functions
The statistical functions are:

Name ceil()

Description Returns the smallest whole number greater than or equal to the specified parameter. Returns the largest whole number less than or equal to the specified parameter. Returns the smallest of specified parameters. Returns the largest of specified parameters. Sum of specified parameters

Example (P1=1.4 P2=2.3) ceil(P1) returns 2

floor()

floor(P1) returns 1

min() max() sum()

min(P1, P2) returns 1.4 max(P1, P2) returns 2.3 sum(P1, P2) returns 3.7

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Name sqsum() ave() sqave()

Description Sum of squared parameters: (parameter1)2 + (parameter2)2 Average of parameters Average of squared parameters.

Example (P1=1.4 P2=2.3) sqsum(P1, P2) returns 7.25 ave(P1, P2) returns 1.85 sqave(P1, P2) returns 3.625

Data type conversions


Conversion functions perform conversions between the three supported data types, integers, doubles and strings.

Name int()

Description Conversion to integer. This is useful especially for calculating profile dimensions: 100.0132222000 -> 100 Converts data to a double Converts data to string Converts imperial units to millimeters imp (1,1,1,2) meaning 1 foot 1 1/2 inches returns 342.90 mm imp(1,1,2) meaning 1 1/2 inches returns 38.10 mm imp(1,2) meaning 1/2 inches returns 12.70 mm imp(1) meaning 1 inch returns 25.40 mm

double() string() imp()

vwu(value , unit)

Converts the value to millimeters. The available units are:

vwu(4.0, "in") returns 101.6 mm

"ft" ("feet", "foot") "in" ("inch", "inches") "m" "cm" "mm" "rad" "deg"

String operations
Include string parameters inside double quotation marks within the argument list of string operations.

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Name match(parameter1 , parameter2)

Description Returns 1 if parameters are equal and 0 if different. You can also use wildcards *, ?, and [ ] with the match function.

Example (P1="PL100*10") match(P1, "PL100*10") returns 1 Accept all profiles starting with PFC: match(P4, "PFC*") Accept profiles starting with PFC, and height starts with 2,3,4 or 5: match(P4, "PFC[2345]*") Accept profiles starting with PFC, heights are 200,300,400 or 500 and width starts with 7: match(P4, "PFC[2345]00?7")

length(parameter)

Returns the number of characters in the parameter. Returns the order number (starting at zero) of the specified string and -1 if the specified string is not found from the parameter. Returns the n:th (starting at zero) character from the parameter. Sets the n:th (starting at zero) character to the specified character in the parameter. Returns x characters from the given string starting from n:th (starting at zero) character. If you leave out the last argument (x), returns the last part of the string. Reverses the given string.

length(P1) returns 8

find(parameter, string)

find(P1, "*") returns 5

getat(parameter, n) setat(parameter, n, character)

getat(P1, 1) returns "L"

setat(P1, 0, "B") returns "BL100*10"

mid(string, n, x)

mid(P1,2,3) returns "100"

reverse(string)

reverse(P1) returns "01*001LP"

When you handle strings in formulas, you must use quotation marks. For example, to define profile size PL100*10 with two variables P2=100 and P3=10 enter the formula as follows: ="PL"+P2+"*"+P3

Tekla Structures handles bolt spacings as strings. To define bolt spacing, select variable type to distance list and enter the formula like this: =P1+" "+P2 This results in 100 200, if P1=100 (length) and P2=200 (length).

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Trigonometric functions
You can include trigonometric functions in the formulae. Be sure to include the unit using the following prefixes. If you do not include a prefix, Tekla Structures uses radians as the default unit:

d is degree. For example sin (d180) r is radians (Default). For example sin (r3.14) or sin (3.14)

Name sin() cos() tan() asin() acos() atan() sinh() cosh() tanh() atan2(,)

Description Sine Cosine Tangent Inverse function of sin(), return value in radians Inverse function of cos(), return value in radians Inverse function of tan(), return value in radians Hyperbolical sine Hyperbolical cosine Hyperbolical tangent Returns the angle whose tangent is the quotient of two specified numbers. Return value in radians

Framing condition functions


The following functions return the skew, slope, and cant angle of the secondary beam relative to the main part (column or beam).

Name fAD("skew", ID)

Description Returns the skewed angle of the secondary part, whose ID is given.

Example fAD("skew", 12345) returns 45 where 12345 is the ID of the secondary part, which is in 45 degree angle to main part.

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Name fAD("slope", ID)

Description Returns the sloped angle of the secondary part, whose ID is given.

Example fAD("slope", 12345)

fAD("cant", ID)

Returns the cant angle of rotated secondary part, whose ID is given.

fAD("cant", 12345)

Beam to column

Note that slope and skew are relative to a beam framing into a column.

Side view Top view Slope Skew Column Beam


Beam to beam

If you are working with two beams, "slope" is actually the skew of the beam framing into the other beam, and the vertical slope of the beam relative to the main is actually the "skew" angle.

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Side view Top view Skew Slope Beam


Limitations

These functions do not return positive and negative "slope" and "skew" values. So it is not possible to determine up or down "slope" and left or right "skew" with these functions. Maximum skew angle to return is 45 degrees.

2.5 Defining custom component properties


This section explains how to add different properties for custom components.
Topics

Adding an option to create parts (p. 90) Defining bolt size and standard (p. 91) Defining bolt group location (p. 92) Replacing a sub-component (p. 94) Changing the properties file (p. 96) Defining meshes in custom components (p. 97)

Adding an option to create parts


To include an option to create or not create parts in a custom component properties dialog box: 1. 2. 3. 4. In the Variables dialog box, add a new property Set the Value type to Yes/No, Set Visibility to Show Enter a Label to display in the custom component dialog box:

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5.

In the custom component browser, link the property to a part:

6.

Save the custom component and exit the custom component editor. When you open the custom component properties dialog box, you now have the option to create or not create the part:

Defining bolt size and standard


To add an option for selecting the bolt size in the custom component, you must add two options:

Bolt size Bolt standard

They work together and cannot be used separately.

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To define the bolt size and standard options: 1. 2. 3. on the Custom Component editor toolbar to open the Click the Variables icon Variables dialog box. Click Add twice. Now you have two variables P1 and P2. In the Value Type field, select Bolt size for P1 and Bolt standard for P2. Tekla Structures automatically adds the extensions "_diameter" and "_screwdin" to the name of the variables. Do not change these extensions. Change P2_screwdin to P1_screwdin. The prefix must be the same, otherwise the variables do not work. Modify P1_diameter label to "Bolt size" and P1_screwdin label to"Bolt standard".

4. 5.

6.

In the custom component browser, link the parameters to the bolt:

7.

Save the custom component and exit the custom component editor.

Defining bolt group location


To define the vertical distance from the secondary beam top flange to the first bolt, we add the following option to the custom component dialog box.

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This option requires a distance that binds the bolt group handle to the secondary beam top flange and a parameter for inputting the value in the user interface. 1. Double-click bolts in the custom component editor view. The Bolt properties dialog box appears. Remove any dimensions from the Offset fields, then click Modify. Bolts will move to the same level with the first handle of the bolt group.

2.

Select the bolts, then select the top handle. Right-click and select Bind to plane from the popup menu.

3.

Select the top flange of the secondary beam.

4.

A new distance parameter D1 appears in the Variables dialog box.

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5.

6.

Click Add to add a new parameter P1. In the Formula field, change the distance value. In the Label in dialog box field, enter a suitable label, for example: "Vertical distance to bolt". In the Formula field of D1, type in the equation "=-P1".

7.

Save the custom component and exit the custom component editor.

Replacing a sub-component
Use the Name property in the Custom component browser to replace a sub-component inside a custom component with another sub-component. In this example we have created a custom component that contains a pair of cast-in embeds as sub-components (castin1 and castin2):

Castin 1 Then we will replace castin1 with castin2. To do this: 1. 2. 3. Select the custom component. Right-click and select Edit custom component from the pop-up menu to open the custom component editor. In the Variables dialog box, add a new parameter. In the Formula field, enter the name of the sub-component, castin1.

Set Value type to Component name. Enter a name for the parameter in the Label in dialog box field and set Visibility to Show.

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4.

In the Custom component browser, add the equation P1_name for both subcomponents:

The field Cast-in plate will appear in the dialog box of our custom component.

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To change the sub-component: 1. 2. 3. Click the ... button next to the name field. The Select component dialog box opens. Select the component to use (in our case castin2) and click OK. In the custom component dialog box, click Modify. Tekla Structures changes the component in the model.

Castin 2

Changing the properties file


Use the Attribute file property in the Custom component browser to use different properties files for sub-components in a custom component. To add the properties file field to the custom component dialog box:

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1. 2. 3.

Select the custom component. Right-click and select Edit custom component from the pop-up menu to open the custom component editor. In the Variables dialog box, add a new parameter. In the Formula field, enter the name of the properties file (in our example, prop1).

Set Value type to Component attribute file. Tekla Structures automatically adds the extension _attrfile to the parameter name. Do not change this extension, but make sure that the prefix is the same as for the component name (in our example, P1). Enter a name for the parameter (in our example, Properties file) in the Label in dialog box field and set Visibility to Show.

4.

In the Custom component browser, add the equation P1_attrfile for Attribute file.

To use another properties file for a sub-component, in the components dialog box, click the ... button next to the Properties file field, and then select the properties file from a list:

Defining meshes in custom components


You can include rectangular meshes and change the mesh in your custom components.

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To define a rectangular mesh type in a custom component: 1. 2. 3. Create the mesh in the model or in the Custom component editor. See Reinforcement mesh (p. 154) for more information. In the Custom component editor, select the mesh, right-click, and select Properties... to open the Reinforcement properties dialog box. Click the Select button next to the Mesh: field to open the Select mesh dialog box:

4. 5. 6. 7. 8.

Copy the name of the mesh you want to use. on the Custom component editor toolbar to open the Click the Variables icon Variables dialog box. Click Add. In the Value Type field select the Text option. Paste the mesh you copied into the Formula field.

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9.

In the Custom component browser, add "=P1" after Catalog name in Component > Component objects > Reinforcement mesh > General properties.

to close the Custom Component editor. Tekla 10. Click the Close editor icon Structures prompts you to save your changes. Click Yes to save your changes. You have now defined the mesh in the Custom Component editor.

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If the mesh is defined in the custom component, other mesh properties, for example, longitudinal diameters, override the properties defined in the mesh catalog, so do not use Catalog name and other mesh properties at the same time. To change the mesh in the custom component: 1. 2. 3. 4. Select the mesh in the 3d view. Right-click and select Properties.... Copy and paste another mesh into the Parameter 1 field (in our example, the Mesh field). Click Modify to save your changes.

Creating surface treatments in custom components


To create surface treatments in the Custom component editor: 1. Select Outline planes on the toolbar instead of Boundary planes (which is the default).

2. 3.

Click Detailing > Create Surface Treatment and select the command to create the surface treatment. Optional: To select the surface treatment, set on the Select surface treatments selection switch . This switch is set off in the Custom component editor by default.

2.6 Managing and using custom components


This section describes the custom component dialog box and explains how to use and manage custom components.
Topics

Custom component dialog box (p. 100) Customizing the dialog box (p. 102) Using a custom component (p. 106) Managing custom components (p. 106) Performing actions on custom components (p. 108) Using Excel with custom components (p. 109) Using ASCII files with custom component (p. 109)

Custom component dialog box


Tekla Structures automatically creates a dialog box when you define a custom component. By default the dialog box has a General tab for connections, details, and seams and a Position tab for parts.

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Tekla Structures automatically creates tabs containing the parameters and distances you set to visible in the custom component editor. Tabs are named Parameter 1, Parameter 2, etc. Each tab can contain up to 25 fields. If you have more than 25 visible fields, Tekla Structures creates another tab. A typical custom component dialog box looks like this:

This information relates only to details For seams you can select whether to place a seam at the point you pick, or let Tekla Structures automatically place the seam.

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To place the seam at the point you pick, select the Place to picked
positions checkbox

To automatically place the seam, clear the Place to picked positions checkbox, and select one of the positioning options Tekla Structures creates an input file with the extension .inp for each dialog box in the model folder. You can modify the input file. See Customizing the dialog box (p. 102).

If you modify the input file, then edit and save the custom component dialog box using the custom component editor, you will lose the changes you made to the input file.

Customizing the dialog box


To customize the dialog box that Tekla Structures creates for the custom component you need to modify the input file which defines the dialog box. The input file has the same name as the custom component and file extension inp. It is located in the model folder.

This topic is for advanced users. Take care when modifying an input file. Errors may cause the dialog box to disappear.

The input file is a text file that you can edit using any text editor, for example Notepad. You can customize the dialog box by:

Changing the order of fields (p. 103) Changing the location of fields (p. 103) Renaming tabs (p. 104) Adding more tabs (p. 104) Adding pictures (p. 105) Preventing modifications (p. 105)

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To use the modified custom component dialog box, save the input file, then close and restart Tekla Structures.

Changing the order of fields


To change the order of fields, in the input file, change the last number in the parameter definition, as shown below:

Change these numbers to change the order of fields (listed from to bottom of dialog box)

Changing the location of fields


To change the location of fields, in the input file, change the last number in the parameter definition. Enter three numbers to define the exact location of the field in the dialog box: the x coordinate, y coordinate, and length of field. The example below shows these values for the second field in the dialog box:

x = 374

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y = 25 length = 160

Renaming tabs
To rename a tab, change the tab definition in the input file. You can rename any tab except the General tab. In the example below, you would change the text Parameters 1 to the new tab name (for example, Parts):

Adding more tabs


Each tab can contain 25 fields. If there are more than 25 visible fields, Tekla Structures creates another tab. You can also add tabs by modifying the input file. To add a second tab, edit the input file as shown below. Remember to adjust the location of the fields, if necessary.

Remember to adjust the field location

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The fourth tab is reserved for the General properties, so you cannot add your own parameter to it.

Adding pictures
Add images to make your custom component easier to use. First create the image and save it as a bitmap file (file extension bmp) in the ..\Tekla Structures\<version>\nt\bitmaps folder. To add the image to the custom component dialog box, edit the input file as shown below:

y = 100 x = 50 height = 75 width = 100

The first pixel in the top left corner of a bitmap must be the same color (gray) as the background of the dialog box.

Preventing modifications
Once the dialog box is ready, you can make the input file read-only to prevent accidental modifications. If the input file is not read-only, and someone else updates the custom component in the custom component editor, all your modifications to the input file will be lost. To make the input file read-only: 1. 2. In Windows Explorer, browse to find the input file. Right-click the file and select Properties... .

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3.

Select the Read-only checkbox.

When an input file is read-only, and you try to update the custom component, Tekla Structures displays a warning message saying that the *.inp file is read-only and changes to it will not be saved. You have the following options:

Click Cancel to return to the custom component editor. Click Continue to skip updating the *.inp file, but make all the other updates.

Using a custom component


To use a custom component in a model: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Use the keystrokes Ctrl + F to open the Component catalog dialog box. In the Search results list box, select Custom. Tekla Structures lists all custom components in the bottom pane. Double-click a custom component in the list to open its properties dialog box. Enter the properties you want to use and click Apply. Tekla Structures prompts you to pick the parts or points and parts needed to create the component.

Managing custom components


Use the Component catalog to manage custom components. To open the Component catalog, use:

keystrokes Ctrl + F or the Find a component icon on a components toolbar

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To find all custom components, select Custom in the Search result list box All custom components have the Number -1 To view the properties of a custom component, double-click its name

Exporting and importing


You can export custom components to a file, and then import the file into another model.
Exporting

To export custom components to a file: 1. 2. 3. Select the custom components in the component catalog. Right-click and select Export.... The Export components dialog box opens. Enter a name for the file in the Selection field. By default, the file extension is .uel and the file is located in the current model folder.

Importing

To import custom components from a file: 1. 2. Right-click the list of custom components in the component catalog and select Import.... The Import components dialog box opens. Browse to find the exported file (*.uel), click the file name and then click OK.

If the custom component contains sketched cross sections, you need to export and import both the sketches and the component.

To automatically import all *.uel files from a folder when creating a new model, use the advanced option XS_UEL_IMPORT_FOLDER. After importing custom components, you can check from the Log file how many components were succesfully imported. To open the log file, click Tools > Display log file >
Session History...

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See also

Performing actions on custom components (p. 108)

Protecting custom components with passwords


You can protect custom components with passwords. Password protection allows you to share components while protecting your work. To specify a password for a custom component:
Usage

1. 2.

Select the custom component you wish to protect and right-click. To open the Custom component editor, select Edit Custom Component on the pop-up menu. to display the In the Custom component editor, click the Display variables icon Variables dialog box. In the Variables dialog box, add a new parameter by clicking the Add button. In the Name column, enter Password. In the Formula column, enter the desired password.

3. 4. 5. 6. Result

After you have added this parameter, every time you try to edit this custom component Tekla Structures asks for the password. Tekla Structures informs you about an incorrect password. If you enter an incorrect password, you cannot use the custom component editor to modify the component.
Example

Performing actions on custom components


Information regarding custom components is stored in the ComponentCatalog.txt file, located in the model folder. If the properties of the file are set to read-only, the following actions are not possible:

adding to favorites adding to search results changing picture deleting the custom component editing keywords importing the custom component removing from search results

In these cases Tekla Structures displays a warning dialog box and the action is cancelled. To change the properties of the file: 1. 2. 3. In Windows Explorer, browse to find the file. Right-click the file and select Properties.... Clear the Read-only checkbox.

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Using Excel with custom components


You can link Excel spreadsheets to custom components, for example, to check connections. For custom components, you need to add the property Use external design to the custom component dialog box. 1. 2. 3. Select the component, then right-click and select Edit custom component. In the custom component editor, click to open the Variables dialog box. Click Add and enter the following information:

4.
Spreadsheet location

Save the component and close the custom component editor. The custom component dialog box now contains the Use external design property.

The template spreadsheets are located in folder ..\Tekla Structures\<version>\environments\common\exceldesign. By default, Tekla Structures searches for the spreadsheet in the following order:


Spreadsheet name

From the model folder: ..\<model>\exceldesign\. From folder defined with advanced option XS_EXTERNAL_EXCEL_DESIGN_PATH

The name of the file must be component_*component name*.xls. For example component_custom1.xls for a custom component named custom1. For more information on the required Excel files, file locations and how to perform the connection check with Excel, see Using Excel in connection design (p. 57).

Using ASCII files with custom component


You can use ASCII format files to get the default values from cold rolled files for custom components, for example. The format for reading files is following:

fVF(filename, key value of row, column number)


Example

Key value for row is a unique text value (for example, HEA300). Column value is an index (integer) starting from 1.

Function returns value as text. User will define the correct type for parameter in editor.

For example, in the custom component editor, add function fVF("Overlap.dat", "MET202Z25", 4) in the Variables dialog box. The function gets the default value for bolt diameter 16.0 for profile MET-202Z25, from the Overlap.dat file.

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Key value of row Column number


File search order

Tekla Structures searches for the files as system files in the following order:

model ..\TeklaStructuresModels\<model>\CustomComponentDialogFiles\ project (set with advanced option XS_PROJECT) firm (set with advanced option XS_FIRM) system (set with advanced option XS_SYSTEM)

Tips on working with custom components


These tips will help you to efficiently create, save, and share parametric and non-parametric custom components:
General

Use library profiles when possible. So you do not have to copy user-defined profiles when you copy the component to other locations. Use short, logical names. Use the description field to describe the component and explain what it does. Store custom components together. It makes them easy to find and export. Consider creating a component model. Use this model to create and test custom components. Provide essential information. If you distribute your component to other users, remember to list the profiles it works with. Remember to copy user-defined profile cross sections with your custom component.

Creating nonparametric components

Use the simplest part you can. For example, if all you need is a rectangular shape, use a rectangular plate, not a contour plate. Rectangular plates only have 2 handles, so you only need to create a few bindings or magnetic planes to manipulate them. Contour plates require more because they have 4 chamfers and handles, when you set the advanced option XS_DRAW_CHAMFERS_HANDLES to CHAMFERS or HANDLES.

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Rectangular plate Contour plate Only model parts as accurately as you need. If the only part information required is a part mark on the GA drawing and a quantity on the materials list, create a simple bar or plate. If, later, you need to include it in a detailed view, simply re-model the part more accurately.
Creating intelligent (parametric) components

Plan to use magnetic planes to bind objects together. This makes intelligent components simpler, and easier to use, because it reduces the number of dimensions and parameters the user must enter. Model as many parts on the same plane as you can, and then use offsets to position them accurately.

Not using magnetic planes: Pick all 10 handles to bind the parts together Using 3 magnetic planes: Pick 3 points to bind the parts together (pick 1 point on each magnetic plane) Model embeds as custom parts and include them in components. Create simple components for specific situations. It is faster and easier to model simple components. They are also much easier to use. Avoid creating a super component to use in every possible situation.

2.7 Custom components reference


This section consists of the reference pages for the custom component commands. The following table lists the commands used to define, create, and manage custom components.

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Command Detailing > Component > Define Custom Component... (p. 112) Display variables (p. 115) Browser (p. 119)

Icon

Description Starts the custom component wizard which guides you through defining a custom component. Displays a list of distance and parameter variables. Displays the custom component browser that shows the contents of a custom component in a hierarchical, tree-like structure. Defines which planes can be selected. The command to create your own plane. Allows you to edit the type or the position of a custom component or add notes after you have created the component The command to create distance variables. The command to create variable reference distancies. Automatically generates distance variables for custom component objects.

Plane types (p. 120) Construction plane (p. 121) Custom component settings (p. 122)

Create distance (p. 123) Create reference distance (p. 124) Automatic distances (p. 125)

Detailing > Component > Define Custom Component...


Synopsis Preconditions

This command defines a new custom component and saves it to a library for later use. All the necessary objects (parts, cuts, fittings, bolts, etc.) must exist in the model, because you will need to select different objects, points etc. to define the custom component. See also Exploding components (p. 62). This command defines a simple custom component, which you can use in similar locations to where it was originally created. This component is not parametric and Tekla Structures does not adjust dimensions to suit any changes in the model. To create a parametric custom component, see Editing custom components (p. 69).

Description

Field
Type

Description Affects how the user inserts the custom component into the model. Also defines if the custom component connects to existing parts. Unique name for the custom component. If the name already exists, the Next button is grayed out. Short description of the custom component. This will be shown in the component browser.

More information Component types (p. 10)

Name

Description

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Field
Component identifier Up direction Position type Detail type

Description To include this in drawings, include Code in the connection mark. The default up direction. Used only in connections and details. Position (or origin) of the connection, relative to the main part. Determines on which side of the main part the detail is located. The options are:
Intermediate detail - Tekla Structures creates all details on the same side of the main part. End detail - Tekla Structures creates all details on the side of the main part closest to the detail.

More information Mark elements

Position type (p. 114) Only affects asymmetric details (for example a one-side stiffener).

Definition point position in relation to primary part

The position you pick to create the detail, relative to the main part. For connections, this determines where the connection is created, relative to the secondary part. When checked, allows you to create many connections to the same main part, in different locations.

Only available for details and connections.

Allow multiple instances of connection between same parts Exact positions

Only available for connections. This is always possible for details. Only available for seams.

When you select this checkbox, Tekla Structures positions the seam based on the positions you pick in the model. If you clear this checkbox, Tekla Structures uses automatic seam recognition to position the seam. This is useful especially with warped seams.

Use the center of the bounding box in positioning

When you select this checkbox, Tekla Structures positions the custom part based on the center of its bounding box (the box which surronds the actual part profile).

Only available for parts.

Usage

1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

Click Detailing > Component > Define Custom Component... to start the Custom component wizard. Select a Type and enter the other properties, then click Next. Select the objects that the custom component will create. Click Next. The next step differs depending on the Type you select in step 2: For connections, select the main part, click Next, then select the secondary part(s).

For details, select the main part, and click Next. To position the detail by the main part, select Main part, and go to step 6. To position the detail by a reference point, select Reference point, and then pick a point.

For seams, select the main part, click Next, then select the secondary part, click Next, then pick two points to indicate the seam location. For parts, pick one or two points.

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6.
See also

Click Finish.

Defining a custom component (p. 62) Editing custom components (p. 69) Using a custom component (p. 106) Managing custom components (p. 106)

Position type
Synopsis

Defines the position (or origin) of the custom component, relative to the main part. This command is available in the custom component wizard. Position type affects which type of main parts you can use the custom component with.

Preconditions Description

Determines the location of the objects the custom component creates, relative to main part. The options are:

Middle

Where the center lines of the main and secondary parts intersect.

Box plane

Where the main part box and the center line of the secondary part intersect.

Collision plane

Where the main part and the center line of the secondary part intersect.

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End end plane

Where the center line of the secondary part hits the end of the main part.

Gusset plane

Where the center lines of the main part and the first secondary part intersect. The x direction is perpendicular to the center line of the main part.

Display variables
Synopsis

Shows all variables and lets you to add new parameter variables. You can also use it to manage distance and parameter variables. Tekla Structures uses variables with the following features:


Preconditions

Custom Components (p. 61) Sketched cross sections Parametric modeling

To use this command, you must:

Feature Custom components

Preconditions

define a custom component, see Defining a custom component (p. 62) open the Custom component editor, see Custom component editor (p. 69) open the Cross section sketch editor, see Sketched cross sections

Sketched cross sections Parametric modeling


Description

Variables are the properties of a custom component/sketch/parametric model. Use the Add button to add parameter variables. To add new distance variables, use the commands

Create distance (p. 123) or Automatic distances (p. 125) for custom components.
Sketch free distance, Sketch horizontal distance, or Sketch vertical distance for

sketched cross sections. Use the Delete button to delete selected parameters and distances. You define the following properties for a variable:

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Field
Variable name

Description A unique name for variable. Use this name to refer to the variable in the custom component/sketch/ model browser. Can contain a value or a formula. Copy values using the popup menu in the browser. See Custom component browser (p. 71). Formulae begin with = Shows the current value from the formula field. Distance or parameter.

More information Custom component browser (p. 71) Sketch Browser Creating parameters that use formulae (p. 81) Functions to use in formulas (p. 82)

Formula

Variable value Variable type

Defining variables (p. 73) Adding dimensions to a sketched cross section

Value type Visibility

Defines the type of information to input. Shows or hides the variable in the custom component/Select profile dialog box. The field name in the custom component/Select profile dialog box. Maximum length is 30 characters.

Display variables (p. 115) Custom component dialog box (p. 100)

Label

Usage

Usage depends on the feature:

Feature Custom components

Usage

Sketched cross sections Parametric modeling


Value types

Creating distance variables (p. 75) Creating reference distances (p. 77) Creating parameter variables (p. 80) Variables

The options are:

Value type
Number Length

Description A whole (integer) number. Used for quantity and multiplier. A decimal (floating point) number. User for lengths and distances. Length numbers have unit (mm, inch etc.) and are rounded to two places of decimals. Tekla Structures enables millimeter to inch conversion for the Length and Distance list types.

Text

A text (ascii) string.

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Value type
Factor Angle Material Profile Bolt size Bolt standard

Description A decimal value without a unit. You can set the number of decimals for the value type in Tools > Options > Options... > Units and decimals. A special decimal number type for storing angles, stored to 1 place of decimals, in radians. A special data type linked to the material catalog. On input you can select material from the standard material dialog. A special data type linked to the profile catalog. On input you can select profile from the standard profile dialog. Special data types linked to the bolt catalog. Bolt size works with Bolt standard. They have fixed naming: Px_diameter and Px_screwdin. Do not change the fixed name. To automatically show values for these in the components dialog box, x must be the same for both, for example, P1_diameter and P1_screwdin.

Bolt type

For defining the bolt type (site/workshop) in the custom component dialog box. Linked to the Bolt type property of bolts in the Custom component browser.

Stud size Stud standard

Special data types linked to the bolt catalog. Stud size works with Stud standard. They have fixed naming: Px_size and Px_standard. Do not change the fixed name. To automatically show values for these in the components dialog box, x must be the same for both, for example, P9_size and P9_standard.

Distance list

For fields with several length values, such as bolt spacings.

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Value type
Weld type

Description A special data type for selecting weld type.

Weld types
Chamfer type Welding site Rebar grade Rebar size Rebar bending radius

A special data type for defining the shape of a chamfer. A special data type for defining the welding place: workshop or building site. Special data types linked to reinforcement catalog. Rebar grade, Rebar size, and Rebar bending radius work together. They have fixed naming format: Px_grade, Px_size, and Px_radius where the x is a number. Do not change the fixed name. To automatically show values for these in the component's dialog box, x must be the same for all, for example, P1_grade, P1_size, and Px_radius.

Reinforcement mesh Component name

For defining meshes in custom components. Linked to the Catalog name property of reinforcement meshes in the Custom component browser. For replacing a subcomponent inside a custom component with another subcomponent. Linked to the Name property of objects in the Custom component browser.

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Value type
Component attribute file

Description For setting the properties of a subcomponent inside a custom component. Works with Component name using the format Px_name and Px_attrfile, where the x is a number. Do not change the fixed name. To automatically show values for these in the component's dialog box, x must be the same for both, for example, P2_name and P2_attrfile.

Yes/No

For defining whether or not Tekla Structures creates an object in a custom component. Linked to the Creation property of objects in the Custom component browser.

Browser
Synopsis

This command shows the browser for the following features.


Preconditions

Custom component: Custom component browser Sketched cross section: Display sketch browser Parametric modeling: Model browser

To open the browser:

Feature Custom components

Preconditions

Define a custom component, see Defining a custom component (p. 62) Open the Custom component editor, see Custom component editor (p. 69)

Sketched cross sections Parametric modeling

Open the Cross section sketch editor, see Opening the cross section sketch editor

Click the Display model browser icon Tools toolbar.


Description

in the

The browser shows the objects, their properties, and hierarchy included in the:

Custom component Sketched cross section Parametric model

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Usage

Usage depends on the feature:

Feature Custom components Sketched cross sections Parametric modeling

Usage Custom component browser (p. 71) Sketch Browser Parametric modeling

Plane types
Synopsis Preconditions Description

This command changes the plane type. Open the Custom component editor. See Custom component editor (p. 69). You need planes to define distance variables. For example, you can bind the reference point of a plate to the top plane of a beam. You can change the plane type when the Create distance command is active. See Create distance (p. 123). The table below shows an example of each plane type:

Plane type
Boundary planes

Example

Definition The edges of a box surrounding a profile.

Center planes

The center planes of a profile

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Plane type
Outline planes

Example

Definition The outer and inner surfaces of a profile.

Cut planes

If parts contain line, part, or polygon cuts, this option selects the cut surfaces. Fittings cannot be selected.

Component planes

Depends on which Position type the custom component originally had.

Grid planes

Shows grid planes. This plane type is only available in models and sketches.

Boundary and component planes work for most profile types, so try to use them whenever you can.

Usage

To see which planes are available in each group: 1. 2. Select a plane type from the Custom component toolbar. Move the mouse cursor over a component view. Tekla Structures highlights the available planes.

See also

Creating distance variables (p. 75)

Construction plane
Synopsis

This command creates a construction plane. If the plane is magnetic, the objects directly on it move with the plane.

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Preconditions Description

You may occasionally need to define your own planes. For example, when you create special model parameters for floor height, building width, etc. Magnetic planes are also useful. You can use them to bind and move groups of objects. Rather than binding lots of handles and chamfers to faces, simply create a user plane that goes through all the handles and chamfers. Then make this plane magnetic and bind the plane to the appropriate face. When you move the plane, the attached handles and chamfers move with it. The custom component editor contains many default planes, for more information see Plane types (p. 120).

Usage

To add a construction plane: 1. 2. 3. Click the Create construction plane icon. Pick four points. Click the middle mouse button. Tekla Structures draws the plane.

4. 5. 6.

Double-click the plane in the model. The Construction plane properties dialog box appears. Type a name for the plane. Select Magnetic, if you want Tekla Structures to bind touching objects to the plane. When you move a magnetic plane, objects directly on that plane automatically move with it. Tekla Structures only binds objects to the plane whose reference points are directly on the plane. By default the magnetic distance is 0.05 mm. To change this use the variable XS_MAGNETIC_PLANE_OFFSET.

7.
See also

Click Modify.

Plane types (p. 120)

Custom component settings


Synopsis

With this command you can go back and change the settings which you have used for defining a custom component. To use this command in the Custom component editor, you must:

Preconditions


Description

Define a custom component, see Defining a custom component (p. 62). Open the Custom component editor, see Custom component editor (p. 69).

You can do the following changes after you have created a custom component:


Usage

Add notes Change the position Allow multiple instances

To add notes: 1. In the Customer component editor, click the Custom component settings icon.

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2. 1. 2.

On the Type/Notes tab, insert the notes you want to add to the Description field. In the Customer component editor, click the Custom component settings icon. On the Position tab, change the Position type. Tekla Structures repositions the planes. The objects retain their relative position to the component planes, and they must be moved back into position manually.

To change the position type:

In many cases you need to use a component inside another component, or make a complex connection out of simple connections. To apply multiple connections to the same main part, select the Allow multiple instances of connection between same parts checkbox. By default this checkbox is not selected. To allow multiple instances: 1. 2. In the Customer component editor, click the Custom component settings icon. On the Advanced tab, select the Allow multiple instances of connection between same parts checkbox.

Create distance
Synopsis

Creates a distance variable. You can create a distance variable from any of the following objects to a plane:


Preconditions

construction plane reference points of parts (only custom component objects) reference points of bolt groups chamfers part cut handles line cuts fittings

To use this command in the Custom component editor, you must:


Description

define a custom component, see Defining a custom component (p. 62) open the Custom component editor, see Custom component editor (p. 69)

To use this command in a model, click Modeling > Add Distance > Fixed. Distances are dependencies that bind two parts together. You can also use distances to define part dimensions, bolt edge distances, gaps, etc. For example:

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Distances These distances bind plates reference points to the top and bottom plane of a beam You define the following properties for distance variables:

Field Name

Description Name of the distance variable. Shown in the custom component dialog box. Numeric value of distance.

Value
Usage

See Creating distance variables (p. 75). To see all distances included in the custom component, open the Variables dialog box. For more information, see Defining variables (p. 73).

See also

Automatic distances (p. 125) Plane types (p. 120)

Create reference distance


Synopsis Preconditions

Creates a variable reference distance between objects. To use this command in the Custom component editor, you must:


Description

define a custom component, see Defining a custom component (p. 62) open the Custom component editor, see Custom component editor (p. 69)

To use this command in a model, click Modeling > Add Distance > Reference. Use reference distances in calculations, for example, for determining the spacing of rungs in a ladder.

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Usage

See Creating reference distances (p. 77). To see all distances included in the custom component, open the Variables dialog box. For more information, see Defining variables (p. 73).

See also

Plane types (p. 120) Creating distance variables (p. 75) Automatic distances (p. 125)

Automatic distances
Synopsis

Creates distance variables for picked objects. The distance variables are created between the picked objects and the main and the secondary parts of a connection or a detail.

The command does not work with custom parts since they do not have a main part.

Preconditions Description

Open the Custom component editor (p. 69). This command attaches picked objects, or their reference points or handles, to existing planes, if the objects, or their reference points or handles, are located exactly on the plane. Tekla Structures creates distance variables from a maximum of three direction to existing planes. Tekla Structures selects planes in the following order:


Usage

Construction plane (p. 121) Custom Components (p. 61) Plane types (p. 120) Click the Automatic distances icon.

1.

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2. 3. 4.

Pick any type of an object that has handles. Click the middle mouse button to complete the command. To check the created distances, open the Display variables (p. 115) dialog box.

For reinforcement you may have to remove some distances. If the last handle is bound to too many planes and the concrete cross-section enlarges, the other end of the reinforcement might not react to changes.

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Reinforcement

Introduction

Once you have created a model of concrete parts, you will need to reinforce the parts. This chapter explains how to create reinforcement in Tekla Structures. It also includes a general description of reinforcement properties and an overview of reinforcement commands.

Audience Assumed background

This chapter is aimed at concrete detailers and designers. Before you start to create reinforcement, you need to have concrete parts in your model, as explained in Concrete Detailing. Running the structural analysis as explained in Analysis and Design gives you the required area of reinforcement. Read Loads for instructions on how to create loads.

3.1 Getting started with reinforcement


In Tekla Structures, you can use different methods to create reinforcement. You can create:


Concepts

Single reinforcing bars Reinforcing bar groups Reinforcement meshes Reinforcement components.

We recommend that you use reinforcement components to create reinforcement whenever possible. They are adaptive, attached to a concrete part, and updated automatically if the dimensions of the reinforced part change, for example. Then create additional reinforcing bars using other tools.
Reinforcing bar groups consist of several identical, or very similar, bars. Tekla Structures

always treats these bars as a group, modifies them in the same way, deletes them all at the same time, etc.
Reinforcement meshes include bars in two perpendicular directions, i.e. main bars and

crossing bars. Tekla Structures treats mesh bars as one unit but distinguishes the main and crossing bars.

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Reinforcement properties

Every reinforcement object has properties which define it (for example, grade, diameter or size, minimum bending radius). Use the reinforcement properties dialog boxes to view or modify the properties of reinforcement. Click Detailing > Properties > Reinforcement to open reinforcement properties dialog boxes, or double-click an existing reinforcement object in the model. You can use reinforcement properties in filters. For example, you can select, modify, or hide reinforcing bars based on their properties.For more information, see Filtering objects. You can include reinforcement properties and user-defined attributes in drawing and report templates. Basic reinforcement properties (p. 128) Getting Started (p. 9) with Detailing

Filtering by properties In reports and drawings See also

3.2 Basic reinforcement properties


This section explains properties that are common to most types of reinforcement in Tekla Structures.
Name

You can enter names for reinforcing bars. Tekla Structures uses names in reports and drawing tables. The strength of the steel used in reinforcing bars. Can also indicate other factors, such as the weldability or surface deformations of the bar. Depending on the environment, the nominal diameter of the bar, or a mark that defines the diameter. Complies with the design code you are using. Main bars, stirrups, ties, and hooks usually have their own minimum internal bending radii, which are proportional to the diameter of the reinforcing bar. The actual bending radius is normally chosen to suit the size of the mandrels on the bar-bending machine. Tekla Structures reinforcing bar bending types are recognized using internal bending type definitions. Internal bending types are hard coded to the software. However, these internal bending types are mapped to area specific reinforcing bar bending type codes in the rebar_schedule_config.inp file in the ..\Tekla Structures\<version>\environments\<environment>\system\ folder. This file can be localized to match local requirements. For more information on internal bending types, see Reinforcing bar bending types (p. 161).

Grade

Size

Bending radius

Bending types

Reinforcement catalog

Gradesizeradius combinations are predefined in the reinforcement catalog. You can select which catalog to use, and add, modify, and delete the information it contains. See The reinforcing bar catalog. To define the grade, size, and bending radius of a reinforcing bar, click Select... next to the Grade, Size, and Bending radius fields in the Reinforcing bar properties dialog box. The Select reinforcing bar dialog box appears, showing the available bar sizes for the chosen grade. You can also define whether the bar is a main bar or a stirrup or tie:

Select...

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You can also enter the grade, size, and bending radius of individual reinforcing bars using the appropriate fields in the Reinforcing bar properties dialog box.

Class

Use Class to group reinforcement. To display reinforcing bars of different classes in different colors, click View > Representation > Object Representation... and select Color by class from the Color list box. For more information, see Color settings for parts. Reinforcing bar groups mainly have the same properties as single reinforcing bars. They can also have the following extra properties:

Bar groups


See also

Number of bars Spacing (see Spacing reinforcing bars (p. 132)) Tapering (see Tapered bar group (p. 151))

Hooks (p. 129) Concrete cover (p. 131) Spacing reinforcing bars (p. 132) Omitting reinforcing bars (p. 132) User-defined attributes of reinforcement (p. 133) Meshes (p. 133) Numbering reinforcement (p. 147)

Hooks
To add hooks to the ends of reinforcing bars for anchoring purposes, use the Hooks section of the Reinforcing Bar Properties dialog box, or the Hooks tab in the Reinforcement Mesh Properties dialog box:

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The options for the hook at the beginning and end of the bar are:

Option

Description No hook Standard 90-degree hook Standard 135-degree hook Standard 180-degree hook Custom hook

The reinforcement catalog contains predefined dimensions for all standard hooks (minimum bending radius, minimum hook length). See The reinforcing bar catalog.
Custom hook

To manually define the angle, radius, and length of a hook, select the Custom hook option and enter values to the following fields in the Reinforcing Bar Properties dialog box:

Field
Angle Radius

Description Enter a value between 180 and +180 degrees. Internal bending radius of the hook. Use the same radius for the hook and for the reinforcing bar. If the hook and the reinforcing bar have different radiuses, Tekla Structures does not recognize the shape of the reinforcing bar.

Angle Radius Length

Length

Length of the straight part of the hook. If the length is set to zero, no hooks are created.

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Concrete cover
Reinforcing bars need a concrete cover, to protect them against harmful elements, such as the weather and fire. When you create single bars, Tekla Structures uses the thickness of concrete cover to determine the position of the bar. You pick points to define the shape and plane of the bar.
Cover thickness

Use the Cover thickness fields in the reinforcement properties dialog boxes to define concrete cover. To create a beam stirrup, pick the corner points on the cross-sectional end plane of the beam to define the bar shape and plane. The cover thickness on the plane is the distance from beams bottom, top, and side surfaces to the stirrup. The cover thickness from the plane is the distance from the end surface of the beam to the stirrup, and perpendicular to the bar plane.

Example

Concrete cover

Description Concrete cover on the plane For example, the distances from a beams bottom, top, and side surfaces to a stirrup. To specify different concrete covers on the different legs of a reinforcing bar, enter a thickness value for each leg in the On plane field, in the order you pick points to create the bar. If you enter less values than there are bar legs, Tekla Structures uses the last value for remaining legs. Concrete cover from the plane For example, the distance from a beams end surface to the closest stirrup, perpendicular to the stirrup plane.

Leg length

At the start and end point of a reinforcing bar, you can also define the concrete cover in terms of cover thickness or leg length.

Option
Cover thickness Leg length

Description Defines the distance from the bar end to the concrete surface. Defines the length of the ultimate leg of the bar.

To define the length of an ultimate leg of a bar, use the Leg length option and the Snap to nearest points switch. Then pick anywhere on a part edge or line to indicate the direction for the bar leg.

Reinforcement components

When you use reinforcement components, Tekla Structures places the reinforcement using the dimensions of the part and the values in the Cover thickness field, or the graphic fields shown below:

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Spacing reinforcing bars


Bar groups

There are several ways to distribute bars in a reinforcing bar group. To create a bar group, open the Reinforcing Bar Properties dialog box. On the Group tab, select an option from the Creation method list box. The options are:

Option
By exact spacing value with flexible first space

Description Creates fixed, equal spaces between the bars. The first space adjusts to even out bar distribution. Enter the spacing value in the Exact spacing value field. If the first space is less than 10% of the exact spacing value, Tekla Structures removes one bar. Same as the first option, but the last space adjusts to even out bar distribution. Same as the first option, but the middle space adjusts to even out bar distribution. If there are an odd number of bars (two middle spaces), the other middle space adjusts to even out bar distribution. Same as the first option, but both the first and last spaces adjust to even out bar distribution. Distributes the bars using the information you specify in the Exact spacing values field, so you can enter every spacing value manually. Use the multiplication character to repeat spacings, e.g. 5*200, to create five spaces of 200. Tekla Structures determines the spacing value based on the fixed number of bars. Enter the number in the Number of reinforcing bars field. Tekla Structures aims the spacing value as closely as possible at the value in the Target spacing value field and determines the number of bars compatibly.

By exact spacing value with flexible last space By exact spacing value with flexible middle space By exact spacing value with flexible first and last space By exact spacings

Equal distribution by number of reinforcing bars Equal distribution by target spacing value

See also

Omitting reinforcing bars (p. 132)

Omitting reinforcing bars


You may occasionally need to omit specific reinforcing bars. For example, when several reinforced areas intersect, causing reinforcing bars to overlap, or when you want to start bar distribution at a specific distance from the end of a part. To indicate which bars to omit, select an option from the Reinforcing bar(s) not to be created
to the group list box:

None (all reinforcing bars included)

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See also

First Last First and last

Spacing reinforcing bars (p. 132)

User-defined attributes of reinforcement


Create user-defined attributes to add information about reinforcing bars, bar groups, or reinforcement meshes. Attributes can consist of numbers, text, or lists. To create user-defined attributes, click the User-defined attributes button in the reinforcement properties dialog box. Use the User field 1...4 fields to define the attributes you need. You can also change the name of these fields, and add new ones, by editing the objects.inp file. For more information, see Adding properties.

Meshes
A reinforcement mesh consists of reinforcing bars in two directions. You can define the following properties.

Diameter 2 Spacing 2 Overhang Spacing 1 Diameter 1 Length Overhang Width


Create mesh

Create mesh using the Detailing > Create Reinforcement > Reinforcement Mesh command or a component. Reinforcement meshes can be:

Mesh shape

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Distribution pattern of bars

Rectangular Polygonal Bent

You can create meshes with unevenly-spaced bars. You can also define a different bar size or multiple different bar sizes for the longitudinal bars and the crossing bars. Multiple bar sizes enable pattern creation. For example, if you enter bar diameters 20 2*6 in the longitudinal direction, Tekla Structures creates a pattern with one size 20 bar and two size 6 bars. This pattern can be repeated in the mesh along the longitudinal direction.

For more information, see Customizing reinforcement meshes (p. 145).


Mesh size

The way you define the size of the mesh depends on the shape of the mesh and how it was created:


See also

Evenly-spaced rectangular meshes - manually define the size Polygonal and bent meshes - Tekla Structures automatically calculates the width and length Unevenly-spaced meshes - Tekla Structures calculates the size of the mesh using the values in the Distance(s), Left overhang, and Right overhang fields.

Reinforcement mesh (p. 154)

3.3 Working with reinforcement


This section explains how to create, place, attach, and modify reinforcement.
Topics

Placing reinforcement (p. 134) Attaching reinforcement to parts (p. 135) Modifying reinforcement (p. 135) Customizing reinforcement meshes (p. 145) Defining custom reinforcement components (p. 147) Numbering reinforcement (p. 147)

Placing reinforcement
To place a reinforcing bar group, pick two sets of points: 1. 2. The first set of points defines the plane of the first bar and the shape of a single bar in the group. Click the middle mouse button to end picking. Pick a second set of points to indicate the distribution direction and length of the bars.

To place reinforcement components, select the part to reinforce. See also Using reinforcement handles (p. 136).

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Attaching reinforcement to parts


Attach reinforcement to a part or cast unit when you want the reinforcing bars to follow the part or cast unit if it is moved, copied, deleted, etc. Tekla Structures automatically attaches a reinforcement to the part you pick before you place the reinforcement. You can also manually attach reinforcement to a part or cast unit.

You must attach reinforcement to a part or cast unit to have Tekla Structures merge automatic reinforcing bar marks. See What is automatic merging of reinforcement marks.

Attaching manually

To manually attach reinforcement to a part or cast unit: 1. 2. 3. Select the reinforcement to attach. Right-click and select Attach to Part from the pop-up menu. Select the part to attach the reinforcement to.

Detaching

To detach reinforcement from a part: 1. 2. Select the reinforcement to detach. Right-click and select Detach from Part from the pop-up menu.

Modifying reinforcement
To modify a single reinforcing bar, bar group, or reinforcement mesh, double-click the reinforcement to open the properties dialog box. To modify the properties of a reinforcement component, double-click the blue modeling tool symbol (M). To update the reinforcing bar, bar group, reinforcement mesh, or component you selected, click Modify.
Topics

Changing reinforcement shape (p. 135) Using reinforcement handles (p. 136) Using adaptivity (p. 137) Ungrouping a reinforcement (p. 139) Grouping reinforcements (p. 141) Adding points to a reinforcement (p. 142) Removing points from a reinforcement (p. 143) Splitting reinforcing bar groups (p. 144) Splitting reinforcing bars in a group (p. 144) Combining two reinforcing bars or reinforcing bar groups into one (p. 144) Exploding reinforcement (p. 144)

Changing reinforcement shape


To change the shape of the reinforcement, you can:

Add bar corners Remove bar corners Move bar and mesh corners Add points to reinforcing bars, bar groups, and bent meshes

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Remove points from reinforcing bars, bar groups, and bent meshes Change the direction of the longitudinal mesh bars Change the distribution length of bar groups

Using reinforcement handles


Tekla Structures uses handles to indicate:


Examples

The ends and corners of a reinforcing bar The distribution length of a bar group The corners and main bar direction of a mesh

When you select a reinforcement, the handles turn magenta. Here are some ways to use handles to modify reinforcement:

Handles to change group distribution length Handles to move bar corners

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Handles to move mesh corners Handles to change main bar direction To use handles to modify reinforcement: 1. 2. 3. Select the reinforcement to display its handles. Click the handle you want to move. Tekla Structures highlights the handle. Move the handle(s) like any other object. If Drag and drop is active, just drag the handle to a new position.

For more information, see Moving an object, Moving an object using drag-and-drop and Polygon cuts.

Using adaptivity
Reinforcements follow the shape of the part also when their handles are located on the face or edge of the part. The following types of adaptivity are available:

Fixed adaptivity: handles retain their absolute distances to the nearest part faces. Relative adaptivity: handles retain their relative distances to the nearest part faces in relation to the parts overall size.

To modify the general adaptivity settings, go to Tools > Options > Options... > General. You can modify the adaptivity settings for each part separately. These modifications override the general settings.
Example

Reinforcing bars in their original positions:

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Fixed adaptivity:

Relative adaptivity:

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Ungrouping a reinforcement
You can ungroup reinforcing bar groups and reinforcement meshes. Only reinforcements where each reinforcing bar is in one plane can be ungrouped. To ungroup a reinforcement: 1. 2. Click Detailing > Create Reinforcement > Ungroup. Select one of the reinforcing bars in a reinforcing bar group or in a reinforcement mesh. The reinforcing bar group is replaced with single reinforcing bars. The single bars get the same properties and offsets as the group. If you ungroup a reinforcement mesh, the offsets for single bars are zero.
Limitations

You cannot ungroup circular or curved reinforcing bar groups.

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Example

Before ungrouping:

After ungrouping:

See also

Grouping reinforcements (p. 141) Reinforcing bar (p. 149) Reinforcing bar group (p. 150) Reinforcement mesh (p. 154)

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Grouping reinforcements
You can group single reinforcing bars and reinforcing bar groups. Only reinforcements where each reinforcing bar is in one plane can be grouped. All groups are created with exact spacings. Single reinforcing bars need to have the same bending shape. To group single reinforcing bars or reinforcing bar groups: 1. 2. 3. 4. Click Detailing > Create Reinforcement > Group. Select all the reinforcing bars or reinforcing bar groups that you want to group. Click the middle mouse button. Select one reinforcing bar or reinforcing bar group to copy the properties from. The new group gets the same properties as the selected reinforcing bar.

Limitations Example

You cannot create circular or curved reinforcing bar groups by grouping.

Before grouping:

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After grouping:

See also

Ungrouping a reinforcement (p. 139) Reinforcing bar (p. 149) Reinforcing bar group (p. 150)

Adding points to a reinforcement


You can modify the shape of a single reinforcing bar, reinforcing bar group, or a bent mesh by adding points to the reinforcement. To add points to a reinforcement: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Select a single reinforcing bar, a reinforcing bar group, or a bent mesh. Click Detailing > Modify Polygon Shape. Pick the first existing polygon point (1). Pick new points (2, 3). Pick the second existing polygon point (4).

The new points are added to the reinforcement, and the shape of the reinforcement is modified.

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Limitations

You cannot modify the shape of polygonal or rectangular meshes, or the shape of tapered reinforcing bar groups by adding points. Removing points from a reinforcement (p. 143) Modifying the shape of a polygon

See also

Removing points from a reinforcement


You can modify the shape of a single reinforcing bar, reinforcing bar group, or a bent mesh by removing points from the reinforcement. To remove points from a reinforcement: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Select a single reinforcing bar, a reinforcing bar group, or a bent mesh. Click Detailing > Modify Polygon Shape. Pick the first existing polygon point (1). Pick the second existing polygon point (2). Pick a point to be removed (3 or 4). The point to be removed needs to be in between the two previously picked (1) and (2) points.

The points are removed from the reinforcement, and the shape of the reinforcement is modified.

Limitations

You cannot modify the shape of polygonal or rectangular meshes, or the shape of tapered reinforcing bar groups by removing points. Adding points to a reinforcement (p. 142) Modifying the shape of a polygon

See also

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Splitting reinforcing bar groups


You can split normal and tapered reinforcing bar groups into two groups. 1. 2. 3. Click Edit > Split. Select the reinforcing bar group. Pick two points to indicate where to split the group.

You cannot split reinforcing bar groups diagonally.

See also

Splitting reinforcing bars in a group (p. 144) Combining two reinforcing bars or reinforcing bar groups into one (p. 144)

Splitting reinforcing bars in a group


You can split reinforcing bars in normal and tapered reinforcing bar groups using a split line. 1. 2. 3. Click Edit > Split. Select the reinforcing bar group. Pick two points to indicate where to split the bars. Once split, each new reinforcing bar group retains the properties of the original group. For example, if the bars in the original group had hooks at both ends, bars in the new groups also have hooks at both ends. Modify the properties of the new groups if needed.
See also

Splitting reinforcing bar groups (p. 144) Combining two reinforcing bars or reinforcing bar groups into one (p. 144)

Combining two reinforcing bars or reinforcing bar groups into one


You can combine two single reinforcing bars or reinforcing bar groups into one. Reinforcing bars can be combined if their end points are connected, or the bars are parallel and close to each other. However, in certain cases it is possible to combine reinforcements that are not connected nor parallel. The combined reinforcement gets the same properties as the first selected bar. To combine two single reinforcing bars or two reinforcing bar groups into one: 1. 2. 3.
Limitations See also

Click Edit > Combine. Select the first single bar or bar group to be combined. Select the second single bar or bar group to be combined.

You cannot combine Tapered N reinforcing bar groups. Splitting reinforcing bar groups (p. 144) Splitting reinforcing bars in a group (p. 144)

Exploding reinforcement
Before you can modify or remove single bars in a reinforcement component, you need to use the Explode Component command to ungroup the bars that the reinforcement contains. To ungroup reinforcing bars: 1. 2. Click Detailing > Component > Explode Component. Select the blue modeling tool symbol (M) on the reinforcement. Tekla Structures ungroups the reinforcing bars.

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Reinforcement geometry validity


Reinforcement creation or modification can result in invalid reinforcement geometry. For example, too big bending radius can cause invalid reinforcement geometry. The invalid geometry is visualized in the model. Tekla Structures displays a warning message, and draws a thin line between the reinforcement handles to show the invalid geometry. You can correct the reinforcement geometry by selecting the line and modifying the reinforcement properties. You can check the reinforcement geometry validity by running the command Tools > Diagnose & Repair Model > Dianose Model. The report lists the reinforcements with invalid geometry. If a model contains reinforcements with invalid geometry, the reinforcements are not shown in the drawings. The reinforcements become visible when the geometry is corrected.
Limitations

Reinforcement geometry validity check does not work with circular or curved reinforcing bar groups.

Conceptual reinforcements
Conceptual reinforcements can be created only with Steel Detailing and Engineering configurations. Engineers or detailers can model conceptual reinforcements that show the geometry of the reinforcements. Conceptual reinforcements look similar to detailed reinforcements but do not include the option to perform numbering. When you create a conceptual reinforcement, Tekla Structures displays a warning message noting that you cannot number the reinforcement. You can use the Inquire command to check whether the reinforcement is conceptual or detailed. Conceptual reinforcements can be converted to detailed reinforcements. You can convert individual conceptual reinforcements to detailed reinforcements in Full, Precast Concrete Detailing and Reinforced Concrete Detailing configurations. Detailed reinforcements can be converted to conceptual reinforcements in Steel Detailing and Engineering configurations. Modifying part properties does not automatically convert a detailed reinforcement to a conceptual one, or vice versa. For example, if you use the Engineering configuration and modify the model, detailed reinforcements do not convert back to conceptual reinforcements.
See also

Converting conceptual reinforcements to detailed reinforcements (p. 145)

Converting conceptual reinforcements to detailed reinforcements


Individual conceptual reinforcements that have been created with Steel Detailing or Engineering configuration can be converted to detailed reinforcements in Full, Precast Concrete Detailing, and Reinforced Concrete Detailing configurations. To convert conceptual reinforcements to detailed reinforcements: 1. Select the reinforcement. 2. Right-click and select Convert to detailed reinforcement. If you want to convert detailed reinforcements to conceptual reinforcements in Engineering or Steel Detailing configuration, right-click and select Convert to conceptual reinforcement.
See also

Conceptual reinforcements (p. 145)

Customizing reinforcement meshes


You can customize reinforcement meshes using the Select Mesh dialog box.

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1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

In the Reinforcement Mesh Properties dialog box, click the Select button next to the Mesh field to open the Select Mesh dialog box. In the Select Mesh dialog box, select a standard mesh from the mesh catalog and use it as a basis for the customized mesh. Modify the mesh properties. Enter a name for the mesh in the Selected mesh field. The default name is CUSTOM_MESH. Click OK to close the Select Mesh dialog box and to save the properties. To save customized mesh properties for later use, enter a name in the Save as field in the Reinforcement Mesh Properties dialog box and click the Save as button. To later use saved mesh properties in the Reinforcement Mesh Properties dialog box, select the name of the mesh properties in the Load list box and click the Load button.

Custom mesh properties

You can define the following properties for the customized reinforcement meshes:

Property
Spacing method

Description Defines how the mesh bars are distributed. The options are:


Distance(s)

Same distance for all: Use to create meshes with

evenly-spaced bars.
Multiple varying distances: Use to create meshes with

unevenly-spaced bars. Spacing values of longitudinal or crossing bars. If you select the Multiple varying distances spacing method, enter all spacing values, separated by spaces. You can use multiplication to repeat spacing values. For example: 2*150 200 3*400 200 2*150
Left overhang Right overhang

Extensions of longitudinal bars over the outermost crossing bars. Extensions of crossing bars over the outermost longitudinal bars.

Diameter

Diameter or size of longitudinal or crossing bars. You can define multiple diameters for the bars in both directions. Enter all the diameter values, separated by spaces. You can use multiplication to repeat diameter values. For example, 12 2*6 in longitudinal direction and 6 20 2*12 in crossing direction.

Width Length Grade See also

Length of crossing bars. Length of longitudinal bars. The steel grade of the bars in the mesh.

Reinforcement mesh (p. 154) Meshes (p. 133)

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Defining custom reinforcement components


You can create customized reinforcement details and save them in the component catalog for later use.
Preconditions

Create a concrete part and reinforce it in the way you want the reinforcement to appear in the custom component. You can create the reinforcement either by exploding and modifying an existing reinforcement component, or by creating the reinforcing bars individually. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Result You have now defined a simple custom reinforcement component, which you can use in locations similar to the one where it was originally created. This component is not parametric and Tekla Structures does not adjust dimensions to suit any changes in the model. To create a parametric custom component, see Editing custom components (p. 69). Click Detailing > Component > Define Custom Component.... On the Type/Notes tab, select Detail in the Type list box, and enter a name for the custom reinforcement. Click Next. Select the reinforcing bars to use in the custom reinforcement and click Next. Select the main part and click Next. In DETAIL POSITION, select Main part to position the reinforcement by the main part. Click Finish.

Usage

See also

Using a custom component (p. 106) Detailing > Component > Define Custom Component... (p. 112) Exploding components (p. 62)

Numbering reinforcement
Tekla Structures numbers reinforcement in the same way as it numbers parts. For more information, see Assigning a numbering series to a part. This section contains information that you should consider when you plan reinforcement numbering. For more information on how to set up and carry out numbering, see Numbering the model.
Topics

What affects reinforcement numbering (p. 147) How reinforcement affects part numbering (p. 148)

What affects reinforcement numbering


Tekla Structures treats reinforcing bars as identical, and gives them the same number, if the following properties are the same:


Defining identical bar geometry

Bar geometry Numbering series Size Grade Bending radius

Tekla Structures uses the values in the rebar_config.inp file in the ..\Tekla Structures\<version>\environments\<environment>\system\ folder to round bar dimensions up or down. For example, if you set the rounding accuracy for bar dimensions to 5 and rounding direction to up, Tekla Structures rounds all bar dimensions up to the nearest 5 mm. So, bars with dimensions of 131 mm and 133 mm would both round up to 135 mm. This gives them identical bar geometry. For more information, see Reinforcement settings for drawings.

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Class

Class does not affect numbering. Tekla Structures gives the same number to identical reinforcing bars that belong to different classes. Tekla Structures treats reinforcing bars as different, and so numbers them differently, if the values of a user-defined attribute differ. If a user-defined attribute has the variable consider_in_numbering set to yes, Tekla Structures takes this user-defined attribute into account when numbering. For more information on defining user-defined attributes, see Adding properties.

User-defined attributes

How reinforcement affects part numbering


To force Tekla Structures to give otherwise identical concrete parts and cast units different numbers if they have different reinforcement: 1. 2. 3. Click Drawings & Reports > Numbering > Numbering Settings.... In the Numbering Setup dialog box, select the Reinforcing bars checkbox. Click OK.

Cast unit numbering does not affect reinforcement numbering. For more information on cast units, see Cast units.

3.4 Single bars, bar groups, and meshes


Tekla Structures includes the following tools to create single reinforcing bars, bar groups, and reinforcement meshes.

Command Reinforcing bar (p. 149) Reinforcing bar group (p. 150) Curved reinforcing bar group (p. 152) Circular reinforcing bar group (p. 153) Reinforcement mesh (p. 154) Reinforcement strand pattern (p. 156) Reinforcement splice (p. 159) Reinforcement mesh array in area (89) Lifting anchor (80)

Icon

Description Creates a single reinforcing bar. Creates a reinforcing bar group. Creates a curved reinforcing bar group. Creates a circular reinforcing bar group. Creates a reinforcement mesh. Creates prestressed strands. Joins reinforcing bars or reinforcing bar groups together with reinforcement splices. Creates an array of overlapped reinforcement meshes. Creates two lifting anchors or anchor groups for a concrete part.

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Reinforcing bar
Synopsis Preconditions

This command creates a reinforcing bar. Create the part to reinforce. Calculate the required area of reinforcement.

Description

Tekla Structures creates the reinforcing bar using the properties in the Reinforcing bar properties dialog box. The filename extension of a saved bar properties file is rbr.

Field
Series and Start no Name Size Grade Bending radius Class Shape Angle Radius Length Cover thickness on plane Cover thickness from plane Start

Description The mark series of the bar.

More information Numbering reinforcement (p. 147) Basic reinforcement properties (p. 128)

The user-definable name of the bar. The diameter of the bar or a mark defining it. The steel grade of the bar. The internal radius of the bends in the bar. Used to group reinforcement. The shape of the hook. The angle of the custom hook. The internal bending radius of the standard or custom hook. The length of the straight part of the standard or custom hook. The distances from the part surfaces to the bar on the same plane as the bar. The distance from the part surface to the bar, or bar end, perpendicular to the bar plane. The concrete cover thickness or leg length at the first end of the bar. The concrete cover thickness or leg length at the second end of the bar. User-defined reinforcement properties.

Hooks (p. 129)

Concrete cover (p. 131)

End

User-defined attributes...

User-defined attributes of reinforcement (p. 133)

Usage

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

Double-click the Create reinforcing bar icon. Enter or modify the bar properties. Click Apply or OK to save the properties. Select the part to reinforce. Tekla Structures attaches the bar to the part. Pick the starting point of the bar. Pick the other bar reference points.

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7.
See also

Click the middle mouse button to finish picking.

Reinforcing bar group (p. 150) Working with reinforcement (p. 134)

Reinforcing bar group


Synopsis Preconditions

This command creates a reinforcing bar group. Create the part to reinforce. Calculate the required area of reinforcement.

Description

A reinforcing bar group includes several identical, or very similar, reinforcing bars. You first define the shape of a single bar, then the direction in which Tekla Structures distributes the bars. Tekla Structures creates the reinforcing bar group using the properties in the Reinforcing bar properties dialog box. The filename extension of a saved bar group properties file is rbg.

Field
Series and Start no Name Size Grade Bending radius Class Shape Angle Radius Length Cover thickness on plane Cover thickness from plane Start

Description The mark series of the bar.

More information Numbering reinforcement (p. 147) Basic reinforcement properties (p. 128)

The user-definable name of the bar. The diameter of the bar or a mark defining it. The steel grade of the bar. The internal radius of the bar bends. Used to group reinforcement. The shape of the hook. The angle of the custom hook. The internal bending radius of the standard or custom hook. The length of the straight part of the standard or custom hook. The distances from the part surfaces to the bar on the same plane as the bar. The distance from the part surface to the bar, or bar end, perpendicular to the bar plane. The concrete cover thickness or leg length at the first end of the bar. The concrete cover thickness or leg length at the second end of the bar.

Hooks (p. 129)

Concrete cover (p. 131)

End

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Field
User-defined attributes...

Description User-defined reinforcement properties.

More information User-defined attributes of reinforcement (p. 133) Spacing reinforcing bars (p. 132) Omitting reinforcing bars (p. 132) Tapered bar group (p. 151)

Creation method etc. Additional actions

How to create the bar group.

Usage

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9.

Double-click the Create reinforcing bar group icon. Enter or modify the bar group properties. Click Apply or OK to save the properties. Select the part to reinforce. Tekla Structures attaches the bar group to the part. Pick the bar starting point. Pick the other bar reference points. Click the middle mouse button to finish picking. Pick the starting point of the bar group. Pick the end point of the bar group.

Tapered bar group

To create a tapered bar group: 1. 2. 3. Double-click the Create reinforcing bar group icon. Enter or modify the bar group properties. On the Group tab, select an option from the Bar group type list box:

Option
Normal Tapered Tapered ridge

Description Not tapered. One bar dimension changes linearly in the group. One bar dimension changes linearly. The dimension is longest in the middle of the group. One bar dimension changes along a curve. The dimension is longest in the middle of the group. One bar dimension changes linearly between N ridges. Enter the number of ridges in the Number of cross sections field. The reinforcing bars rise in a polygonal or circular shape along the longitudinal axis of the part.

Tapered curved

Tapered N

Spiral

1. 2. 3. 4.

Click Apply or OK. Select the part to reinforce. Tekla Structures attaches the bar group to the part. Pick points to define the shape of the bar at the first cross section. Click the middle mouse button to finish picking. For the second and subsequent cross sections, pick points to define the shape of the bar. Click the middle mouse button to finish picking.

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If you select the Normal option, you only need to define bar shape and bar distribution length.

If you change the type of a tapered bar group, Tekla Structures adjusts the number of handles. You can then drag handles to modify the group.

Spiral bar group

To create a spiral bar group: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Double-click the Create reinforcing bar group icon. Enter or modify the bar group properties. On the Group tab, select Spiral from the Bar group type list box: Click Apply or OK. Select the part to reinforce. Tekla Structures attaches the bar group to the part. Pick points to define the shape of the bar at the first cross section. Click the middle mouse button to finish picking. For the second and subsequent cross sections, pick points to define the shape of the bar. Click the middle mouse button to finish picking.

See also

Reinforcement mesh (p. 154) Working with reinforcement (p. 134) Curved reinforcing bar group (p. 152) Circular reinforcing bar group (p. 153)

Curved reinforcing bar group


Synopsis

Creates a group of curved reinforcing bars.

Preconditions

Create the part to reinforce. Calculate the required area of reinforcement.

Description

Tekla Structures creates the curved reinforcing bar group using the properties in the Reinforcing bar properties dialog box. See Reinforcing bar group (p. 150) for more information on the common properties in this dialog box. To create a curved bar group: 1. 2. 3. Double-click the Create curved reinforcing bar group icon. Enter or modify the reinforcing bar group properties. Click Apply or OK.

Usage

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4. 5.

Select the part to reinforce. Tekla Structures attaches the bar group to the part. Pick three points on an arc to define the curve:

6.

Pick two points to indicate the distribution direction of the bars:

See also

Working with reinforcement (p. 134) Reinforcing bar group (p. 150) Circular reinforcing bar group (p. 153)

Circular reinforcing bar group


Synopsis

Creates a group of circular reinforcing bars.

Preconditions

Create the part to reinforce. Calculate the required area of reinforcement.

Description

Tekla Structures creates the circular reinforcing bar group using the properties in the Reinforcing bar properties dialog box. See Reinforcing bar group (p. 150) for more information on the common properties in this dialog box.

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Usage

To create a circular bar group: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Double-click the Create circular reinforcing bar group icon. Enter or modify the reinforcing bar group properties. Click Apply or OK. Select the part to reinforce. Tekla Structures attaches the bar group to the part. Pick three points to define the circlular bars

6.

Pick two points to indicate the distribution direction of the bars.

See also

Working with reinforcement (p. 134) Reinforcing bar group (p. 150) Curved reinforcing bar group (p. 152)

Reinforcement mesh
Synopsis Preconditions

This command creates a reinforcement mesh. Create the part to reinforce. Calculate the required area of reinforcement.

Description

You can create the following types of reinforcement meshes:

Rectangular Polygonal Bent

Tekla Structures creates the reinforcement mesh using the properties in the Reinforcement Mesh Properties dialog box. The filename extension of a saved mesh properties file is rbm.

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Field
Prefix and Start no Name Mesh

Description The mark series of the mesh.

More information Numbering reinforcement (p. 147) Basic reinforcement properties (p. 128) Meshes (p. 133) Customizing reinforcement meshes (p. 145) Basic reinforcement properties (p. 128) Meshes (p. 133)

The user-definable name of the mesh. Select a mesh from the mesh catalog. You can also use a customized mesh.

Grade Class Mesh type Width Length Bending radius

The steel grade of the bars in the mesh. Used to group reinforcement. The shape of the mesh. Select Polygon, Rectangle, or Bent. For rectangular meshes, enter the width and length of the mesh. For bent meshes, enter the bending radius. Defines whether the crossing bars are located above or below the longitudinal bars. Defines whether the polygon or part cuts in the part cut also the mesh. The distance from the part surface to the main bars on the same plane as the bars. The distance from the part surface to the bar, or bar end, perpendicular to the bar plane. Thickness of concrete cover or leg length from the mesh starting point. Thickness of concrete cover or leg length at the end point of the bar. Used for bent meshes. User-defined reinforcement properties.

Cross bar location Cut by father part cuts Cover thickness on plane Cover thickness from plane Cover thickness start Cover thickness end User-defined attributes...

Meshes (p. 133)

Concrete cover (p. 131)

User-defined attributes of reinforcement (p. 133) Hooks (p. 129)

Hooks tab

The shape, angle, radius, and length of hooks at the start and end of the crossing mesh bars.

The properties of standard meshes are defined in the mesh_database.inp file, located in the ..\Tekla Structures\<version>\environments\<environment>\ profil folder.

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Usage

Rectangular To create a rectangular mesh: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. Set the work plane parallel to the plane where you want to create the mesh. Double-click the Create reinforcement mesh icon. In the Mesh type list box, select Rectangle. Enter or modify the mesh dimensions and the other properties. Click Apply or OK to save the properties. Select the part to reinforce. Tekla Structures attaches the mesh to the part. Pick the starting point of the mesh. Pick a point to indicate the direction of the longitudinal bars. Tekla Structures creates the mesh parallel to the work plane, to the left of the points you picked.

Polygonal To create a polygonal mesh: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. Double-click the Create reinforcement mesh icon. In the Mesh type list box, select Polygon. Enter or modify the mesh properties. Click Apply or OK to save the properties. Select the part to reinforce. Tekla Structures attaches the mesh to the part. Pick the starting point of the mesh. Pick the corner points of the mesh. Click the middle mouse button to finish picking. Pick two points to indicate the direction of the longitudinal bars.

Bent To create a bent mesh:

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10.
See also

Double-click the Create reinforcement mesh icon to open the Reinforcement Mesh Properties dialog box. In the Mesh type list box, select Bent. Enter the bending radius. Enter or modify the other mesh properties. Click Apply or OK to save the properties. Click the Create reinforcement mesh icon. Select the part to reinforce. Tekla Structures attaches the mesh to the part. Pick points to indicate the bending shape of the crossing bars. Click the middle mouse button to finish picking points. Pick two points to indicate the length and direction of the longitudinal bars.

Working with reinforcement (p. 134)

Reinforcement strand pattern


Synopsis

This command creates prestressed strands for concrete parts.

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Preconditions Description

Tekla Structures creates straight or deflected strands based on the strand profile you indicate using the properties in the Reinforcing bar properties dialog box.

Field
Series and Start no Name Size Grade Bending radius Class Pull per strand Number of cross sections User-defined attributes...

Description The mark series of the bar.

More information Numbering reinforcement (p. 147) Basic reinforcement properties (p. 128)

The user-definable name of the bar. The diameter of the bar or a mark defining it. The steel grade of the bar. The internal radius of the bar bends. Used to group reinforcement. The pull per strand (kN). Defines the number of cross sections of the strand pattern. User-defined reinforcement properties.

User-defined attributes of reinforcement (p. 133) Debonding strands (p. 158)

Debonded strands

Enter the strand number in this field. The strand number is the picking order number of the strand. Enter the length of the debonding. If you select the Symmetry checkbox, values in fields From start and From Middle to start are copied to From end and Middle to end fields. Defines if the end and start lengths are symmetrical.

From start Middle to start Middle to end From end

Symmetry

Usage

To create prestressed strands for a concrete part: 1. 2. 3. Double-click the Create reinforcement strand pattern icon. Enter or modify the strand properties. In the Number of cross sections field, enter a number based on the strand profile. For example:

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Strand profile

Number of patterns 1

4. 5. 6. 7. 8.

Define the lenghts of the debonding zones. Click Apply or OK. Click the Create reinforcement strand pattern icon. Pick the part you are creating strands for. Pick points to position the strands (for example, at the end of a part): The points you pick define the first cross section. Click the middle mouse button to finish picking.

9.

If you chose to create a single cross section, pick two points to define the length of the strands. Click the middle mouse button to finish picking.

10. If you chose to create two or more cross sections, for each cross section, pick points to indicate the strand positions. Pick the strand positions in the same order as for the first cross section. After each cross section, click the middle mouse button to finish picking.
Debonding strands

To debond strands: 1. 2. 3. Double-click the Create reinforcement strand pattern icon. On the Debonding tab, enter the debonding properties. Click Add button to create a new row in the table.

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4.

Enter the strand numbers in the Debonded strands field. The strand number is the picking order number of the strand: To set the same values for all the strands, enter all the strand numbers, separated by a space (e.g. 1 2 3 4). To set separate values for each strand, click Add to add a new row, then enter the strand number in the Debonded strands field. Define the debonded lengths: To set symmetrical lengths, select the End lengths = start lengths checkbox and only enter values in the From start or Middle to start fields. Debonding lengths:

5.

6.

Click Modify and Apply. Tekla Structures displays the debonded section of the strand in red in rendered views, or as a broken line in wire frame views.

Debonded strands appear as broken lines in drawings.


See also

Working with reinforcement (p. 134) Reinforcing bar group (p. 150)

Reinforcement splice
This command joins reinforcing bars or reinforcing bar groups together with reinforcement splices.
Preconditions Description

Create the reinforcing bars or bar groups to join. There can be a gap between them. Tekla Structures creates the reinforcement splice using the current properties in the Reinforcement Splice Properties dialog box. The filename extension of a saved splice properties file is rsp.

Field
Joint type

Description The type of the splice. The options are:

More information
Lap left creates the lap to


Lap length

Lap right Lap left Lap both Muff joint Welded joint

the direction of the first reinforcing bar or bar group selected, Lap right to the direction of the second.
Lap both centers the lap between the bars or bar groups.

The length of the lap joint.

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159

Field
Offset

Description The offset of the splice center point from the point where the bars originally met. Defines whether the lapping bars are on top of each other or parallel to each other.

More information

Bar positions

Usage

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

Click Detailing > Properties > Reinforcement > Reinforcement Splice.... Enter or modify the splice properties. Click Apply or OK to save the properties. Click Detailing > Create Reinforcement > Reinforcement Splice. Select the first reinforcing bar or bar group. Select the second reinforcing bar or bar group.

Tekla Structures indicates reinforcement splices in the model using blue splice symbols:

If needed, you can move the splice along reinforcing bars. To move the splice: 1. 2. 3. Select the splice symbol. Right-click and select Move. Pick an origin and a destination point for the splice.

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TEKLA STRUCTURES 16 Reinforcement

Reinforcing bar bending types

Tekla Structures recognizes different reinforcing bar bending shapes and assigns bending type identifiers to them. The table below lists these reinforcing bar bending types. If Tekla Structures does not recognize the shape of a reinforcing bar, it assigns the UNKNOWN bending type to it. The bending type identifiers in the table below are internal, hard-coded types of Tekla Structures. The leg dimensions (D1, D2, etc.) and bending angles (A1, A2, etc.) of reinforcing bars are internal dimensions and angles. You can map internal types, for example, to countryor project-specific types, and internal dimensions and angles to specific template attributes. You do this in the rebar_schedule_config.inp file. See Reinforcement in templates (p. 182). Reinforcing bar bending dimensions are calculated so that the leg dimensions (D1, D2, etc.) follow the outer edge, or the edge extension, of the reinforcing bar. The total length is calculated according to the center line of the reinforcing bar. The magenta points in the images represent the points you pick in the model when you create reinforcing bars.

Type 1 2_1

Image

Requires standard bending radius. 2_2

Non-standard bending radius.

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161

Type 3_1

Image

3_2

4_2

4_3

4_4

5_1

5_2

162

TEKLA STRUCTURES 16 Reinforcing bar bending types

Type 5_3

Image

6_1

6_2

Requires 180 degree hook. 10

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163

Type 11

Image

D1 = Radius from center of circle to the center line of reinforcing bar. 12

13

Can also be modeled using hooks at both ends (i.e. model D1 and D5 using 90 degree hooks). 14

Requires 90 degree hooks at both ends. 14_2

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TEKLA STRUCTURES 16 Reinforcing bar bending types

Type 14_3

Image

14_4

Requires 90 degree hooks at both ends. 14_5

Recognized when the start point and end point are in the same location and no hooks are used. If XS_REBAR_RECOGNITION_HOOKS_CONSIDERATION is set to FALSE, reinforcing bars with hooks (types 14 and 48) are recognized as 14_5. 15

Requires hooks at both ends.

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165

Type 16_1

Image

16_2

17

18

19

20_1

166

TEKLA STRUCTURES 16 Reinforcing bar bending types

Type 20_2

Image

21

22

23

24

25

26

Requires 180 degree hooks at both ends.

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Type 27

Image

Requires 90 degree hooks at both ends. 28

Requires 180 degree hooks at both ends. 29

Requires 90 degree hooks at both ends. 29_2

29_3

29_4

168

TEKLA STRUCTURES 16 Reinforcing bar bending types

Type 29_5

Image

30

Requires 180 degree hooks at both ends. 31

Requires 90 degree hooks at both ends. 32

Requires 180 degree hooks at both ends. 32_2

33

Requires 90 degree hooks at both ends.

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169

Type 34

Image

35

Requires 180 degree hook. 36

Requires 180 degree hook. 36_2

Can also be modeled using hooks at both ends. 36_3

Can also be modeled using hooks at both ends.

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TEKLA STRUCTURES 16 Reinforcing bar bending types

Type 37

Image

Requires 180 degree hook. 38

Requires 180 degree hook at one end and 90 degree hook at the other end. 38_2

39

40

Requires 180 degree hooks at both ends. 41

Requires 90 degree hooks at both ends. 42

Requires 180 degree hooks at both ends.

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Type 43

Image

43_2

44

Requires hooks at both ends. 44_2

Requires 180 degree hooks at both ends. 45

Requires hooks at both ends.

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TEKLA STRUCTURES 16 Reinforcing bar bending types

Type 45_2

Image

Requires 180 hooks at both ends. 46

Requires hooks at both ends. 47

Requires 90 degree hooks at both ends. 48

Requires hooks at both ends. 48_2

Requires hooks at both ends.

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Type 48_3

Image

49

D1 = Reinforcing bar center line diameter. 49_2

50

Requires hooks at both ends. 51

Requires 90 degree hooks at both ends.

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TEKLA STRUCTURES 16 Reinforcing bar bending types

Type 52

Image

Requires hooks at both ends. 53

Requires hooks at both ends. 54

Requires hooks at both ends. 55

56

57

58

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175

Type 59

Image

60

61

Requires hooks at both ends. 61_2

61_3

Requires hooks at both ends. 62

Requires hook.

176

TEKLA STRUCTURES 16 Reinforcing bar bending types

Type 63

Image

Requires hook. 64

Requires hooks at both ends. 64_2

65

Requires hooks at both ends.

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177

Type 65_2

Image

66

67

67_2

68

178

TEKLA STRUCTURES 16 Reinforcing bar bending types

Type 69_1

Image

69_2

70_1

70_2

71

72

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179

Type 73_1

Image

73_2

73_3

74

75_1

180

TEKLA STRUCTURES 16 Reinforcing bar bending types

Type 75_2

Image

76

77

78

79_1

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181

Type 79_2

Image

80

UNKNOWN

For example:

4.1 Reinforcement in templates


Audience

This topic is aimed at Tekla Structures users who need to localize reinforcing bar bending types or to create templates for reinforcing bar bending schedules. You can show dimensions, bending angles, and bending types of reinforcing bars in drawings and reports by including reinforcement-specific attributes, such as DIM_A, ANG_S, SHAPE, and SHAPE_INTERNAL, in template fields. For more information on creating templates, see the Template Editor (TplEd) online help. Use the rebar_schedule_config.inp file in the ..\Tekla Structures\<version>\environments\<environment>\system folder to map:

Reinforcement templates

Mapping dimensions

Tekla Structures internal reinforcing bar dimensions and angles with specific template attributes Tekla Structures internal reinforcing bar bending types with specific bending types

These mappings are environment-specific by default. You can modify them to suit your company or project needs. You can use equations, functions, and if statements to calculate the dimensions and angles you need to show.

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TEKLA STRUCTURES 16 Reinforcing bar bending types

Use any standard text editor (for example, Notepad) to edit the rebar_schedule_config.inp file.
Examples

The following example of the rebar_schedule_config.inp file maps the internal bending type 5_1 to the bending type identifier E, and the leg dimensions and bending angles to specific template attributes:

rebar_schedule_config.inp (Example 1)
BEND_TYPE_5_1[1]="E" BEND_TYPE_5_1[2]="DIM_A=D1" BEND_TYPE_5_1[3]="DIM_B=D5" BEND_TYPE_5_1[4]="DIM_C=D2" BEND_TYPE_5_1[5]="DIM_TD=TD" BEND_TYPE_5_1[6]="ANG_U=A1" BEND_TYPE_5_1[7]="ANG_V=A2"

With this mapping, the internal bending type 6_2 becomes XY, and the template attributes DIM_B and DIM_C will show the horizontal and vertical dimensions of the second leg D2, and DIM_E and DIM_F the horizontal and vertical dimensions of the fourth leg D4:

rebar_schedule_config.inp (Example 2)
BEND_TYPE_6_2[1]="XY" BEND_TYPE_6_2[2]="DIM_A=D1" BEND_TYPE_6_2[3]="DIM_B=D2*COS(A2*PI/ 180)" BEND_TYPE_6_2[4]="DIM_C=D2*SIN(A2*PI/ 180)" BEND_TYPE_6_2[5]="DIM_D=D3" BEND_TYPE_6_2[6]="DIM_E=D4*COS(A1*PI/ 180)" BEND_TYPE_6_2[7]="DIM_F=D4*SIN(A1*PI/ 180)" BEND_TYPE_6_2[8]="DIM_G=D5" BEND_TYPE_6_2[9]="DIM_TD=TD"

The following example maps the internal bending type 4 to the bending type identifier A if the dimensions D1 and D3 are the same. Otherwise it maps 4 to B:

rebar_schedule_config.inp (Example 3)
BEND_TYPE_4[1]=if (D1==D3) then ("A") else ("B") endif BEND_TYPE_4[2]="DIM_A=D1" BEND_TYPE_4[3]="DIM_B=D2" BEND_TYPE_4[4]="DIM_C=D3" BEND_TYPE_4[5]="DIM_TD=TD"

If Tekla Structures does not recognize a reinforcing bar bending shape, it uses the internal bending type UNKNOWN for it. In the rebar_schedule_config.inp file you can also define how unknown bending types appear in drawings and reports. For example, you may just want to use the bending type identifier ???, and list all leg dimensions and bending angles:

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rebar_schedule_config.inp (Example 4)
BEND_TYPE_UNKNOWN[1]="???" BEND_TYPE_UNKNOWN[2]="DIM_A=D1" BEND_TYPE_UNKNOWN[3]="DIM_B=D2" BEND_TYPE_UNKNOWN[4]="DIM_C=D3" BEND_TYPE_UNKNOWN[5]="DIM_D=D4" BEND_TYPE_UNKNOWN[6]="DIM_E=D5" BEND_TYPE_UNKNOWN[7]="DIM_F=D6" BEND_TYPE_UNKNOWN[8]="ANG_S=A1" BEND_TYPE_UNKNOWN[9]="ANG_T=A2" BEND_TYPE_UNKNOWN[10]="ANG_U=A3" BEND_TYPE_UNKNOWN[11]="ANG_V=A4" BEND_TYPE_UNKNOWN[12]="DIM_TD=TD"

See also

DIM_A ... DIM_G, DIM_H1, DIM_H2, DIM_I, DIM_J, DIM_K1, DIM_K2, DIM_O, DIM_R, DIM_TD, DIM_X, DIM_Y ANG_S, ANG_T, ANG_U, ANG_V SHAPE SHAPE_INTERNAL Reinforcing bar bending types (p. 161)

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TEKLA STRUCTURES 16 Reinforcing bar bending types

Index
a
acos.............................................................................. 88 adaptivity reinforcement ...................................................... 137 add anchor rod ............................................................. 25 base plate.............................................................. 25 beam to column connection .................................. 26 adding points bent mesh ........................................................... 142 reinforcement ...................................................... 142 reinforcing bar ..................................................... 142 reinforcing bar group ........................................... 142 anchor rods add ........................................................................ 25 anchoring hooks ......................................................... 129 asin............................................................................... 88 assemblies defining.................................................................. 33 atan .............................................................................. 88 atan2 ............................................................................ 88 attaching reinforcement to parts ......................................... 135 AutoConnection using...................................................................... 42 automatic distances.................................................... 125 automatic properties..................................................... 14 ave................................................................................ 85 bending radius ............................................................128 bent mesh adding points .......................................................142 removing points ...................................................143 bind to plane .................................................................75 binding using magnetic planes .....................................79 bolt assemblies defining in connections..........................................41 bolts bolt group orientation.............................................36 bolt group pattern ..................................................37 bolt position ...........................................................37 bolt spacing ...........................................................36 defining........................................................... 33, 35 deleting..................................................................40 edge distance ........................................................37 increasing bolt length ............................................35 number of ..............................................................36 overview of properties on the bolts tab..................33 Boundary plane ..........................................................120 box plane ....................................................................114 browser.......................................................................119

c
cast-in-place ............................. 139, 141, 142, 143, 144 cast-in-situ ................................ 139, 141, 142, 143, 144 ceil ................................................................................85 CIP............................................ 139, 141, 142, 143, 144 collision plane .............................................................114 columns connect to beam....................................................26 combining reinforcing bar .....................................................144 reinforcing bar group ...........................................144 component catalog .......................................................17 component design checking ................................................................16

b
base plate add ........................................................................ 25 beam profiles selecting ................................................................ 30 beams connect to column ................................................. 26

TEKLA STRUCTURES 16

185

components concepts ................................................................10 conceptual .............................................................27 copying ..................................................................22 creating view..........................................................27 detailed ..................................................................27 dialog box ..............................................................11 publish in catalog...................................................22 symbols .................................................................19 thumbnails .............................................................21 types ......................................................................10 using excel.............................................................57 viewing...................................................................27 conceptual components......................................... 27, 28 conceptual reinforcement ...........................................145 concrete cover ............................................................131 connect beam to column .....................................................26 connection library, see component catalog ..................17 Connection plane........................................................120 connections beam to column .....................................................26 defining bolt assemblies ........................................41 construction planes.......................................................79 copying components ...........................................................22 cos ................................................................................88 cosh ..............................................................................88 creating distance ...............................................................123 custom component settings ................................................................122 custom component browser........................................119 custom component settings ........................................122 custom component wizard ............................................62 custom components browser..................................................................71 defining ......................................................... 62, 112 editor......................................................................69 exporting and importing .......................................107 interface...............................................................100 password .............................................................108 properties...............................................................68 protecting.............................................................108 tips on working with .............................................110 types ......................................................................66 using ....................................................................106 custom connections ......................................................62 custom details...............................................................62 custom reinforcement meshes....................................145 customizing reinforcement.............................................. 145, 147

d
default properties ..........................................................14 default values setting with the joints.def file..................................46 Design tab.....................................................................16 Design type tab .............................................................16 detailed components.............................................. 27, 28 detailed reinforcement ................................................145 distance.........................................................................75 reference distance .................................................77 distance variable .........................................................123 double ...........................................................................86

e
edge distance bolts .......................................................................37 end end plane .............................................................114 Excel .............................................................................58 excel example .................................................................58 using for components ............................................57 using with custom components............................109 Excel.vb ........................................................................58 exp ................................................................................84 exploding reinforcement.......................................................144 exploding components ..................................................62

f
fabs ...............................................................................84 fAD()..............................................................................88 find ................................................................................86 floor ...............................................................................85 formulae ........................................................................81 fP() ................................................................................83 functions for equations..................................................82

g
general tab ....................................................................15 geometry reinforcement.......................................................145 getat ..............................................................................86

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TEKLA STRUCTURES 16

grouping mesh ................................................................... 141 reinforcement ...................................................... 141 reinforcing bar group ........................................... 141 gusset plane ............................................................... 114

h
handles of reinforcement .................................................. 136 holes creating ................................................................. 35 hypot............................................................................. 84

i
In .................................................................................. 84 indicating component status with Excel design ............ 60 int.................................................................................. 86

match............................................................................86 materials defining..................................................................32 max...............................................................................85 mesh...........................................................................154 bent .....................................................................154 grouping ..............................................................141 polygonal .............................................................154 ungrouping ..........................................................139 min................................................................................85 mod...............................................................................84 model browser ............................................................119 modeling tips working with custom components........................110 modifying reinforcement ......................................................135 moving reinforcement splice ............................................159

n
n!...................................................................................84 numbering reinforcement ......................................................147 reinforcement, what affects .................................147

j
joints.def about ..................................................................... 47 bolt and part properties ......................................... 50 bolt properties in clip angle connections ............... 49 bolt properties in diagonal connections................. 50 bolt properties in end plate connections................ 49 bolt properties in gusset connections.................... 50 bolt properties in shear plate connections............. 49 connections that use joints.def.............................. 56 defining bolt diameter and number of rows ........... 49 defining global defaults ......................................... 48 entering values...................................................... 48 example of how Tekla Structures uses ................. 56 how it works .......................................................... 47 interpreting ............................................................ 47

o
omitting reinforcing bars .............................................132 Outline plane ..............................................................120

p
parameters ...................................................................80 part position number.....................................................31 parts defining..................................................................29 dialog box tabs ......................................................29 dimensioning .........................................................30 part position number..............................................31 setting default prefix and start number ..................31 passwords custom component ..............................................108 plane types .................................................................120 plates defining..................................................................29 dimensioning .........................................................30 pow ...............................................................................84

l
length............................................................................ 86 log................................................................................. 84

m
magnetic planes ........................................................... 79

TEKLA STRUCTURES 16

187

prestressed strands debonding............................................................156 properties automatic ...............................................................14 default....................................................................14 system default .......................................................14 publish in catalog ..........................................................22

r
rebar ...........................................................................149 bending types ......................................................161 rebar group .................................................................150 rebar mesh..................................................................154 reference distances ....................................................124 reference function .........................................................83 reinforcement adaptivity .............................................................137 adding points .......................................................142 basic properties ...................................................128 bending radius .....................................................128 bending types ......................................................128 conceptual ...........................................................145 customizing..........................................................147 defining as custom components ..........................147 detailed ................................................................145 exploding .............................................................144 geometry..............................................................145 grouping...............................................................141 hooks ...................................................................129 in templates .........................................................182 invalid geometry ..................................................145 modifying .............................................................135 numbering............................................................147 omitting bars ........................................................132 prestressed strands .............................................156 removing points ...................................................143 spacing ................................................................132 splice ...................................................................159 strands.................................................................156 ungrouping...........................................................139 user-defined attributes.........................................133 reinforcement mesh ....................................................154 customizing..........................................................145 reinforcement splice moving .................................................................159 reinforcing bar.............................................................149 adding points .......................................................142 bending types ......................................................161 combining ............................................................144 removing points ...................................................143

reinforcing bar group...................................................150 adding points .......................................................142 circular .................................................................153 combining ............................................................144 curved ..................................................................152 grouping...............................................................141 removing points ...................................................143 ungrouping...........................................................139 reinforcing bar groups splitting.................................................................144 removing points bent mesh ............................................................143 reinforcement.......................................................143 reinforcing bar......................................................143 reinforcing bar group............................................143 reports on reinforcement..................................................182 round.............................................................................84

s
seam .............................................................................66 setat ..............................................................................86 setting up Excel files .....................................................58 sin .................................................................................88 sinh ...............................................................................88 sketch browser............................................................119 slotted holes defining ..................................................................39 spacing reinforcing bars..............................................132 spiral reinforcing bar groups .......................................150 splice...........................................................................159 splitting reinforcing bar groups..........................................144 reinforcing bars in a group ...................................144 sqave ............................................................................85 sqrt ................................................................................84 sqsum ...........................................................................85 strand pattern reinforcement.......................................................156 string .............................................................................86 sum ...............................................................................85 surface treatment in custom components.........................................100 system default properties..............................................14

t
tan .................................................................................88 tanh ...............................................................................88

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TEKLA STRUCTURES 16

tapered reinforcing bar groups ................................... 150 thumbnail images ......................................................... 21

v
variables .............................................................. 73, 115 viewing components...........................................................27

u
ungrouping mesh ................................................................... 139 reinforcement ...................................................... 139 reinforcing bar group ........................................... 139 up direction................................................................... 13 user-defined reinforcement attributes......................... 133 using ASCII files with custom component .................. 109 using Excel with custom components ........................ 109

w
welds defining........................................................... 33, 41

TEKLA STRUCTURES 16

189