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SAUDI ARAMCO SANITARY CODE

ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH UNIT ENVIRONMENTAL COMPLIANCE DIVISION ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION DEPARTMENT DHAHRAN, SAUDI ARABIA

CopyrightSaudi Aramco 2009. All rights reserved.

CopyrightSaudi Aramco 2009. All rights reserved.

Saudi Aramco 7180 (5/89) G.I. NUMBER

SAUDI ARABIAN OIL COMPANY (Saudi Aramco) GENERAL INSTRUCTION MANUAL


ISSUING ORG. SUBJECT:

151.006
ISSUE DATE

Approved

REPLACES

ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION DEPARTMENT IMPLEMENTING THE SAUDI ARAMCO SANITARY CODE

01/22/2001
APPROVAL

11/03/1999
PAGE NUMBER

TAM

OF

CONTENT:
This General Instruction prescribes minimum requirements for compliance with, and implementation of, the Saudi Aramco Sanitary Code. It contains the following information: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. PURPOSE POLICY RESPONSIBILITIES PRINCIPLES AND PRACTICES PROCEDURES FOR OBTAINING APPROVAL OF A GRANT OF VARIANCE

1.0

PURPOSE:
This instruction defines responsibilities, principles and practices for the implementation of sanitary requirements that are designed to protect public health and the environment, thereby increasing productivity and minimizing associated curative medical costs.

2.0

POLICIES:
a) Saudi Aramco's Environmental Protection Policy Statement (INT-5) The Company will assure that its operations do not create undue risks to the environment or public health, and will conduct its operations with full concern for the protection of the land, air and water from harmful pollution. The Company will promote environmentally sound waste disposal practices and cost effective waste minimization through source reduction, reuse and recycling. Regulations: 1. In all its activities, the Company will meet the standards specified by the Kingdom's environmental regulations. Where there are no established standards, guidelines will be developed which are compatible with the Kingdom's objective of environmental protection. The Company will cooperate and participate with government and industry, as appropriate, in the development of effective environmental control programs and regulations. It is the responsibility of each organization to assure that its facilities are designed and operated in compliance with the established corporate Environmental Protection Policy and that they do not present unnecessary risks to the environment or public health.

2.

b) Local Enterprise Support Policy Statement (ADM-5)

* CHANGE

** ADDITION

NEW INSTRUCTION

COMPLETE REVISION

CopyrightSaudi Aramco 2009. All rights reserved.

Saudi Aramco 7180 (5/89) G.I. NUMBER

SAUDI ARABIAN OIL COMPANY (Saudi Aramco) GENERAL INSTRUCTION MANUAL


ISSUING ORG. SUBJECT:

151.006
ISSUE DATE

Approved

REPLACES

ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION DEPARTMENT IMPLEMENTING THE SAUDI ARAMCO SANITARY CODE

01/22/2001
APPROVAL

11/03/1999
PAGE NUMBER

TAM

OF

In support of local enterprise, Saudi Aramco will actively promote and foster the development of the Saudi Arabian business community with specific emphasis on the manufacturing sector. In this regard, Saudi Aramco will preferentially purchase materials, products and services from local sources whenever specifications and quality are compatible with established company standards on a reliable basis and at competitive prices. Regulations: 1. Saudi Aramco will encourage industrial development in Saudi Arabia by promoting the establishment and/or expansion of sound and viable privately owned manufacturing concerns and other sectors of the local business community, which will provide goods and services to Saudi Aramco, Government Agencies, other companies and the general public. Saudi Aramco may assist local enterprise by providing services including technical advice and information related to Saudi Aramco as a potential market, as appropriate.

2.

3.0

RESPONSIBILITIES:
All management functions, including business line and associated management, will comply with Saudi Aramco Sanitary Code and Saudi Arab Government requirements applicable to the design, operation and maintenance of facilities and equipment. When conformity with any Saudi Aramco Sanitary Code imposed requirements would not be practicable or cost effective, a grant of variance will be sought. Reviews for compliance with this General Instruction will be performed on a periodic basis. 3.1 Corporate Management will ensure that Operating and Business Plans reflect, and are consistent with, Saudi Aramco Sanitary Code requirements. Executive and General Management will assure that their operations and facilities are designed, operated and maintained in compliance with Saudi Aramco Sanitary Code requirements and provide the required directions in support of Saudi Aramco's Environmental Protection Policy. Managers will ensure that their facilities are operated and maintained in a way that protects the environment and the health and welfare of employees, and, where applicable, the general public. Concessionaires and contractors will be monitored to ensure that the services they perform, and/ or the goods they provide, are in conformity with applicable the Saudi Aramco Sanitary Code standards and Saudi Arab Government regulations. Manager, Environmental Protection Department (EPD) will recommend policy on Environmental Health issues, counsel Management on the development and interpretation of

3.2

3.3

3.4

* CHANGE

** ADDITION

NEW INSTRUCTION

COMPLETE REVISION

CopyrightSaudi Aramco 2009. All rights reserved.

Saudi Aramco 7180 (5/89) G.I. NUMBER

SAUDI ARABIAN OIL COMPANY (Saudi Aramco) GENERAL INSTRUCTION MANUAL


ISSUING ORG. SUBJECT:

151.006
ISSUE DATE

Approved

REPLACES

ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION DEPARTMENT IMPLEMENTING THE SAUDI ARAMCO SANITARY CODE

01/22/2001
APPROVAL

11/03/1999
PAGE NUMBER

TAM

OF

Environmental Health programs and policies and monitor compliance with the Saudi Aramco Sanitary Code requirements. 3.5 Chief, Preventive Medicine Services Division (PMSD) will recommend policy on Environmental Health issues as they relate to Saudi Aramco Medical Organization (SAMSO) and Medical Designated Facilities and counsel Medical Management on the development and interpretation of Environmental Health Policies and Programs. PMSD will enforce requirements of this General Instruction in SAMSO facilities, and where applicable, through contractual requirements in Medical Designated Facilities. PMSD will provide an annual report on the state of compliance for SAMSO facilities, to the Manager, EPD. Project Proponents, Facility Planners and Project Managers will ensure that, during the planning, design and construction of new or modified facilities, the applicable Environmental Health requirements of the Company and Saudi Arab Government are met. In particular, submission of plans in compliance with Saudi Aramco Sanitary Code and in accordance with any other applicable company or Saudi Arab Government requirements. Guidance on the requirements to approve plans/projects required by the Saudi Aramco Sanitary Code, and preparation of environmental assessments shall be obtained from the Manager, EPD. Superintendents and Supervisors will actively provide supervision and training required to promote sound public health and hygienic practices by employees; and cooperate with Environmental Health Unit to conduct periodic inspections of their facilities, equipment, and work areas to detect and correct unhealthful conditions and unhygienic acts. All Employees will comply with applicable public health rules and regulations; perform their duties and work in a manner which will not endanger themselves, their fellow workers, or the general public; and will be alert to unhealthful conditions and correct or report them as appropriate.

3.6

3.7

3.8

4.0

PRINCIPLES AND PRACTICES:


The following principles and practices will govern the compliance with, and implementation of, the Saudi Aramco Sanitary Code 4.1 Health risks to employees, dependents and the general public will be minimized through application of best available environmental health practices as per the Saudi Aramco Sanitary Code and Saudi Arab Government health requirements and directives such as, Saudi Arab Labor and Workmen Law, Ministry of Health, Saudi Arab Standards Organization, Meteorological and Environmental Protection Agency or other government regulations. Saudi Aramco Engineering Standards will be met in the design, construction, modification, operation and maintenance of facilities and equipment. When conformity with Saudi Aramco imposed requirements would not be practical or cost effective, a grant of variance will be sought.

* CHANGE

** ADDITION

NEW INSTRUCTION

COMPLETE REVISION

CopyrightSaudi Aramco 2009. All rights reserved.

Saudi Aramco 7180 (5/89) G.I. NUMBER

SAUDI ARABIAN OIL COMPANY (Saudi Aramco) GENERAL INSTRUCTION MANUAL


ISSUING ORG. SUBJECT:

151.006
ISSUE DATE

Approved

REPLACES

ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION DEPARTMENT IMPLEMENTING THE SAUDI ARAMCO SANITARY CODE

01/22/2001
APPROVAL

11/03/1999
PAGE NUMBER

TAM

OF

4.2

Operating standards and instructions will be provided to control public health risks which cannot be feasibly eliminated through design. Compliance with Environmental Health practices and procedures will be consistently enforced. Employees will be protected against exposure to diseases and public health hazards which are impracticable to eliminate, through proper use of personal protective equipment and periodic environmental monitoring. Inspections will be periodically conducted by Environmental Health staff to detect and correct unsanitary practices and conditions. Environmental Health will notify the appropriate Saudi Aramco Organizations such as PMSD, Loss Prevention, Fire Department on major issues relating to occupational exposure, safety or fire protection respectively. Education and training of employees will be conducted to ensure that staff and management are aware of the requirements of the Saudi Aramco Sanitary Code and perform work in accordance with the provision of the Code. Qualification, experience and job skills of employees will be consistent with assigned tasks, enabling them to work without endangering their own health or the health of others. Community health will be vigorously promoted to encourage and assist employees to protect themselves and their families from disease and injury while at home, at recreation, or wherever they may be. Reviews for compliance with this General Instruction will be performed on a periodic basis. Review teams will include representatives from Environmental Protection Department and the proponent organization and will include appropriate expertise and be sufficiently independent of the operation being reviewed to assure credibility and effectiveness. A 'State of the Environment' report incorporating major programs covered by the Saudi Aramco Sanitary Code will be generated annually and forwarded to Corporate Management highlighting achievements, areas of concern and recommendations.

4.3

4.4

4.5

4.6

4.7

4.8

4.9

5.0

PROCEDURES FOR OBTAINING APPROVAL OF A GRANT OF VARIANCE:


5.1 When circumstances render a particular Saudi Aramco Sanitary Code requirement impractical, an individual or firm may submit an application to Manager, EPD to request a grant of variance to that Code requirement. In Saudi Aramco facilities, the application must be submitted by departmental manager or above. In SAMSO facilities an application for a 'Grant of Variance' may be submitted to Chief, PMSD. PMSD will obtain the approval of Manager, EPD.

* CHANGE

** ADDITION

NEW INSTRUCTION

COMPLETE REVISION

CopyrightSaudi Aramco 2009. All rights reserved.

Saudi Aramco 7180 (5/89) G.I. NUMBER

SAUDI ARABIAN OIL COMPANY (Saudi Aramco) GENERAL INSTRUCTION MANUAL


ISSUING ORG. SUBJECT:

151.006
ISSUE DATE

Approved

REPLACES

ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION DEPARTMENT IMPLEMENTING THE SAUDI ARAMCO SANITARY CODE

01/22/2001
APPROVAL

11/03/1999
PAGE NUMBER

TAM

OF

5.2

If the requested grant of variance involves new construction, remodeling or structural alterations, properly prepared plans and specifications for such construction, remodeling, or alteration shall be submitted with the application. The plans and specifications shall indicate the proposed layout, arrangement, and construction materials of work areas, and the type and model of proposed fixed equipment and facilities. Environmental Health will review all facts, plans and specifications within a reasonable period of time (depending on the complexity of the variance). The tentative variance agreement, if approved, will be transmitted to the applicant through the Saudi Aramco proponent. Until such time as the written, tentative variance agreement is received, the requirements of the Saudi Aramco Sanitary Code must be adhered to and construction, remodeling or alteration that incorporate the proposed variance must not be undertaken. Environmental Health will schedule inspections during and after completion of work to evaluate the degree to which the applicant has complied with the intent and detail of the tentative variance agreement, and the extent to which the tentative variance agreement has impacted the environment or public health. If inspections reveal that the intent and detail of the tentative variance agreement have been complied with and the tentative variance has not adversely impacted the environment or public health, then Environmental Health will transmit, in writing, the "approved" variance agreement through the proponent organization. Should the applicant fail to continue to comply with the variance, or if unforeseen consequences of the variance should adversely impact the environment or public health, then Environmental Health will void the variance and the applicant will cease and desist all activities that were the subject of the original application requesting that variance be granted and will ensure that all applicable Saudi Aramco Sanitary Code requirements are satisfied with respect to such activities.

5.3

5.4

5.5

5.6

Recommended: Manager, Environmental Protection Department Concurred: Executive Director, SAMSO Vice President, Engineering Services Senior Vice President, Engineering And Operations Services

Approved: President & Chief Executive Officer

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** ADDITION

NEW INSTRUCTION

COMPLETE REVISION

CopyrightSaudi Aramco 2009. All rights reserved.

ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION DEPARTMENT ENVIRONMENTAL COMPLIANCE DIVISION ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH UNIT

EPD USE ONLY


APPLICATION FOR GRANT OF VARIANCE OF SAUDI ARAMCO Date Received Control # SANITARY CODE REQUIREMENT / / _________________________________________________________________________________________________ Facility Description (Name, Address, Contract Number if Applicable, BI Number, Etc).

_________________________________________________________________________________________________ Standard Affected1 & Variance Requested2 (Use another sheet if needed) ________________________________________________________________________________________________ Justification3 (Use another sheet if needed) _________________________________________________________________________________________________ Statement of Intent4 I/We hereby agree to comply with the intent and detail of the variance, if granted, now and for as long as the variance is in effect and I/We also hereby agree to cease and desist should unforseen consequences of the variance adversely impact the environment or public health as advised by Environmental Health. ________________________________________________________________________________________________ Originator Name5: Title: Signature ________________ Date: / / / Manager (or above): Originators Organization Title: Address Signature ________________ Telephone Number Date: / / /

__________________________________________________________________________________________________ Notes: 1. Specify relevant sub-section(s) of the Saudi Aramco Sanitary Code. 2. If the request involves constructional work of any kind detailed plans and specifications shall be submitted along with the application. In the case of plant and machinery operating plans and procedures should also be submitted. 3. Provide such technical facts which demonstrate that the variance will not adversely impact the environment or affect the health and wellbeing of Saudi Aramco employees and their dependents or that of the public. (Use reverse side of application form if additional space required). 4. Before an application for variance can be considered all applicants must sign as read the statement of intent. 5. *For SAMSO Facilities application will be routed through PMSD. _________________________________________________________________________________________________ For use by EHU/ECD/EPD & PMSD (For SAMSO Facilities) Reviewed: Signature: Title: Date: Signature: Title: Gen. Supervisor, ECD Date: Signature: Title: Chief, PMSD (*For SAMSO Facilities) Date:
CopyrightSaudi Aramco 2009. All rights reserved.

Recommend

Signature: Title: Supervisor, EHU Date: Signature: Title: Manager, EPD Date:

Concurred:

Approved

TABLE OF CONTENTS
PREFACE. GENERAL INSTRUCTION # 0151.006.. WAIVER FORM... TABLE OF CONTENTS.. SECTIONS
Page SASC-S-01 SASC-S-02 SASC-S-03 SASC-S-04 SASC-S-05 SASC-S-06 SASC-S-07 SASC-S-08 SASC-S-09 SASC-S-10 SASC-S-11 SASC-S-12 SASC-S-13 SASC-S-14 SASC-S-15 SASC-S-16 SASC-S-17 SASC-S-18 WATER SANITARY WASTEWATER AND SEWERAGE SYSTEMS. SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT. 1 32 71

FOOD ESTABLISHMENTS... 80 FOOD MANUFACTURING PROCESSING AND PACKAGING... 125 DAIRY FARMS AND PLANTS. 144 CAMPS AND COMMUNAL LIVING FACILITIES. 171 HOUSING 191 MARINE VESSELS 206 HEALTH CARE FACILITIES 213 COMMERCIAL LAUNDRIES... 274 PLACES OF EMPLOYMENT 301 SWIMMING POOLS, WADING POOLS AND SPAS... 316 BARBERS AND BEAUTY SHOPS.... 349 INDOOR & OUTDOOR RECREATION FACILITIES INCLUDING BEACHES CAMPGROUNDS AND MARINAS.......................... 354 SCHOOLS... 375 INSECTS, RODENTS AND OTHER VERMIN OF PUBLIC HEALTH SIGNIFICANCE. 391 PUBLIC HEALTH NUISANCES.. 398

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SASC-S-01 Water
No. 1. General Requirements. 2. Water Source and Protection Of The Water Supply... 3. Water Wells 4. Water Storage Tanks, Equipment, Plumbing, Hoses and Compressed Air 5. Cross Connection Control... 6. Disinfection General... 7. Disinfection by Chlorine. 8. Disinfection of Water Wells... 9. Disinfection of New Water Lines... 10. Protection and Disinfection of Newly Constructed Water Mains... 11. Disinfection Procedures When Cutting Into or Repairing Existing Mains. 12. Disinfection of Water Storage Tanks...... 13. Transportation of Potable Water. 14. Physical and Chemical Water Quality Requirements. 15. The Coliform Rule.. 16. Fluoride... Page 3 3 5 8 9 11 11 15 16 20 21 22 23 25 27 30

SASC-S-02 Sanitary Wastewater and Sewerage Systems


No. 1. Engineering Design. 2. Protection of Water Supplies.. 3. Wastewater Pump Stations.. 4. Sanitary Wastewater Treatment Systems 5. Sanitary Wastewater Effluent Discharge & Reuse Requirements.. 6. Disposal/Reuse of Sanitary Wastewater Sludge & Associated Wastes.. 7. Public Toilets.. 8. Industrial Waste/Wastewater Treatment & Disposal.. 9. Responsibilities... 10. Waste Manifest Form.. Page 36 36 38 39 56 62 62 63 69 70

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SASC-S-03 Solid Waste Management


No. 1. Detailed Plans and Specifications... 2. Required Approvals 3. Supervision of Sites 4. Required Records for Sites. 5. Storage and Collection 6. Storage, Collection & Transfer Device and Vehicles. 7. Facilities for Cleaning Storage, Collection & Transfer Devices & Vehicles. 8. Control of Drainage & Runoff From Sites... 9. Control of Leachate. 10. Restrictions Associated with Groundwater. 11. Monitoring Wells 12. Access Roads Fencing 13. Fencing 14. Screening. 15. Fire Protection & Control... 16. Signs & Rules.. 17. Control of Nuisances and Health Hazards.. 18. Salvaging & Scavenging. 19. Handling of Special Types of Waste... 20. Special Factors Pertinent to the Sanitary Landfill Method of Waste Disposal .. 21. Incineration of Solid Waste. 22. Composting Method of Waste Disposal. 23. Sludge Disposal Method. Page 72 72 72 72 73 73 73 73 74 74 74 74 74 74 74 75 75 75 76 76 77 78 78

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SASC-S-04 Food Establishments


No. 1. Application to Operate a Food Establishment 2. Inspections.. 3. General Requirements. 4. Personnel. 5. Poisonous or Toxic Materials. 6. Pest Control 7. Control of operation 8. Facility Design and Construction (General) ... 9. Floors.. 10. Walls, Ceilings and Appurtenances 11. Doors and Windows 12. Illumination. 13. Ventilation... 14. Plumbing and Cross Connection Control 15. Water... 16. Sewage 17. Toilets, Showers and Handwashing (General) 18. Handwash Basins and Handwashing.. 19. Changing Areas and Lockers.. 20. Ambient Storage Facilities.. 21. Refrigerated Storage... 22. Garbage and Refuse 23. Janitors Closet 24. Cleaning and Preventive Maintenance 25. Equipment and Utensils (General).. 26. Transportation. 27. Cleaning and Sanitization of Equipment 28. Mechanical Cleaning and Sanitization 29. Handling Foods, Ingredients and Packaging.. 30. Ingredients.. 31. Food Preparation and Processing.. 32. Packaging and Labeling.. 33. Storage of Finished Goods.. 34. Food Display and Service... 35. Single Service Articles 36. Quality Standards 37. Mobile Food Establishments.. 38. Temporary Food Establishments 39. Ice Plants 40. Marine Vessel Galleys Page 82 85 86 87 89 90 91 92 93 93 94 95 95 95 97 98 98 100 101 101 103 104 105 106 107 109 110 112 114 115 117 118 119 119 119 120 120 121 122 124

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SASC-S-05 Food Manufacturing, Processing and Packaging


No. Page 125 126 126 127 128 128 129 129 130 131 133 138

1. Application by Food Manufacturers or Processors for Environmental Health Approval... 2. Inspections 3. General Requirements.. 4. Good Manufacturing Practice.. 5. Grounds 6. Plant Construction and Design. 7. Sanitary Operations.. 8. Sanitary Facilities and Control. 9. Equipment and Utensils... 10. Processes and Controls. 11. Specific Requirements for Raw Meat/Poultry Possessing Plants 12. Special Requirements for Water Bottling and Beverage Manufacturing Plants ..

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SASC-S-06 Dairy Farms and Plants


No. 1. Application to Operate a Dairy Farm establishment.. 2. Inspections.. 3. Control of Operation... 4. The Examination of Milk and Milk Products..... 5. Abnormal Milk 6. Standards for Milk and Milk Products........ 7. Animal Health. 8. Cowyard.. 9. Insect and Rodent Control... 10. Milking Barn, Stable or Parlor 11. Transfer and Protection of Raw Milk. 12. Milkhouse or Milkroom.. 13. Cooling Raw Milk... 14. Transportation of Raw Milk ... 15. Equipment and Containers.. 16. Piping.. 17. Cleaning of Pipelines.. 18. Protection from Contamination.. 19. Pasteurization Temperature Requirements. 20. Batch Pasteurization... 21. (HTST) Continuous Flow Pasteurization... 22. Pasteurization Employing Regenerative Heating.... 23. U.H.T. (Ultra High Temperature)... 24. Temperature Recording Charts... 25. Equipment Tests and Examinations.... 26. Cooling of Milk... 27. Packaging.... 28. Vehicles... 29. Residual Bacterial Counts (Packaging)... 30. Appendix 1 Introduction to the HTST Pasteurization System. Page 146 148 148 150 151 151 152 152 153 153 154 154 154 155 155 155 156 156 157 157 159 163 165 165 166 166 166 167 167 168

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SASC-S-07 Camps and Communal Living Facilities


No. 1. Inspection Requirements. 2. General Considerations... 3. General construction Requirements, Ventilation and Lighting... 4. Potable Water.. 5. Drinking water Fountains 6. Sewage 7. Dormitories..... 8. Toilet Rooms, Shower Rooms, Handwashing (General) 9. Toilet Rooms and Toilets 10. Handwashing Facilities... 11. Shower Rooms 12. Laundry Rooms...... 13. Garbage and Refuse....................................................................................... 14. Insect and Rodent Control............................................................................. 15. Swimming Pools......................................................................................... 16. Barber Shops.................................................................................................. 17. Kitchens and Food Facilities.......................................................................... 18. Vessel Crew Accommodations...................................................................... 19. Mobile Homes................................................................................................ Page 171 171 173 176 178 179 179 180 181 181 182 182 183 185 187 187 187 187 188

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SASC-S-08 Housing
No. 1. Housing Inspections.................................................................................... 2. Location...................................................................................................... 3. General Considerations............................................................................... 4. Minimum Floor Space Requirements......................................................... 5. General Construction Requirements............................................................... 6. Ventilation and Air Conditioning........................................................... 7. Illumination................................................................................................. 8. Potable Water Systems................................................................................ 9. Sewage........................................................................................................ 10. Toilets, Showers and Handwashing Facilities (General)............................... 11. Toilet Rooms............................................................................................... 12. Handwashing Facilities............................................................................... 13. Shower Rooms............................................................................................ 14. Laundry Rooms and Laundry..................................................................... 15. Garbage and Refuse.................................................................................... 16. Insect and Rodent Control........................................................................... 17. Kitchens.......................................................................................................... Page 191 192 192 193 193 195 196 197 199 200 201 202 202 203 203 204 205

SASC-S-09 Marine Vessels


No. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Scope................................................................................................... Responsibilities............................................................................................... Potable Water System (Domestic Fresh Water).......................................... Waste Management......................................................................................... Food Service............................................................................................... Crew Accommodation................................................................................ Marine Vessel Galleys................................................................................ Page 206 207 207 208 209 209 210

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SASC-S-10 Health Care Facilities


No. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. Physical Plant and Utilities......................................................................... Operational Requirements........................................................................... Safety.............................................................................................................. Fire Safety....................................................................................................... Solid Waste Disposal.................................................................................. Pest Control................................................................................................. Environmental Sampling............................................................................. Medical Manufacturing Plants.................................................................... Medical Storage Facilities (Includes Vendor-Operated Facilities)................. Page 214 250 263 267 267 269 270 270 271

SASC-S-11 Commercial Laundries


No. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9.
10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. Inspection of Laundries Employee Communal Living Accommodation.............. General Considerations...................................................................................... General Design and Construction Considerations................................................. Ventilation and Air Conditioning....................................................................... Illumination........................................................................................................ Water Systems................................................................................................ Sewage................................................................................................................... Toilet Rooms, Shower Rooms and Handwashing Facilities (General)................. Toilet Rooms...................................................................................................... Handwashing Facilities...................................................................................... Shower Rooms................................................................................................... Changing Areas.................................................................................................. Lunch Rooms and Kitchens.............................................................................. Garbage and Refuse........................................................................................... Insect and Rodent Control...................................................................................... Laundry Equipment............................................................................................ Soiled Linen Sorting and Handling.................................................................... Washing................................................................................................................. Clean Linen and Dry Cleaning........................................................................... Vehicles.................................................................................................................. Laundry Depots.................................................................................................. Safety Shower and Eyewash.............................................................................. Quality Assurance..............................................................................................

Page 276 277 280 283 283 284 286 287 288 289 289 290 290 291 292 293 294 294 296 296 296 297 297

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SASC-S-12 Places of Employment


No. 1. Inspections.......................................................................................... 2. General Considerations....................................................................... 3. General Construction Requirements................................................... 4. Ventilation........................................................................................... 5. Illumination......................................................................................... 6. Potable Water System......................................................................... 7. Sewage................................................................................................ 8. Toilet Rooms, Shower Rooms, Handwashing Facilities .................... 9. Toilet Rooms....................................................................................... 10. Handwashing....................................................................................... 11. Shower Rooms.................................................................................... 12. Changing Areas and Locker Rooms................................................... 13. Retiring Rooms for Women................................................................ 14. Garbage and Refuse Facilities............................................................. 15. Insect and Rodent Control................................................................... 16. Lunch Rooms and Kitchens................................................................ Page 302 302 303 305 305 306 308 309 310 310 311 311 312 312 314 315

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SASC-S-13 Swimming Pools, Wading Pools and Spas


No. 1. Proposed Design Factors for New or Remodeled Pools..................... 2. Plans and Specifications...................................................................... 3. Loading Stress and Structural Stability............................................... 4. Construction Materials (General) 5. Size and Design Criteria..................................................................... 6. Stairways, Ladders and Handrails.......................................... 7. Decks and Walkways.......................................................................... 8. Illumination and Electrical Requirements........................................... 9. Water Supply....................................................................................... 10. Sewer System...................................................................................... 11. Specifications for Recirculation Systems........................................... 12. Shower Rooms, Dressing Rooms and Toilets..................................... 13. Refuse............................................................................................. 14. Miscellaneous Requirements.............................................................. 15. Lifesaving Equipment, First Aid and Telephone................................ 16. Supervision ............................................................................................. 17. Supervision of Bathers........................................................................ 18. Water Quality and Testing (Physical Parameters).............................. 19. Water Quality and Testing (Chemical Parameters)............................ 20. Water Quality and Testing (Microbiological Parameters).................. 21. Spa pools............................................................................................. Page 319 319 320 320 320 321 322 322 323 323 323 336 340 340 340 341 341 342 343 345 345

SASC-S-14 Barbers and Beauty Shops


No. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. General Requirements......................................................................... Cleaning and Disinfection................................................................... Hair Care and Beauty Products........................................................... Personnel............................................................................................. General Sanitation and Hygiene......................................................... Page 349 350 351 351 352

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SASC-S-15 Indoor an Outdoor Recreation Areas and Facilities, Including Camp Grounds, Beaches and Marinas
No. 1. Inspection and Compliance with Code Requirements Responsibilities... 2. Location...................................................................................................... 3. General Considerations............................................................................... 4. Fires and Cooking and Eating Facilities in Outdoor Recreation Areas...... 5. Roads, Parking Areas and Walks............................................ 6. Construction Requirements for Floors........ 7. Construction Requirements for Walls and Ceilings.................................... 8. Construction Requirements for Doors, Windows and Screening............... 9. Ventilation Requirements........................................................................... 10. Illumination Requirements.......................................................................... 11. Toilet Rooms, Shower Rooms, Handwashing Facilities (General)............ 12. Toilet Rooms and Toilets............................................................................ 13. Handwashing Facilities............................................................................... 14. Shower Rooms and Showers....................................................................... 15. Laundry Rooms............................................................................................... 16. Potable Water System..................................................................................... 17. Sewage............................................................................................................ 18. Garbage and Refuse........................................................................................ 19. Insect and Rodent Control........................................................................... 20. Recreation Villas and Communal Housing..................................................... 21. Swimming Pools............................................................................................. 22. Food Facilities................................................................................................. 23. Natural Swimming Areas................................................................................ Page 354 355 355 356 356 357 357 358 359 359 360 361 362 362 363 363 367 368 370 371 372 372 372

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SASC-S-16 Schools
No. 1. Inspection of Schools.......................................................................... 2. General Considerations....................................................................... 3. General Construction Requirements................................................... 4. Ventilation and Air Conditioning....................................................... 5. Illumination........................................................................................ 6. Potable Water System......................................................................... 7. Sewage................................................................................................ 8. Toilet, Showers and Handwashing Facilities (General)...................... 9. Toilet Rooms....................................................................................... 10. Handwashing Facilities....................................................................... 11. Shower Rooms.................................................................................... 12. Changing Areas and Lockers.............................................................. 13. Retiring Rooms for Women................................................................ 14. Garbage and Refuse............................................................................ 15. Insect Rodent and Vermin Control..................................................... 16. Lunch Rooms and Kitchens................................................................ Page 375 376 377 379 380 380 383 383 384 385 385 386 386 386 388 390

SASC-S-17 Insects, Rodents and Other Insects of Public Health Significance


No. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. General................................................................................................ Responsibilities for insect, rodent and vermin control...................... Structural Plans for Schools and Food Establishments....................... General Structural Requirements........................................................ Sewage ................................................................................................... Garbage and Refuse............................................................................ Pesticides............................................................................................. Page 392 394 394 394 395 395 397

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SASC-S-18 Public Health Nuisances


No. Page

1. General................................................................................................ 399 2. Special Public Health Nuisances..................................................... 399

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Water, SASC-S-01

SASC-S-01 WATER
Water is a fundamental necessity for life. Protection of this natural resource is an essential health requisite. If the water supply is not protected, the spread of water-borne communicable disease and degradation of the quality of life are imminent. The costs in terms of illness and lost time from work could be severe. This Section specifies the public health requirements necessary for the maintenance of a hygienic, safe and wholesome water supply. NOTE: All sub-sections should be read in conjunction with appropriate referenced documents listed at the end of this Code Section. DEFINITIONS: Air Break: A physical separation, which may be a low inlet into the indirect waste receptor from the fixtures, appliances or devices indirectly connected. Air Gap: (1) In a water supply system, it is the unobstructed vertical distance through the atmosphere between the lowest opening from any pipe or faucet supplying water to a tank, plumbing fixture or other device in the flood-level rim of the receptacle. (2) The unobstructed vertical distance between the inlet from the potable water system and the flood level rim of the non-potable water system, for a safe air gap, must be equal to at least twice the inside diameter of the inlet pipe. Bottled Drinking Water: All water, which is sealed in bottles, packages or other containers and offered for sale for human consumption. Chemically Treated: Any water that has been chemically treated. The treatment may range from simple addition of chlorine to kill bacteria to multiple chemical applications to render it non-corrosive and/or non-scaling or to remove certain physical or chemical pollutants Chlorine Residual: The amount of chlorine in all forms (total) or HOCl (free) remaining in treated water to ensure disinfection for a certain period of time. Coliform Group Bacteria: (1) A group of bacteria predominantly inhabiting the intestines of man or animal, but also occasionally found elsewhere. It includes all aerobic and facultative anaerobic, Gram negative, non-spore forming bacilli that ferment lactose with production of gas. (2) A group of organisms, which include Escherichia coli. Contamination, Water: The direct or indirect introduction into water of microorganisms, chemicals, wastes or wastewater. Demineralized: Water from which mineral salts (anions and cations) have been removed by passage through ionexchange resins. The ion-exchange process is frequently referred to as de-ionization or demineralization, and is used to manufacture low TDS water for make-up in boiler systems and for numerous other applications. Desalinated: Water from which most of the dissolved salts have been removed by one of the desalination processes (e.g. reverse osmosis, electrodialysis or flash evaporation). Disinfect: To kill infectious microorganisms by physical or chemical means. Some bacterial spore forming organisms may survive the process, but all other microorganisms are reduced to insignificant levels or eliminated completely. ED water: The product water from an electro-dialysis (ED) desalination process. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA): An agency of the US Federal Government, formed in 1970, which has the responsibility for ensuring that governmental, residential, commercial and industrial waste-disposal activities do not adversely impact the physical environment. Filter: A device made of porous material, through which a fluid is passed, to separate from it matter held in suspension. 1

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Water, SASC-S-01

Fire Water: Any water (fresh, well, sea) contained in a piping system or storage tank and normally intended to provide water for extinguishing fires. The source of the fire water shall be identified. Groundwater: That part of the subsurface water that is in the zone of saturation. Hard water: Any water containing more than 60 mg/L calcium and/or magnesium expressed as calcium/magnesium carbonate Hypochlorite: in its sodium salt form, the active bleaching ingredient in liquid chlorine bleach. Liquid Chlorine Bleach: A solution of sodium hypochlorite, a highly active oxidizing agent. Liquid chlorine bleach is also called household bleach and is commonly distributed as an approximately five percent solution of sodium hypochlorite. mg/L: Milligrams per liter, which is the metric equivalent of parts per million (ppm). Microorganisms: Generally any living microscopic things (too small for the naked eye). This includes bacteria, yeasts, simple fungi, algae, etc. Some of these produce disease in man, animals and plants. Most Probable Number (MPN): (1) That number of organisms per unit volume that, in accordance with statistical theory, would be more likely than any other number to yield the observed test result with the greatest frequency. (2) A laboratory technique for enumerating bacteria consisting of statistical evaluation of growth or no growth in multiple dilutions of water or wastewater. Potable Drinking Water: Water at the consumer tap that is wholesome and which meets the chemical, physical and microbiological section as outlined in SASC-S-01 Raw Water: In Saudi Aramco terminology, raw water means water that has not undergone treatment. This water normally contains less than 5,000 mg/l TDS and is used extensively in Saudi Arabia for domestic purposes. Residual Chlorine: The free chlorine, which remains in solution after the demand has been satisfied. TDS (Total Dissolved Solids): Total solids dissolved in water. TDS is expressed in mg/L. Frequently expressed as parts per million (ppm). Utility Water: Water containing, normally less than 5000mg/L TDS, used in process facilities (as opposed to raw water used in domestic facilities Vacuum Breaker: A device for relieving a vacuum or partial vacuum formed in a pipeline, preventing backsiphonage. Water Hardness: Soluble metal salts, principally those of calcium and magnesium, sometimes including iron and manganese that, when present in water in significant levels, can create scaling problems. , Water Supply System: Includes the waterworks and auxiliaries for collection, treatment, storage and distribution of the water from the sources of supply to the free-flowing outlet of the consumer. Well: An artificial excavation, complete with piping and inert materials at such a depth as to penetrate water yielding rock or soil, and allow the water to flow or be pumped to the surface.

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Water, SASC-S-01

GENERAL REQUIREMENTS 1.1 Raw or Utility Water (also see SAES-S-040): Water that is satisfactory for ablution, bathing, brushing teeth, cooking, eyewashes, hand washing, laundry, ware-washing, and other domestic/utility purposes. Raw water must comply with bacteriological requirements and be chlorinated. When the intended use of potable water is other than drinking, the chemical quality of the water must be inherently free from acute health hazards, but need not comply with the stringent chemical quality parameters required to protect the most sensitive individual from chronic health risks associated with lifetime consumption of drinking water. Additionally, the Manager, Environmental Protection Department (EPD) may impose additional, more stringent requirements on a specific water use when he deems it necessary to protect health.
Note that a water well must possess chemical quality characteristics free from acute health hazards to be designated as a Saudi Aramco potable water well. Water supplied from all known Saudi Aramco developed potable water wells can, therefore, be used for any potable purpose (except drinking), including feed stock to advanced water treatment systems. Water from other than Saudi Aramco developed potable water wells, such as sea water used for hand washbasins and showers aboard marine vessels, shall be evaluated by EPD to verify that the water is likely to be substantially free from acute health hazards before the water is used for domestic/utility purposes.

1.2

Drinking Water (Sweet Water): Water that has no objectionable tastes or odors and meets all water quality requirements as defined in Table 9. Drinking water shall normally contain less than 500 mg/l total dissolved solids. Water which otherwise meets all sections and has a total dissolved solids concentration not exceeding 1500 mg/l may be approved for drinking water on a case-by-case basis. Water Distribution System (see SAES-S-040): A network of water distribution piping, water booster stations, valves, controls and all appurtenances carrying or supplying water to the discharge end of isolation valves. Such systems may supply drinking, raw water for domestic/utility purposes or potable raw water for combined domestic/utility and fire fighting purposes. Note that most Saudi Aramco communities, industrial areas and plants are provided with two separate water distribution systems, i.e. a small system supplying de-mineralized drinking water and a large domestic/utility/fire water system supplying properly chlorinated or disinfected non de-mineralized raw water (commonly referred to as "raw water"). Fire Water Distribution System: Fire water need not be raw or drinking water quality if distributed in a separate, independent water distribution system that is used for no purpose other than fire fighting, i.e. the water from the separate, independent fire water system is not used for ablution, domestic purposes, drinking, eyewashes, personal hygiene or any other domestic/utility purpose. If the fire water is distributed in a system that also provides properly chlorinated or disinfected water for ablution, bathing, brushing teeth, cooking, eyewashes, hand washing, laundry, ware-washing, or other domestic or personal hygiene purpose, then the quality of the fire water must be equal to that required for the highest intended use, i.e. potable water use. In this case, Fire Water is a misnomer and the system should be referred to as a raw or utility water distribution system.
Note that Saudi Aramco does not normally provide a third water distribution system dedicated exclusively to fire fighting. This is confusing when discussing systems that are primarily required for fire fighting in a plant and are only secondarily used for domestic/utility purposes. The key determinant, however, is that the system must provide water of a quality adequate for the highest intended use.

1.3

1.4

WATER SOURCE AND PROTECTION OF THE WATER SUPPLY 2.1 The water supply shall be obtained from the most desirable feasible source. Every reasonable effort shall be made to prevent or control pollution of the source. If the source is not adequately protected by natural means, the supply shall be adequately protected by treatment. Water shall be obtained, conveyed, treated, stored and distributed in a closed system that is protected from contamination. Minimum separation distances between sources of contamination and water wells and water lines shall be as indicated in Table 1 below. 3

2.2

2.3

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Water, SASC-S-01

TABLE 1 Minimum Horizontal Separation Distances Minimum Distance To Be Maintained From: Sewer Lines Septic Tank/Grease Traps Disposal Field Seepage Pit Areas Irrigated with Reclaimed Wastewater Reclaimed Water Line Sewage Treatment Plants (on-shore) Sewage Lift Stations (on-shore) Water Wells m(ft) 15 (50) 15 (50) 30 (100) 45 (150) 150 (500) 15 (50) 150 ( 500) 90 (300) Water Lines m(ft) 3 (10) 3 (10) 3 (10) 3 (10) b 15 (50) a 3 (10)
a

a - In the event that these separation distances can not be met, see SAES-S-010. b - This buffer zone applies to spray irrigation areas only.

2.4

Sewer line crossings with potable water lines shall comply with the requirements of SAES-S-010, Sanitary Sewers. Saudi Aramcos EPD shall conduct a sanitary survey of a water system at the time the water system is constructed, or when any part of an existing water source, water treatment plant or water distribution system is altered, extended, upgraded, changed or substantially repaired. 2.5.1 Sanitary surveys provide an additional line of defense against contamination. Their function is to identify possible health risks that may not be apparent from water sample results alone. The sanitary survey involves planning, surveying and reporting. 2.5.2.1 Planning shall include a detailed review of system records to determine if inorganic chemical, organic chemical, microbiological and radiological maximum contaminant levels (MCLs), as well as the system's monitoring record, comply with standards. The sanitary survey may include interviews with system supervisors and operators and very detailed evaluations of the source, treatment, distribution system and management/operations. Findings shall be discussed with the Saudi Aramco proponent and system personnel at the conclusion of the survey.

2.5

2.5.2

2.5.2.2

2.6

The Manager, EPD, shall approve all new water supplies. Approval of water supplies shall be dependent, in part, upon: 2.6.1 2.6.2 Adherence to rules and regulations designed to prevent development of health hazards. Adequate protection of the water quality throughout all parts of the system as demonstrated by sanitary surveys. Proper operation of the water supply system under the responsible charge of conscientious, trained and competent personnel. Adequate capacity to meet peak demands without development of low-pressure conditions or other health hazards.

2.6.3

2.6.4

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Water, SASC-S-01

2.6.5

The use of the "best available technology" (BAT) to ensure compliance with the Total Coliform Rule. These include, but are not limited to: 2.6.5.1 2.6.5.2 Protection of wells by appropriate placement and construction. Maintenance of a disinfectant residual of a minimum of 0.5ppm throughout the distribution system. Proper maintenance of the distribution system, including appropriate pipe replacement and repair procedures, main flushing programs, proper operation and maintenance of storage tanks and reservoirs, and continual maintenance of positive water pressure in all parts of the distribution system. Filtration and disinfection if surface water is used as a supply.

2.6.5.3

2.6.5.4 2.6.6

The use of the "best available technology" (BAT) to ensure compliance with inorganic chemical, organic chemical and radiological contaminant MCLs. These include the processes outlined in Tables 2 and 3. Records of laboratory examinations showing consistent compliance with applicable MCLs, as well as system records showing compliance with monitoring requirements. Records of equipment operation and maintenance, quantities of product water produced, types and amounts of chemicals used, and pH and chlorine residual. TABLE 2 Best Available Technology (BAT) for Inorganic Contaminants Best Available Technology Coagulation-filtration*; direct and diatomite filtration; corrosion control Ion exchange; lime softening*; reverse osmosis; electrodialysis Ion exchange; reverse osmosis; coagulation-filtration*; lime softening* Coagulation-filtration*; ion exchange; lime softening (Cr III only)*; reverse osmosis Granular activated carbon; coagulation-filtration*; lime softening*; reverse osmosis Ion exchange; reverse osmosis; electrodialysis Ion exchange; reverse osmosis Activated alumina; lime softening*; coagulation-filtration (Se IV only)*; reverse osmosis; electrodialysis

2.6.7

2.6.8

Contaminant Asbestos Barium Cadmium Chromium Mercury Nitrate Nitrite Selenium

Coagulation-filtration/lime softening is not BAT for small systems for variances unless treatment is currently in place where Mercury influent concentrations are <10 g/L

WATER WELLS The following public health factors pertinent to water well development are meant to supplement good engineering practice, not redefine it. The construction and operational requirements presented are based on experience with potable water wells for the majority of conditions prevailing in Saudi Arabia. In unusual circumstances where these requirements are not reasonable, specific deviation may be approved by Saudi Aramcos EPD if an alternative approach will provide equivalent public health protection. In other circumstances where these requirements do not provide adequate protection against hazards, requirements more rigid in one or more aspects may be necessary for specific situations, Such as a recommendation that mercury sealed pump motors be replaced by mechanically sealed pump motors to prevent contamination of the water source.

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Water, SASC-S-01

Contaminant

TABLE 3 Best Available Technology (BAT) for Organic Contaminants Best Available Technology Granular Packed-tower Polymer Activated Carbon Aeration Practices X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X

Addition

Acrylamide Alachlor Aldicar Aldicarb sulfone Aldicarb sulfoxide Atrazine Carbofuran Chlordane 2,4-D Dibromochloropropane (DBCP) o-Dichlorobenzene cis-1,2-Dichloroethylene trans-1,2-Dichloroethylene 1,2-Dichloropropane Epichlorohydrin Ethylene dibromide (EDB) Ethylbenzene Heptachlor Heptachlor epoxide Lindane Methoxychlor Monochlorobenzene PCBs Pentachlorophenol Styrene 2,4,5-TP (silvex) Tetrachloroethylene Toluene Toxaphene Xylenes (total) 3.1

X X X X X X X X X

X X X X

Wells shall be located at an adequate distance from potential sources of contamination and generally in areas not subject to flooding (refer to Table 1and sub-section 3.5). All wells shall be drilled by contractors who are well versed in well construction; able to construct a well that will provide safe potable water, and who are able to do this in a manner that will not prove hazardous to the underground waters. During interruptions of construction before installation of the well pump, the well opening shall be closed with a cover welded to the casing to prevent entrance of contamination or debris. Precautions shall also be taken to effectively close the well hole opening temporarily during overnight shutdowns. Drill muds, formation stabilizers, grout, water and all other materials used in the construction of the well shall be free from sewage contamination and shall be handled so that they do not become contaminated during construction of the well. All annular packing material consisting of sand or gravel used in packed wells shall be properly designed, sorted and graded and shall come from gravel sources free from sewage contamination, shall be washed with a water free from sewage contamination and containing a chlorine residual of 50 mg/L, and shall be so handled that it will not become contaminated before placing in the well.

3.2

3.3

3.4

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Water, SASC-S-01

3.5

Where wells are subject to flooding, suitable protection against this hazard must be provided. The well casing shall be extended to terminate above the maximum floodwater elevation; or if a submersible type of pump installation is used, the well casing shall be provided with a watertight seal at the surface to exclude floodwaters. Well casings shall be steel or other metal of satisfactory physical properties and condition. The gauge of well casing shall be adequate, depending upon type of casing (single or double), diameter of casing, and depth of well, to ensure structural stability and soundness during construction and for the life of the well. All well casing seams (longitudinal joints) shall be welded. Joints in the casing shall be either screw coupled or welded. Stovepipe type of casing is permissible if double thickness with staggered joint casing is used, and the inner and outer casings are processed to exact fit so the inner casing shall fit to the outer casing with a tolerance not to exceed 0.25 millimeters (1/100 of an inch). Where no conductor casing is used, tight joints must be provided in the casing above the level of the highest perforations. All drilled wells shall have a conductor casing to exclude upper level waters. Different situations of underground formation will necessitate different kinds of protection. 3.7.1 Where porous formations are continuous from the surface to 15 meters (50 feet) or more, the perforations shall be located as remote as possible from the surface, and casing joints shall be constructed to be tight above the perforations because the conductor casing in the situation will not protect against contamination originating at the surface. Protection must be secured by locating the well away from sewers and sewage disposal Any upper water bearing zone above the target interval shall be isolated from other water bearing zones that are penetrated by a cement slurry seal of the well annular space to prevent cross contamination between water bearing zones that are penetrated.. Further, all reasonable efforts shall be made to control sewers and sewage in the immediate environment. Where impervious formations are continuous from the surface to 15 meters (50 feet) or more, a conductor casing shall extend to 15 meters (50 feet) unless there is some likelihood that sewage is disposed of through deep cesspools to a porous formation lying below this depth. In this case, extending the conductor pipe through such porous formations to the next lower impervious formation shall provide additional protection. Where alternate strata of porous and impervious formations exist, a conductor casing shall extend to a minimum depth of 15 meters (50 feet) and shall extend through at least the first porous formation lying below the 15 meters (50 feet) level. If there is a likelihood of lower porous formations being contaminated from nearby sewage or other waste disposal, then the conductor casing shall extend through such lower porous formations into an underlying impervious formation.

3.6

3.7

3.7.2

3.7.3

3.8

The annular space between the casing and the conductor casing shall be filled with cement or concrete grout so placed that this material completely fills the annular space and provides a watertight seal. The sand or gravel packing material shall be separated from overlying cement grout with a proper finer grained seal followed by a cement grout throughout the remainder of the annular space. All grouting shall be performed by adding the mixture from the bottom of the space to be grouted toward the surface in one continuous operation. Sufficient annular space shall be provided to permit a minimum thickness of 5.1 centimeters (2 inches) of grout. The minimum diameter of the annular space shall be a minimum of 5.1 centimeters (2 inches) per side of the well. Packed wells require the use of centralizers within the screened interval to ensure that the well is properly centered in the borehole. It is desirable that the uppermost perforations of the well casing be located below an impervious stratum. Where impervious strata are nonexistent or 15 meters (50 feet) or more from the surface, perforations shall be deep enough to prevent entry by shallow surface waters. In no event shall perforations be closer than 15 meters (50 feet) to the ground surface. The well casing shall extend above ground level and through a pump house floor slab or a pump block. The slab or block shall extend at least 15 centimeters (6 inches) above the surrounding ground 7

3.9

3.10

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Water, SASC-S-01

level. It shall be impervious, free from cracks and a minimum of 1.2 meters (4 feet) in diameter. The top of the casing shall be sealed to effectively exclude such materials as windblown dust, any animals and insects, pump drippage, rain, water, etc. as follows: 3.10.1 If the well pump is set directly over the casing, the pump base shall fit tightly on the pump block or slab. If the pump is offset from the well casing, the annular ring between the well casing and the pump suction pipe shall be closed by a tight seal which can be removed as necessary to provide maintenance of the pump elements. Where the casing is sealed by the metal pump base, all holes in the pump base shall be tightly closed. Adequate means shall be provided to transmit or transfer drippage from packing glands away from the pump base and well casing. If a submersible pump is used, the above ground piping shall be flanged to the casing. The flange shall be sealed to the casing.

3.10.2

3.10.3

3.10.4

3.11

Access openings into the well casing for air release, lubrication, disinfection, or for any other purpose necessary for maintenance and operation of the well are permitted, but must terminate above the flood water level. These openings shall be protected against entry by any animals, insects, extraneous water, pump drippage, and other contaminating matter, by caps, screens, or down-turned U bends, as suitable for the given situation. The pump discharge piping shall be located above ground. In the event of a below ground discharge, there shall be a positive, water-tight seal between the discharge pipe and the well casing, and such connection shall be easily accessible for inspection. This will require a pit which will be subject to limitations as noted below: 3.12.1 The use of well pits (and below-ground discharge pipes), shall be prohibited on new installations. In no case shall a well pit be used in areas subject to flooding or where the pit extends to a depth below the water table. The pit shall be water tight, constructed of monolithic, reinforced concrete. The top of such a pit shall be covered either with a concrete slab or with a house of equivalent watertight construction.

3.12

3.13

The blow-off or drain line from the pump discharge shall be located where there is not possibility of water entering the well from the blow-off or drain line. Oil and water used for lubrication of the pump and pump bearing shall be of satisfactory bacteriological quality so as not to impair the quality of water drawn from the well. A sample tap, in proper working condition shall be provided on the discharge line so that water, representative of the water in the well, may be drawn for laboratory analysis.

3.14

3.15

WATER STORAGE TANKS, EQUIPMENT, PLUMBING, HOSES AND COMPRESSED AIR 4.1 All water storage tanks shall be provided with a sample tap, which shall be in working order. Where a tankered supply is used, secondary raw and drinking water storage tanks in remote areas shall be drained, visually inspected, internally sanitized by application of a chlorine solution or other approved means at least every 12 months. Records shall be kept of the dates of inspections, procedures to be followed, disinfectants used and the strength of the disinfecting solution. Vents shall be of the gooseneck type or roof ventilator type, protected to prevent possible entry of dust, any animals, insects, or any contaminants, with the opening protected by 16-mesh or finer corrosion resistant screening.

4.2

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Water, SASC-S-01

4.3

Roof hatch openings shall have a raised curbing of at least 10 centimeters (4 inches) in height, and the cover shall overlap and terminate in a downward direction for at least 5 centimeters (2 inches), with arrangements for keeping it locked in place. Overflows shall be provided with hinged flap valves. Equipment, devices, filters, and all other water treatment or conditioning apparatus, shall be operated, inspected and serviced or replaced according to the manufacturer's instructions and specifications, and shall not be operated beyond their rated capacity. All such equipment shall be maintained in a clean and sanitary condition and, if necessary, shall be sanitized by application of a chlorine solution or by other approved means. Where any of the above are used in remote locations are appropriate manufacturers instructions shall be kept on site as part of that sites Operating Procedures. If hoses are used for conveying potable water, they shall be dedicated, constructed of safe materials, shall have a smooth interior surface, shall be used for no other purpose, and shall be clearly identified as to their use. Caps and keeper chains shall be provided for water system inlet and outlet fittings, as well as hose fittings. All such fittings shall be capped when not in immediate use. Hoses shall be stored and used to be kept free of contamination. Compressed air used to pressurize the potable water system shall be filtered or otherwise treated to render it free of dust, insects and extraneous material. Air intakes shall be properly located and maintained. Filters shall be located upstream from the compressor and shall be easily removable for cleaning and replacement. The blower or compressor supplying air shall be designed so that it will deliver oil-free air.

4.4 4.5

4.6

4.7

CROSS CONNECTION CONTROL 5.1 Cross Connection Control -The implementation of these requirements for the effective control of cross-connections depends on the full cooperation of the water purveyor (ex: Area Utilities Department), EPD, and the consumer. Each has its responsibilities and each must carry out its phase of a coordinated cross-connection control program in order to prevent pollution or contamination of the potable water supplies. The responsibilities of each are outlined hereafter. Responsibility: EPD 5.2.1 EPD has the primary responsibility for promulgating and enforcing laws, rules, regulations, and policies to be followed in carrying out an effective cross-connection control program. Further EPD has the responsibility of insuring that the water purveyor operates the public water system free of actual of potential sanitary hazards, including unprotected cross connections. Also, EPD has responsibility of insuring that the water purveyor provides an approved water supply at the point of delivery to the consumer's water system and, further, that the purveyor installs, tests, and properly maintains an approved backflow-prevention assembly on the service connections. EPD has the primary responsibility of insuring that the consumer's potable water system is provided with an approved water supply and that its potable water system(s) is maintained free of sanitary hazards, including unprotected cross connections. Under this cross-connection control requirement the water purveyor has the primary responsibility to prevent water from unapproved sources, or any other substance, entering the public water supply system. The water purveyor is prohibited by these requirements from installing or maintaining a water service connection to a consumer's water system within its jurisdiction where a health, system, plumbing or pollution hazard exists, or will probably exist, unless the public water supply is protected against backflow by an approved assembly installed at the service connection (point of delivery). 9

5.2

5.2.2

5.3

Responsibility: Water Purveyor 5.3.1

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Water, SASC-S-01

5.3.2

The water purveyor's responsibility begins at the source and includes all of the public water distribution system, including the service connection, and ends at the point of delivery to the consumer's water system(s). In addition, the water purveyor shall exercise reasonable vigilance to insure that the consumer has taken the proper steps to protect the public potable water system. To insure that the proper precautions are taken the water purveyor is required to determine the degree of hazard to the public potable water system. When it is determined that a backflow-prevention assembly is required for the protection of the public system the water purveyor shall require the consumer, at the consumer's expense, to install an approved backflow-prevention assembly at each service connection, to test immediately upon installation and annually or more often in those instances where successive inspections indicate repeated failure, to properly repair and maintain such assembly or assemblies and to keep adequate records of each test and subsequent maintenance and repair, including materials or replacement parts. The purveyor has the responsibility to not only review building plans and inspect plumbing as it is installed; but it has the explicit responsibility of preventing cross connections from being designed and built into the structures within its jurisdiction. Where the review of building plans suggests or detects the potential for cross connections being made an integral part of the plumbing system the plumbing official has the responsibility under most building codes for requiring that such cross connection practices be either eliminated or provided with approved backflow-prevention equipment. The purveyor responsibility begins at the point of service (the downstream side of the meter) and carries throughout the entire length of the customer's water system. The plan inspector should inquire about the intended use of water at any point where it is suspected that a cross connection might be made or where one is actually called for by the plans. When such is discovered it should be mandatory that a suitable, approved backflow- prevention assembly be required by the plans and properly installed. The purveyor has further primary responsibility of preventing pollutants and contaminants from entering his potable water system(s) or the public potable water system. The consumer's responsibility starts at the point of delivery from the public potable water system and includes all of his water systems. The purveyor shall install, operate, test, and maintain approved backflow-prevention assemblies as directed by EPD. The purveyor shall maintain accurate records of tests and repairs made to backflowprevention assemblies and provide the water purveyor and health agency having jurisdiction with copies of such records. The records shall be on forms approved by the water purveyor and/or health agency having jurisdiction and shall include the list of materials or replacement parts used. Following any repair, overhaul, re-piping or relocation of an assembly the consumer shall have it tested to insure that it is in good operating condition and will prevent backflow. A certified backflow-prevention assembly tester shall make tests, maintain, and repair backflow-prevention assemblies. When requested by EPD, the water purveyor shall be responsible for conformance with all applicable requirements pertaining to cross-connection control; for the installation, operation, and use of all water piping systems, backflow-prevention assemblies, and water-using equipment on the premises; and for the avoidance of unprotected cross connections. In the event of accidental pollution or contamination of the public or the consumer's potable water system due to backflow on or from the consumer's premises, the purveyor promptly take steps to confine further spread of the pollution or contamination within the system and should notify EPD of the condition. The purveyor shall take appropriate measures to free the water system(s) of any pollutants or contaminants.

5.3.3

5.3.4

5.3.5

5.3.6

5.3.7

5.3.8

5.4

Responsibility: Certified Backflow-Prevention Assembly Tester 5.4.1 A backflow-prevention assembly tester will have the following responsibilities: 10

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Water, SASC-S-01

5.4.1.1 The tester will be responsible for making competent inspections and for repairing or overhauling backflow-prevention assemblies and copy reports of such repair to EPD. The tester shall include the list of materials or replacement parts used. The tester shall be equipped with and be competent to use all the necessary tools, gauges, manometers, and other equipment necessary to properly test, repair, and maintain backflow-prevention assemblies. It will be the tester's responsibility to insure that original manufactured parts are used in the repair or replacement of parts in a backflow-prevention assembly. It will be the tester's further responsibility not to change the design, material or operational characteristics of an assembly during repair or maintenance without prior approval of the approving authority. A certified tester shall perform the work and be responsible for the competency and accuracy of all tests and reports. 6 DISINFECTION -- GENERAL 6.1 Water shall be disinfected by chlorination or other means or methods of equal efficiency according to Best Available Technology in the killing or removal of organisms capable of causing infection. When chlorination is employed, a sufficient amount of chlorine shall be added to the water to maintain a measurable free chlorine residual of at least 0.5 milligrams per liter (0.5 parts per million) at all points in the distribution system from which water may be withdrawn. The maximum chlorine residual should not exceed 3.0 mg/L (3.0 ppm). Disinfection shall not be considered as a substitute for good design (see SAES-S-110), sound construction, or proper operation. Where ground water meets all standards of safety, disinfection affords partial protection against chance contamination in the distribution system and contamination of the source of supply. Plans detailing sanitary features of the water supply system and proposed methods of disinfection shall be submitted to Saudi Aramcos EPD for review prior to construction or modification of a water system.

6.2

6.3

DISINFECTION BY CHLORINE 7.1 The forms of chlorine that may be used in all disinfection operations are gas chlorine, sodium hypochlorite solution and calcium hypochlorite granules or tablets. The chemical shall be selected after due consideration of pumping rates, type of water supply, chlorine demand, and pH of water, cost of equipment and the toxicity and availability of the chemical. 7.1.1 Chlorine is a gas at standard temperatures and pressures. In commercial usage, the gas is compressed, liquefied and packaged in steel containers to facilitate handling and shipping. The liquid chlorine readily vaporizes back to the gaseous state when drawn from the container. The net weight of chlorine liquid contained in a commercial cylinder is usually 45.4 kilograms (100 pounds), 68.1 kilograms (150 pounds) or 909 kilograms (1 ton). One liter of water weighs 1 kilogram. Mixing 1 kilogram of chlorine with 1,000,000 liters of water equates to 1 milligram of chlorine per liter of water (1 part per million). Gas chlorine shall be used only: a) in combination with appropriate gas-flow chlorinators and ejectors to provide a controlled high-concentration solution feed to the water to be chlorinated; b) under the direct supervision of a person who is familiar with the physiological, chemical and physical properties of chlorine, and who is trained and equipped to handle any emergency that may arise; and c) in accordance with appropriate safety practices designed to protect employees and the public. Sodium hypochlorite is available in liquid form in glass, rubber-lined, or plastic containers typically ranging in size from 1 to 32 liters (1 quart to 8.5 gallons). Sodium hypochlorite contains approximately 5 percent to 15 percent available chlorine, but care must be used in control of conditions and length of storage to minimize its deterioration. (Available chlorine is 11

7.1.2

7.1.3

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Water, SASC-S-01

expressed as a percent of weight when the concentration is 5 percent or less, and usually as a percent of volume for higher concentrations. Percent X 10 = grams of available chlorine per liter of hypochlorite). 7.1.4 Calcium hypochlorite is available in granular form or in approximately 5 gram tablets, and contains approximately 65 percent available chlorine by weight. The material shall be stored in a cool, dry and dark environment to minimize its deterioration.

7.2

Automatic proportioning chlorinators, gas or hypochlorite, shall be installed wherever the rate of flow is not constant and personnel are not available to manually adjust the chlorinator in response to changes in the flow. Reliability: Chlorination equipment capable of applying chlorine continuously shall be selected and installed. Installed spares shall be provided for all critical equipment. Gas chlorination shall be provided from dual cylinders with automatic switch over. The capacity of the chlorinator shall be such that a free chlorine residual of at least 0.5 milligrams per liter can be attained in the water after a contact time of at least 30 minutes. This condition must be attained even when maximum flow rates coincide with anticipated maximum chlorine demands. A spare parts kit shall be available for all chlorinators to replace parts that are subject to wear and breakage. The minimum chlorine contact time shall be 30 minutes. Tables 4, 5 and 6 provide guidance in the preparation of chlorine solutions when using sodium hypochlorite liquids or calcium hypochlorite granules/tablets as the chlorine source. Equipment shall be available for measuring residual chlorine. The equipment shall be accurate to 0.1 milligrams per liter (0.1 parts per million) in the range below 0.5 milligrams per liter (0.5 parts per million) and to approximately 25 percent above 0.5 milligrams per liter (0.5 parts per million). An automatic chlorine residual analyzer and recorder should be provided for water systems that use large amounts of chlorine over relatively short periods of time. TABLE 4 Guide to Preparation of Chlorine Solutions Using 5% Laundry Bleach as the Chlorine Source (Parts per Amount of hypochlorite laundry Bleach

7.3

7.4

7.5

7.6 7.7

7.8

mL 0.1 0.5 1.0 5.0 10.0 20.0 30.0

mL 0.2 1.0 2.0 10.0 20.0 40.0 60.0

mL 2.0 10.0 20.0 100.0 200.0 400.0 600.0

mL L L oz oz oz qt 20.0 0.2 2.0 0.3 0.1 100.0 1.0 10.0 1.3 0.4 200.0 2.0 20.0 0.3 2.6 0.8 1000.0 10.0 100.0 0.13 1.3 12.8 4.0 2000.0 20.0 200.0 0.26 2.6 25.6 8.0 4000.0 40.0 400.0 0.51 5.1 51.2 16.0 6000.0 60.0 600.0 0.77 7.7 76.8 24.0 That Must be Added to the Following Volumes of Water 1,000 Liters 10,000 Liters 100,000 Liters 1 Gal. 10 Gal. 100 Gal. 1000 Gal.

Gal 0.2 1.0 2.0 10.0 20.0 40.0 60.0

Gal 2.0 10.0 20.0 100.0 200.0 400.0 600.0

5 Liters

10 Liters

100 Liters

10,000 Gal.

100,000 Gal.

Million) 1 mg/L 5 mg/L 10 mg/L 50 mg/L 100 mg/L 200 mg/L 300 mg/L To Produce The Above Chlorine Residuals

12

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TABLE 5 Guide to Preparation of Chlorine Solutions Using 15% Hypochlorite Liquid as the Chlorine Source
mL 0.3 1.7 3.3 6.7 10.0 mL 0.3 0.7 3.3 6.7 13.3 20.0 mL 0.7 3.3 6.7 33.3 66.7 133.3 200.0 Amount of 15% Sodium Hypochlorite Liquid mL L L oz oz oz qt 6.7 0.7 0.1 33.3 0.3 3.3 0.4 0.1 66.7 0.7 6.7 0.1 0.9 0.3 333.3 3.3 33.3 0.04 0.4 4.3 1.3 666.7 6.7 66.7 0.09 0.9 8.5 2.7 1333.3 13.3 133.3 0.17 1.7 17.1 5.3 2000.0 20.0 200.0 0.26 2.6 25.6 8.0 That Must be Added to the Following Volumes of Water 1,000 Liters 10,000 Liters 100,000 Liters 1 Gal. 10 Gal. 100 Gal. 1000 Gal. Gal 0.1 0.3 0.7 3.3 6.7 13.3 20.0 Gal 0.7 3.3 6.7 33.3 66.7 133.3 200.0
(Parts per Million)

5 Liters

10 Liters

100 Liter

10,000 Gal.

100,000 Gal.

1 mg/L 5 mg/L 10 mg/L 50 mg/L 100 mg/L 200 mg/L 300 mg/L To Produce The Above Chlorine Residuals

TABLE 6 Guide to Preparation of Chlorine Solutions Using 70% Hypochlorite Granules/Tablets as the Chlorine Source (Parts per Amount of 70% Hypochlorite Granules/Tablets
gm 0.7 1.4 2.1 gm 0.7 1.4 2.9 4.3 gm 0.7 1.4 7.1 14.3 28.6 42.9 gm kg kg oz oz oz oz 1.4 0.2 7.1 0.7 0.01 0.1 1.0 14.3 1.4 0.02 0.2 1.9 71.4 0.7 7.1 0.01 0.1 1.0 9.5 142.9 1.4 14.3 0.02 0.2 1.9 19.1 285.8 2.9 28.6 0.04 0.4 3.8 38.2 428.6 4.3 42.9 0.06 0.6 5.7 57.2 That Must be Added to the Following Volumes of Water 1,000 Liters 10,000 Liters 100,000 Liters 1 Gal. 10 Gal. 100 Gal. 1000 Gal. lb 0.12 0.6 1.2 6.0 11.9 23.9 35.8 lb 1.2 6.0 11.9 59.6 119.2 238.5 357.7 Million) 1 mg/L 5 mg/L 10 mg/L 50 mg/L 100 mg/L 200 mg/L 300 mg/L To Produce The Above Chlorine Residuals

5 Liter

10 Liter

100 Liters

10,000 Gal.

100,000 Gal.

7.9

A water supply with ample quantity and pressure shall be available for operating the chlorinator or hypochlorinator. The water supply shall be protected from backsiphonage of superchlorinated water. Where a booster pump is required, duplicate equipment shall be provided. A hypochlorinator shall be provided if calcium hypochlorite or sodium hypochlorite is used as the disinfecting agent. The hypochlorinator, a positive displacement type chemical feed pump that injects the chlorine solution into the waterline, shall be equipped with the following features: 7.10.1 Sufficient capacity to feed the required amount of chlorine solution required per day against the maximum back pressure developed at the point of injection. A positive displacement design that prevents the backsiphonage of the chlorine solution into the waterline from the solution container. Controls for pre-setting and varying the rate of flow.

7.10

7.10.2

7.10.3

13

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Water, SASC-S-01

7.10.4

A solution container of a minimum capacity of 76 liters (20 gallons) capacity for each discharge head and of a material appropriate for transferring chlorine solutions. In those instances where the dry chemical is mixed with water for solution, an additional container shall be provided so the mixed solution may be siphoned or decanted into the primary feed tank to prevent the chemical feeder from becoming plugged due to undissolved chemical. Separate solution containers shall be provided for each chemical used.

7.11

The following facilities shall be provided if gas chlorination equipment is used: 7.11.1 Separate rooms for cylinders and for equipment are desirable at all installations and shall be provided for large installations. The rooms shall be located above ground level and shall permit easy access to all equipment. Chlorine is heavier than air and will settle to the floor when a leak occurs. The storage and feed rooms shall be provided with a ventilation system capable of exchanging one complete volume of room air every two minutes. The air outlet from the room shall be located at floor level. The air outlet shall exhaust to the outside and not be re-circulated. The exhaust outlet shall be positioned such that exhausted air does not contaminate air inlets to any building or any area used by people. Make-up air shall be drawn into the room from the outside atmosphere through louvered inlets located at ceiling level. The temperature of the make-up air shall not adversely affect the operation of the chlorination equipment. The vent hose from the chlorinator shall be sloped upward and shall discharge to the outside atmosphere. The vent outlet shall be positioned such that escaping chlorine gas does not contaminate air inlets to any building or any area used by people. All electrical wiring and devices shall comply with Saudi Aramco Engineering Standards. The room light shall be on the same switch as the room ventilator and shall be located outside the room at the entrance. A clear, transparent window shall be installed in the door of the chlorinator room to permit the chlorinator to be viewed without entering the room. Some method of leak detection shall be available to the operator at all times. A bottle of ammonium hydroxide is useful for finding chlorine leaks in chlorine system. Containers of ammonia and chlorine shall be stored in separate rooms. A canister-type gas mask designed for chlorine gas shall be provided at all installations where chlorine gas is stored, handled or used. The gas mask shall be stored outside the room(s) where chlorine is stored, handled or used. A self-contained breathing apparatus is recommended in lieu of a canister-type gas mask for all installations where chlorine gas is used, and is required for those installations where 909 kg (one-ton) cylinders are used. Multiple gas masks/self-contained breathing units are required if storage, handling and/or usage areas are separated by more than 61 meters (200 feet). Scales shall be provided for weighing in-use chlorine cylinders. As noted in sub-section 7.1.1 of this Code Section, the concentration of chlorine in the water can be calculated directly based upon the amount of chlorine used per volume of water treated. The scale provides an instant check on the amount of chlorine fed to the water at any time. At larger facilities, scales of the indicating and recording type are recommended. A standard platform scale is adequate for smaller treatment facilities. Safety chains shall be provided on scales for all upright containers. The 45.4 kilograms (100 pounds) and 68.1 kilograms (150 pounds) chlorine cylinders must be stood on end to provide a void space into which the liquid chlorine can vaporize before it is drawn from the container. If a cylinder were to fall over and the valve were to be sheared off, residual amounts of liquid chlorine would spew from the cylinder and vaporize to form a 14

7.11.2

7.11.3

7.11.4

7.11.5

7.11.6

7.11.7

7.11.8

7.11.9

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Water, SASC-S-01

life threatening cloud of toxic chlorine gas. Safety racks or other mechanisms shall be provided to prevent all full, in-use and empty containers from tipping over. 7.11.10 Nine hundred and nine kilogram (1 ton) cylinders are recommended where chlorine usage exceeds 68 kilograms (150 pounds) per day. All gas chlorine cylinders shall be shielded from direct sunlight or from overheating from any source, either while in storage or use.

7.11.11

DISINFECTION OF WATER WELLS Water wells (or other water source) and collection, conveyance, treatment, storage and distribution systems, or parts thereof, which are newly constructed, have been repaired or have otherwise become contaminated, shall be thoroughly disinfected before being used or returned to service. The water shall be purged of all but normal residual amounts of disinfectant (less than 3 milligrams per liter [3 parts per million] if chlorine is used to disinfect the system) before a sample for bacteriological testing is collected. 8.1 The well shall be thoroughly cleaned of all foreign substances, including tools, timbers, rope, and debris of any kind, cement, oil, grease, joint dope, and scum. The casing pipe shall be thoroughly swabbed using 10% sodium carbonate solution or alternative cleaner approved by Manager EPD, to remove oil, grease, or joint dope. In any disinfection procedure, the residual chlorine concentration in the well shall be at least 10 milligrams per liter (10 parts per million) after 24 hours or 50 milligrams per liter (50 parts per million) after 3 hours contact time. The following formula shall be used to calculate the volume of water in the well hole: V = d X 0.041 X (D - S)
Where V = Volume of water in well in gallons d = Diameter of well hole measured in inches D = Depth of well in feet S = Static water depth when well is not in use, in feet

8.2

8.3

8.4

Based on the volume of water calculated in sub-section 8.3 of this Code Section, the amount of liquid or granular chlorine needed to produce two times the chlorine residual required in sub-section 8.2 of this Code Section shall be calculated using Tables 2, 3 and 4 of this Code Section as a guide. Disinfection of non-flowing wells: 8.5.1 Liquid chlorine solution shall be poured into the well (chlorine granules and tablets may be dissolved in water and used in the same manner as liquid chlorine). If possible, the chlorine solution shall be poured onto the interior casing wall and allowed to flow down the casing into the water below. The well shall then be agitated with a bit, bailer or the pump to mix and spread the chlorine solution throughout the water, the object being to force chlorinated water into all water bearing formations by rapid agitation. If possible, the water column shall be lifted to the surface several times to cover all interior well surfaces with the chlorinated water. The chlorinated water shall not be discharged from the well, but allowed to fall back down the well (this will force chlorinated water into the formation). For non-flowing wells a slug of chlorine shall be applied to the well head and pushed into the formation with a slug of water from the well. In lieu of using a chlorine solution, the required amount of granular/tablet chlorine compound, such as HTH or Perchloron, may be placed in a perforated pipe container capped at both ends to which a weighted cable is attached. The mechanism shall be lowered into the well water and moved up and down at various levels in the water, preferably from the bottom of the water column to the top of the water column. After all chlorine compound is dissolved, the 15

8.5

8.5.2

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Water, SASC-S-01

water column shall be lifted and allowed to fall back down the well as outlined in sub-section 8.5.1 of this Code Section. 8.6 Artesian wells generally require no disinfection. Nevertheless, the bacterial quality of the well will be sampled by Saudi Aramcos EPD after the completed well has flowed to waste for at least 24 hour. Should the well exceed bacterial limits, Saudi Aramcos EPD, Saudi Aramco Groundwater Division and the proponent shall agree upon the best available method to disinfect the well. All exterior parts of pumps and equipment which will be placed in a well after the disinfection process, and which might come in contact with the water in the well, shall be thoroughly cleaned, wetted, and rinsed with a 250 ppm chlorine solution before they are placed in the well.

8.7

PROTECTION AND DISINFECTION OF NEWLY CONSTRUCTED WATER MAINS 9.1 Precautions shall be taken to protect pipe interiors, fittings and valves against contamination during construction of water mains. Pipe delivered to the construction site shall be capped if not received in this condition and racked above the ground so as to minimize entrance of foreign material. When pipe laying is not in progress, as, for example, at the close of the day's work, all openings in the pipeline shall be closed by watertight plugs (rodent-proof plugs may be used where it is determined that watertight plugs are not practicable and where thorough cleaning will be performed by flushing or other means). Joints of all pipes in the trench shall be completed before work is stopped. Cleaning and Swabbing: If dirt enters the pipe and Saudi Aramcos EPD determines that it will not be removed by flushing, the interior of the pipe shall be cleaned by mechanical means and then shall be swabbed with a 1 percent hypochlorite disinfecting solution. Cleaning with a swab or "go-devil" should be undertaken only when such an operation will not force mud or debris into pipe-joint spaces. Wet-Trench Construction: If it is not possible to keep the pipe and fittings dry during construction, every effort shall be made to assure that any of the water that may enter the pipe-joint spaces contains an available chlorine concentration of approximately 25 milligrams per liter. This may be accomplished by adding calcium hypochlorite granules or tablets to each length of pipe before it is lowered into a wet trench or by treating the trench water with hypochlorite tablets. Flooding by storm or accident during construction: If the main is flooded during construction, it shall be cleared of the floodwater by draining and flushing with potable water until the main is clean. The section exposed to the floodwater shall then be filled with chlorinated potable water that, at the end of a 24-hour holding period, will have a free chlorine residual of not less than 25 milligrams per liter. The chlorinated water may then be drained or flushed from the main. After construction is completed, the main shall be disinfected using the continuous-feed or slug method. Three methods of water main chlorination are permitted, i.e. tablet, continuous feed and slug methods. The tablet method consists of placing calcium hypochlorite granules and tablets in the water main as it is being installed and filling the main with potable water when installation is completed. This method may be used only if the pipes and appurtenances are kept clean and dry during construction. 9.6.1 During construction, calcium hypochlorite granules shall be placed at the upstream end of the first section of pipe, at the upstream end of each branch main, and at 500-ft intervals. The quantity of granules shall be as shown in Table 7. WARNING: This procedure must not be used on solvent-welded plastic or on screwed joint steel pipe because of the danger of fire or explosion from the reaction of the joint compounds with the calcium hypochlorite.

9.2

9.3

9.4

9.5

9.6

16

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TABLE 7 Grams/Ounces of Calcium Hypochlorite Granules to be placed at Beginning of Main and at Each 500-ft Interval Pipe Diameter Calcium Hypochlorite Granules centimeters inches grams ounces 10.2 4 14.2 0.5 15.2 6 32.0 1.1 20.3 8 56.7 2.0 30.5 12 127.8 4.5 40.6 16 (and larger) 226.8 8.0 9.6.2 During construction, 5 gram (0.2 ounce) calcium hypochlorite tablets shall be placed in each section of pipe and also one such tablet shall be placed in each hydrant, hydrant branch, and other appurtenance. The number of tablets required for each pipe section shall comply with guidelines listed in Table 8. The tablets shall be attached by an approved adhesive. There shall be no adhesive on the tablet except on the broad side attached to the surface of the pipe. Attach all the tablets inside and at the top of the main, with approximately equal numbers of tablets at each end of each pipe length. If the tablets are attached before the pipe section is placed in the trench, the top of the pipe shall be marked for easy installation. TABLE 8 Number of 5 Gram Calcium Hypochlorite Tablets Required for Dose of 25 mg/L (25 parts per million) Length of Pipe Section 4.0m 20ft 5.5m 18ft 6.1m 20ft 9.1m 30ft 12.2m Number of 5 Gram (0.2 ounce) Hypochlorite Tablets 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 1 1 2 2 2 2 3 3 4 2 2 3 3 3 3 4 4 5 3 3 4 4 4 4 6 6 7 4 4 6 6 7 7 10 10 13

Pipe Diameter cm in 10.1 4 15.2 6 20.3 8 25.4 10 30.5 12 40.5 16 9.6.3

40ft 1 2 4 5 7 13

Based on 3.25 g available chlorine per tablet; any portion of tablet rounded to next higher number.

Filling and contact.: When installation has been completed, the main shall be filled with water at a rate such that water within the main will flow at a velocity no greater than 30.5 centimeters per second (1 foot per second). Precautions shall be taken to assure that air pockets are eliminated. This water shall remain in the pipe for at least 24 hours. The tablet method shall yield a chlorine residual of at least 25 milligrams per liter (25 parts per million) 24 hours after the time at which the main was filled with water. Valves shall be positioned so that the strong chlorine solution in the treated main will not flow into water mains in active service.

9.7

The continuous-feed method of water main disinfection consists of placing calcium hypochlorite granules in the main during construction (optional), completely filling the main to remove all air pockets, flushing the completed main to remove particulates, and filling the main with potable water chlorinated so that after a 24 hour holding period in the main there will be a free chlorine residual of not less than 10 milligrams per liter (10 parts per million). 9.7.1 If deemed necessary by Saudi Aramcos EPD, calcium hypochlorite granules shall be placed in pipe sections as specified in sub-section 9.6.1 of this Code Section. The purpose of this procedure is to provide a strong chlorine concentration in the first flow of flushing water that flows down the main. This procedure is recommended particularly where the type of pipe is such that this first flow of water will flow into annular spaces at pipe joints.

17

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Water, SASC-S-01

9.7.2

Before being chlorinated, the main shall be filled to eliminate air pockets and shall be flushed to remove particulates. The flushing velocity in the main shall not be less than 76 centimeters per second (2.5 feet per second) unless Saudi Aramcos EPD determines that conditions do not permit the required flow to be discharged to waste. Note that flushing is no substitute for preventive measures during construction. Certain contaminants, such as caked deposits, resist flushing at any feasible velocity. In mains of 61 centimeters (24 inches) or larger diameter, an acceptable alternative to flushing is to broom-sweep the main, carefully removing all sweepings prior to chlorinating the main. Chlorinating the main using the continuous-feed method: 9.7.3.1 Water from the existing distribution system or other approved source of supply shall be made to flow at a constant, measured rate into the newly laid water main. In the absence of a meter, the rate may be approximated by methods such as placing a Pitot gauge in the discharge or measuring the time to fill a container of known volume. At a point not more than 3 meters (10 feet) downstream from the beginning of the new main, water entering the new main shall receive a dose of chlorine fed at a constant rate such that the water will have not less than 25 milligrams per liter (25 parts per million) free chlorine. The chlorine concentration shall be measured at regular intervals. During the application of chlorine, valves shall be positioned so that the strong chlorine solution in the main being treated will not flow into water mains in active service. Chlorine application shall not cease until the entire main is filled with superchlorinated water. The chlorinated water shall be retained in the main for at least 24 hours, during which time all valves and hydrants in the treated section shall be operated to ensure disinfection of the appurtenances. At the end of this 24-hour period, the treated water in all portions of the main shall have a residual of not less than 10 milligrams per liter (10 parts per million) free chlorine. Direct-feed chlorinators, which operate solely from gas pressure in the chlorine cylinder, shall not be used for application of liquid chlorine. (The danger of using direct-feed chlorinators is that water pressure in the main can exceed gas pressure in the chlorine cylinder. This allows a backflow of water into the cylinder, resulting in severe cylinder corrosion and escape of chlorine gas.) The preferred equipment for applying liquid chlorine is a solution- feed, vacuum-operated chlorinator and a booster pump. The vacuum-operated chlorinator mixes the chlorine gas in solution water; the booster pump injects the chlorine gas solution into the main to be disinfected. Hypochlorite solutions may be applied to the water main with a gasoline or electrically powered chemical- feed pump designed for feeding chlorine solutions. Feed lines shall be of such materials and strength as to safely withstand the corrosion caused by the concentrated chlorine solutions and the maximum pressures that may be created by the pumps. All connections shall be checked for tightness before the solution is applied to the main.

9.7.3

9.7.3.2

9.7.3.3

9.7.3.4

9.8

The slug method of water main disinfection consists of placing calcium hypochlorite granules in the main during construction, completely filling the main to eliminate all air pockets, flushing the main to remove particulates, and slowly flowing through the main a slug of water dosed with chlorine at a concentration of 100 milligrams per liter (100 parts per million). The slow flow ensures that all parts of the main and its appurtenances will be exposed to the superchlorinated water for a period of not less than 3 hours. 9.8.1 9.8.2 Preliminary flushing. Same as sub-section 9.7.2 of this Code Section. Placing calcium hypochlorite granules. Same as sub-section 9.6.1 of this Code Section. 18

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Water, SASC-S-01

9.8.3

Chlorinating the main: 9.8.3.1 9.8.3.2 Same as sub-section 9.7.3.1 of this Code Section. At a point not more than 3 meters (10 feet) downstream from the beginning of the new main, water entering the new main shall receive a dose of chlorine fed at a constant rate such that the water will have not less than 100 milligrams per liter free chlorine. To ensure that this concentration is provided, the chlorine concentration shall be measured at regular intervals. Chlorine shall be applied continuously and for a sufficient period to develop a solid column, or "slug," of chlorinated water that will, as it moves through the main, expose all interior surfaces to a free chlorine concentration of approximately 100 milligrams per liter (100 parts per million) for at least 3 hours. The free chlorine residual shall be measured in the slug as it moves through the main. If at any time it drops below 50 milligrams per liter (50 parts per million), the flow shall be stopped, chlorination equipment shall be relocated at the head of the slug, and, as flow is resumed, chlorine shall be applied to restore the free chlorine in the slug to not less than 100 milligrams per liter (100 parts per million). As the chlorinated water flows past fittings and valves, related valves and hydrants shall be operated so as to disinfect appurtenances and pipe branches.

9.8.3.3

9.8.3.4

9.8.3.5

9.9

After the applicable retention period the superchlorinated water shall be flushed from the main until chlorine measurements show that the concentration in the water leaving the main is not greater than 3 milligrams per liter (3 parts per million). NOTE: In the planning stage of the project, the potential environmental impacts associated with the disposal of the superchlorinated water shall be considered and appropriate plans shall be developed to properly mitigate adverse effects. The disposal plan shall be developed in consultation with EPD. Bacteriological tests: 9.10.1 Standard Conditions: After final flushing and before the water main is placed in service, a sample or samples shall be collected for bacteriological analysis. Samples shall be tested to verify the absence of coliform organisms (a heterotrophic plate count [HPC] of less than 500 CFU/ml may also be required by Saudi Aramcos EPD. At least one sample shall be collected from the end of a new main and one from each branch. If the main is extremely long, samples shall be collected along the length of the line as well as at its end. Special Conditions: If, during construction, trench water has entered the main, or if in the opinion of Saudi Aramcos EPD, excessive quantities of dirt or debris have entered the main, bacteriological samples shall be taken at intervals of approximately 61 meters (200 feet) and shall be identified by location. Samples shall be taken of water that has stood in the main for at least 16 hours after final flushing has been completed. Sampling Procedure: Samples for bacteriological analysis shall be collected in sterile bottles treated with sodium thiosulfate. No hose or fire hydrant shall be used in collection of samples. A corporation cock may be installed in the main with a copper-tube gooseneck assembly. After samples have been collected, the gooseneck assembly may be removed and retained for future use.

9.10

9.10.2

9.10.3

9.11

If the initial disinfection fails to produce satisfactory bacteriological samples, the main may be re-flushed and shall be re-sampled. If check samples show the presence of coliform organisms, then the main shall be re-chlorinated by the continuous-feed or slug method of chlorination until satisfactory results are obtained. High velocities in the existing system, resulting from flushing the new main, may disturb sediment that has accumulated in the existing mains. When check samples are taken, it is recommended that water entering the new main also be sampled. 19

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Water, SASC-S-01

NOTE: All samples returned from the laboratory that state confluent bacterial growth/too numerous to count (CBG/TNTC) or too numerous to count/no coliform (TNTC/NC) shall be considered invalid and must be re-sampled at the next available opportunity.

10

DISINFECTION PROCEDURES WHEN CUTTING INTO OR REPAIRING EXISTING MAINS 10.1 The following procedures apply primarily when mains are wholly or partially dewatered. After the appropriate procedures noted below have been completed, the main may be returned to service prior to completion of bacteriological testing in order to minimize the time customers are out of water. Leaks or breaks that are repaired with clamping devices while the mains remain full of pressurized water present little danger of contamination and require no disinfection. 10.1.1 Trench Treatment: When an old main is opened, either by accident or by design, the excavation will likely be wet and may be badly contaminated from nearby sewers. Liberal quantities of hypochlorite applied to open trench areas will lessen the danger from such pollution. Tablets have the advantage in such a situation because they dissolve slowly and continue to release hypochlorite as water is pumped from the excavation. Swabbing with Hypochlorite Solution: The interiors of all pipe and fittings (particularly couplings and sleeves) used in making the repair shall be swabbed or sprayed with a 1 percent hypochlorite solution before they are installed. Flushing: Thorough flushing is the most practical means of removing contamination introduced during repairs. If valve and hydrant locations permit, flush towards the hydrant closest to the work location by discharging via the hydrant one direction at a time (opposing valve closed) each from both locations. Flushing shall be started as soon as the repairs are completed and shall be continued until discolored water is eliminated. Slug Chlorination: Where practical, in addition to the procedures above, a section of main in which the break is located shall be isolated, all service connections shutoff, and the section flushed and chlorinated as described in sub-section 9.8 of this Code Section, except that the dose may be increased to as much as 300 milligrams per liter (300 parts per million) and the contact time reduced to as little as 15 minutes. After chlorination, flushing shall be resumed and continued until discolored water is eliminated and the water is free from noticeable chlorine odor. Sampling: Bacteriological samples shall be taken after repairs are completed to provide a record for determining the procedure's effectiveness. If the direction of flow is unknown, samples shall be taken on each side of the main break. If positive bacteriological samples are recorded, Saudi Aramcos EPD shall evaluate the situation and recommend corrective actions. Daily sampling shall be continued until two consecutive negative samples are recorded.

10.1.2

10.1.3

10.1.4

10.1.5

10.2

Special procedure for caulked tapping sleeves: 10. 2.1 Tapping sleeves are used to avoid shutting down the main to be tapped. After the tap is made, it is impossible to disinfect the annulus without shutting down the main and removing the sleeve. The space between the tapping sleeve and the tapped pipe is normally 1.3 centimeters (0.5 inches), more or less, so that as little as 100 milligrams of calcium hypochlorite powder per square foot will provide a chlorine concentration of over 50 milligrams per liter (50 parts per million). Before a tapping sleeve is installed, the exterior of the main to be tapped shall be thoroughly cleaned/disinfected and the interior surface of the sleeve shall be dusted with calcium hypochlorite powder.

10.2.2

11

DISINFECTION OF WATER STORAGE TANKS 20

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Water, SASC-S-01

After construction, repairs and painting have been completed, the interiors of all water storage tanks shall be disinfected before they are placed in service (NOTE: Water storage tanks shall be painted in accordance with the Saudi Aramco Standards). 11.1 High Concentration Method: After paint has thoroughly dried and cured, the tank shall be filled slowly to the overflow level with potable water to which enough chlorine has been added to produce a concentration of 25 milligrams per liter (25 parts per million) in the full tank. 11.1.1 The chlorine, either as sodium or calcium hypochlorite, or chlorine gas, shall be introduced into the water as early during the filling operation as possible. Early introduction of chlorine is essential because the filling action is depended upon to agitate and evenly mix the chlorine with the total volume of water in the tank. A simple and effective method of adding dry chlorine to the tank is to mix the hypochlorite granules with the minimum amount of water required to produce a slurry and then use the slurry as a liquid. Liquid chlorine compounds, including slurries, should be poured into the tank through the clean-out or inspection manhole in the lower course of a stand-pipe shell, or in the base of the riser pipe of an elevated tank. The inspection manhole cover shall then be bolted into place and the filling of the tank started. If no bottom manhole is available, the chlorine solution shall be poured into the tank through the roof manhole. If chlorine gas is used, a special tap can be provided in the clean-out manhole cover and the gas/water mixture pumped into the tank as the filling is started. The chlorinated water shall be retained in the tank for at least 24 hours, during which time all valves shall be operated several times to ensure disinfection of the appurtenances. At the end of this 24-hour period, the treated water in all portions of the tank shall have a residual of not less than 10 milligrams per liter (10 parts per million) free chlorine. After the holding period, the superchlorinated water in the tank shall be completely drained to waste or the water may be partially de-chlorinated with sodium bisulfite. After refilling and before the tank is placed in service, a sample for bacteriological analysis shall be collected from the tank. Note that the residual chlorine level shall be no higher than 3 milligrams per liter (3 parts per million) when the sample is collected. 11.1.7.1 Samples shall be collected in sterile bottles treated with sodium thiosulfate. No hose, valve or outlet other than the tank sample tap shall be used in collection of samples. The sample shall be tested to verify the absence of coliform organisms and a heterotrophic plate count [HPC] of 500 CFU/mL or less.

11.1.2

11.1.3

11.1.4

11.1.5

11.1.6

11.1.7

11.1.7.2

11.1.8

If the initial disinfection fails to produce satisfactory bacteriological samples, the tank may be emptied and refilled. Water from the refilled tank, as well as water from the source supply, shall be tested. If check samples show the presence of coliform organisms in the tank but not in the source supply, then the tank shall be re-chlorinated by the "high concentration method." If test results from the source supply show it to be contaminated with coliform bacteria, then the source of the problem shall be identified and corrected. After correction is verified by bacteriological testing, the tank shall be emptied and refilled. Water from the refilled tank shall be tested to verify the absence of coliform bacteria. If check samples show the presence of coliform organisms in the tank, then the tank shall be re-chlorinated by the "high concentration method."

21

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11.2

Low Concentration Method: If the tank is large and management concludes that an alternative to the disinfection method described in sub-section 11.1 of this Code Section is required to avoid draining the superchlorinated water to waste, the following method shall be used: 11.2.1 Calculate the amount of chlorine required producing 2 milligrams per liter (2 parts per million) chlorine residual when the tank is full. Add a small amount of water (1/25th the volume) and the calculated amount of chlorine to the tank. This will produce 50 milligrams per liter (50 parts per million) chlorine residual in the water in the bottom of the tank. Hold the small amount of water containing the 50 milligrams per liter (50 parts per million) chlorine residual for 24 hours before adding more water to the tank. Fill the tank to capacity after the 24 holding period. This will dilute the superchlorinated water from 50 to 2 milligrams per liter (50 to 2 parts per million). Hold the 2 milligrams per liter (2 parts per million) water in the filled tank for an additional 24 hours. After the additional 24 hour holding period and before the tank is placed in service, a sample for bacteriological analysis shall be collected from the tank. 11.2.5.1 Samples shall be collected in sterile bottles treated with sodium thiosulfate. No hose, valve or outlet other than the tank sample tap shall be used in collection of samples. The sample shall be tested to verify the absence of coliform organisms and a heterotrophic plate count [HPC] of 500 CFU/mL or less.

11.2.2

11.2.3

11.2.4

11.2.5

11.2.5.2

11.2.6

If the initial disinfection fails to produce satisfactory bacteriological samples, the tank may be emptied and refilled. Water from the refilled tank, as well as water from the source supply, shall be tested. If check samples show the presence of coliform organisms in the tank but not in the source supply, then the tank shall be re-chlorinated by the "high concentration method." If test results from the source supply show it to be contaminated with coliform bacteria, then the source of the problem shall be identified and corrected. After correction is verified by bacteriological testing, the tank shall be emptied and refilled. Water from the refilled tank shall be tested to verify the absence of coliform bacteria. If check samples show the presence of coliform organisms in the tank, then the tank shall be re-chlorinated by the "high concentration method." After satisfactory bacteriological results are obtained, the tank may be put into service without draining the water.

11.2.7

12

TRANSPORTATION OF POTABLE WATER 12.1 12.2 The person or department operating the potable water transportation equipment is responsible for compliance with the requirements of this Code Section. Any tank wagon, tank truck, tank car, container or other equipment used for conveyance of potable water for drinking or domestic uses shall meet the following design and construction requirements: 12.2.1 12.2.2 Tanks and containers intended to hold potable water shall be so constructed that every portion of the interior can be easily inspected and cleaned. Piping, valves, and permanent or flexible connections shall be accessible and easy to disconnect for cleaning. The inlet or opening to every tank or container shall be constructed so that no foreign material likely to contaminate the water can enter. 22

12.2.3

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Water, SASC-S-01

12.2.4

Filling points and outlet connections of tanks and containers shall be constructed and protected so that no foreign material likely to contaminate or pollute the water can come in contact with the inlet or outlet. Transfer hoses shall be constructed of safe materials, shall have a smooth interior surface, shall be used for no other purpose and shall be clearly identified as to their use. Caps and keeper chains shall be provided for water inlet and outlet fittings, as well as hose fittings. All such fittings shall be capped when not in immediate use. Hoses shall be stored and used so as to be kept free of contamination.

12.2.5

12.3

If the tank wagon, tank truck, tank car, container or other equipment used for the conveyance of potable water for drinking or domestic uses has carried any substance other than potable water or milk, it shall be steam cleaned or treated by a method approved by Saudi Aramco EPD prior to use as a potable water transport container. Tanks and containers that have been used to transport sewage, or any other substance which might leave a toxic or hazardous residue after the cleaning procedure, shall not be used to transport potable water under any circumstances. Sufficient chlorine shall be added to the water at the time the tank/container is filled to produce a residual of not less than 0.5 milligrams per liter after 30 minutes of contact.

12.4 13

PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL WATER QUALITY REQUIREMENTS 13.1 Water shall not contain impurities in concentrations, which may be hazardous to the health of the consumers. It shall not be excessively corrosive to the water supply system. Substances used in its treatment shall not remain in the water in concentrations greater than required by good operating practices. Substances which may have deleterious physiological effects, or for which physiological effects are not known, shall not be introduced into the system in a manner which would permit them to reach the consumer. The physical and chemical quality of drinking water shall comply with requirements outlined in Table 9.

13.2

23

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Water, SASC-S-01

TABLE 9 Drinking Water MCLGs(Maximum Contaminant Level Goals), MCLs (Maximum Contaminant Levels), and SMCLs (Secondary Maximum Contaminant Levels)
Contaminant Physical Characteristics Color units Threshold odor number Turbidity Inorganics Arsenic Antimony Aluminum Asbestos (fibers longer than 10 microns) Barium Berylium Cadmium Chloride Chromium Copper * - See sections 14.2 & 14.3 Cyanide Fluoride (see Table 14) Foaming agent (MBAS) Hydrogen sulfide Iron Lead * - See sub-sections 14.2 & 14.3 Manganese Mercury Nickel Nitrate Nitrite Total nitrate/nitrite pH Thallium Selenium Silver Sodium Sulfate Total dissolved solids (TDS) Zinc Phenols Volatile organics (solvents) 1,1-Dichloroethylene 1,1,1-Trichloroethane 1,2-Dichloroethane 1,2-Dichloropropane 1,1,2-Trichloroethane 1,2,4-Trichlorobenzene Benzene Carbon tetrachloride cis-1,2-Dichloroethylene Ethylbenzene Monochlorobenzene o-Dichlorobenzene para-Dichlorobenzene Dichloromethane Styrene trans-1,2-Dichloroethylene Tetrachloroethylene Toluene Trichloroethylene Vinyl chloride Xylenes (total) Synthetic Organic Compounds 2,3,7,8-TCDD (Dioxin) 2,4-D (Formula 40) 2,4,5-TP (Silvex) Acrylamide Alachlor (Lasso) Aldicarb (Temik) Aldicarb sulfone Aldicarb sulfoxide Atrazine (Atranex, Crisazine) Drinking Water Health Effects MCLG mg/L MCL mg/L SMCLs mg/L or Unit Noted 15 CU 3 TON 5 TU 0.05 0.006 0.2 7 million fibers/L 2 0.004 0.005 0.1 1.3 0.2 2 7 million fibers/L 2 0.004 0.005 250 0.1 TT
a

Aesthetic, not health effect Aesthetic, not health effect Aesthetic, not health effect Skin cancer Decreases longevity, Blood effects Aesthetic, not health effect Benign tumors Circulatory system effects Bone/lung effects, cancer risk Kidney effects Aesthetic, not health effect Gastrointestinal effects Vomiting, Wilson's disease Spleen/brain/liver effects Aesthetic, not health effect Aesthetic, not health effect Aesthetic, not health effect Aesthetic, not health effect Neurological, circulatory, growth, gestational effects Aesthetic, not health effect Kidney effects Nervous system, liver effects Methemoglobinemia Methemoglobinemia

0.006

0.20 4 0.5 ND by Consumer 0.3 0.05

Zero 0.002 50 (as NO3) 0.1(as NO2) 10 (as N)

TT a 0.002 50 (as NO3) 0.1(as NO2) 10 (as N)

Aesthetic, not health effect Kidney, liver, brain, intestine effects Neurological effects Aesthetic, not health effect Circulatory system, aesthetic Aesthetic, not health effect Aesthetic, not health effect Stomach distress, aesthetic Aesthetic, not health effect Liver, kidney effects Liver effects Probable cancer Probable cancer Kidney/, liver effects Kidney, liver effects Known carcinogen Probable cancer Nervous system, liver, kidney effects Liver, kidney effects Liver, kidney, respiratory, nervous system effects Nervous system, lung, liver, kidney effects Liver, kidney effects Cancer risk Possible cancer, liver, nervous system effects Nervous system, liver, kidney effects Probable cancer Nervous system, lung, liver effects Probable cancer Known carcinogen Central nervous system effects Cancer risk Liver, kidney effects Liver, kidney effects Probable cancer Probable cancer Nervous system toxicity Nervous system toxicity Nervous system toxicity Nervous system, liver, heart

6.5 - 8.5 0.0005 0.05 0.20 250 500 5 0.001 0.007 0.20 0.005 0.005 0.005 0.07 0.005 0.005 0.07 0.7 0.1 0.6 0.075 0.005 0.1 0.1 0.005 1 0.005 0.002 10 0.00000003 0.07 0.05 TT 0.002 Delayed Delayed Delayed 0.003 0.002 0.05 0.1

0.007 0.20 Zero Zero 0.003 0.07 Zero Zero 0.07 0.7 0.1 0.6 0.075 Zero 0.1 0.1 Zero 1 Zero Zero 10 Zero 0.07 0.05 Zero Zero 0.001 0.001 0.001

24

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Water, SASC-S-01

Contaminant

TABLE 9 - Continued Drinking Water MCLGs(Maximum Contaminant Level Goals), MCLs (Maximum Contaminant Levels), and SMCLs (Secondary Maximum Contaminant Levels) MCLG MCL Drinking Water Health Effects mg/L mg/L

SMCLs mg/L or Unit Noted

Synthetic Organic Compounds Continued Carbofuran (Furadan4F) Chlordane Dalapon Di (2-ethylhexyl) adipate Dibromochloropropane (DBCP) Diethylhexyl Phthlate Dinoseb Diquat Endothall Endrin Ethylenedibromide (EDB) Epichlorohydrin Glyphosate Heptachlor (H34, Heptox) Heptachlor epoxide Hexachlorobenzene Hexachlorocyclopentadiene (HEX) Lindane Methoxyclor (DMDT, Marlate) Oxamyl (Vydate) PAHs PCBs Pentachlorophenol Picloram Simazine Toxaphene Total Pesticides Total Trihalomethanes (TTHMs) Radioactivity Gross Alpha Emitters Gross Beta Emitters Radium 226 Radium 228 Uranium
a

Nervous system, reproductive Nervous system effects, probable cancer Kidney, liver effects Liver, reproductive effects Probable cancer Cancer risk Thyroid, reproductive organ effects Ocular, liver, kidney, gastrointestinal effects Liver, kidney, gastrointestinal, reproductive effects Liver, kidney, heart effects Probable cancer Probable cancer Liver, kidney effects Probable cancer Probable cancer Cancer risk Kidney, stomach effects Neurological, liver, kidney effects Central nervous system effects Kidney effects Cancer risk Probable cancer, reproductive effects Organ and central nervous system effects, cancer Kidney, liver effects Cancer risk Probable cancer Probable cancer Probable cancer

0.04 Zero 0.20 0.40 Zero Zero 0.007 0.02 0.10 0.002 Zero Zero 0.70 Zero Zero Zero 0.05 0.0002 0.04 0.20 Zero Zero Zero 0.50 0.004 Zero Zero

0.04 0.002 0.20 0.40 0.0002 0.006 0.007 0.10 0.002 0.00005 TT 0.70 0.0004 0.0002 0.001 0.05 0.0002 0.04 0.20 0.0002 0.0005 0.001 0.50 0.004 0.003 0.005 0.08

Cancer risk Cancer risk Cancer risk Cancer risk Cancer risk/kidney effects

Zero Zero Zero Zero Zero

0.1Bq/L** 0.5Bq/L 0.5Bq/L 0.5Bq/L 0.020mg/L

TT- Treatment Technique- Should copper or lead exceed action levels, treatment technique must be implemented to reduce concentrations below action levels.

* Measured in the ninetieth percentile at the consumer's tap.


** Bq/L Becquerel per liter, 1 Bq==27Pico Curie

25

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Water, SASC-S-01

13.3

Raw water quality standards will be in general compliance with the requirements in Table 9, however, specific requirements will be reviewed on a case by case basis. The 90 percentile concentrations for lead and copper (measured at the consumers tap) shall not exceed 0.015 mg/L lead and 1.3 mg/L copper. Concentrations exceeding these action limits will require treatment technology to be implemented to reduce the levels of these contaminants below the action levels.
th

13.4

14

PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL WATER QUALITY MONITORING REQUIREMENTS 14.1 14.2 The frequency of monitoring shall comply with requirements outlined in Table 10 except for lead and copper, which are stated in sub-sections 13.2 and 13.3 of this Code Section. All water systems serving a population of 100 or more shall be sampled for lead and copper from a specific number of sites (see Table 11) once every six-months. Samples (1 L) of firstdraw tap water must be taken from the cold sweet water tap in the kitchen. Water must be allowed to stand motionless in plumbing pipes for at least 6 hours before sample collection. If high-risk locations -- facilities in which lead solder has been installed, facilities that have lead pipes and facilities that have lead service lines -- are identified, these sites shall be included.

14.3 Systems that meet the lead and copper action levels or maintain optimal corrosion control treatment for two consecutive six-month monitoring periods may reduce the number of tap sampling sites and collection frequency to once a year. Systems that meet the lead and copper action level or maintain optimal corrosion control treatment for three consecutive years may reduce tap sampling sites and collection frequency to once every three years.

TABLE 10 Compliance Monitoring Requirements


Contaminant Base Monitoring Frequency Groundwater Inorganics Asbestos Nitrate Nitrite 1 sample every 9 years Annual sample 1 initial sample. If <50% of MCL, further monitoring discretionary 1 sample every 3 years Triggers Increased Monitoring Increased Monitoring Frequency Triggers Return to Base Frequency* Groundwater

>50% of MCL >50% of MCL

Quarterly Quarterly

Minimum <MCL Minimum <MCL

of of

4 4

samples samples

Other Inorganics

>MCL

Quarterly

Minimum of 2 samples <MCL

Copper/lead Volatile Organic Compounds

See Text Sec 13.2, 13.3 Quarterly for 1 year. Annual after 1 year of no detection. Every 3 years after 3 rounds of no detection. 4 quarterly samples every 3 years. Systems >3,300 - reduce to 2/year every 3 years after 1 round of no detection. Systems <3,300 - reduce to 1 sample every 3 years after 1 round of no detection 1 Sample every year >MCL Quarterly Minimum of 2 samples <MCL

Synthetic Organic Compounds

Detection

Quarterly

Reduce to annual if minimum of 2 samples < MCL

Radioactive Nuclides

>MCL

Quarterly

2 Consecutive samples <MCL

26

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Water, SASC-S-01

System Size Population >100,000 10,001 to 100,000 3,301 to 10,000 501 to 3,300 101 to 500 100

TABLE 11 Tap sampling requirements for lead and copper Number of Sampling Sites Number of Sampling Sites Initial Base Monitoring Reduced Monitoring 100 50 60 30 40 20 20 10 10 5 5 5

14.4

Radioactive Contaminants monitoring 14.4.1 For the purpose of monitoring radioactivity concentrations in drinking water, internationally acceptable analysis protocols shall be used such as ISO or US EPA protocols. The required sensitivity of the radio analysis is defined in terms of a detection limit, which is the minimum contaminant concentration that can be measures at the 95% confidence level. To determine compliance with radioactivity contaminants limits as specified by table 9 the detection limit of the analysis protocol shall not exceed 30% of the corresponding MCL specified in table 9. If the radioactive contaminant MCL specified in table 9 was exceeded, the Radiation Protection Unit/ECD/EPD shall be consulted to determine the necessary remedial measures. If more than one radioactive nuclide is detected in a water sample, the combined effects shall be considered in decisions/recommendations pertinent to the water quality. Screening for radioactive contaminants shall be conducted as shown in the following flow chart

14.4.2

14.4.3

14.4.4

14.4.5

14.4.6

27

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Water, SASC-S-01

Determine Gross Alpha Gross Beta

Determine Ra-226 and Ra-228

Determine K-40 and subtract

Determine total Uranium

Compliance with GuidelinesNo further Action

Determine Ra-228

Determine other Beta Emitters

Contact RPU

Denotes unaccounted alpha particles requiring further nuclide assessment Guidelines Value exceeded

15

THE COLIFORM RULE (Potable Water) 15.1 Coliforms are one of a group of microbiological contaminants regulated by this Code Section. Total coliforms, which include the fecal coliforms, are usually not pathogenic. However, their presence in drinking water indicates the potential presence of pathogens associated with waterborne disease outbreaks. In particular, the presence of fecal coliforms in drinking water indicates that an urgent public health problem may exist. The Total Coliform Rule is based on the presence or absence of total coliforms in a given sample, not on an estimate of the specific number of coliforms. All samples testing positive for total coliforms shall be followed by repeat sampling and tested further to determine whether fecal coliforms are present. The maximum contaminant level (MCL) for total coliforms is stated in terms of a certain percentage of positive sampling results per month. Specifically, to be in compliance: 15.3.1 No more than 5 percent of the monthly samples can test positive if 40 or more samples are analyzed each month; or no more than one sample per month can test positive if fewer than 40 samples are analyzed per month. The following points are also important: a) the minimum sample size is 100 milliliters; and b) all positive coliform samples, including repeat samples, must be used in compliance calculations.

15.2

15.3

15.3.2

28

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15.4

A public water system has 25 or more service connections or regularly serves 40 people 60 or more days per year. For regulatory purposes, public water systems are divided into two categories -community and non-community systems. Community systems serve water to a resident population. Non-community systems serve either transient populations, such as a bus stop, or non-transient populations, such as schools, hospitals, or factories that are not served by a community system. The number of samples to be analyzed is determined by the size of the population served by the water system as shown in Table 12. Different rules govern community water systems and noncommunity water systems. TABLE 12 Sampling Requirements Based On Population Minimum Number of Samples Minimum Number of of Population Served Per Month of Population Served 40 - 1000 1 12,901 to 17,200 1,001 to 2,500 2 17,201 to 21,500 2,501 to 3,300 3 21,501 to 25,000 3,301 to 4,100 4 25,001 to 33,000 4,101 to 4,900 5 33,001 to 41,000 4,901 to 5,800 6 41,001 to 50,000 5,801 to 6,700 7 50,001 to 59,000 6,701 to 7,600 8 59,001 to 70,000 7,601 to 8,500 9 70,001 to 83,000 8,501 to 12,900 10 83,001 to 96,000 96,001 to 130,000

15.5

Samples Per Month 15 20 25 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100

15.6

The minimum sampling requirement is per Table 12. This "minimum" may be reduced by Saudi Aramcos EPD under certain conditions. First, the system has to demonstrate a history of no coliform contamination. Second, the results of a sanitary survey conducted by Saudi Aramcos EPD must verify that the system is supplied solely by a protected groundwater source and that it is free of sanitary defects. If both these conditions are met, Saudi Aramcos EPD may reduce its sampling frequency to a minimum of once a quarter. Non-community water systems are required to analyze a minimum of one sample per quarter. However, if such a system uses unfiltered water, it must sample at the same frequency as a community water system of a like size, or at least once a month. The following test methods are approved for total coliform: a) the multiple-tube fermentation technique; b) the membrane filter technique; c) the presence-absence (P-A) coliform test; and d) the Colilert system (MMO-MUG test). Regardless of the method selected, a 100 milliliters (4 ounce) standard sample shall be used. The protocols for the multiple-tube fermentation, membrane filter, and presence-absence techniques are given in Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater. APHA, AWWA, WPCF. Washington, D.C. (latest edition). The Total Coliform Rule also addresses the problem of interference by heterotrophic bacteria -- a broad class of organisms that use organic nutrients for growth -- in total coliform analysis. Because the presence of coliforms in drinking water indicates the possible presence of pathogens, the masking of coliforms by high levels of heterotrophic bacteria can prevent the detection of a potential public health threat. Three conditions indicate that high levels of heterotrophic bacteria are present. 15.9.1 Using the multiple-tube fermentation technique, the coliform sample produces a turbid culture in the absence of gas production. Using the membrane filter technique, the sample produces a confluent growth or a colony number that is too numerous to count. ("Confluent growth" means continuous bacterial 29

15.7

15.8

15.9

15.9.2

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Water, SASC-S-01

growth covering the entire filtration area of a membrane filter or a portion of the membrane filter in which the bacterial colonies are not discrete. "Too numerous to count" means that the total number of bacterial colonies exceeds 200 on a 47-mm-diameter membrane filter used for coliform detection.) 15.9.3 Using the P-A test, the sample produces a turbid culture in the absence of an acid reaction (an acid reaction is indicated when the medium changes to a yellow color). Should any of these outcomes occur, the coliform sample is invalid. If the sample is declared invalid, another water sample shall be collected from the same location as the original sample and submitted to the laboratory within 8 hours of collection (or up to 30 hours if the sample is maintained between 0-4C [32-39F]). 15.10 Water systems can be in violation of the monthly MCL for total coliforms in two ways: 15.10.1 If the number of total coliform-positive samples exceeds 5.0 percent of the monthly samples when 40 or more samples are analyzed or if more than one sample is positive when less than 40 samples are analyzed; and If there is a combination of: a) a coliform-positive original sample that is also positive for fecal coliform (or Escherichia coli [E. coli]) followed by a positive coliform repeat sample; or b) a coliform-positive original sample followed by a coliform-positive repeat sample that is also positive for fecal coliform or E. coli. Saudi Aramcos EPD may invalidate a sample if it can be demonstrated that the contamination is limited to the service connection and that the distribution system is unaffected. Also, Saudi Aramcos EPD may declare a sample invalid if the laboratory agrees that it made an error or Saudi Aramcos EPD determines that there are mitigating circumstances which justify the change.

15.10.2

15.10.3

15.11

If total coliforms are detected in any sample, the following measures shall be taken immediately:

15.11.1

The coliform-positive sample shall be analyzed to determine whether fecal coliforms are present. Alternatively, the coliform-positive sample may be tested for E. coli. Repeat samples shall be collected. The number of repeat samples shall be determined by the size of the population served as indicated in Table 13. If coliforms are detected in any repeat sample, another set of repeat samples shall be collected from the same location unless Saudi Aramcos EPD determines that some other sampling scheme is indicated. If coliforms are detected in any original or repeat sample and the sample is validated by Saudi Aramcos EPD, a minimum of five routine samples shall be collected from the system the next month it is in operation unless the system serves more than 4,100 persons. If the system does serve more than 4,100 persons, it is already routinely collecting five samples per month.

15.11.2

15.11.3

15.11.4

TABLE 13 Repeat Sampling Requirements Based On Population Number Number of Routine Samples Next System Size of Repeats* Month No community water system 4 5/month for 1 more month Community water system 40 to 1,000 4 5/month for 1 more month 30

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Water, SASC-S-01

1,001 to 2,500 2,501 to 3,300 3,301 to 4,100 >4,100 15.11.5

3 3 3 3

5/month for 1 more month 5/month for 1 more month 5/month for 1 more month See Table 12

* Number of repeat samples in the same month for each coliform-positive routine sample.

If any original or repeat sample is coliform-positive, that result counts as a positive result in compliance calculations, and the system has to determine whether the coliforms in the sample(s) include fecal coliforms. Presence of fecal coliforms or E. coli in a repeat sample constitutes an acute violation.

15.12

Coliform contamination requires quick corrective actions, e.g. mains shall be flushed, disinfection shall be increased and treatment processes shall be improved. The Total Coliform Rule does not allow for variances and exemptions.

15.13

16 FLUORIDE - Recommended fluoride control ranges for drinking water provided to various Saudi Aramco communities by month based upon the monthly average of maximum daily air temperatures are presented in Table 14. TABLE 14
Recommended Fluoride Control Ranges for Drinking Water *

Month January February March April May June July August September October November December

Abqaiq/Udhailiyah Low Opt High mg/L mg/L mg/L 0.85 0.90 1.20 0.75 0.80 1.10 0.65 0.70 0.90 0.55 0.60 0.70 0.55 0.60 0.70 0.55 0.60 0.65 0.55 0.60 0.65 0.55 0.60 0.65 0.55 0.60 0.70 0.55 0.60 0.70 0.65 0.70 0.80 0.75 0.80 0.90

Low mg/L 0.85 0.75 0.75 0.65 0.55 0.55 0.55 0.55 0.55 0.65 0.65 0.75

Dhahran Opt High mg/L mg/L 0.90 1.20 0.80 1.10 0.80 1.00 0.70 0.80 0.60 0.70 0.60 0.65 0.60 0.65 0.60 0.65 0.60 0.70 0.70 0.75 0.70 0.80 0.80 0.90

Ras Tanura/Rabigh Low Opt High mg/L mg/L mg/L 0.85 0.90 1.20 0.85 0.90 1.10 0.75 0.80 1.00 0.65 0.70 0.80 0.55 0.60 0.70 0.55 0.60 0.65 0.55 0.60 0.65 0.55 0.60 0.65 0.55 0.60 0.70 0.65 0.70 0.75 0.65 0.70 0.80 0.75 0.80 1.00

Temperatures are from official Saudi Aramco data for 48 years from 1950 to 1998.

REFERENCES: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. American Water Works Association (AWWA) Standards 1998 Edition. Freedman, Ben, Sanitarians Handbook. Johnson Division, University of Oregon Press Inc., Groundwater and Wells, 1975 National Primary Drinking Water Regulations, U.S.E.P.A., CFR 1990, Part 141, 1990; FR 1990/91 World Health Organization (WHO): International Standards for Drinking Water. Salvato, Joseph, Environmental Engineering and Sanitation. National Sanitation Foundation (NSF) Consumers Guide, 1998 Edition Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater. APHA, AWWA, WPCF. Washington, D.C. (latest edition)

31

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Sanitary wastewater and sewerage systems SASC-S-02

SASC-S-02 SANITARY WASTEWATER AND SEWERAGE SYSTEMS


This Section contains the operation and maintenance requirements for the treatment and disposal of sanitary and industrial wastewaters in Saudi Aramco. NOTE: All sub-sections should be read in conjunction with the applicable Saudi Aramco Engineering Standards and any referenced documents listed at the end of this Code Section. ACRONYMS AND DEFINITIONS ACRONYMS EPD HMA LPD MEPA MSO OM PCBs RCSHF SAES SAMSO SO TCLP TEL DEFINITIONS Acidity: Quantitative capacity of aqueous solutions to react with hydroxide ions to a designated pH. Measured by titration, with a standard solution of a base to a specified end point. Usually expressed as milligrams per liter of calcium carbonate. Activated Carbon: Carbon activated by high-temperature heating with steam or carbon dioxide, producing an internal porous particle structure. Total surface area of granular activated carbon is 2 estimated to be 1,000m /gm. Alkalinity: Capacity of water to neutralize acids, imparted by the waters content of carbonates, bicarbonates, hydroxides, and occasionally borates, silicates, and phosphates. Expressed in milligrams per liter of equivalent calcium carbonate. Anaerobic Waste Treatment: Waste stabilization brought about by the action of microorganisms in the absence of air or elemental oxygen. Usually refers to waste treatment by methane fermentation. Approved Facility: Any waste management facility approved by EPD. Backwash: Process by which water is forced through a filtration bed in the direction opposite to the normal flow (usually upward). During backwashing, the granular bed expands, allowing material previously filtered out to be washed away. Bioassay: Assay method using a change in biological activity as a qualitative or quantitative means of analyzing the response of biota to industrial wastes and other wastewaters. Viable organisms, such as live fish or daphnia, are used as test organisms. Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD): Measure of the concentration of organic impurities in wastewater. The amount of oxygen required by bacteria while stabilizing organic matter under aerobic Environmental Protection Department Hazardous Material Advisor Loss Prevention Department Meteorology & Environmental Protection Administration Material Supply Organization Operating Manual Polychlorinated Biphenyls Reclamation Chemicals Storage and Handling Facility Saudi Aramco Engineering Standard Saudi Aramco Medical Services Organization Storehouse Operations Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure Tetraethyl Lead

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Sanitary wastewater and sewerage systems SASC-S-02

conditions, expressed in milligrams per liter, is determined entirely by the availability of material in the wastewaters to be used as biological food and by the amount of oxygen utilized by the microorganisms during oxidation. Biological Oxidation: Process in which living organisms in the presence of oxygen convert the organic matter contained in wastewater into a more stable or mineral form. Buffer: Any combination of chemicals used to stabilize the pH or alkalinities of solutions. Chlorination: Application of chlorine to water or wastewater, generally for the purpose of disinfections, but frequently for accomplishing other biological or chemical results. Chlorine Contact Chamber: Detention basin in which a liquid containing diffused chlorine is held for a sufficient time to achieve a desired degree of disinfection. Chlorine Demand: Difference between the amounts of chlorine added to the wastewater and the amount of residual chlorine remaining at the end of a specific contact time. The chlorine demand for given water varies with the amount of chlorine applied, time of contact, temperature, pH, and nature and amount of impurities in the water. Clarification: Any process or combination of processes to reduce the concentration of suspended matter in a liquid. Coagulation: Process by which chemicals (coagulants) are added to an aqueous system, to render finely divided, dispersed matter with slow or negligible settling velocities into more rapidly settling aggregates. The coagulants neutralize forces that cause dispersed particles to repel each other. Comminution: Process of cutting and screening solids contained in wastewater flow before it enters the pumps or other units in the treatment plant. Denitrification: Chemically bound oxygen in nitrate or nitrate ions stripped away by microorganisms, producing nitrogen gas, which can cause floc to rise in the final sedimentation process. An effective method of removing nitrogen from wastewater. Detention Time: Average period of time a fluid element is retained in a basin or tank before discharge. Dual Media Filtration: Filtration process that uses a bed composed of two distinctly different granular substances (such as anthracite coal and sand), as opposed to conventional filtration through sand only. Electrical Conductivity: Reciprocal of the resistance in ohms measured between opposite faces of a centimeter cube of an aqueous solution at a specified temperature. Expressed as microhms per centimeter in degrees Celsius. Food to Microorganism Ratio (F/M): Aeration tank loading parameter. Food may be expressed in pounds BOD added per day to the aeration tank; microorganisms may be expressed as mixed liquor volatile suspended solids (MLVSS) in the aeration tank. Freeboard: Vertical distance from the top of a tank, basin, column, or wash trough (in the case of sand filters) to the surfaces of its contents. Grease Skimmer: Device for removing floating grease or scum from the surface of wastewater in a tank. Grit Chamber: Detention chamber or an enlargement of a sewer, designed to reduce the velocity of flow of the liquid, to permit the separation of mineral from organic solids by differential sedimentation.

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Sanitary wastewater and sewerage systems SASC-S-02

Hardness: Characteristic of water imparted by salts of calcium, magnesium, and iron (such as bicarbonates, carbonates, sulfates, chlorides, and nitrates), which causes curdling of soap, deposition of scale in boilers, damage in some industrial processes, and sometimes objectionable taste. It may be determined by a standard laboratory procedure or computed from the amounts of calcium, magnesium, iron, aluminum, manganese, barium, strontium, and zinc, and is expressed as equivalent calcium carbonate. Hydraulic loading: Quantity of flow passing though a column or packed bed, expressed in the units 2 3 2. of volume per unit time per unit area; e.g., ga./min/ft (m /m s). Influent: Wastewater or other liquid (raw or partially treated) flowing into a reservoir, basin, treatment process, or treatment plant. Landfarming: A controlled disposal process that uses naturally occurring bacteria to biodegrade nonleaded oily sludges in soil. Leaded Oily Sludge: Any oily sludges, whether solid or semi-solid, collected from leaded gasoline and tetraethyl lead tanks and vessels containing 100 mg/Kg total lead or greater. Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD): Measure of the oxygen-consuming capacity of inorganic and organic matter present in water or wastewater, expressed as the amount of oxygen consumed from a chemical oxidant in a specific test. It does not differentiate between stable and unstable organic matter and thus, does not necessarily correlate with biochemical oxygen demand. Mixed Liquor Suspended Solid (MLSS): Concentration of suspended solids carried in the aeration basin of an activated sludge process. Mixed Liquor: Mixture of activated sludge and wastewater undergoing activated sludge treatment in the aeration tank. Neutralization: Reaction of acid or alkali with the opposite reagent until the concentrations of hydrogen and hydroxyl ions in the solution are approximately equal. Nitrification: Conversion of nitrogenous matter to nitrates. Non-Leaded Oily Sludge: Any oily sludge, whether solid or semi-solid, containing less than 100 mg/Kg total lead. Non-Settleable Sludge: Suspended matter that does not settle or float to the surface of water in a period of 1 hour. Organic Nitrogen: Nitrogen combined in organic molecules, such as protein, amines, and amino acids. Oxidation Pond or Lagoon: Basin used for retention of wastewater before final disposal, in which biological oxidation of organic material is affected by natural or artificially accelerated transfer of oxygen to the water from air. Oxidation: Addition of oxygen to a compound. More generally, any reaction involving the loss of electrons from an atom. Oxygen Uptake Rate: Amount of oxygen utilized by an activated sludge system during a specific time period. Parshall Plume: Calibrated device developed by Ralph Parshall for measuring the flow of liquid in an open conduit, which consists essentially of a contracting length, a throat, and an expanding length. A sill, over which the flow passes at critical depth, is located at the throat. The upper and lower heads are individually measured at a definite distance from the sill. The lower head need not be measured

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unless the sill is submerged more than about 67 percent. Physical-Chemical Treatment: (PCT) Plant Treatment sequence in which physical and chemical processes are used to the exclusion of explicitly biological process (including incidental biological treatment obtained on filter media or absorptive surfaces). In this sense, a PCT scheme is a substitute for conventional biological treatment. A PCT scheme following an existing biological plant may, by contrast, be termed simply a tertiary plant, although it is also a PCT in a general sense. Polyelectrolyte: Chemicals consisting of high molecular weight molecules with many reactive groups situated along the length of the chain. Polyelectrolytes react with the fine particles in the waste and assist in bringing them together into larger and heavier masses for settling. Primary Settling Tank: First settling tank for the removal of settleable solids through which wastewater is passed in a treatment works. Primary Treatment: 1) First (sometimes only) major treatment in a wastewater treatment works, usually sedimentation; or 2) removal of a substantial amount of suspended matter, but little or no colloidal and dissolved matter. Raw Sludge: Settled sludge promptly removed from sedimentation tanks before decomposition has much advanced. Frequently referred to as undigested sludge. Recirculation Rate: Rate of return of part of the effluent from a treatment process to the incoming flow. Sanitary Sewer: Sewer that carries liquid and water-carried human waste from residences, commercial buildings, industrial plants, and institutions, together with minor quantities of storm, surface, and groundwater(s) that are not admitted intentionally. Significant quantities of industrial wastewater are not carried in sanitary sewers. Screen: Device with openings, generally of uniform size, used to retain or remove suspended or floating solids in flowing water or wastewater and to prevent them from entering an intake or passing a given point in a conduit. The screening element may consist of parallel bars, rods, wires, grating, wire mesh, or perforated plate; the openings may be of any shape, although they are usually circular or rectangular. Also a device used to segregate granular material, such as sand, crushed rock, and soil, into various sizes. Secondary Settling Tank: Tank through which effluent from some prior treatment process flows for the purpose of removing settleable solids. Secondary Wastewater Treatment: Treatment of wastewater by biological methods after primary treatment by sedimentation. Sedimentation: Process of subsidence and deposition of suspended matter carried by water, wastewater, or other liquids, by gravity. Usually accomplished by reducing the velocity of the liquid to below the point at which it can transport the suspended material. Also called settling. Skimming Tank: Tank so designed that floating matter will rise and remain on the surface of the wastewater until removed, while the liquid discharges continuously under certain walls or scum baffles. Sludge Age: In the activated sludge process, a measure of the length of time (expressed in days) a particle of suspended solids has been undergoing aeration. Usually computed by dividing the weight of the suspended solids in the aeration tank by the daily addition of new suspended solids having their origin in the raw waste. Sludge Volume Index (SVI): Numerical expression of the settling characteristics of activated sludge. The ratio of the volume in milliliters of sludge settled from a 1,000-ml sample in 30 minutes to the

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concentration of mixed liquor in milligrams per liter multiplied by 1,000. Stabilization Pond: Type of oxidation pond in which biological oxidation of organic matter is effected by natural or artificially accelerated transfer of oxygen to the water from air. Submerged Weir: Weir that, when in use, results in the water level on the downstream side rising to an elevation equal to or higher than, the weir crest. The rate of discharge is affected by the tailwater. Also called drowned weir. Suspended Solid: Solids that float on the surface of, or are in suspension in, water, wastewater, or other liquids, and that are largely removable by laboratory filtering. Also the quantity of material removed from wastewater in a laboratory test, as prescribed in Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater and referred to as non-filterable residue. Total Organic Carbon (TOC): Measure of the amount of organic material in a water sample, expressed in milligrams per liter of carbon. Measured by Beckman carbonaceous analyzer or other instrument in which the organic compounds are catalytically oxidized to CO2 and measured by an infrared detector. Frequently applied to wastewaters. Turbidity: Condition in water or wastewater caused by the presence of suspended matter, resulting in the scattering and absorption of light rays. Measure of fine suspended matter in liquids. Analytical quantity, usually expressed in Jackson turbidity units (Jtu) or Nephelometric turbidity units (NTUs), determined by measurements of light diffraction. Turbulent Flow: Flow of a liquid past an object so that the velocity at any fixed point in the fluid varies irregularly. Type of fluid flow in which there is an unsteady motion of the particles and the motion at a fixed point varies in no definite manner. Sometimes called eddy or sinuous flow.

ENGINEERING DESIGN Wastewater shall be treated and disposed of by processes that meet the design requirements in SAES-A-104 Wastewater Treatment, Reuse, and Disposal. Copies of the preliminary and detailed engineering reports, design drawings, and specifications prepared in accordance with SAES-A-104 shall be submitted to the Manager, Environmental Protection Department, (EPD) for review and approval.

PROTECTION OF WATER SUPPLIES 2.1 Minimum Separation Distances 2.1.1 Minimum horizontal separation distances between sewerage components and water systems shall be as indicated in Table 1. Sewer line crossing with potable water lines shall comply with the requirements of SAES-S-010, Sanitary Sewers.

2.1.2

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TABLE 1 Minimum Horizontal Separation Distances Minimum Distance To Be Maintained From: Sewer Lines Septic Tank/Grease Traps Disposal Field Seepage Pit Areas Irrigated with Reclaimed Wastewater Reclaimed Water Line Sewage Treatment Plants (onshore) Sewage Lift Stations (onshore)

Water Wells m(ft) 15 (50) 15 (50) 30 (100) 45 (150) 150 (500) 15 (50) 150 (500) 90 (300)

Water Lines m(ft) 3 (10) 3 (10) 3 (10) 3 (10) 15 (50) 3 (10)


a b a

a -In the event that these separation distances can not be met, see SAES-S-010. b - This buffer zone applies to spray irrigation areas only.

2.2

Water Supply and Prevention of Cross Connections 2.2.1 Water Supply: An adequate supply of potable water under pressure that complies with requirements described in SASC-S-01 shall be provided for sanitary and drinking purposes, use in the laboratory, and for general cleaning duties around the plant. The design and construction of all plumbing shall comply with the requirements of the Saudi Aramco Plumbing Code, SAES-S-060. Where it is not possible to provide potable water from a public water supply, separate water well may be provided. The location, design, construction and quality of water obtained from the well shall comply with SASC-S-01. Since the plant operators and visitors will use this water supply for sanitary and drinking purposes, it shall be plumbed as outlined above. Prevention of Cross Connections: Cross connecting the potable water supply with any non-potable or other water supply of questionable quality is prohibited. The use of water in a wastewater treatment plant is a necessity, but special precautions are required to protect the potable water supply. In this regard, two separate water systems must be provided which are not physically connected in any way; i.e., a plant potable water system and a plant non-potable water system. 2.2.2.1 Backflow Prevention: Atmospheric vacuum breakers shall be installed for all potable water wash down hoses. Reduced pressure backflow devices (RPBDs) or air gap and break tank shall be installed on all potable water lines serving wastewater lift stations and wastewater treatment plants unless a totally separate non-potable water system using reclaimed water is installed for all cleaning requirements and chemical make-up water requirements. The RPBD should be installed with adequate space to facilitate maintenance and testing. Adequate clearance from the floor, ceiling, and walls must be provided to facilitate the removal of the relief valve. An RPBD shall not be installed in a pit below ground level. The RPBD must be inspected regularly for indication of failure. Separate Non-Potable Water System: Where water from a separate potable water supply is used to provide make-up water to the non-potable water system, then the potable water must be discharged to a break tank with an air gap of at least 15 centimeters (6 inches) above the maximum water level, or the overflow outlet of the tank, whichever is higher. Separate Non-Potable Water System Using Reclaimed Wastewater: If break tank shall not be required between the source of reclaimed wastewater and the wastewater treatment plant.

2.2.2

2.2.2.2

2.2.2.3

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2.2.2.4

Non-potable water systems shall be properly color-coded as identified in Table 2 of SAES-A-104. All outlets from a non-potable water system shall be posted with permanent signs and logos (artist's drawing), in Arabic and English, indicating that the water is non-potable and is not safe for drinking.

2.2.2.5

WASTEWATER PUMP STATIONS 3.1 Wastewater pump stations shall not be subject to flooding. A suitable superstructure, preferably located off the right of way of streets and alleys to collect the stormwater shall be provided. The station shall be readily accessible. Pump systems shall be designed to handle unexpected downtime. Design of the pump facility shall incorporate ease of maintenance and repair. The design of the pumps shall be in accordance with SAES-S-010. Each pump station shall have at least two units of the same capacity. The capacity of each must exceed the expected maximum wastewater flow. If more than two pumps are provided, the capacity of the pump system must be such that with one pump out of service, the capacity of the remaining pumps exceeds the expected maximum wastewater flow. Each pump shall have a separate suction. Pneumatic ejector-type pump stations require at least two pneumatic ejectors unless the ejector pot has been located in a dry well with all parts accessible for the repair of leaks. If the ejector pot forms the lower part of the lift, two pots shall be required. Pumps handling raw wastewater shall be preceded by readily accessible bar racks with clear openings not exceeding 5 centimeters (2 inches) unless pneumatic ejectors are used or special devices are installed to protect the pumps from clogging or damage. Where the size of the installation warrants, a mechanically cleaned bar screen with a grinder or comminution device shall be used. Where screens are located below ground, convenient facilities shall be provided for handling screenings. Adequate ventilation shall be provided for all lift stations. Where the pump pit is below the ground surface, mechanical ventilation is required and arranged to ventilate the dry well and the wet well independently. There shall be no interconnections between the wet well and the dry well ventilating systems. In pits over 4.5 meters (15 feet) deep, multiple inlets and outlets shall be used. Dampers shall not be used on exhaust or fresh air ducts and fine screens and other obstructions in the air ducts shall be avoided to prevent clogging. There shall be no physical connection between any potable water supply and a wastewater pump station, which under any conditions might cause contamination of the potable water supply. If a potable water supply is brought to the pump station, it must comply with conditions stipulated in SASC-S-01 Alarm systems shall be provided for all pump stations. The alarm shall be activated in cases of power failure, pump failure, or any cause of pump station malfunction. Where a municipal facility of 24-hour attendance is not available, pump station alarms shall be telemetered. Where no such facility exists, an audiovisual device shall be installed at the station for external observation. Force mains shall be a minimum of 10 centimeters (4 inches) in diameter. Air release valves shall be provided on lines at all peaks in elevation.

3.2

3.3

3.4

3.5

3.6

3.7

3.8

3.9

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SANITARY WASTEWATER TREATMENT SYSTEMS 4.1 General 4.1.1 Industrial wastewater and stormwater run-off shall not be mixed with sanitary wastewater prior to treatment. The streams may be combined after treatment, prior to disposal. Hauling of raw sewage from holding tanks will not normally be considered an acceptable method of waste disposal unless specifically approved by Manager, EPD. All outside areas shall be kept free of nuisances and safety hazards (refer to SASCS-18). All on-shore treatment units shall be located a minimum of 150 meters (500 feet) from any residential areas, camp areas, or office areas. All treatment plants and holding ponds shall be surrounded by a Saudi Aramco Type V Security fence. Routine housekeeping of buildings and grounds shall be included in the operators regular daily responsibilities. All buildings and equipment should be routinely cleaned. Doors, windows, walls and other areas should be kept clean, dry, and in good repair. Outside grounds should be mowed regularly with the grass clippings removed promptly. Equipment and piping should be cleaned and painted as required for appearance and identification purposes. The direction of prevailing winds shall be considered when selecting the plant site. Effluent quality requirements for wastewater treatment plants shall conform to applicable requirements as outlined in: (1) Table 3 of this section; (2) SAES-A-103, Marine Wastewater Discharges; (3) SAES-A-104, Wastewater Treatment, Reuse, and Disposal; (4) Meteorology & Environmental Protection Administration Standards; (5) Jubail or Yanbu Royal Commission Standards; and (6) Al Hasa Irrigation and Drainage Authority (HIDA). All municipal wastewater treatment plants shall be operated in accordance with the latest version of Operation of Municipal Wastewater Treatment Plants published by the US Water Environmental Federation (WEF). All industrial wastewater treatment plants shall be operated in accordance with the latest versions of the applicable industrial manuals (e. g. API instructions).

4.1.2

4.1.3

4.1.4

4.1.5

4.1.6

4.1.7 4.1.8

4.1.9

4.1.10 Exceptions to Table 1 of SAES-A-104 requirements may be granted on a case-bycase basis for sanitary wastewater that is discharged into an evaporation pond, which meets the design requirements of Standard 8.1 of SAES-A-104. 4.1.11 Sanitary sewage discharged more than 4 nautical miles from shore does not need to be treated to meet Table 1 requirements; it shall be comminuted and disinfected prior to discharge in accordance with SAES-A-103. 4.1.12 Discharges to the land are not permitted unless written approval is obtained. 4.1.13 Sanitary wastewater sludge shall be stabilized (aerobic digestion) prior to drying in sludge drying beds. Dried sludge shall be disposed of in an approved sanitary landfill designed as per SAES-S-007 and operated as per Section SASC-S-03.

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4.1.14 All sanitary wastewater reuse applications must be designed and installed as per SAES-A-104. Adequate control measures must be taken to prevent inappropriate alterations in the piping that could result in cross connections with potable water. All warning signs, backflow preventors, and cross connection control measures shall be maintained as originally designed. The minimum horizontal separation distances between sewerage components and wastewater system shall be in accordance to Table 1 of this instruction. 4.1.15 For any waste or mixture of wastes not specifically mentioned in this instruction or in the event of incidents involving wastes, the treatment and disposal method must be approved by Manager, EPD. 4.2 Preliminary Treatment 4.2.1 All sanitary wastewater treatment plants shall have bar screens, mesh screens, and/or comminutors. Bar screens shall be located upstream of the grit chambers and shall be readily accessible at all times to allow inspection and maintenance. A stairway and/or ladder shall be provided for access if bar screens, mesh screens, or comminutors are located one or more meters below or above ground level. Equipment shall be provided to transfer the screenings to ground elevation. In order to provide for drainage of the screenings, manually cleaned bar screens shall be constructed having 30 degrees to 60 degrees slope to a horizontal platform. The bar spacing shall be from 25 to 40 millimeters for manually cleaned screens. The mechanically cleaned screens shall have spacing as small as 10 millimeters. An accessible platform shall be provided for the manually cleaned screening facilities. The operators to rake screenings shall use the platform. A drainage system shall be provided for the platform. Auxiliary manually cleaned screens shall be provided where mechanically operated screening devices are used. The design shall include provisions for automatic diversion of the entire wastewater flow through the auxiliary screens if the regular units fail. Grit removal equipment shall be provided for all sanitary wastewater treatment plants and shall be located upstream of pumps and comminuting devices. Equipment to wash the grit shall be provided unless the grit is handled in such a manner as to prevent odors and fly nuisance. The grit collecting chambers shall be installed with the capability to be dewatered. The screenings and grit shall be stored in covered containers. The screenings and the grit shall be disposed of in a sanitary landfill that is approved by EPD

4.2.2

4.2.3

4.2.4

4.2.5

4.2.6

4.2.7

4.2.8 4.2.9

4.3

Primary Treatment 4.3.1 The waste oil and the oily sludges resulted from the operation of the separators shall be disposed of in a waste disposal facility that is approved by the Manager,

EPD
4.3.2 Waste oil or wastewater containing oil shall be stored in either an above ground tank with secondary containment or in a lined pit (or sump). The liner for the pit (or sump) shall be as a minimum 30-mil high-density polyethylene. The sump or the pit shall be

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constructed of reinforced concrete.

4.3.3 Equalization shall be installed in wastewater treatment plants in order to protect the biological system from fluctuations in organics, pH, flow rates, and toxic substances. 4.3.4 Equalization tanks having a detention time of more than two hours shall have mixers. The air shall be supplied at a rate of 1.25 to 2.0 ft3/103 gal. /min. (0.01 to 0.015 m3/min.).

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Sanitary wastewater and sewerage systems SASC-S-02

4.3.5

Each sedimentation basins shall be provided with walkways with guard rails along the perimeter. A stairway shall be installed for sedimentation basins with vertical walls terminating one or more meter above or below ground level. Sedimentation basins shall be provided with scum baffles and a means for collection and disposal of the separated scum into the sludge digester. Sedimentation basins designed for flow rates less than 100 cubic meters per day shall have hydraulic skimming provided that the scum pick-up is capable of removing scum from the entire operating surface of the sedimentation basin. Sedimentation basins designed for flow rates of 100 cubic meters per day or more shall be equipped with mechanical skimmers. Sedimentation basin access platforms shall have a pressure hose and hose rack for cleaning the effluent weirs. Mechanical skimmers shall be equipped with a means to automatically clean the weirs. Brushes or scraper blade to be attached to the end of the skimmer can be used for this service. Mechanical sludge collecting equipment shall be provided for sedimentation units with a design flow equal to or greater than 100 cubic meters per day and shall have provisions for individual inspection and sampling.

4.3.6

4.3.7

4.3.8

4.3.9

4.3.10 A smooth wall finish and a hopper bottom slope of not less than 60 degrees shall be provided for sedimentation basins that are not equipped with mechanical sludge collecting equipment. 4.4 Secondary Treatment 4.4.1 The activated sludge process may be used where the wastewater is amenable to biological treatment; some of the modified processes require a greater degree of attention and operating supervision. These requirements shall be considered when proposing this type of treatment. 4.4.2 Biological wastewater treatment ponds (facultative ponds) and associated equipment shall be designed to meet the wastewater disposal requirements in Table 3 of this instruction unless the wastewater will be disposed in an evaporation pond. Discharges to an evaporation pond do not need to meet the Table 3 requirements provided the treatment pond is designed and operated according to Standard 8.1.1.2 of SAES-A-104 and approval is granted by Manager, EPD. 4.4.3 Pond-based wastewater treatment shall only be used in remote areas. Consideration shall be given to such factors as prevailing winds, pond configuration, soil conditions, use of effluent, and distance to populated areas. 4.4.4 Facultative ponds shall either be preceded by facilities for primary treatment of the raw sewage or shall include a minimum of two ponds in series. The first pond shall be used for solids separation and biological treatment and the second pond shall be for biological treatment only. 4.4.5 Oily wastewater shall be pretreated for removal of free oil before discharge to the biological treatment system. 4.4.6 A tank-based activated sludge process is the preferred treatment method where the wastewater is amenable to biological treatment.

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4.4.7 Extended aeration and oxidation ditches are the preferred activated sludge treatment methods; other methods may be used as per the approval of the Manager, EPD. 4.4.8 Extended aeration is the preferred method when high effluent quality and ammonia removal is required. Extended aeration shall be used in applications where a high probability of shock loads exists. 4.4.9 The oxidation ditch may be used where treatment needs are similar to those for extended aeration. All oxidation ditch systems shall provide final clarification and return sludge capability equal to that required for the extended aeration system. Provision shall be made to easily vary the immersion depth of the rotor for flexibility of operation. 4.4.10 If the design flow exceeds 1000 cubic meters per day (250,000 gallons per day), the total aeration tank volume shall be divided among two or more units, each capable of independent operation. 4.4.11 Equipment for measuring return sludge, excess sludge, and air shall be provided in activated sludge plants having a design flow of 7500 cubic meters per day or more. 4.4.12 Aeration tanks shall be constructed of reinforced concrete or steel unless approved by the Materials Engineering and Corrosion Control Division. 4.4.13 Aeration tank equipment in contact with wastewater shall be constructed of 316 stainless steel unless approved by the Materials Engineering and Corrosion Control Division. 4.4.14 Surface mechanical aerators are the preferred type of aerators for wastewater treatment systems that treat greater than 3800 cubic meters per day. Mechanical aeration devices shall be of such capacity to provide oxygen transfer to and mixing of the vessel contents equivalent to that provided by compressed air. 4.4.15 The diffuser systems shall have devices for removing and replacing diffusers without de-watering the tank. They shall also have non-clog diffusers for all systems using intermittent aeration. 4.4.16 The diffuser systems shall have individual diffuser header assemblies with air control valves. The diffuser head control valves shall allow for throttling of the airflow. 4.4.17 The air diffuser system, including piping, shall be capable of delivering 150 percent of design air requirements. 4.4.18 The blower/compressor units shall be equipped with automatic reset and restart mechanisms to place the units back in operation after periods of power outage. 4.4.19 Air filters shall provide for a flow rate of 120 percent of the design requirements. 4.4.20 The requirements for the secondary sedimentation units are the same as those for primary sedimentation units. The secondary sedimentation units shall have dual skimmers or heavy-duty full-length skimmers. 4.5 Tertiary Treatment 4.5.1 The flocculation equipment shall be designed and operated in order to obtain

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optimum floc growth, control of deposition of solids, and prevent floc destruction at peak hourly flow. 4.5.2 Polymers are to be used as flocculation aids and shall be introduced into a flash mix tank upstream of a flocculation tank or into the flocculation zone using several alternate input points. Air flotation units shall not be used to treat sanitary wastewater. If the units are used for industrial wastewater they shall be located downstream of the gravity oil/water separators and equalization equipment.

4.5.3

4.6

Chemical Treatment 4.6.1 Chemical addition equipment shall be provided in cases where the pH of the discharge is outside of the pH range in Table 3 of this instruction or in cases where conventional gravity settling or biological treatment is not able to treat the discharge to Table 1 of SAES-A-104 concentrations. Chemical treatment systems shall be of multiple-unit flexibility to allow for operational adjustments in chemical feed point locations, chemical feed rates, and use of alternative chemicals. The chemical dosage required shall be the minimum necessary to bring about optimum treatment. The choice of treatment chemical(s) shall be based upon the characteristics of the raw wastewater, the quality requirement of the final effluent and the economics of the process. Coagulation feed systems shall be provided with standby feeders, adequate chemical storage and conveyance facilities, adequate reserve chemical supply, and automatic dosage control. In instances where only pH correction is needed, holding tanks and metering pumps may be used when pH adjustment is required. Other simple pH control system with either acid or base addition can be used when gradual mixing will not provide a sufficient buffering capacity. Selection of chemical feed points shall be based on the type of chemicals used, the type of wastewater treatment process, the reaction times, and the type of components in use. There shall be flexibility in feed point location with multiple feed points.

4.6.2

4.6.3

4.6.4

4.6.5

4.6.6

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4.6.7

The dry chemical feeders shall be equipped with a mixing tank which is capable of providing a minimum 5-minute retention time at the peak hourly flow rate. Polyelectrolyte feed installations shall be equipped with multiple solution vessels and transfer piping. Mixing of the chemicals shall be accomplished using a large diameter low speed mixer. Flash mixing shall be provided for chemicals such as polymers, metal salts and pH control chemicals. The flash mixer shall have a mean temporal velocity gradient, G (sec.), of at least 800. The detention period shall be at least 30 seconds at peak hourly flow. Secondary spill containment shall be provided around all chemical feed system components.

4.6.8

4.6.9

4.6.10 An adequate supply of treatment chemicals shall be provided at the treatment plant. 4.6.11 The liquid storage tanks and tank fill connections shall be located within a secondary spill containment structure. 4.6.12 Bag or drum storage shall be located near the solution make-up point with trolleys in order to provide for the convenient movement of drum or bag. 4.6.13 Platforms, ladders and railings shall be provided as necessary to afford convenient and safe access to all filling connections, storage tank entry locations, and measuring devices. 4.6.14 Containment areas shall be sloped into a sump area and shall not contain floor drains that drain into a sewer. 4.6.15 Chemical precipitation sludge shall be disposed of in a facility approved by the Manager, EPD. 4.6.16 Eye washes and safety showers shall be provided in areas where chemicals are being handled. 4.6.17 Chemical feed equipment and storage facilities shall either be constructed of corrosion-resistant materials or have a protective coating as approved by the Materials Engineering and Corrosion Control Division. 4.7 Wastewater Filtration 4.7.1 Convenient access to the component of the filters shall be provided at the treatment plants for cleaning and maintenance. The backwash rate shall be adequate to fluidize each media layer a minimum of 20 percent. Waste filter backwash waters shall be returned to the inlet of the wastewater treatment plant. Filtered water shall be used as the source of backwash water. Selection of media size shall depend on the filtration rate selected, the type of treatment provided for the filter influent, the filter configuration and the effluent quality objectives. The manufacturers of the filters should approve the use of local sand. A manual override for operating equipment and critical valves shall be provided if automatic control is used.

4.7.2

4.7.3

4.7.4

4.7.5

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4.7.6 4.7.7

The distribution of the backwash air through the under drain system shall be uniform. The filter shall be equipped with water troughs, a means of measurement and control of the backwash rate, equipment for indicating filter head loss, surface wash or air scouring equipment, a positive means of shutting off flow to the filter being backwashed, and filter influent and effluent sampling points.

4.7.8

Adequate pumping capacity shall be available with the largest unit out of service, where waste backwash water is returned for treatment by pumping.
The rate of return of waste filter backwash water to the treatment units shall not exceed 15 percent of the design flow rate to the treatment units.

4.7.9

4.7.10 Filtration rates shall not exceed 110 liters per minute per square meter (3 gallons per minute per square foot) for single media (sand) filters, 150 liters per minute per square meter for dual media filters, and 190 liters per minute per square meter for multi-media filters (based on the design flow rate applied to the filter units). 4.7.11 Intermittent sand filters shall be protected from surface wash and blowing sand. 4.7.12 Gravity or pressure type filters shall be used for wastewater filtration. 4.8 Sludge Handling 4.8.1 The sludge pipe to the beds shall terminate at least 30 centimeters (12 inches) above the surface and be arranged so that it shall drain. Concrete splash plates for the percolation-type beds shall be provided at sludge discharge points. 4.8.2 Provision shall be made to maintain sufficient continuity of service so sludge may be de-watered without accumulation beyond storage capacity. 4.8.3 If it is proposed to de-water or dispose of sludge by other methods, a detailed description of the process and design data shall accompany the plans. The final quality of the de-watered sludge must be such that the disposal of the dried sludge does not create a health hazard. 4.8.4 Filtrate from de-watering units shall be returned to the process for adequate treatment. 4.9 Grease Traps 4.9.1 4.9.2 Grease traps shall be provided for communal kitchens catering to 10 or more Grease traps should normally be located within 9 meters (30 feet) of the plumbing fixtures served to prevent congealing of the grease in the lines. Grease traps shall be maintained in efficient operating condition by regular removal of accumulated grease and sediment. The minimum capacity of the grease trap shall be equal to the maximum volume of water used in the kitchen during a mealtime period or as specified in latest edition of the Uniform Plumbing Code, whichever is greater. An estimate of 9.5 to 11.3 liters (2.5 - 3.0 gallons) of water per meal served can be used to determine the required volume. Grease removed from the grease trap shall be disposed in an approved sanitary landfill.

4.9.3

4.9.4

4.9.5

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4.10

Onsite Disposal Systems (Holding Tanks, Septic Tanks and Disposal Fields) 4.10.1 General 4.10.1.1 Onsite disposal systems include holding tanks, septic tanks, absorption beds, seepage pits, and evapotranspiration beds. Onsite disposal systems are only acceptable at locations with less than 30 employees where no connection to a sanitary sewer is available, and the systems are designed per Standard 12 of SAES-A-104. The Manager, EPD, may allow facilities with greater than 30 employees conditional approval for the use of an onsite disposal system on a case-by-case basis. (Any wastewater being trucked off-site for disposal must be treated in an approved wastewater treatment plant). 4.10.1.2 All onsite disposal systems (with the exception of holding tanks) shall be preceded by a septic tank designed in accordance with Standard 12 of SAES-A-104, Wastewater Treatment, Reuse, and Disposal. 4.10.1.3 Septic tanks with disposal to absorption beds or seepage pits are not acceptable in areas where the ground water is within 1.5 meters (5 feet) of the surface. 4.10.1.4 Septic tanks shall be maintained in efficient operating condition by regular removal of accumulated sediment and sludge. 4.10.1.5 Absorption beds, seepage pits, and evapotranspiration beds shall be routinely inspected to ensure proper operation. Any evidence of surface contamination with wastewater must be investigated and the underlying cause corrected immediately. 4.10.1.6 Effluent from septic tanks contains a high level of pathogenic bacteria and shall not be considered safe. Appropriate safety precautions such as the use of protective clothing (e.g., gloves and overalls) shall be used when contact with the tank contents is unavoidable. 4.10.1.7 Roof drains, foundation drains and drainage from other sources producing large intermittent or constant volumes of clear water shall not be piped into the septic tank or absorption area. Such large volumes of water will stir up the contents of the tank and carry some of the solids into the outlet line; the disposal system following the septic tank will likewise become flooded or clogged, and may fail. Drainage from garage floors, or other sources of oily waste, shall also be excluded from the septic tank. 4.10.1.8 Toilet paper substitutes should not be flushed into a septic tank. Paper towels, newspaper, wrapping paper, rags, and sticks may not decompose in the septic tank, and are likely to lead to clogging of the plumbing and disposal system. 4.10.1.9 Adequate venting is obtained through the building plumbing if the septic tank and the plumbing are designed and installed in accordance with SAES-A-104 and SAES-S-060. A separate vent on a septic tank is not necessary.

4.10.1.10 A chart showing the location of the septic tank and disposal system should be placed at a suitable location in the facility served by such a system. The chart should contain brief instructions as to the inspection and maintenance required. The chart should assist in acquainting operators of the necessary maintenance that septic tanks require, thus forestalling

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failures by assuring satisfactory operation. 4.10.1.11 Abandoned septic tanks shall be filled with earth or rock. 4.10.1.12 Septage and portable toilet wastes shall be disposed of at an approved wastewater treatment system designed as per SAES-A-104. 4.10.1.13 Any facility using off-site disposal of wastewater shall maintain records that can demonstrate that the wastewater shipments were received by the approved wastewater treatment system (Saudi Aramco 9564). 4.10.2 Percolation Tests Percolation tests shall be performed to determine the suitability of the soil for absorption/seepage type systems. Results from the percolation tests shall be used in conjunction with the standards in SAES-A-104, Wastewater Treatment, Reuse, and Disposal to develop the design of the absorption bed or seepage pit. The Manager, EPD, must approve all percolation test procedures and results. Percolation test procedures are as follows: 4.10.2.1 Number and Location of Tests: Six or more tests shall be made in separate test holes spaced uniformly over the proposed soil absorption field. 4.10.2.2 Type of Test Hole: Dig or bore a hole, with horizontal dimensions from 10 to 30 centimeters (4.0 to 12 inches) and vertical side to the depth of the proposed absorption trench. In order to save time, labor, and volume of water required per test, the holes can be bored with a 10 centimeters (4.0 inches) auger. 4.10.2.3 Preparation of Test Hole: Carefully scratch the bottom and sides of the hole with a knife blade or sharp pointed instrument in order to remove any smeared soil surfaces and to provide a natural soil interface into which water may percolate. Remove all loose material from the hole. Add 5.0 centimeters (2.0 inches) of coarse sand or fine gravel to protect the bottom from scouring and sediment. 4.10.2.4 Saturation and Swelling of the Soil: It is important to distinguish between saturation and swelling. Saturation means that the void spaces between soil particles are full of water. This can be accomplished in a short period of time. Swelling is caused by intrusion of water into the individual soil particle. Swelling is a slow process, especially in clay-type soil, and is the reason for requiring a prolonged soaking period. Carefully fill the hole with clear water to a minimum depth of 30 centimeters (12 inches) over the gravel. In most soils, it is necessary to refill the hole by supplying a surplus reservoir of water, possibly by means of an automatic siphon, to keep water in the hole for at lease 4.0 hours and preferably overnight. Determine the percolation rate 24 hours after water is first added to the hole. This procedure is to insure that the soil is given ample opportunity to swell and to approach the condition it will be in during the wettest season of the year. Thus, the test will give comparable results in the same soil, whether made in a dry or in a wet season. In sandy soils containing little or no clay, the swelling procedure is not essential. 4.10.2.5 Percolation-rate measurement: With the exception of sandy soils, percolation-rate measurements shall be made on the day following the procedure described under item 4.10.2.4 above.

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If water remains in the test hole after the overnight swelling period, adjust the depth to approximately 15 centimeters (6.0 inches) over the gravel. From a fixed reference point measure the drop in water level over a 30minute period. This drop is used to calculate the percolation rate. If no water remains in the hole after the overnight swelling period, add clear water to bring the depth of water in the hole to approximately 15 centimeters (6.0 inches) over the gravel. From a fixed reference point, measure the drop in water level at approximately 30-minute intervals for 4.0 hours, refilling 15 centimeters (6.0 inches) over the gravel as necessary. The drop that occurs during the final 30-minute period is used to calculate the percolation rate. The drops during prior periods provide information for possible modification of the procedure to suit local circumstances. In sandy soils or other soils in which the first 15 centimeters (6.0 inches) of water seeps away in less than 30 minutes, after the overnight swelling period, the time interval between measurements shall be taken as 10 minutes and the test run for one hour. The drop that occurs during the final 10 minutes is used to calculate the percolation rate. 4.10.3 Cleaning of Septic Tanks Septic tanks shall be cleaned before too much sludge or scum is allowed to accumulate. If either the sludge or scum approaches too closely to the bottom of the outlet device, particles will be scoured into the disposal field and will clog the system. Eventually, when this happens, liquid may break through to the ground surface, and the wastewater may back up in the plumbing fixtures. When a disposal field is clogged in this manner, it is not only necessary to clean the tank, but it also may be necessary to construct a new disposal field. 4.10.3.1 There are wide differences in the rate that sludge and scum will accumulate from one system to the next. Tanks should be inspected at least once a year. The depth of sludge and scum should be measured in the vicinity of the outlet baffle. The tank should be cleaned if either: a) the bottom of the scum mat is within approximately 7.5 centimeters (3.0 inches) of the bottom of the outlet device; or b) sludge comes within the limits specified in Table 2. TABLE 2 Allowable Sludge Accumulation Liquid Depth Liquid Capacity Septic Tank Liters 2835 3400 3780 7560 of 75 cm (2.5ft) cm 12.5 10.0 10.0 10.0 in 5.0 4.0 4.0 4.0 90 cm (3.0 ft) cm 15.0 10.0 10.0 10.0 in 6.0 4.0 4.0 4.0 120 cm (4.0 ft) cm 25.0 17.5 15.0 10.0 in 10.0 7.0 6.0 4.0 150 cm (5.0 ft) cm 32.52 25.0 20.0 10.0 in 13.0 10.0 8.0 4.0 Distance From Bottom of Outlet to Top of Sludge

Gallons 750 900 1000 2000

4.10.3.2 Scum can be measured with a stick to which a weighted flap has been hinged, or with any other suitable device. The stick is forced through the mat, the hinged flap falls into a horizontal position, and the stick is raised until resistance from the bottom of the scum is felt. 4.10.3.3 A long stick wrapped with rough, white toweling and lowered to the bottom of the tank will show the depth of sludge and the liquid depth of the tank.

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The stick should be lowered behind the outlet device to avoid scum particles. After several minutes, if the stick is carefully removed, the sludge line can be distinguished by sludge particles adhering to the toweling. 4.10.3.4 Cleaning is usually accomplished by pumping the contents of the tank into a tank truck. Septic tanks should not be washed or disinfected after pumping. A small residual of sludge should be left in the tank for seeding purposes. When a large septic tank is being cleaned, care shall be taken not to enter the tank until it has been thoroughly ventilated and gases have been removed to prevent explosion hazards and asphyxiation of workmen. Preferably, workmen required to enter the tank should wear self-contained breathing apparatus. If not available, a stout rope shall be tied around the workman's chest under his armpits, with the other end held above ground by another person(s) strong enough to pull him out if any gas remaining in the tank should overcome him. 4.10.3.5 The material removed may be buried in an approved sanitary landfill or, with permission of the proper authority, emptied into a sanitary sewer system. Sludge should never be emptied into storm drains or discharged directly into any stream or watercourse. Waste shipments shall be manifested to the disposal location as per Standard 6.0 of GI 430.001. 4.10.4 Holding Tanks 4.10.4.1 Holding tanks for wastewater may only be used by facilities with less than 30 employees and no connection to a sanitary sewer is available. The Manager, EPD, must approve design drawings and specifications of holding tanks. 4.10.4.2 Holding tanks must be pumped out at intervals of sufficient frequency to prevent overflow of the contents onto the ground adjacent to the tank. A designated representative of a camp or facility served by the tank must maintain a written record of these pumping intervals to ensure this requirement is met. 410.4.3 Any holding tanks which have overflowed, or otherwise have created an odor or public health nuisance, must be immediately reported to EPD.

4.10.4.4 Contents removed from holding tanks must be disposed of in an approved septage receiving facility or other approved wastewater treatment facility. The disposal contractor must provide, when requested by EPD, proof of proper disposal by submission of the Waste Manifest Form (Saudi Aramco 9564) as a requirement for continuing to provide waste disposal service at Saudi Aramco facilities 4.11 Operation and Maintenance of Sanitary Wastewater Treatment Plants All wastewater treatment plants shall be operated and maintained in manner that: (1) risks to public health and the environment are minimized, and (2) all applicable standards are achieved. Note: that the following Section is not intended to replace a detailed operations and maintenance manual. In all cases, the original equipment manufacturers operation and maintenance instructions should be followed. 4.11.1 Operation and Maintenance Manuals: All plants shall provide and maintain Operation and Maintenance manuals at the site. All new plants shall submit Operation and Maintenance manuals to the Manager, EPD, for review and approval. The degree of complexity of the operation and maintenance manual shall be as required by the complexity of the wastewater treatment system. A suggested table of

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contents for operation and maintenance manuals follows: Description of Process Description of Facilities Operation and Control Laboratory Testing Records Preventive Maintenance Program References 4.11.2 No wastewater may be disposed of to the marine environment if it does not meet the MEPA discharge requirements in Table 3 of these instructions. Discharges to evaporation ponds and other approved discharge locations must meet Table 3 of these instructions; however, the Manager, EPD, may waive specific discharge requirements on a case-by-case basis. No desert dumping of wastewater is permitted. 4.11.3 Record keeping: The maintenance of good records is essential to the efficient and orderly operation of any treatment plant. Only by maintaining clear and concise records of operation will past experiences be of assistance in guiding future operations. Sanitary wastewater treatment plants shall be sampled per the instructions shown on Table 5 of this document. 4.11.3.1 At a minimum, the records should include the daily operators log, laboratory reports, and maintenance activities. The daily operating log should note any unusual conditions, routine operational and maintenance activities, etc. 4.11.3.2 Sanitary wastewater treatment facilities shall maintain daily records of influent and effluent flow rates to aid staff in ensuring that design flow rates are not exceeded and to warn of possible process upsets. 4.11.4 Wastes discharged shall at no time contain substances in concentrations toxic to human, animal, plant or fish life. The wastes discharged shall not contain phenols, cresols, or any other substances in concentration sufficient to impart objectionable tastes, odors, or foaming to usable waters. 4.11.5 Disinfection: All wastewater treatment plants which discharge effluent or reuse effluent on land must provide disinfection to achieve the required bacteriological effluent water quality requirements as identified in sub-section 6 of this Code Section 4.11.5.1 Chlorination facilities shall be operated to provide an effluent total residual chlorine concentration of at least 1.0 mg/L (1.0 ppm) after a contact time of at least 30 minutes at peak hourly flow. The operator for all wastewater treatment plants shall maintain daily records of total effluent chlorine residual levels. 4.11.5.2 Other disinfection processes require approval of the Manager ,EPD. Where other processes are proposed, the design report shall include evidence of successful disinfection under similar conditions. 4.11.6 Removal, Handling And Storage of Screenings and Grit 4.11.6.1 Screenings and grit shall be wasted, dried, and disposed of in a landfill approved by the Manager, EPD.

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4.11.6.2 Screenings and grit that are temporarily stored on the premises shall be bagged or stored in covered containers. 4.11.6.3 Handling of screenings and grit should only be performed with appropriate protective clothing such as gloves and coveralls. 4.11.6.4 Routinely monitor equipment such as traveling bar screens, comminutors, etc. for proper operation. Lubricate all equipment as recommended by the original equipment manufacturer. 4.11.7 Waste Facultative Ponds 4.11.7.1 Facultative ponds shall be maintained to eliminate weeds, floating grease, floating mats of algae and scum, etc. These materials provide harborage for insects, which can act as disease vectors. Breeding insects in the ponds can be treated with an appropriate pesticide such as Abate. Weeds can be manually removed from the dike areas or carefully sprayed with an herbicide taking care not to poison the pond. Floating materials can be removed by vacuum truck and disposed of at an approved landfill. 4.11.7.2 A minimum of 0.75 to 1.0 meter (2.5 - 3.0 feet) water depth should be maintained in ponds to prevent rooting of plants and minimize odors. 4.11.7.3 Odors resulting from temporary overloading of a pond system may be able to be mitigated by the addition of sodium nitrate in quantities of 11.2 grams per cubic meter (100 pound per acre). The sodium nitrate should be spread evenly across the lagoon. 4.11.7.4 Routine maintenance for permanent facultative ponds requires periodic removals of accumulated solids, removal of floating materials, correction of bank erosion, and routine clearing of shrubs and grasses from the dike area. The Manager, EPD, shall approve disposal of dredged solids. Protective clothing such as gloves and coveralls should be worn when working with wastewater or sludge. 4.11.8 Activated Sludge Treatment Process 4.11.8.1 A well operated activated sludge system will generally be brown in color and should have an "earthy" odor. 4.11.8.2 Maintain at least 2.0 mg/L (2.0 ppm) of dissolved oxygen under all conditions of loading in all parts of the aeration tanks except immediately beyond the inlet. Monitor the aeration basin dissolved oxygen level daily. A dark blackish color may indicate an anaerobic condition caused by low air. Increase the air to maintain the dissolved oxygen in the appropriate range. 4.11.8.3 Maintain sufficient velocity of movement and turbulence to bring sludge particles into intimate contact with all portions of the wastewater and to prevent deposition of solids on the tank bottom. 4.11.8.4 Inspect aeration system frequently to ensure the proper operation of blowers or mechanical aerators. Clean blower air filters regularly. Routinely check belt tensioning and alignment. Check equipment oil levels routinely and lubricate equipment as recommended by the original equipment manufacturer. Perform all other preventive maintenance as recommended by the original equipment manufacturer. 4.11.8.5 Monitor the aeration basin total suspended solids levels daily through

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either laboratory determination of total suspended solids, through monitoring the 30 minute settled sludge volume in a one liter graduated cylinder, or with the sludge volume index (SVI). A good operating rule of thumb is to maintain enough sludge in the aeration system to record 300500 mL for the 30-minute settled sludge volume with adjustment as necessary to cope with process upsets, presence of filamentous organisms, and other variations on a plant-by-plant basis. 4.11.8.6 Clean floating sludge and scum from the clarifier surface daily. Floating sludge can normally be forced to settle with a water spray. Scum may have to be removed manually with a net or other skimming device. Any materials removed from the surface should be placed in the plant digester or on drying beds for dewatering with ultimate disposal to an approved landfill. Check the functioning of the return sludge system to ensure it is functioning correctly. Take corrective action as required. Routinely check oil levels of the equipment and perform preventive maintenance as recommended by the original equipment manufacturer. 4.11.9 Rotating Biological Contactors (RBC): A rotating biological contactor consists of a series of closely spaced circular disks of polystyrene or polyvinyl chloride. The disks are partially submerged in wastewater and rotated slowly through it. All RBCs must be preceded by preliminary treatment to remove rags and other trash and primary treatment for the removal of solids and oils and greases. 4.11.9.1 Maintain preliminary and primary treatment units in good working order. 4.11.9.2 Observe and record the appearance of the biomass routinely. Note any unusual changes in the appearance of the biomass. 4.11.9.3 Monitor and record the dissolved oxygen concentration in the first stage routinely. Dissolved oxygen concentrations below 0.5 mg/L (0.5 ppm) in the first stage are an indicator that the facilities are overloaded. 4.11.9.4 Routinely perform all preventive maintenance as recommended by the original equipment manufacturer. Monitor the temperature of the contactor shaft bearings. Listen for unusual noises from all rotating equipment. Check lubricant levels in all rotating equipment. Ensure chain drives are well lubricated. Check belt drives for alignment and tensioning. 4.11.9.5 Clean floating sludge and scum from the clarifier surface daily. Floating sludge can normally be forced to settle with a water spray. Scum may have to be removed manually with a net or other skimming device. Any materials removed from the surface should be placed in the plant digester or on drying beds for dewatering with ultimate disposal to an approved landfill. Routinely check oil levels of the equipment and perform preventive maintenance as recommended by the original equipment manufacturer. 4.11.10 Aerobic Sludge Digestion: All sludge shall be stabilized prior to dewatering. A well digested sludge will drain rapidly, dry faster, and will not generate an obnoxious odor. Operation and maintenance of aerobic sludge digestors is similar to operation of activated sludge systems. 4.11.10.1 Ensure adequate and even distribution of air to provide oxygen for solids digestion and for solids mixing.

4.11.10.2 Maintain a minimum of 1.0 mg/L (1.0 ppm) dissolved oxygen in the digester.

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4.11.10.3 Concentrate digested sludge by turning off the air for approximately 4.0 hours prior to decanting supernatant back to the wastewater treatment system. 4.11.10.4 Ensure proper operation of upstream oil and grease removal equipment such as grease traps. Excessive levels of oil and grease levels in the wastewater can cause problems in the aerobic digester and in sludge drying beds. Oil and grease are oxidized slowly and can be concentrated in the digester. Too much oil and grease in digested sludge results in a sludge with poor dewatering characteristics and which is likely to generate odors as it dries. 4.11.11 Sludge Drying Beds: - Normal Operating Procedures: Sludge drying beds are a relatively simple method of sludge dewatering. Sludge dewatering is required prior to final disposal of digested sludge to an approved sanitary landfill. 4.11.11.1Start flow of liquid sludge into bed. Stop flow when the liquid is approximately 20 to 30 centimeters (8 to 12 inches) deep through out the bed. Do not apply new sludge on top of a layer of dry sludge. 4.11.11.2 Inspect the beds every few days noting any odors or insect problems. Remove any weed growth. 4.11.11.3 When sludge is dry (normally up to three weeks depending on weather and depth of sludge) remove the sludge taking care not to damage the sand and gravel layers. Remove as little sand with the sludge as possible. Sludge can be removed by shovel or forks at a moisture content of 60 to 70 percent, but if it is allowed to dry to 40 percent moisture, it will weigh only half as much and is still easy to handle. If the sludge gets too dry (10 to 20 percent moisture) it will be dusty and will be difficult to remove because it will crumble as it is removed. 4.11.11.4 After the sludge is removed, inspect the bed, rake the surface of the sand to level it and to remove any debris, and add make up sand if necessary. The bed is ready for the next application of sludge. 4.11.11.5 All sludge beds produce some odor when in operation; however, obnoxious odors are generally not a problem unless the sludge being dewatered is insufficiently stabilized or there are excessive levels of oil and grease in the system. Odor control should begin at the source. Inspect the digester to ensure a minimum dissolved oxygen concentration of 1.0 mg/L (1.0 ppm). Increase the aeration if necessary. Inspect the system for signs of excessive oil and grease such as grease balls in the aeration basin and ashing (small gray floating globules of grease) in the secondary clarifier. If grease is a problem, eliminate the source of oil and grease. If operational constraints prevent the elimination of the odors at the source, chemical masking agents may be sprayed at the sludge beds or the pH of the digester contents can be raised to 12 for three hours prior to disposal to the beds. Raising the pH to 12 with sodium hydroxide or hydrated lime should inhibit the biological reactions, which are responsible for producing the odors. 4.11.11.6 Flies may be a problem in certain areas and seasons and shall be controlled by destruction of breeding and use of traps and poisons. The fly may be controlled most effectively in the larva stage. Borax or calcium borate applied to the surface of the sludge will kill the larvae. Neither chemical is dangerous to man or to domestic animals. These chemicals

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can be sprinkled on the sludge, especially in the cracks of the drying cake. Other chemicals sometimes used are chloride of lime and sulfate of iron. The adult fly can be killed by spraying. Fly trapping is particularly suited for outdoor conditions. A satisfactory form of trap consists of a conical, gauzecovered structure leading into a larger space in which poisoned bait is placed. 4.12 Safety 4.12.1 General: 4.12.1.1 Adequate provision must be made to protect operators and visitors from hazards. A brief outline of some of the major safety considerations is given below. Contact the Loss Prevention Department regarding detailed requirements for gas piping, and safety features of chlorine installations. See also SAES-A-104, Wastewater Treatment, Reuse, and Disposal. 4.12.1.2. Wastewater discharges must be disinfected to meet the discharge standards as shown in MEPA, SAES-A-l03, SAES-A-104 and this document, as applicable. The hazards of disinfectants must be considered in the design. 4.12.1.3 Chlorination: Chlorination facilities shall be designed to provide at least 30 minutes at peak hourly flow. The contact structure may be a tank or a combination of tank and out fall sewer. The structure must be baffled to prevent short-circuiting. The chlorine feed equipment shall be oversized to meet emergency situations. Where other disinfection processes are proposed, the design report shall include evidence of successful disinfection under similar conditions. 4.12.2 Gas Chlorination Facilities 4.12.2.1 Detailed safety handling, storage instructions and procedures shall be included in all operation and maintenance manuals for plants using chlorine gas. 4.12.2.2 A chlorine gas detection system with alarm shall be provided in the vicinity of the gas storage cylinders. 4.12.2.3 A leakage test kit, consisting of ammonia, water and swab, or other acceptable chlorine detector, shall be provided in a clearly marked location. 4.12.2.4 At least one self contained, air type, breathing apparatus which provides a 30 minute air supply, such as manufactured by Scott Aviation Company, shall be provided and hung in a conspicuous place outside the chlorination room. Larger installations must also have several canister-type masks. Air packs shall be inspected regularly to ensure proper functioning. 4.12.2.5 A mechanism for flushing the eyes with potable water shall be in close proximity to the chlorination facility. Operation of the eyewash shall be by means of a push bar. 4.12.2.6 Gas chlorine cylinders shall be shielded from direct sunlight or from o o overheating above 60 C (140 F) from any source, either while in storage or in use. 4.12.2.7 Safety chains must be provided to hold the cylinders securely upright, both on the scales and in storage areas.

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4.12.2.8 Leak repair kits shall be provided for the type of gas cylinder used. Kits are available for 100 and 150 pound cylinders, one-ton cylinders, and tank cars. 4.12.2.9 Operator training shall be provided annually in the proper response actions to be followed in the event of an accidental chlorine leak. 4.12.2.10 Material Safety Data Sheets (MSDSs) or Chemical Hazard Bulletins (CHBs) shall be posted in a conspicuous location. 4.12.2.11 A separate house or room at or above ground level must be provided exclusively for chlorination purposes. If the chlorination space is a part of a larger building, the door of the chlorination area must open to the outside of the building and must be outward-opening. The door shall have a 30 by 30 centimeters (12 by 12 inches) one-light window to allow observance of conditions in the room prior to entering. 4.12.2.12 Sufficient ventilation shall be provided to allow one complete air change in the chlorination room every two minutes. The exhaust duct must take in air for exhausting within 30 centimeters (12 inches) of the floor level. A louvered fresh air intake must be provided to serve as a make-up air supply when the exhaust fan is operating. This intake shall be located in the ceiling or near ceiling level. The exhaust fan must be wired to automatically activate when the light is turned to the ON position. The light switch shall be located outside the room. As an additional safety factor, a pressure-type switch shall be located in the door to the chlorination room, which shall activate the exhaust fan automatically when the door is opened in case the operator fails to turn on the light switch. The exhaust outlet shall be directed away from the fresh air intake and away from other occupied areas. 4.12.3 Hypochlorination Systems 4.12.3.1 Detailed safety handling, storage instructions and procedures shall be included in all operation and maintenance manuals. 4.12.3.2 A safety shower with an eye wash mechanism for flushing the eyes with potable water shall be located in close proximity to the dosing facility. Operation of the eyewash shall be by means of a push bar. 4.12.3.3 Calcium hypochlorite and sodium hypochlorite are strong oxidants and must be stored safely in a cool and dry location. 4.12.3.4 Operator training shall be provided annually in the proper response actions to be followed in the event of an accidental hypochlorite spill. 4.12.3.5 Material Safety Data Sheets (MSDSs) or Chemical Hazard Bulletins (CHBs) shall be posted in a conspicuous location. 4.12.4 Lifesaving Buoys and Rescue Poles shall be provided adjacent to large bodies of wastewater. 4.12.5 Sanitary Facilities and Personal Hygiene: 4.12.5.1 Sanitary facilities shall be provided at all manned wastewater treatment plants per Section SASC-S-12 Places of employment. Ensure that:

Toilet facilities are clean and in good repair.

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Hand washing and shower facilities are clean and in good repair. For permanent plants with design flows greater than 1000 cubic meters per day (264,000 gpd), a separate changing/locker room or enclosure is provided and that it is kept clean and in good repair.

4.12.5.2 Employees at wastewater plants shall wear clean protective overalls, footwear and gloves as necessary. Employees must wash their hands regularly, particularly before smoking or eating.

SANITARY WASTEWATER EFFLUENT DISCHARGE & REUSE REQUIREMENTS 5.1 General Requirements 5.1.1 Toxic Wastes: The wastes discharged shall at no time contain substances in concentrations toxic to human, animal, plant or fish life. Objectionable Wastes: The wastes discharged shall not contain phenols, cresols, or any other substances in concentration sufficient to impart objectionable tastes, odors, or foaming to usable waters. Maximum Allowable Limits: The minimum effluent quality standards for sanitary wastewater discharges are presented in Table 3 (or the most recent revision of Meteorology and Environmental Protection Administration standards or the standards of the Yanbu or Jubail Royal Commission, depending upon the location of the discharge). Additional requirements for effluent reuse are presented in sub-section 5.2. EPD will monitor these standards on a monthly or quarterly basis, through effluent sample collection and analysis. Discharges of untreated wastewater to the land are not permitted. Discharges of treated wastewater to the land require written approval from the Manager, EPD. The Table 3 limits do not apply to wastewater treatment systems which discharge to properly designed, lined evaporation ponds and to onsite wastewater treatment systems. All exceptions to Table 3 requirements must receive approval from the Manager, EPD. Sanitary sewage from offshore facilities that is discharged more than 4 nautical miles from shore does not need to meet Table 3 requirements; it shall be comminuted and disinfected prior to discharge.

5.1.2

5.1.3

5.1.4

5.1.5

5.1.6

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TABLE 3 (1) - Effluent Discharge Limitations


Jubail Royal (3) Commission Limit Monthly Maximum Mean Yanbu Royal (4) Commission Limit Monthly Maximum Mean

Pollutant

(2)

MEPA Limit

Physical -Chemical Pollutants Floatable None pH Units 6-9 Total Suspended Solids (TSS) 15 mg/L (5) Temperature (6) Turbidity 75 NTU Dissolved Oxygen Salinity Non-Organic Pollutants Aluminum Ammonia (as N) Arsenic Barium Cadmium (7) Chlorine (residual) Chromium (total) Cobalt Copper Cyanide Fluoride Lead Manganese Mercury Nickel Phosphates (7) (total, as P) Sulfide Zinc Organic Pollutants Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD5) Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) Total Organic Carbon (TOC) Total Kjeldahl Nitrogen (TKN) Total Chlorinated Hydrocarbons (8) Oil & Grease Phenols Biological Pollutants Total Coliform mg/L (30 day mean) 1.0 0.1 0.02 0.5 0.1 0.2 0.05 0.1 0.001 0.2 1.0 1.0 mg/L 25 150 50 5 0.1 8 0.1
(9)

None 6-9 25 mg/L +10C 75 NTU 2.0 mg/L min. mg/L 25 3 0.5 2.0 0.05 2.0 1.0 2.0 0.5 0.1 25 0.5 1.0 0.005 0.5 2 0.1 5.0 mg/L 50 350 150 10 15 1.0 MPN/100 mL 2400

None 6-9 10 mg/L 50 NTU mg/L 15 1 0.1 1.0 0.01 0.5 0.1 0.1 0.2 0.05 15 0.1 0.2 0.001 0.2 1 0.05 2.0 mg/L 25 150 50 5 8 0.1 MPN/100 mL 1000

None 6-9 15 mg/L


(5)

None 6-9 8 mg/L


(5)

15 NTU 4 mg/L min. + 2 ppt mg/L 25 3 0.5 2 0.05 0.3 1 2 0.5 0.1 25 0.5 1 0.005 0.5 2.0 0.1 5 mg/L 30 200 150 5 0.5 10 0.5 MPN/100 mL 2400

8 NTU 5 mg/L min. + 1 ppt mg/L 15 1 0.1 1 0.01 <0.2 0.1 0.1 0.2 0.05 15 0.1 0.2 0.001 0.2 1.0 0.05 1 mg/L 15 75 50 2.5 2.5 8 0.1 MPN/100 mL 1000

MPN/100 mL 1000 (30-day geometric mean)

Notes: (1) Royal Commission Standards shall apply to Saudi Aramco facilities within the Royal Commission jurisdictions. SAES-A-103, Appendices I and II for Royal Commission boundary maps. (2) See SAES-A-103, Table B for analytical methods. (3) Limits taken from Engineering Manual, Jubail Royal Commission, 1988.

See

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(4) (5) (6) (7) (8) (9)

Limits taken from Environmental Protection Manual, Royal Commission for Jubail and Yanbu/Yanbu Project, Madinat Yanbu Al-Sinaiyah, 1991. To be determined on a case-by-case basis. Nephelometric Turbidity Units. Also to be determined on a case-by case basis in areas deemed by EED to be biologically sensitive. Not applicable for wastewater reuse applications or discharge into evaporation ponds. For Jubail R.C. area, this value should read Phosphorus reported as total P Not to exceed 15 mg/L in any individual discharge. Most probable number

5.1.7 5.1.8

Reuse of treated effluent requires written approval of the Manager, EPD. Appropriate advisory signs in Arabic and English shall be permanently posted at all reclaimed wastewater surface impoundments, storage tanks, irrigation areas, reclaimed water outlets, etc. All reclaimed wastewater lines and appurtenances shall be clearly marked as such.

5.1.9

5.1.10 To preclude interchange of hoses on potable and reclaimed water lines, where hose bibs are present on potable and reclaimed water lines, different size hose bibs shall be used. 5.1.11 Any potable water service connection shall be separated by an air gap of at least 15 cm (6 inches) and shall be approved by the Manager, EPD. 5.1.12 Tanker trucks used to haul reclaimed wastewater shall be clearly marked in Arabic and English that the water is sewage effluent and is unsafe for drinking or washing. 5.1.13 Reclaimed wastewater shall not be ponded without the written approval of the Manager, EPD, and other concerned Departments. 5.1.14 Irrigation of areas with unrestricted access to the public shall only be irrigated when the facilities would not be in use by the public, such as between 9 PM and 6 AM. 5.2 Requirements Applicable to Marine Discharges of Sanitary Wastewater Each installation shall be reviewed by EPD and other concerned organizations to determine the need for more restrictive discharge requirements than those specified in Table 3. This analysis will be based upon proximity to recreational waters or shellfish beds, quantity and quality of effluent to be discharged, depth of receiving waters, and distance from shoreline. These regulations apply to all installations discharging sanitary wastewater effluent into marine environments. Sanitary wastewater discharges shall be in accordance with the requirements of Table 3 and SAES-A-103, Marine Wastewater Discharge Standard and the most recent MEPA Environmental Protection Standards, and/or Standards of the Royal Commission. 5.2.1 Bacteriological Objectives for Recreational Waters: Recreational areas are marine areas specifically designated by Saudi Aramco or other authorities for water contact sports (swimming, diving, etc.) or other areas used for such purpose by the general public. Within these areas the following bacteriological objectives shall be maintained throughout the water column: Samples of water from each sampling station shall have a most probable number of coliform organisms less than l, 000 per 100 milliliters (10 per milliliter) provided that no more than 20 percent of the samples at any sampling station in any 30 day period exceed 1,000 per 100 milliliters (10 per milliliter), and provided further that no single sample, when verified by a repeat sample taken within 48 hours, shall exceed 10,000 per 100 milliliters (100 per milliliter). Bacteriological Objectives for Shellfish Areas: At all areas where shellfish may be harvested for human consumption, the following bacteriological objectives shall be

5.2.2

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maintained throughout the water column: The median total coliform concentration shall not exceed 70 per 100 milliliters, and not more than 10 percent of the samples shall exceed 230 per 100 milliliters. 5.2.3 Physical and Chemical Objectives for Water: The minimum effluent quality requirements for marine discharges of treated sanitary wastewater are listed in Table 3. In cases of conflict between SASC-S-02 and any other recognized Standard (MEPA, Royal Commission, SAES-A-103), the most restrictive standard shall apply. Principles for Management of Wastewater Discharges to Marine Environments: Wastewater management systems that discharge into the marine environments must be designed and operated in a manner that shall maintain the indigenous marine life and preserve a healthy and diverse marine community. 5.2.4.1 Dilution: Outfalls and diffusion systems must be designed to achieve rapid initial dilution and effective dispersion to minimize concentrations of substances not removed by treatment. Location of Discharges: The discharge locations must be determined after a detailed assessment of the oceanographic and biological characteristics of the location to assure that:

5.2.4

5.2.4.2


5.2.4.3

Pathogenic organisms and viruses are not present in areas where shellfish are harvested for human consumption or in areas used for swimming or other body-contact sports. Natural water quality conditions are not altered in areas designated as being of special biological significance. Maximum protection is provided to the marine environment.

Areas of Special Biological Significance: Waste shall be discharged a sufficient distance and depth from areas designated as being of special biological significance to assure maintenance of natural water quality conditions in those areas. Sludge: The discharge of municipal and industrial waste sludge or digester supernatant directly to the ocean without further treatment, is prohibited. Bypassing: The bypassing of untreated waste to the sea is prohibited. Sewer Outfalls: Body-contact sports or the harvesting of shellfish shall not be allowed in the vicinity of a sewer outfall. The restricted area shall be determined after extensive bacteriological and/or viral studies have been completed and reviewed by EPD.

5.2.4.4

5.2.4.5 5.2.4.6

5.3

Requirements Applicable to No-Discharge Systems for Sanitary Wastewater Wastewater discharged to lined evaporation ponds shall receive primary treatment in a facultative stabilization pond at a minimum and may be exempt from meeting some of the effluent quality requirements given in Table 3 of this sub-section. Exceptions to the Table I requirements may be granted on a case-by-case basis by the Manager, EPD. Wastewater treated in an existing sanitary wastewater treatment plant prior to discharge to the pond shall receive a minimum of secondary treatment. Stabilization pond sizing shall be per the requirements of SAES-A-104. The public health impacts of other methods of disposal will be evaluated on a case-specific basis.

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5.4

Reuse of Treated Wastewater 5.4.1 General 5.4.1.1 All sanitary wastewater reuse applications must be designed and installed as per SAES-A-104, Standard 13. Reuse of treated effluent requires written approval of the Manager, EPD.

5.4.1.2 5.4.2

Reuse of Treated Wastewater within Family Communities 5.4.2.1 Reuse practice within Saudi Aramco family communities includes spraybubbler and drip irrigation of unrestricted areas such as parks, playgrounds and landscape shrubbery and spray irrigation of restricted areas (spray fields). All wastewater to be used for irrigation in unrestricted areas shall be a welloxidized, tertiary treated effluent. Tertiary treatment shall mean effluent from a secondary treatment plant such as activated sludge, which has subsequently been coagulated, clarified, filtered and disinfected. All wastewater to be used for irrigation in restricted areas shall be a well oxidized, filtered, disinfected effluent. All restricted areas shall be provided with a Saudi Aramco Type V security fence with lockable gates. A minimum buffer zone of 2 times the diameter of the largest spray irrigation pattern shall be provided between the nearest spray gun and the perimeter fence. Bacteriological and Viral Quality: The total coliforms as determined by the Multiple Tube Fermentation Method (MPN) shall normally be less than 2.2 colonies per 100 ml. sample and shall not exceed 23 colonies per 100 ml. on any individual grab sample. Effluent to be reused for irrigation in unrestricted areas shall be free from enteric viruses. Facility effluent will be sampled and analyzed on a random basis, at the discretion of EPD, to ensure compliance with the enteric virus standard. Residual Chlorine Concentration: A total chlorine residual of at least 0.50 mg/L (0.5 ppm) shall be maintained in all parts of the irrigation system at all times. Effluent Water Quality For Unrestricted Areas: Effluent to be reused, as irrigation water in unrestricted areas shall meet the requirements in subsection 5.1.3 except as noted below: BOD5 < 10 mg/L TSS < 5 mg/L Turbidity < 2.5 NTU 30 Day Avg/ 5.0 NTU Maximum Daily Effluent Water Quality For Restricted Areas: Effluent to be reused as irrigation water in restricted, spray irrigation areas, shall meet the requirements of sub-section 5.1.3 except as noted below:

5.4.2.2

5.4.2.3

5.4.2.4

5.4.2.5

5.4.2.6

5.4.2.7

BOD5 < 20 mg/L TSS < 15 mg/L Turbidity < 10 NTU 30 - Day Avg/ 15 NTU Maximum Daily

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5.4.2.8

Special Effluent Monitoring Requirements: Wastewater treatment plants producing effluent to be reused within family communities shall be equipped with a continuous recording turbidimeter and a continuous recording residual chlorine analyzer. Minimum effluent monitoring frequencies for other parameters are as indicated in Table 4. Records for turbidity and residual chlorine shall be provided upon request to EPD. Records for other parameters shall be available for review at the treatment plant.

TABLE 4 Minimum Monitoring Requirements for Facilities Producing Reclaimed Wastewater in Family and Non-Family Communities Parameter Frequency Effluent BOD Effluent COD Effluent TSS Effluent TKN Effluent NH3 5.4.3 3 x / Week 1 x / Week Daily 1 x / Week 1x / Week

Reuse of Treated Wastewater in Non-Family Communities, Camps and Industrial Areas 5.4.3.1 These requirements apply to the reuse of wastewater for irrigation of landscape shrubbery, plants, grasses, and trees within all non-family, residential and industrial areas and camps. All wastewater to be used for irrigation in work camps and non-family communities and other restricted areas shall be a well-oxidized, tertiary treated effluent as described in sub-section 5.4.2 of this Code Section. Bacteriological and Viral Quality: The total coliforms as determined by the Multiple Tube Fermentation Method (MPN) shall normally be less than 2.2 colonies per 100 ml. sample and shall not exceed 23 colonies per 100 ml. on any individual grab sample. Effluent to be reused for irrigation in non-family communities, work camps and industrial areas shall be free from enteric viruses. Facility effluent will be sampled and analyzed on a random basis, at the discretion of EPD, to ensure compliance with the enteric virus standard. Residual Chlorine Concentration: A total chlorine residual of at least 0.50 mg/L (0.5 ppm) shall be maintained in all parts of the irrigation system at all times. Effluent Water Quality: Effluent to be reused as irrigation water in unrestricted areas in non family camps and industrial areas shall meet the requirements in Table 3 except as noted below: BOD5 < 10 mg/L Maximum Day TSS < 15 mg/L Maximum Day Turbidity < 10 NTU Maximum

5.4.3.2

5.4.3.3

5.4.3.4

5.4.3.5

DISPOSAL / REUSE OF SANITARY WASTEWATER SLUDGE & ASSOCIATED WASTES 6.1 Sanitary Wastewater - Sludge 6.1.1 Sanitary wastewater sludge shall be stabilized (aerobic digestion) prior to drying in

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sludge drying beds. Dried sludge shall be disposed in an approved sanitary landfill designed as per SAES-S-007 and operated as per SASC-S-03. 6.1.2 Because of the nature and public health risks of the material, dried sludge from wastewater treatment plants may only be reused with the specific written permission of EPD. Each application shall be reviewed on an individual basis. The following regulations shall apply, if permission is granted. 6.1.2.1 6.1.2.2 6.1.2.3 6.1.2.4 6.1.2.5 The sludge must be well mixed with sand at the time of using. There must be a cover layer of 12 to 18 centimeters (4.8 to 7.2 inches) of sand over the mixed sludge. The sludge must not be stored where it is readily accessible to the public. The sludge must not be stockpiled for periods of more than 24 hours. Persons handling sludge shall wash their hands frequently, particularly before smoking or eating. Liaison with wastewater works supervisors on points and times of collection of the sludge must be undertaken.

6.1.2.6

6.2

Sanitary Wastewater - Grit & Screenings Screenings and grit shall be washed, dried, bagged (or stored in a covered container) and disposed in an approved sanitary landfill designed as per SAES-S-007.

6.3

Sanitary Wastewater - Oil & Grease Oil & Grease collected in a sanitary wastewater treatment system shall be disposed in an approved landfill designed as per SAES-S-007.

6.4

Septage / Portable Toilet Waste Septage and portable toilet wastes shall be disposed at an approved wastewater treatment system.

PUBLIC TOILETS 7.1 Permanent Public Toilets The plumbing fixtures, piping, and the required number of fixtures shall be in accordance with SAES-S-060. The building shall be fly-tight, easily cleanable, with the floors sloped to the drain. Plugged toilets, wash basins, and defective flush tanks shall be immediately serviced and maintained in good operating condition at all times. The facilities shall be cleaned daily or as often as necessary.

7.2

Temporary Public Toilets 7.2.1 Temporary public toilets (temporary hammams) shall be used for a period not exceeding 90 days. After that time period a water carriage disposal system shall be installed unless the Manager, EPD, authorizes a waiver of the time period in writing. The only type of temporary public toilet that will be considered for use is the purposebuilt, portable chemical toilet that is provided by a contractor who specializes in the maintenance and services of portable chemical toilets. Depending on the circumstances, the Manager, EPD, may approve the use of portable chemical toilets

7.2.2

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owned by Saudi Aramco if the toilets will be maintained and serviced by a contractor who has the specialized equipment and trained personnel required to perform the work in a safe and sanitary manner. 7.2.2.1 Purpose-built, portable chemical toilets shall be designed and constructed such that the enclosure is structurally safe, screened, has easily cleanable floors and walls, and is adequately ventilated. The walls, floors and all fittings shall be made of nonabsorbent, smooth, easily cleanable materials, such as fiberglass or stainless steel. 7.2.2.2 Purpose-built, portable chemical toilets shall be thoroughly cleaned at least once daily. The holding tank shall be emptied and serviced at least once weekly, or as often as is necessary to ensure that the capacity of the tank is never exceeded. 7.2.3 In emergency situations in remote locations (i.e. major pipeline leak requiring a large number of employees in a remote area), EPD may approve the use of properly constructed and operated field-type toilets until proper portable toilets can be delivered to the site.

INDUSTRIAL WASTE / WASTEWATER TREATMENT & DISPOSAL 8.1 General 8.1.1 All industrial Wastewater Treatment Plants shall be operated in accordance with the latest approved industrial standards related to the facility. This Section applies to wastewater disposal systems that discharge to ponds, injection wells and marine waters. Wastewater disposal to absorption trenches, seepage pits and evapotranspiration wastewater disposal fields are covered in sub-section 4.3. The Manager, EPD, shall approve any discharge of wastewater to ponds or marine waters. The Manager, EPD, with concurrence of the Chief Hydrologist; General Supervisor, Facilities & Projects, PE&FOD; shall approve any discharge of wastewater to injection wells. Industrial wastewater treatment plants shall be sampled per the instructions shown on Table 5 of this document. 8.1.2 Industrial wastewater shall be treated in a process that will achieve the discharge limits shown in Table 3 of this document. 8.1.3 No discharge of an oil-based drilling fluid is allowed. Other discharges shall comply with Table 3 requirements except as allowed in SAES-A-103.

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TABLE 5. Wastewater monitoring frequency Seawater Parameter Gas Plant Treatment Discharges Plant Discharges Flow rate D Temperature D D Turbidity D pH D D O&G M TSS M M BOD M COD M TOC M M TKN M Phenols M NH3N M C12 M Cadmium Chromium Copper Lead Zinc Sulfite PO4-P Total Coliform M

Refinery Discharges D D D D D M M M M M M

Terminal Discharges D D D D D M M M M M M

Cooling Water Discharges D D D W

Sanitary Discharges D M M M M M M M M M

M M M M M M M

M M M M M M M

M Y Y Y Y Y

M M

8.1.4

Exceptions to the Table 3 requirements may be granted on a case-by-case basis for industrial wastewater that is discharged into an evaporation pond that meets the design requirements of Standard 14.2 of SAES-A-104. Wastewater disposal to an injection well must be approved on a case-bycase basis. EPD shall be contacted for guidance on the actions necessary to obtain approval. Off-site disposal of industrial wastewater must be approved. It shall be transported and treated by an approved carrier and facility, respectively. Manifest records shall be kept to assure that the waste arrives at the intended waste disposal facilities. Discharges to the land are not permitted unless written approval is obtained. Industrial wastewater shall not be discharged into a sanitary sewer system without prior approval.

8.1.5

8.1.6

8.1.7 8.1.8

8.1.9 The discharge of untreated wastewater is prohibited, except for high TDS wastewater meeting Table 1 of SAES-A-104 requirements, hydrotest water disposed of per GI-432.000, and injected wastewater when approved by the appropriate organizations. 8.1.10 Dilution of a wastewater discharge shall not be used to meet effluent discharge limitations.

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8.2

Hydrotest Water SAEP-327, Disposal of Wastewater from Cleaning, Flushing, and Hydrostatic Tests controls the management of hydrotest water. Oily Waste / Wastewater Oily waste shall be characterized through chemical analysis for total oil and grease, lead and other heavy metals (e.g., cadmium, chromium, etc.) prior to disposal. Mixing of leaded and non-leaded oily wastes is not permitted. 8.3.1 Non-Leaded Oily Sludge: Non-leaded oily sludge contains less than 100 mg/kg of total lead or less than 5 mg/L of TCLP lead. 8.3.1.1 Collection and Transport: These wastes shall be collected and transported in such a manner to ensure that no leakage or spillage takes place during collection and transportation activities. Oily sludges shall be transported in tanker trucks, vacuum trucks, dump trucks or drums. The waste manifest in GI 430.001 (Standard 6) shall be utilized for all waste shipments. Storage: Oily sludges shall be disposed of immediately after generation. If logistics prevent the immediate transport to disposal facilities, storage is allowed for a maximum of 90 days. Storage is allowed in containers such as drums, tanks, lined pits, and lined ponds (as per SAES-A-104 Standard 7.1.4). Above ground storage requires spill containment. Treatment: As much as is economically feasible, oil shall be recovered from non-leaded oily sludges and wastewaters. For this purpose, readily available and cost effective technologies, such as gravity separation and centrifugation, shall be utilized. Disposal: Oily sludge shall only be disposed of at an approved oily waste landfarm that has been designed as per SAES-A-104 Standard 11.5. Disposal of oily sludge requires advanced coordination with the disposal facilities. To avoid unnecessary storage of oily sludge, facilities shall contact disposal sites at least 30 days prior to shipment.

8.3

8.3.1.2

8.3.1.3

8.3.1.4

8.3.2

Non-Leaded Oily Water: Non-leaded oily water contains less than 100 mg/L of total lead or less than 5 mg/L of TCLP lead. 8.3.2.1 Collection and Transport: Oily water shall be collected and transported in such a manner to ensure that no leakage or spillage takes place during collection and transportation activities. Oily water shall be transported in tanker trucks or vacuum trucks. The waste manifest requirements in GI 430.001 (Stqandard6) shall be followed. Treatment: Oily water shall be treated to minimize oil content and to maximize recovery of oil prior to disposal. Oil removal shall be accomplished through the use of a gravity oil/water separator designed as per SAES-A-104, Standard 4.4.1.1, or by other approved methods. If the final discharge of the oily water is to the marine environment, the treatment system must achieve effluent oil and grease content less than 8 mg/L. Disposal: After treatment, recovered oil shall be recycled (e.g. slop system, blending with crude, refining). Treated oily water shall be sent for final disposal to an approved evaporation pond, landfarm, injection well, or marine outfall.

8.3.2.2

8.3.2.3

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8.3.3

Leaded Oily Waste / Sludge (TEL tank wastes, gasoline tank sludge and any oily wastes that contain lead concentrations in excess of 100 mg/kg total lead are defined as leaded oily wastes.) Leaded oily waste poses serious health hazards and has adverse environmental impacts if not handled properly. Special precautions must be taken during cleanup, collection, transportation, treatment and disposal operations. EPD and Loss Prevention Department should be contacted to advise on proper precautionary measures.
Note: If a waste contains over 100-mg/kg total lead and the TCLP derived lead concentration is less than 5 mg/L, the waste shall be disposed of at an approved landfarm.

8.3.3.1

Leaded sludges and oily wastewaters from TEL storage vessels must be disposed of at an approved incineration facility. Other leaded oily sludge shall be managed according to the following: Collection and Transport: Leaded oily sludge shall be collected and transported in such a manner to ensure that no leakage or spillage takes place during collection and transportation activities. Containers used during collection and transportation shall be limited to sealed drums, vacuum trucks and closed tanker trucks. Storage: Storage of leaded sludge is not permitted. If logistics prevent the immediate transport to disposal facilities, short-term storage is permitted with the approval of EPD. Leaded sludge shall be transported to an approved disposal facility. Treatment: Leaded sludge shall be treated in an approved leaded waste weathering area designed as per SAES-A-104, Standard 11.5.1.8. Disposal: Treated leaded sludge shall be collected and either be disposed of at an approved landfarm or a Class I Landfill. EPD shall determine the proper disposal method based on the lead and oil content.

8.3.3.2

8.3.3.3

8.3.3.4

8.3.3.5

8.3.4

Leaded Oily Water 8.3.4.1 Collection and Transport: Leaded oily water shall be collected and transported in such a manner to ensure that no leakage or spillage takes place during collection and transportation activities. Containers used during collection and transportation shall be limited to sealed drums, vacuum trucks and closed tanker trucks. Treatment: Leaded oily water shall be treated to recover product prior to final disposal of the wastewater. Product recovery is accomplished through the use of a gravity oil/water separator designed as per SAES-A-104, Standard 4.4.1.1, or by other approved methods. If simple oil/water separation does not provide sufficient treatment to eliminate floating oil in evaporation ponds, the ponds must be designed to provide additional treatment (SAES-A-104 Standard 7.1.2) and oil removal equipment (e.g. floating booms, skimmers) must be provided for the ponds. Disposal: The wastewater from the separator shall be disposed of in an approved evaporation pond (designed as per SAES-A-104, Standard 14.2) or disposed at an approved incineration facility.

8.3.4.2

8.3.4.3

8.3.5

Other Industrial Waste For any industrial wastewater or mixture of wastes not mentioned in this Section, or

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in the event of incidents involving wastes, EPD shall be contacted for advice. 8.4 Industrial Wastewater Discharges 8.4.1 Discharges to Marine Environment from Onshore Facilities: Industrial wastewater shall be treated in a process that will achieve the discharge limits shown in Table 3. Discharges to Marine Environment from Offshore Facilities: No discharge of an oil-based drilling fluid is allowed. Other marine discharges shall comply with Table 3 requirements, except as allowed in SAES-A-103. 8.4.2.1 Land-based wastewater treatment systems with discharges into the marine environment shall be designed to meet the discharge standards in SAESA-103 and the most recent MEPA Environmental Protection Standards and/or Royal Commission Standards, whichever are applicable. The location of a discharge into the marine environment shall be located at a distance from shore such that proper mixing can take place. Effluent diffusers shall be used to provide for rapid mixing of the wastewater discharge. Manager EPD, may add additional restrictions if the discharge will be located in an area of special biological significance

8.4.2

8.4.2.2

.
8.4.3 Discharges to an Evaporation Pond: Exceptions to the Table 3 requirements may be granted by EPD on a case-by-case basis for industrial wastewater that is discharged into an evaporation pond that meets the design requirements of Standard 14.2 of SAES-A-104. 8.4.3.1 A minimum of one upgradient and two downgradient groundwater monitoring wells shall be installed around disposal ponds unless otherwise approved by the General Supervisor, EED. The quality of the effluent discharged from wastewater treatment plants into lined evaporation ponds shall comply with the criteria set in Table 1 of SAES-A-104 and shall at no time contain substances in concentrations toxic to human, animal, plant or fish life. Sanitary wastewater discharges that have been treated in a properly designed and operated facultative stabilization pond may be discharged into an evaporation pond without meeting all of the Table 1 requirements. The Manager, EPD, may grant exceptions to the requirements on a case-by-case basis. Evaporation ponds shall be sized to maintain a minimum depth of 0.75 meters and a minimum freeboard of 0.6 meters, based on minimum and maximum operating depths. Multiple ponds in a series configuration may be used to maintain this minimum depth. The pond embankment walls shall be compacted thoroughly and compaction details shall be included in the construction specifications. The interior and exterior slopes of the embankment wall shall not be steeper than 1 meter vertical for every 3 meters horizontal. Systems to protect embankment walls from wave action shall be provided. The pond's drainage system shall be designed to exclude surface water from all ponds. The pond design shall provide access areas for truck traffic and the

8.4.3.2

8.4.3.3

8.4.3.4

8.4.3.5 8.4.3.6

8.4.3.7

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removal of weeds around the pond. These areas shall be cleared and maintained for a distance of at least 5 meters from the outside edge of the pond embankment walls. This requirement shall be included in the Operating and Maintenance Manual. 8.4.3.8 The use of multiple cells in pond systems is required when the ponds have an area of 6300 square meters (6 acres) or more. The design of the ponds or cells shall allow operational flexibility, permitting parallel or series operation and allowing one or more of the ponds or cells to be taken out of service without affecting the operation of the remaining ponds. Ponds shall be surrounded with a Type V fence, as specified SAES-M-006

8.4.3.9

8.4.3.10 Evaporation ponds for the disposal of treated effluent shall have a 30-mil high-density polyethylene liner or, if compatible with the effluent, may be lined with 0.5 meters of compacted marl (with a permeability of 1x10-5 cm/sec or less). The Manager EPD may make exemptions to these lining requirements. 8.4.4 Discharges to an Injection Well: Wastewater disposal to an injection well must be approved on a case-by-case basis. EPD shall be contacted for guidance on the actions necessary to obtain approval.

8.4.4.1

An Injection Well Proposal shall be prepared and submitted with the Preliminary Engineering Report prior to approval of an injection well for wastewater disposal. After approval of the Preliminary Engineering Report and Injection Well Proposal, a Detailed Engineering Report shall be prepared covering the treatment system details. Injected wastewater shall meet the quality requirements specified on a case-by-case basis by the Manager, EPD, with concurrence of the Chief Hydrologist. Produced water (and desalter water) may be injected into any reservoir from which hydrocarbons are produced without approval. Produced water (and desalter water) may be injected into any formation containing groundwater exceeding 40,000 mg/L total dissolved solids (TDS) with the approval of the General Supervisor, EED and concurrence of the Chief Hydrologist. All engineering reports are required for the injection of produced water (and desalter water) into any formation containing groundwater having less than 40,000 mg/L TDS with the approval of the Manager, EPD, and the concurrence of the Chief Hydrologist.

8.4.4.2

8.4.4.3

8.4.4.4

8.4.4.5

8.4.4.6

8.4.5

Discharges to an Off-Site Facility: Off-site disposal of industrial wastewater must be approved by EPD. It shall be transported and treated by an approved carrier and facility, respectively. Manifest records shall be kept to assure that the waste arrives at the intended waste disposal facilities. Discharges to Land Areas: Discharges to the land are not permitted unless written approval is obtained from EPD.

8.4.6

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Sanitary wastewater and sewerage systems SASC-S-02

8.4.7

Discharges to Sanitary Sewers: Industrial wastewater shall not be discharged into a sanitary sewer system without prior approval from EPD and applicable treatment system operator.

RESPONSIBILITIES 9.1 Wastewater Generators 9.1.1 Contracts for treatment, transportation and disposal of sanitary and industrial wastewater shall be separate from all other general service contracts. All contracts for wastewater disposal shall be prepared by the waste generator, in conjunction with the Contracting Department, reviewed by EPD and procured by the Contracting Department (for long form contracts) or waste generator according to established Saudi Aramco Contracting Manual Policies and Procedures. Waste generators shall contact EPD to obtain a list of all approved company and private contractors wastewater disposal facilities, (e.g. wastewater treatment plants, evaporation ponds, incinerators, landfarms, weathering areas, etc.). Prior to awarding any wastewater hauling contract, proponents and/or Contracting Department shall, in consultation with EPD, ensure that:

9.1.2

9.1.3


9.1.4

The terms and conditions of the contract comply with applicable Saudi Aramco standards and requirements. An approved wastewater treatment facility has agreed to accept the wastewater (in writing). The hauling contractor is capable of executing the contractual terms/conditions The hauling manifest is utilized by the hauling contractor and the receiving facility.

Waste generators are responsible for managing and budgeting funds associated with wastewater treatment and disposal.

9.2

EPD 9.2.1 Provide environmental consulting and technical services to all Company organizations that generate wastes. This includes services and studies in the areas of wastewater, air emissions, solid and hazardous waste disposal, and groundwater monitoring. Survey contractors facilities to ensure compliance with all pertinent environmental regulations and standards. Advise Corporate Management and all Company organizations on waste issues affecting the environment and occupational health.

9.2.2

9.2.3

9.3

Loss Prevention Department 9.3.1 Assist Company organizations in identifying and resolving safety issues associated with waste generation, handling, and disposal. As the Responsible Standardization Agent for Class-21 safety materials, assist proponents in determining appropriate personal protective equipment, labels, and signs.

9.3.2

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Sanitary wastewater and sewerage systems SASC-S-02

9.4

Material Supply/Storehouse Operations Storehouse Operations (SO) is the company contact point for handling of redundant, spent, and expired chemicals. The HMA or designate approves the disposition of these chemicals sent to SOs reclamation facilities.

9.5

Lab Research & Development Center Provide specialized technical service support for air, ground and surface water quality assessment and hazardous waste characterization.

10

WASTE MANIFEST FORM A waste manifest form (Attachment III of G.I. 430.001) shall be used to track the generation, transport, treatment, and final disposal of all wastewater and waste covered by this Section. The form is available at all Stationery Units

REFERENCES: 1. APHA, AWWA and WPCF: Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater, Edition 19, 1995. 2. Environmental Protection Standards, Document No 1401-01/1402H, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, Meteorology and Environmental Protection Administration 3. Saudi Aramco Sanitary Code 1996 4. Saudi Aramco Engineering Standards 5. Sludge handling and conditioning operations manual United States Environmental Protection Agency, 1978 6. U.S. Department of Health, Education and Welfare Manual of Septic Tank Practice, 1972 7. Irrigation with reclaimed Municipal Wastewater- a guidance Manual California State Water Resources Control Board, 1984

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Solid Waste Management, SASC-S-03

SASC-S-03 SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT

Inadequate solid waste collection, storage and disposal practices are a nuisance, hazardous to health and they adversely impact the environment. This Section specifies the public health requirements, limitations and procedures pertinent to treatment, storage, collection, transportation and disposal of solid waste. Compliance with these requirements will protect the public health and welfare while preserving the quality of the air, water and land. NOTE: All sub-sections should be read in conjunction with appropriate referenced documents listed at the end of this Code Section and Saudi Aramco Engineering Standard SAES-S-007. DEFINITIONS: Composting: Controlled microbial degradation of organic waste yielding a nuisance-free product of potential value as a soil conditioner. Cover Material: Granular material, generally soil that is used to cover compacted solid waste in a sanitary landfill, generally free of large objects that would hinder compaction and free of organic content that would be conducive to vector harborage, feeding and/or breeding. Hazardous Solid Waste; Solid waste that may, by itself or in combination with other solid waste, be infectious, explosive, poisonous, highly flammable, caustic, toxic, or otherwise dangerous or injurious to human, plant or animal life. Incinerator: Any device used for the burning of refuse where the factors of combustion, i.e. temperature, retention time, turbulence; and combustion air, can be controlled. Landfill Gas: A by-product of the digestion by microorganisms of putrescible matter present in the waste deposited in landfill sites. The gas is predominantly methane (64%) together with carbon dioxide (34%) and trace concentrations of vapors and other gases. Landfill, sanitary: (1) A method of disposing of refuse on land without creating nuisances or hazards to public health or safety, by utilizing the principles of engineering to confine the refuse to the smallest practical area, to reduce it to the smallest practical volume, and to cover it with a layer of earth at the conclusion of each days operation or at such more frequent intervals as may be necessary. (ASCE definition). (2) A sanitary landfill is a system for final disposal of solid waste on land, in which the waste is spread and compacted on an inclined, minimized working face in a series of cells and a daily cover of earth is provided so that no hazard or insult to the environment results. Leachate: The result of liquid seeping through a landfill and, by doing so extracting substances from the deposited waste. Lower Explosive Limit (LEL): The lower percentage by volume of a mixture of explosive gases in air that will propagate a flame at 25C at atmospheric pressure. Modified landfill: The disposal of solid waste by compaction in or upon the land and the covering of all wastes deposited with earth or other approved cover material at specific designated intervals, but not each operating day. Open burning: Uncontrolled burning of wastes in the open or in an open dump. Scavenging: The uncontrolled picking of materials by animals or humans. Sludge: Means any solid, semi-solid or liquid waste generated from a municipal commercial or industrial wastewater treatment plant or air pollution control facility exclusive of the treated effluent from a wastewater treatment plant. 71
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Solid Waste Management, SASC-S-03

Solid waste: Means any garbage, or refuse, or sludge from a wastewater treatment plant, water supply treatment plant, or air pollution control facility and other discarded material including solid, liquid, semi-solid or contained gaseous material resulting from commercial, mining and agricultural operations, and from community activities but does not include solid or dissolved materials in irrigation return flows, or regulated hazardous materials. 1 DETAILED PLANS AND SPECIFICATIONS Before a new treatment facility/disposal site is established, constructed or operated, and before an existing site is substantially altered, expanded or modified, the proponent shall submit all data and reports required by SAES-S-007 together with a detailed operating plan and timetable for implementation to the Environmental Protection Department (EPD) for review, concurrence and approval. The operating plan shall include the proposed method and sequence of site development, utilization and operation, procedures for monitoring and reporting any environmental effects resulting there from and address the design criteria specified by SAES-S-007. The design study shall address the provision of composite liners, leachate collection and gas management systems in Class I and II landfill sites. 2 REQUIRED APPROVALS 2.1 The proponent shall receive written approval for the site study and operating plan from EPD before beginning construction, modification or operation of a treatment facility/disposal site. The proponent shall ensure that the approved plans and specifications, including any conditions or limitations attached thereto, are implemented. EPD, on application, may approve a variance, of any requirements of this Code Section, when circumstances at the treatment facility/ disposal site, operating procedures or other condition indicate that the purpose and intent of this Code Section can be achieved through equally effective methods that do not adversely impact public health or the environment. Waivers to any engineering standards must be reviewed and concurred by Manager, EPD for any public health related issues.

2.2

SUPERVISION OF SITES Every landfill, incinerator, composting plant and other solid waste processing and disposal facility shall be operated under the close supervision of a responsible individual who is thoroughly familiar with the established operating procedures, including a) the types of wastes that are approved for disposal in the facility; b) the individuals/agencies authorized to deposit waste in the facility; c) air, dust, flood, noise, vermin, landfill gas and water control concepts and methods; d) the flow and processing of waste from receipt to final disposition; e) keeping of records; and f) site safety and general sanitation.

REQUIRED RECORDS FOR SITES 4.1 EPD may require such records and reports as are considered to be reasonably necessary to ensure compliance with this Code Section. Waste Manifests specified by GI 430.001 must be retained at the waste disposal/treatment facility for inspection by EPD. An operating record stating the quantity of each waste delivery must be maintained by every incineration plant and waste treatment facility. Combustion conditions, waste analyses, monitoring and testing carried out must be logged daily. Records must be available for inspection by EPD.

4.2

4.3

4.4

STORAGE AND COLLECTION 72


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Solid Waste Management, SASC-S-03

5.1

Storage and collection of waste shall be conducted in a way that prevents a) vermin breeding and harborage; b) conditions conducive to transmission of disease to man or animals; c) hazards to workers, users and the public; d) air, noise and water pollution; e) objectionable odors, dust, unsightliness and nuisance conditions, f) corrosion or wear of storage containers, and g) accidental spillage or leakage during storage or transport. Hazardous wastes shall be disposed of in accordance with the Materials Supply Organization Instruction, CU 13.1 Processing of Hazardous Material.

5.2

STORAGE, COLLECTION AND TRANSFER DEVICES AND VEHICLES 6.1 The containment compartment of storage, collection and transfer devices and vehicles shall be made of durable, impervious materials and shall be designed to provide a watertight tank with smooth and easily cleanable surfaces. The containment compartment and appurtenances thereto shall be cleaned at least once weekly to prevent propagation of odors, insects, rodents or other nuisance conditions (more often if necessary). Storage, collection and transfer devices and vehicles shall be loaded and operated so as to prevent dropping, leaking, sifting, blowing or other escape of waste from the device or vehicle. Storage containers shall be covered when not in immediate use. Collection and transfer devices and vehicles carrying loads that are likely to blow from the containment compartment shall have a cover which is either an integral part of the device or vehicle, or which is a separate cover of suitable material with fasteners designed to secure all sides of the cover to the device or vehicle. The cover shall be used while in transit.

6.2

6.3

FACILITIES FOR CLEANING STORAGE, COLLECTION AND TRANSFER DEVICES AND VEHICLES 7.1 If storage, collection and transfer devices and vehicles are cleaned on the site after they are emptied, the following minimum facilities shall be provided: a) live steam or hot water delivered at a minimum pressure of at least 1.4 kilograms per square centimeter (20 pounds per square inch) with a minimum flow of at least 3.8 liters per minute (1 gallon per minute); and b) a floor or pavement constructed of a smooth, easily cleanable, non-absorbent material, such as sealed concrete, which is properly sloped to a holding basin or disposal system that complies with requirements outlined in SAES-A-104. Storage, collection, transfer equipment and vehicles that are used for toxic or hazardous waste, shall not be used for ordinary solid waste.

7.2

CONTROL OF DRAINAGE AND RUNOFF FROM SITES 8.1 All disposal sites, e.g. sanitary landfills, incinerators, composting plants and sludge disposal sites, shall be designed, located, sloped or protected so that rainfall, contaminated surface water run-off and other surface water drainage will be diverted around or away from the operational area of the site. Any water which, comes into contact with waste, is leachate and shall be collected and treated in the manner specified in paragraph 9 below. The surface contours of the site shall be maintained such that surface water runoff will not flow into or through the site. Sanitary landfills, sludge disposal sites and composting plants that may be subject to flooding shall, be protected by dikes that are impervious to the passage of water and are designed to prevent erosion and washout of operational and disposal areas of the site.

8.2

8.3

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Solid Waste Management, SASC-S-03

CONTROL OF LEACHATE Leachate production shall be minimized. If there is any likelihood or evidence to indicate that leachate will pollute groundwater or the environment, then leachate shall be collected, treated or otherwise controlled in a manner approved by EPD

10

RESTRICTIONS ASSOCIATED WITH GROUNDWATER 10.1 The vertical distance between the bottom of a sanitary landfill, composting site or sludge disposal site and the maximum water table elevation shall be restricted to a distance that prevents leachate from entering the groundwater. Wastes that will decompose shall not be deposited in areas of the disposal site that are directly or indirectly connected with the restricted groundwater zone. Uncontaminated rock, dirt, brick, concrete rubble and similar materials that will not decompose may be placed in the restricted groundwater zone.

10.2

11

MONITORING WELLS 11.1 To properly assess compliance with approved plans and conditions of operation, EPD may require monitoring wells to be installed at the boundaries of waste disposal sites, including sanitary landfills, composting plants and sludge disposal sites, to monitor the effect of the disposal process on usable groundwater resources and detect gas migration from landfill sites. Monitoring wells shall be designed and operated to detect the movement of groundwater and gas migration. If not equipped with continuous monitoring equipment, monitoring wells must be constructed in a manner to facilitate the ready collection of samples. EPD may require monitoring for explosive gases at least quarterly. Records must be maintained of all gas measurements. If the gas level exceeds 25% of the lower explosive limit (LEL) the operator must immediately notify EPD.

11.2

11.3

12

ACCESS ROADS All-weather roads shall be provided from the highway to the disposal sites, as well as within the disposal site. Roads shall be designed and maintained to prevent traffic congestion, traffic hazards, dust and noise pollution.

13

FENCING 13.1 Access to a sanitary landfill that is not attended on a twenty-four hour per day basis shall be controlled by means of lockable gates. The site shall be completely enclosed by a perimeter fence, unless, access is adequately controlled by the natural terrain features of the site. Access to an incinerator, composting plant, and sludge disposal site shall be controlled by means of a complete perimeter fence and lockable gates.

13.2

14

SCREENING As far as is practicable, the active waste disposal site shall be screened or blocked from public view.

15

FIRE PROTECTION AND CONTROL 15.1 Fire protection shall be provided in accordance with design and operating plans approved by the Chief Fire Prevention Engineer. 74
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Solid Waste Management, SASC-S-03

15.2

All reasonable precautions, such as segregation of combustible wastes and early removal of hot spots", shall be taken to prevent accidental ignition or spontaneous combustion of waste at a sanitary landfill. Hot or burning materials, or any materials likely to cause a fire, shall be deposited temporarily at a safe distance from the fill area and shall not be included in the landfill operation until the fire hazard is eliminated.

Where necessary and practicable, a pressurized fire water system and appropriate fire fighting equipment shall be provided at the site. If not practicable, a supply of water provided in fire water drums equipped with appropriate buckets, a stockpile of earth or other means recommended by the Chief Fire Prevention Engineer shall be available to extinguish such fires as may occur. The use of mechanical equipment such as a bulldozer may be utilized for such purposes, providing that machinery is operated in a safe manner by person(s) qualified and trained in the use of such equipment. 15.4 15.5 Open burning of waste at a sanitary landfill site is prohibited. Immediate action shall be taken to extinguish and control the spread of fire occurring at or in the vicinity of any waste disposal site or waste treatment facility. The Fire Master at the nearest Saudi Aramco facility must be notified immediately a fire is out of control.

15.3

16

SIGNS AND RULES Clearly visible, legible signs, written in Arabic, English and other appropriate language stating disposal site rules shall be erected at the site entrance and wherever necessary to ensure adequate compliance with the approved operating plan. As a minimum, signs shall contain the following information: a) name of facility and owner; b) emergency phone number of attendant; c) permitted materials; and d) hours of operation during which wastes will be received for disposal. Depending of the type of waste disposal site and degree to which access is restricted, additional signs may be required, e.g. a sign warning herdsmen of the hazards to animals and human beings should animals graze on garbage.

17

CONTROL OF NUISANCES AND HEALTH HAZARDS 17.1 17.2 17.3 Blowing debris shall be controlled such that the entire disposal site is free of litter. Dust and odors shall be controlled. Insects, rodents and vermin shall be controlled. The control program shall be based on proper handling and disposal of waste to prevent attraction, propagation and harborage of vectors and pests. Trapping, baiting and insecticide spraying may be required to control insects, rodents and vermin, which are inadvertently delivered to the site in waste. The services of a competent person or firm shall be retained to carry out periodic surveys and implement eradication and control measures. Any condition that could promote the transmission of disease to man or animals shall be controlled. Protection and conservation of the air, water and land environment over, on, under and around the disposal site shall be emphasized. This shall include prevention, control and treatment of discharges, emissions and other factors, which could degrade the environment or create a public health hazard/nuisance.

17.4

17.5

18

SALVAGING AND SCAVENGING Salvaging or scavenging shall be controlled so as not to interfere with optimum disposal site operation and not to create unsightly conditions or vector harborage. All salvaged materials shall be removed from the disposal site at the end of each operating day, unless some other recycling or storage program is authorized in the operating plan approved by EPD. Food products, garbage, hazardous materials, 75
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Solid Waste Management, SASC-S-03

containers used for hazardous materials and furniture and bedding with concealed filling shall not be salvaged from a disposal site. 19 HANDLING OF SPECIAL TYPES OF WASTE 19.1 Large dead animals or bulk animal waste, sewage sludge, septic wastewater, hospital waste and other materials which may be hazardous or difficult to manage shall not be deposited at a disposal site unless special provisions for such disposal are included in the operating plan approved by EPD No toxic or hazardous waste shall be deposited at any disposal site without prior written approval of EPD. A program shall be implemented for detecting and preventing the disposal of toxic or hazardous waste and other non-approved waste. The program will make provision for the random inspection of incoming loads, maintenance of records and staff training. EPD must be notified immediately if non-approved wastes are received at the site. In general, toxic or hazardous waste shall be properly contained and stored pending reclamation or final disposal, at a facility specifically designed for this purpose. Refer to GI 430.001, Waste Management and Materials Supply Organization instruction, CU 13.1 Processing of Hazardous Material, for requirements in relation to the classification, manifesting and handling of difficult and hazardous wastes. Large quantities of waste oil, grease, oil sludge or oil-soaked waste shall not be placed in any disposal site unless the disposal site is specifically designed and approved for the disposal of such waste, and designated as an oil waste disposal site and special precautions are taken to prevent fires and to protect and conserve the air, water and land environment in accordance with the operating plan approved by EPD. Whole, scrap tires shall not be disposed of in Company operated sanitary or construction waste landfill sites. Tires that have been suitably shredded may be disposed of in landfill sites. Proponent organizations are responsible for the proper disposal of all scrap and used tires. Upon request, proponent organizations shall furnish EPD with documentation verifying proper disposal. Containers holding liquid must not be placed in a landfill site unless the container is small in size similar to that typically found in household waste. Sanitary landfills incorporating large quantities of combustible materials shall be sectioned into cells by earth dikes designed to prevent the spread of fire between cells. Equipment shall be provided of sufficient size and design to densely compact materials included in the landfill.

19.2

19.3

19.4

19.5

19.6

20

SPECIAL FACTORS PERTINENT TO THE SANITARY LANDFILL METHOD OF WASTE DISPOSAL 20.1 Approved types of landfills: 20.1.1 The sanitary landfill method of waste disposal according to the operating plan approved by EPD and other concerned agencies. 20.1.2 The modified landfill method of waste disposal if it is determined by EPD and other concerned agencies that special circumstances, such as climate, geographic area, site location, nature or quantity of waste material to be landfilled or population density justifies less than daily compaction and cover. Note that modified landfills shall be located at least 0.4 kilometers (0.25 miles) from the nearest existing residence or commercial establishment other than those used by the landfill operator. 20.1.3 Open dumps and burn-pits are prohibited. 20.2 Adequate quantities of cover material shall be available to provide for daily cover of the active waste cells at the end of each operating day and for final cover and phased restoration of the site. The consistency of the final cover material shall be such that it can be compacted, and that the 76
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Solid Waste Management, SASC-S-03

compacted cover material is not prone to cracking and that the compacted cover material will minimize percolation of surface water. 20.3 Sufficient equipment, including provision of auxiliary or standby equipment which is adequate to operate a landfill site including placement, compaction and covering of waste under all anticipated weather and soil conditions shall be available at all times. Methods of operation: 20.4.1 Unloading of waste on the site shall be confined to the smallest area practicable. The area of exposed waste material on the active landfill face shall be kept to a minimum. 20.4.2 Waste shall be spread on a slope no steeper than 3 horizontal to 1 vertical and compacted in layers not to exceed 61 centimeters (2 feet) in depth up to maximum cell height. Each layer shall be covered with not less than 15 centimeters (6 inches) of compacted cover material. 20.4.3 A layer of not less that 61 centimeters (2 feet) of compacted cover material, in addition to intermediate cover material, shall be placed over the completed fill following the final placement of waste. The final cover shall be graded to prevent cracking, erosion and ponding of water. 20.5 Closure of landfills: 20.5.1 Before a landfill may be closed or abandoned to further use, all waste at the disposal site shall be covered, compacted and graded according to requirements outlined in sub-section 20.4.3 of this Code Section. The site shall be restored in a manner approved in writing by EPD. 20.5.2 A maintenance program for continued control of erosion, repair and stabilization of the compacted cover material shall be provided until the completed fill has stabilized to the point where maintenance is no longer required. Groundwater and landfill gas monitoring shall continue post closure, until the site has stabilized. 21 INCINERATION OF SOLID WASTE 21.1 All incineration equipment and air pollution control appurtenances shall comply with air pollution control rules and regulations and emission standards of Saudi Aramco and the Meteorology and Environmental Protection Administration (MEPA). The delivery of waste shall be coordinated with the producers and transporters to ensure that a steady stream of waste is received for incineration. Too little or too much waste can adversely impact the handling capabilities of the facility and the efficiency of the incineration process. In general, waste shall be incinerated as it is received. Accumulation of waste shall be kept to a minimum. All waste that is not incinerated upon delivery to the site shall be confined to a designated staging area. Special provisions shall be made to handle and contain waste stored in the staging area. Note that hospital and other potentially hazardous waste shall be properly contained until incinerated according to the operating plan approved by EPD. Accumulation of ashes and residues shall be kept to a minimum. Ashes and residues in a cold state shall be disposed of in an approved landfill or handled otherwise in accordance with a written plan approved by EPD.

20.4

21.2

21.3

21.4 21.5

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Solid Waste Management, SASC-S-03

21.6

During start up and shut down waste must not be fed into the incinerator unless it is operating within its design specification for temperature and air feed rate. Automatic cut-off devices must be installed to prevent wastes being fed into the incinerator when the operating temperature and combustion gas conditions are outside the design specification. Combustion temperature and waste feed rate must be monitored on a continuous basis. Carbon monoxide must be monitored on a continuous basis at a point in the incinerator downstream of the combustion zone and prior to release to atmosphere. The incinerator and associated equipment (pumps, valves and pipes) must be subject to a thorough visual inspection at least daily, for leaks, spills and fugitive emissions. Daily inspection logs must be maintained and made available for inspection as required by paragraph 4.3 above. The emergency waste feed cut-off system and associated alarms must be tested at least daily to verify operability. A daily inspection log must be maintained and made available for inspection as required by paragraph 4.3 above.

21.7

21.8

21.9

21.10

22

COMPOSTING METHOD OF WASTE DISPOSAL 22.1 All compostable waste shall be subjected to complete processing in accordance with the equipment manufacturer's operating instructions. Facilities and procedures shall be provided for handling, recycling or disposing of wastes that are non-biodegradable by composting. An adequate supply of water shall be available for plant operation and cleaning purposes. There shall be no direct connection between a potable water supply and any processing plant or equipment or cross-connection with any unsafe or questionable water supply, sewerage system or any source of pollution that might contaminate or otherwise degrade the potable water supply. Composting operations shall not be located in odor-sensitive areas. Odors shall be maintained at the lowest levels practicable. Provisions shall be made to effectively collect, treat and dispose of leachate or drainage from stored compost and the composting operation. Compost shall be removed from the composting plant site as frequently as possible, but not later than one year after treatment is completed. Composted waste offered for use by the general public shall contain no pathogenic organisms, shall be relatively odor-free and shall not endanger public health or safety. All waste delivered to the composting plant shall be placed in the compost stream or confined to a designated staging area prior to composting. Stored waste shall be handled according to requirements outlined in sub-section 5.1 of this Code Section. The volume of stored waste shall be kept to minimum. Residues shall be handled according to requirements outlined in sub-sections 8 and 9 of this Code Section. Accumulation of residues shall be kept to a minimum.

22.2

22.3

22.4

22.5

22.6

22.7

22.8

22.9

23

SLUDGE DISPOSAL METHOD 23.1 Prohibited methods of sludge disposal: 23.1.1 Septic tank waste and raw sewage sludge shall not be disposed of by land spreading unless specifically approved in writing by EPD. 78
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Solid Waste Management, SASC-S-03

23.1.2 Except for heat-treated sewage sludge, sewage sludges, including septic tank waste and raw sewage sludges, shall not be: a) used as fertilizer on root crops, vegetables, low growing berries or fruits that may be eaten raw; b) applied to land later than one year prior to planting where vegetables are to be grown; c) used on grass or shrubbery in public areas; or d) be given or sold to the public. 23.1.3 Sewage sludge shall normally have a minimum solids content of 30% prior to disposal in a landfill. Sludge will be considered at 30% when it is in the form of a dry cake. Liquid sludges shall not be deposited in landfills except according to the operating plan approved by EPD. 23.2 Operation of sludge disposal sites: 23.2.1 Sludge lagoons shall be located at least 1.6 kilometers (1 mile) from the nearest existing residence or commercial establishment other than those used by the lagoon operator or attendant. 23.2.2 Sludge shall not be spread on land where natural run-off could carry a residue into surface or ground waters. 23.2.3 If non-digested sludge is spread on land within 1.6 kilometers (1 mile) of residence, community or public use area, it shall be plowed under the ground, buried or otherwise incorporated into the soil within five (5) days after application. 23.2.4 Lagoons shall be designed and constructed in accordance with SAES-A-104. 23.2.5 Water or sludge shall not be pumped or otherwise removed from a lagoon, except according to a written plan approved by EPD.

REFERENCES 1. State of California, California Solid Waste Management, 1973. 2. USEPA 40 CFR Ch.1: Parts; 258 - Criteria For Municipal Solid Waste Landfills, 7-1-99 Edition 264 - Standards for Owners and Operators of Hazardous Waste treatment, Storage and Disposal Facilities. 1987/97 3. UK, Department of the Environment, Waste Management Paper 26B Landfill Design Construction and Operational Practice, 1995. 4. Saudi Aramco Sanitary Code, 1996. 5. GI 430.001 Waste Management General Instruction 6. SAES-S-007 Solid Waste Landfill Standard, 1998. 7. SAES-A 104 Wastewater Treatment, Reuse and Disposal 2001 8. CU 13.1 Processing of Hazardous Material

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Food Establishments, SASC-S-04

SASC-S-04 FOOD ESTABLISHMENTS


This Section specifies public health requirements for food establishments. Compliance with facility and equipment Sections, temperature control and prevention of contamination, and good hygiene and handling practices, will protect Saudi Aramco employees and their dependents from the threat of foodborne illness. NOTE: All subsections should be read in conjunction with referenced documents listed at the end of this Code Section. DEFINITIONS Adulterate: To make impure by the addition of a foreign, inferior, or harmful substance. Bactericidal Soap: A soap containing a chemical, which kills bacteria. Bakery: Any room, building, premises or place which is used or operated for commercial baking, preparing, manufacturing, processing or packaging of bakery products. It includes all rooms of a bakery in which bakery products or ingredients are stored or handled. Beverage: Liquid for drinking, including water. Blast Chiller: Equipment designed to cool food rapidly after cooking. Usually employs a combination of cooled air and rapid air circulation (movement) over the products. Chilled Display Unit: Food display unit with facility to keep food at reduced temperature. CIP: Cleaned in place by the circulation or flowing by mechanical means through a piping system of a detergent solution, water rinse, and sanitizing solution onto or over equipment surfaces that require cleaning. CIP does not include the cleaning of equipment such as band saws, slicers or mixers that are subjected to in-place manual cleaning without the use of a CIP system. Contamination: The introduction (into food or water) of unwanted, undesirable materials including microorganisms, chemicals or foreign bodies. Comminuted: Reduced in size by methods including chopping, flaking, grinding, or mincing. It includes fish or meat products that are reduced in size and restructured or reformulated such as formed roast beef, ground beef or a mixture of 2 or more types of meat that have been reduced in size and combined, such as sausages. Cook Chill: System of food preparation in which food is prepared in advance to be reheated several days later. Strict control of chilled storage temperature is needed if the food is to remain safe. Cook Freeze: System of food preparation in which food is prepared in advance and then deep frozen. If properly packaged the food may be kept for several months with no loss of quality. Coved: Rounded finish to the junction between walls and floors, or between two walls, to make cleaning easier. Critical limit: The maximum or minimum value to which a physical, biological, or chemical parameter must be controlled at a critical control point to minimize the risk that the identified food safety hazard may occur. Cross Contamination: The transfer of bacteria from contaminated (normally raw) food to other foods. This may be by: 1) Direct contact by foods stored next to each other; 2) Drip from contaminated food stored above other food; 3) Food handlers who handle contaminated food and then other food; 4) Equipment and work surfaces used first for contaminated food and then other food.

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Defrost System: Refrigeration system for a freezer consisting of a blower evaporator coil, heating unit and controls. Electric type employs heating elements; hot gas type uses heat exchanger to remove frost from the coil and allow condensate to flow to the drain pan under the coil. Detergent: Technically, any cleansing agent. In popular usage, washing and cleaning agents with a composition other than soap that clean by much the same mechanisms as soap. A cleaning agent, as soap; any of numerous synthetic water soluble or liquid organic preparations that are chemically different from soaps, but are able to emulsify oils, hold dirt in suspension, and act as wetting agents. Disinfectant: A chemical or physical agent that kills pathogenic microorganisms (see 'disinfect' above). Food-contact surface: A surface of equipment or a utensil, with which food normally comes into contact; or a surface of equipment or a utensil from which food may drain, drip, or splash into a food, or onto a surface normally in contact with food. Food Processing Plant: A commercial operation that manufactures, packages, labels, or stores food for human consumption and does not provide food directly to a consumer. Food Preservative: Any substance which is capable or inhibiting, retarding or arresting the growth of microorganisms, or any deterioration of food due to microorganisms, or of masking the evidence of any such deterioration. Food Service Establishment: Any place where food is prepared and intended for individual portion service and includes the sites at which individual portions are provided. The term includes any such place regardless of whether consumption is on or off the premises and regardless of whether there is a charge for the food. The term also includes delicatessen-type operations that prepare sandwiches intended for individual portion service. The term does not include private homes where food is prepared or served for individual family consumption, retail food stores, the location of food vending machines and supply vehicles. Foreign Body: Materials or objects from the building, equipment, people, environment or previous production run which may contaminate the food. Hermetically Sealed: Sealed so that air and other contaminants cannot enter the pack in which the product is contained, e.g. a can, thereby preventing deterioration. Ice: The product, in any form, obtained as a result of freezing water by natural, mechanical or artificial means. Ice Dispenser: A floor, counter or wall mounted stationary ice storage bin with motor driven agitator and conveyor mechanism, or gravity feed, that dispenses a measure of ice (cubed or crushed) through a discharge chute into a container at working level. Insect-Proof Screens: Fine mesh screens of gauge no less than 6 per linear centimeter (16 per linear inch) fitted to windows and occasionally other openings to prevent the entry of flying insects such as flies into the building. Packaged: Bottled, canned, cartooned, securely bagged, or securely wrapped, whether packaged in a food establishment or in a food processing plant. Personal Hygiene: Those protective measures, primarily within the responsibility of the individual, which promote health and limit the spread of infectious diseases transmitted through food, water, air, or by direct contact. These protective measures include: keeping the body clean by sufficiently frequent soap and water baths; wearing clean clothes and good grooming; washing hands in soap and water immediately after voiding bowels or bladder, after contact with any potential contamination, and always before eating. Pest: Any unwanted animal that can or does enter a food premises and may live in the premises or the food, e.g. rats, mice, insects, and birds. Poisonous or Toxic Materials: Substances that are not intended for ingestion. Included in 4 categories: 81

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Food Establishments, SASC-S-04

1) Cleaners and sanitizers, which include cleaning and sanitizing agents and agents such as caustics, acids, drying agents, polishes, and other chemicals; 2) Pesticides, which include substances such as insecticides and rodenticides; 3) Substances necessary for the operation and maintenance of the establishment such as nonfood grade lubricants and personal care items that may be deleterious to health; and 4) Substances that are not necessary for the operation and maintenance of the establishment and are on the premises for retail sale, such as petroleum products and paints. Potentially Hazardous Food or Ingredient: Signifies any food, which consists of, in whole or part, milk or milk products, eggs, meat, poultry, fish, shellfish, or other ingredient, including synthetic ingredients capable of supporting rapid and progressive growth of infectious or toxigenic organisms. Probe: Part of the temperature measuring equipment that is affected (heated or cooled) by the temperature of the surroundings. This then produces an electrical signal, which is converted by the thermometer into a numerical figure for the temperature of the surroundings. Ready-To-Eat Food: Food that is in a form that is edible without washing, cooking or additional preparation by the food establishment or the consumer and that is reasonably expected to be consumed in that form. Sanitizer: An agent, usually chemical, that reduces the number of bacterial contaminants to safe levels as determined by public health requirements. The term sanitizing generally refers to inanimate objects (particularly food related utensils, equipment, and surfaces) and implies providing a satisfactory condition of cleanliness in addition to a safe bacterial level. Thus, detergent sanitizers combine cleaning and sanitizing. The same kinds of compounds that provide disinfecting action in cleansers and hard surface cleaners also contribute sanitizing capability. Single Service Articles: Articles intended by the manufacturer, and generally recognized by the public, as being for one usage only, then discarded. Such articles include cups, containers, lids, closures, plates, knives, forks, spoons, stirrers, paddles, straws, napkins, wrapping materials, toothpicks, and similar articles designed for one-time, one person use. Sous-vide: Prepared recipe dishes that have been sealed in a vacuum pack and then heat-treated and cooled for chilled storage and distribution. Temperature Measuring Device: A thermometer, thermocouple, thermistor, or other device that indicates the temperature of food, air, or water.

1 1.1

APPLICATION TO OPERATE A FOOD ESTABLISHMENT Any person, company or Saudi Aramco organization, either separately or jointly, desiring to sell or give food, beverage or ice intended for human consumption to the Saudi Aramco population shall make a written application through the appropriate Saudi Aramco proponent organization as outlined in sub-section 1.2 of this Code Section. Submission of written application: 1.2.1 A Saudi Aramco organization proposing to operate a food establishment that will be controlled by Saudi Aramco, including Saudi Aramco facilities operated by concessionaires, contractors and self-directed groups, shall submit their application to Saudi Aramco Environmental Protection Department (EPD). As a minimum, the application shall include the following: 1.2.1.1 1.2.1.2 1.2.1.3 The name, address and telephone number of each applicant. The exact location of the existing/proposed food establishment. The type of food establishment. 82

1.2

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Food Establishments, SASC-S-04

1.2.1.4

The design, materials and layout of work and support areas, and the type, model and arrangement of fixed equipment. The methods and vehicles that will be used to transport food. For temporary food establishments the date of commencement of operations shall be given. Whenever a Saudi Aramco food establishment is to be constructed, an existing Saudi Aramco structure is converted to use as a food establishment, or whenever any Saudi Aramco food establishment is remodeled or altered, properly prepared plans and specifications for such construction, conversion, remodeling or alteration shall be submitted during the planning phase of the proposed project. The signatures of all applicants.

1.2.1.5 1.2.1.6

1.2.1.7

1.2.1.8 1.2.2

Owners of privately operated food manufacturers, vendors, warehouses and food establishments wishing to conduct business with Saudi Aramco shall apply through Saudi Aramco EPD, except for water and ice manufacturers who shall apply through Purchasing Department, in accordance with their procedures. Formalities as required by other involved Saudi Aramco departments such as Contracting Department or Community Services Department shall be followed as dictated by protocol.

1.3

Only those products, goods and services specifically defined in the application will be considered, but the evaluation process will assess ALL factors that could directly or indirectly affect products, goods and services offered to Saudi Aramco. After receiving a written application from a Saudi Aramco organization or written notice from the food manufacturer, vendor, food establishment or warehouse, or in the case of water and ice manufacturers through Saudi Aramco Purchasing Department, requesting that a food establishment be evaluated, Saudi Aramco EPD shall, as appropriate: 1.4.1 Review the terms of the application according to the requirements of the Saudi Aramco Sanitary Code to verify that the application is complete and valid. Review plans and specifications. Inspect the food establishment to ensure that the facility, management, supervisors and systems in place are in full compliance with this and other relevant Sections of the Saudi Aramco Sanitary Code. 1.4.3.1 If Saudi Aramco EPD finds that the premises are in full compliance with the Saudi Aramco Sanitary Code, apart from minor discrepancies, EPD shall give conditional approval. If it is found that the facility meets all Saudi Aramco Sanitary Code Sections, EPD shall approve the facility or, in the case of water and ice manufacturers, recommend to the Purchasing Department that the facility be approved.

1.4

1.4.2 1.4.3

1.5

If Saudi Aramco EPD find that the products, goods and services; the operating methods, practices and procedures; or equipment and facilities proposed in the application do not comply with the requirements of the Saudi Aramco Sanitary Code, then EPD will not approve the facility, or in the case of water and ice manufacturers forward pertinent findings to the Saudi Aramco proponent organization or Purchasing Department with the recommendation of not approving the facility. Until such time that the food establishment is approved Saudi Aramco shall not accept products, goods or services, whether offered for sale or as a gift, from the non-compliant applicant.

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1.6

When a conditional approval is granted, outstanding deficiencies must be corrected within a specified time frame. 1.6.1 If significant new deficiencies have not developed and all conditional deficiencies are corrected by the required date, i.e. the food establishment achieves compliance with provisions of this Code Section, Saudi Aramco EPD will approve the facility or in the case of water and ice manufactures recommend to the proponent Organization or Purchasing Department that the facility be approved. If the applicant fails to correct identified deficiencies within the specified time frame, or if significant new deficiencies have developed since the original inspection, Saudi Aramco EPD will suspend the approval, or issuance of a warning notice.

1.6.2

1.7

After a facility has been approved, a NEW APPLICATION is required: 1.7.1 Prior to any proposed addition, alteration, conversion, expansion or modification to the physical facility or any change in the ownership, location, physical facility, equipment, process or procedure related to products, goods or services offered to Saudi Aramco. Prior to any proposed addition of products, goods or services to be offered to Saudi Aramco.

1.7.2 1.8

If an approved food establishment fails to submit a new application, prior to making a change defined in sub-section 1.7 of this Code Section, Saudi Aramco EPD shall rescind the approval, or in the case of water and ice manufacturers recommend to the proponent, or Purchasing Department that the original "approval" is rescinded. If an approved food establishment fails to continue to comply with the requirements of this Code Section: 1.9.1 EPD may send a Warning Notice, or in the case of water and ice manufacturers, recommend to the proponent Organization or Purchasing Department that the offending Company be sent a Warning Notice. If EPD determines that deficiencies are of a nature that there is a serious risk to health, or all administrative efforts have failed to have the deficiencies corrected, then EPD will issue a Suspension Notice, or in the caser of water and ice manufacturers, recommend to the proponent Organization or Purchasing Department that the offending Company be sent a Suspension Notice and all food purchases be suspended until such time that the Company is re-instated on the approved list.

1.9

1.9.2

1.10

EPD Definition of "approved: 1.10.1 The approval by EPD of a food establishment indicates that, at the time of inspection, the structure, products, practices, procedures and associated equipment and facility, as stated in the application, complied with all requirements of the Saudi Aramco Sanitary Code. As noted in sub-section 1.11.1, of this Code Section, the "approval" is valid only for the specific person, location, processes, facilities, products, goods and services included in the application. Approval by EPD indicates only that the food establishment complies with all Saudi Aramco Sanitary Code requirements and does not imply or suggest approval or acceptance of the products or services by Saudi Aramco Purchasing Department, or any other Saudi Aramco organization or affiliated concessionaire, contractor, vendor or other agency.

1.10.2

1.10.3

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1.11

"Objections" and "voiding" of "approvals" by Saudi Aramco EPD: 1.11.1 All "approvals" are based on a substantial body of evidence that verifies compliance with requirements of the Saudi Aramco Sanitary Code. When the terms of the original application are found to be devoid of such substantive verification, this "void" is reported by Saudi Aramco EPD to the Saudi Aramco proponent organization, or Purchasing Department who directly or indirectly controls the products, goods or services provided by the deficient water or ice manufacturer. For all other food manufacturers, vendors, food establishments EPD will notify such Companies directly of the void With respect to food, beverage and ice, the protection of the health of Saudi Aramco employees and their dependents is the responsibility of the Saudi Aramco proponent organization that directly or indirectly controls the provision of associated products, goods and services. 1.11.2.1 If Saudi Aramco EPD informs a proponent that a Saudi Aramco food establishment does not comply with the requirements of the Saudi Aramco Sanitary Code, it is the proponents responsibility, directly or in conjunction with the contracting agency, to ensure that required corrective actions are implemented. If Saudi Aramco EPD informs a proponent Organization or Purchasing Department in the case of water and ice manufacturers, that a non-Saudi Aramco operated establishment indirectly controlled by the proponent, or Purchasing Department does not comply with the requirements of the Saudi Aramco Sanitary Code, it is the proponent's responsibility, in conjunction with Purchasing Department to take whatever action is required to protect Saudi Aramco employees and dependents from potentially hazardous products, goods and services provided by the deficient food establishment.

1.11.2

1.11.2.2

INSPECTIONS 2.1 Saudi Aramco EPD will inspect each food establishment as often as is deemed necessary to ensure that the food establishment is in compliance with this Code Section. The food establishment management shall cooperate with Saudi Aramco EPD during inspections and ensure that deficiencies reported shall be corrected in a timely manner. If Saudi Aramco EPD finds that a food establishment does not comply with one or more requirements of this Code Section, it shall report the violation(s) to the Saudi Aramco proponent and/or in the case of water and ice manufacturers, Purchasing Department. Depending on the significance of the public health risk and past experience with the manufacturer's/vendor's compliance, EPD shall take one of the following steps: 2.2.1 2.2.2 Recommend compliance by Saudi Aramco EPDs next unannounced inspection; or Issue a Warning Notice to the manufacturer, vendor or supplier, or In the case of water and ice manufacturers recommend through Purchasing Department that a Warning Notice be issued by a specific date; or

2.2

2.2.3

Issue a Suspension Notice to the manufacturer, supplier or vendor, or in the case of water and ice manufacturers recommend that Purchasing Department issue a Suspension Notice.

2.3

Food establishment management shall conduct periodic (at least weekly) "in-plant" sanitation inspections. Records of these inspections, as well as follow-up actions, shall be kept on file. The reports shall be made available to Saudi Aramco EPD representatives at the time of each inspection. 85

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Food Establishments, SASC-S-04

GENERAL REQUIREMENTS 3.1 The food establishment, and all parts of the facility used directly or indirectly in connection with the operation of the food establishment, shall be kept free of public health nuisances (see SASC-S-18). The building(s) shall be used for no other purpose. The building shall be located as far away from objectionable odors, smoke, dust, or other contaminants as is possible. The building shall not be located in an area subject to flooding. Only persons necessary to the operation and maintenance of the food establishment shall be allowed to enter the food establishment. All such necessary persons shall comply with the requirements outlined in sub -section 4 of this Code Section. Only articles necessary to the operation and maintenance of the food establishment shall be stored in the food establishment or on any part of the facility used directly or indirectly in connection with the operation of the food establishment. No laundry operation shall be conducted in the toilet or shower rooms; utility or janitor's closets; or any area where ingredients and packaging are stored; ingredients and food are manufactured, processed, packaged, prepared, cooked, chilled, frozen, stored or served; equipment and utensils are washed and stored; or where food or food contact surfaces are exposed. If laundry operations are conducted on the premises, the laundry shall be located in a building separate from the food establishment or, if sharing a common wall with the food establishment, all doors to the laundry shall open to the outside, i.e. no door shall connect the laundry to the food establishment. In all cases, the ventilation system for the laundry shall be separate and independent of the food establishment system. Clean uniforms shall be stored in a clean, dry place protected from contamination. After use, or when they become soiled, damp or unclean, uniforms shall be placed in a nonabsorbent container or washable laundry bag where they shall be held until they are removed for laundering. Laundry containers and bags shall be cleaned or washed when emptied. No operation of the food establishment shall be conducted in any room used as living or sleeping quarters. If living or sleeping quarters are provided on the premises, they shall be located in a building separate from the food establishment or, if sharing a common wall with the food establishment, all doors to these quarters shall open to the outside, i.e. no door shall connect the living and sleeping quarters to the food establishment. In all cases, the ventilation system for the living and sleeping quarters shall be separate and independent of the food establishment ventilation system. Live animals, including those intended for slaughter, shall be excluded from all portions of the food establishment and all parts of the property used directly or indirectly in connection with the operation of the food establishment. Animals shall not be slaughtered in any food establishment other than a Saudi Arab Government approved slaughterhouse. "No Smoking" signs shall be posted and maintained in storage, preparation, handling, processing, warewashing, manufacturing, packaging, retail sales and similar areas. All public entrances, exits, corridors and stairways shall be properly illuminated. Fire exits shall be provided with illuminated exit signs equipped with emergency power sources. Public entrances, exits, corridors, stairways, fire exits and fire escapes shall be kept free of obstructions. Illumination levels will meet the necessary requirements of the Saudi Aramco Engineering Standard SAES-P-123. Hawking of food on Saudi Aramco premises is prohibited. The use, sale or storage of Genetically Modified (GM) foods of animal origin, or products manufactured or prepared from animals fed GM material is prohibited.

3.2

3.3

3.4

3.5

3.6

3.7

3.8

3.9

3.10 3.11

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3.11.2

The importation of (GM) foods of animal origin or products containing ingredients of animals fed on GM matter is prohibited

3.11.3 GM food of plant origin (fruits and vegetables) may be imported, used, stored or sold providing that all such food is clearly labeled in both Arabic and English that the food contains ingredients that are genetically modified 4 PERSONNEL 4.1 Personnel shall have a valid photo identification card in their possession that identifies them as an employee of the food establishment. Identification cards are not transferable. Personnel shall have a valid medical examination certificate. 4.2.1 As a minimum, all personnel shall be given a physical health examination prior to commencement of employment, when required by illness or injury and whenever requested by Saudi Aramco EPD. The medical examination shall be equivalent to, and completed with the same thoroughness as, those conducted by the Saudi Aramco Medical Services Organization. All medical examinations shall be conducted in a medical clinic or hospital approved by the Saudi Arab Government for food handler examination and by a physician licensed by the Saudi Arab Government. Validity of the Health Certificate shall be for a period of 1 year or as stated by the Saudi Arab Government. As a minimum, the examination shall include stool analysis (ova and parasites, as well as bacterial tests for Salmonella sp., Shigella sp. and Cholera), blood test for Hepatitis A. The extent of the examination may be expanded at the discretion of Saudi Aramco EPD but as a minimum will fulfill the requirements of the Saudi Arab Government food handler examination. The medical examination report shall include a statement, signed by the licensed physician conducting the examination, declaring that the individual is physically fit to perform his assigned duties as a food handler and is free of chronic skin ailment, communicable disease or other condition that could promote the transmission of foodborne illness. A copy of the employee's medical examination, with a photograph of the employee attached, shall be kept on file at his work site. The results of medical examinations shall be available for review by authorized Saudi Aramco representatives prior to and throughout the individual's employment by the food establishment.

4.2

4.2.2

4.2.3

4.2.4

4.2.5

4.3

Any employee who is ill, has an infection, diarrhea, cuts on his hands, or other condition, no matter how minor, that could promote the transmission of foodborne illness SHALL NOT be allowed to work in ANY food facility in ANY capacity. The employee shall be removed from duty and referred to a licensed physician for evaluation. An explanation of the employee's duties and a specific request that he be examined and tested for communicable disease or other condition that could promote the transmission of foodborne illness shall be submitted to the physician. The employee shall not be allowed to return to duty until: 4.3.1 He has been examined and found to be free of communicable disease or other conditions that could promote the transmission of foodborne illness. He has been treated and is free of communicable disease or other condition that could promote the transmission of foodborne illness. A statement signed by the examining/treating physician to the effect that the employee has been examined/treated and is free of communicable disease or other condition that could promote the transmission of foodborne illness is in the employee's file at his work site. This 87

4.3.2

4.3.3

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Food Establishments, SASC-S-04

report shall be available for review by authorized Saudi Aramco representatives and, if so requested, a copy of the report shall be transmitted to Saudi Aramco EPD. 4.3.4 If a foodborne illness is suspected, food establishment management and/or the treating physician shall immediately report the case to any of the following Saudi Aramco representatives: Manager, EPD. General Supervisor, ECD Supervisor, Environmental Health Unit

4.4

An on-the-job food sanitation-training program shall be developed, implemented and documented. This shall be an ongoing program designed to teach personnel the food sanitation principles and practices required by this Code Section and to encourage them to achieve the highest possible hygienic Sections in their personal habits and in the workplace. Seminars, lectures, films and posters shall be introduced to emphasize the importance of food handling under hygienic conditions and precautions required to prevent contamination of foods. Personnel shall maintain a high degree of personal cleanliness and shall conform to good hygienic practices, whenever handling, preparing or serving food. Food handlers shall shower or bathe daily. In this respect, adequate and suitable facilities with hot and cold water, showers and/or baths must be available at employees accommodation. (SASC-S-07) Personnel shall thoroughly wash their hands and the exposed portions of their arms before starting work; after using the toilet; after touching their ears, nose, mouth or hair; after handling any food waste or refuse; before and after any cleaning procedure; after handling raw meat, poultry, fish, fruit or vegetables; before moving from a raw food preparation area to any other area; after smoking, eating or drinking; and during work as often as necessary to keep hands clean. They shall keep their fingernails clean and trimmed. Personnel shall not eat, drink, spit, clean their nose, chew gum or use tobacco in any form while in areas where ingredients and packaging are stored; ingredients and food are manufactured, processed, packaged, prepared, cooked, chilled, frozen, stored or served; equipment and utensils are washed and stored; or where food or food contact surfaces are exposed. Personnel shall eat, use tobacco and chew gum in designated areas only, not food preparation areas, during non-work periods only. An area shall not be designated as a dining or tobacco use area if eating or the use of tobacco might result in contamination of packaging, ingredients, food, equipment, utensils or food contact surfaces. Personnel shall be provided with, and be required to wear, neat, clean, light colored uniforms that are changed at least daily. Clothing that is used once and then discarded is permissible. Personnel shall be provided with and required to wear clean and sound gloves, boots and other protective clothing, when deemed necessary. Personnel shall be provided with, and be required to wear, clean hair restraints that effectively contain the hair on their head, as well as facial hair, if applicable. Personnel shall wear closed shoes, preferably steel-toed safety shoes. Open sandals and bare feet shall be prohibited in all rooms where food is stored, prepared or served. Personnel shall remove all jewelry while preparing or handling ingredients, food and food contact surfaces. Personnel shall not sleep or lie in areas where ingredients and packaging are stored; food is manufactured, processed, packaged, prepared, cooked, chilled, frozen, stored or served; equipment is washed or stored; or where food contact surfaces are exposed. 88

4.5

4.6

4.7

4.8

4.9

4.10

4.11

4.12

4.13

4.14

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Food Establishments, SASC-S-04

4.15

Personnel shall handle soiled tableware in a way that avoids contamination of hands. Conversely, personnel shall handle clean tableware in a way that prevents contamination of the tableware. The person in charge shall be responsible for assuring that personnel comply with the requirements of this Code Section. He shall demonstrate knowledge of the principles and practices critical to food protection and sanitation, such as the proper sources of food, safe time and temperature relationships for potentially hazardous foods, the elements of good personal hygiene, proper handling techniques, approved warewashing procedures, storage and use of toxic items, and control of insects, rodents and other vermin. Food handlers shall be provided with, and wear, suitable disposable gloves, when handling, preparing or serving foods that are not to be further processed, e.g. salad vegetables, sandwiches, cooked meats etc. Food handlers, similarly, will wear disposable gloves on serving lines when handling cutlery, crockery or dispensing food. All food handlers required to wear such protective gloves shall handwash prior to applying gloves and will discard the gloves immediately after leaving the work area, after touching any surface that is liable to be contaminated or after touching any part of his exposed skin, hair or mouth.
NOTE: The use of disposable gloves is not a substitute for good personal hygiene and proper hand washing. Disposable gloves must be considered contaminated once they have come into contact with any working surface (including refrigerator handles, drawer handles etc) and shall be discarded accordingly.

4.16

4.17

POISONOUS OR TOXIC MATERIALS 5.1 Only those poisonous or toxic materials specifically designed for use in food establishments, such as approved sanitizing agents and pesticides that are required for proper maintenance and operation of the facility shall be present in the food establishment. Detergents, sanitizers, caustics, acids, lubricants and other chemicals shall not be stored above or mingled with food, food contact surfaces, equipment or utensils. This requirement does not prohibit the convenient location and availability of cleaning and sanitizing agents in warewashing areas. Containers of poisonous or toxic materials, including detergents, sanitizing agents, insecticides and rodenticides, shall be specifically and plainly labeled as to the contents and as to its hazardous nature and instructions for use. Material Safety Data Sheets shall be available on all hazardous materials used or stored in the facility. Poisonous or toxic materials shall be stored in their original, labeled container except that cleaning agents and sanitizers may be removed from bulk drums of greater than 38 liters (10 gallons) and placed in properly labeled, purpose-made smaller containers that can be more easily managed in the workplace (the use of empty food containers for this purpose is expressly prohibited). The working containers shall be identified with the common name and intended use of the cleaning agent or sanitizer. Poisonous or toxic materials shall be stored in locked cabinets or rooms that are used for no other purpose. They shall not be stored in areas where packaging, ingredients, food, equipment or utensils are stored; where food is stored, prepared, processed, cooked, packaged, chilled, frozen or served; or where warewashing takes place. Sanitizing agents and cleaning compounds shall not be stored in the same cabinet or area of a locked room where insecticides, rodenticides or other poisonous or toxic materials are kept. None of these products shall be stored in a way that causes contamination or adulteration of food, food contact surfaces, utensils or equipment (extreme care shall he taken to avoid such adulteration/contamination). Sanitizing agents, cleaning compounds and other chemicals intended for use on food contact surfaces shall not be used in a way that contaminates or leaves a toxic residue on packaging, ingredients, food, equipment, utensils or other food contact surfaces; that is hazardous to personnel; nor in a way that is not in compliance with the manufacturers' instructions printed on the label. Poisonous or toxic materials not intended for use on food contact surfaces shall not be used in a way that directly or indirectly contaminates food contact surfaces. They shall not be used in a way that 89

5.2

5.3

5.4

5.5

5.6

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Food Establishments, SASC-S-04

contaminates or leaves a toxic residue on packaging, ingredients, food, equipment, utensils or other food contact surfaces; that is hazardous to personnel; or in a way that is not in compliance with the manufacturers' instructions printed on the label. 5.7 Personal medications shall not be kept in areas where packaging, ingredients, food, equipment, utensils or other food contact surfaces are stored or used. First aid supplies shall be stored and used in a way that does not contaminate packaging, ingredients, food, equipment, utensils or other food contact surfaces.

5.8

PEST CONTROL 6.1 All outside pest breeding places, as well as all inside harboring and hibernating spots, shall be under periodic control. Regular surveys should be conducted to detect the presence of insects/rodents. Experienced Pest Control personnel who are fully familiar with survey techniques using traps, and other survey tools should carry out surveys. Areas along fences, around buildings, at loading docks, under stored materials, in and around refuse facilities, as well as floors, walls, ceilings, bucket elevators and conveyors in the building, shall be inspected frequently to detect the presence of insects, rodents and other vermin. Preventive control measures are preferable to eradication campaigns. The food establishment shall be designed, constructed, equipped, maintained and operated to prevent the entrance and harborage of insects, rodents, animals, birds and other vermin, as well as environmental contaminants such as smoke and dust. Effective measures, such as excluding, inspecting and exterminating, shall be used to minimize the entry, presence and propagation of vermin, both inside and outside of the food establishment. All floor drains shall be properly trapped and provided with a tight fitting metal cover with perforations no greater than 13 millimeters (0.5 inch) diameter. There shall be no openings in exterior walls, foundations, basements, and roofs that admit insects, rodents or other vermin. Openings for pipes, conduits and other utility services in foundations or exterior walls, floors or roofs shall be closed solidly by metal sheeting, concrete or other impervious material. If metal sheeting is used to seal holes around pipes, conduits and other opening, it shall extend at least 7.6 centimeters (3 inches) beyond all sides of the opening. All pesticides used in and around the food establishment shall be registered with, and approved for use in food establishments, by the Saudi Arab Government. Pesticides should be of low toxicity for humans. Pesticides shall be dispensed and handled by authorized, properly trained personnel. Pesticides shall only be used when necessary, i.e. when there is evidence of pest activity. Pesticides will be applied with the utmost of care and only by qualified personnel. Only those pesticides that are approved for use in the food facilities will be permitted. Pesticides shall not be applied in areas where food handling, warewashing or other such operations are in progress or in a way that contaminates packaging, ingredients, food, equipment, utensils or other food contact surfaces. As a precautionary measure after application of pesticides, the food contact surfaces of potentially contaminated equipment and utensils shall be thoroughly cleaned to remove residues. Fly electrocution devices, if used, shall be designed to have "escape- resistant" trays. They shall be installed so that dead insects are prevented from falling on food and food contact surfaces. Trays shall be emptied into an outside refuse container at least once each day. Bait stations shall be tamper-proof by having locking devices fitted and shall have installed baiting rods that hold the bait securely in place. Bait stations shall be used in non-food handling areas only and shall be restricted to rodenticides falling within the anticoagulant group. 90

6.2

6.3

6.4

6.5

6.6

6.7

6.8

6.9

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Food Establishments, SASC-S-04

6.10

Trapping is the preferred method of rodent control inside a food establishment. Tracking powders shall not be used inside a food establishment.

7.

CONTROL OF OPERATION 7.1 The operator of the food establishment shall carry out a Food Safety Risk Assessment by developing an appropriate and effective HACCP (Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point) plan. The plan shall: 1) Identify any steps in the operation that are critical to food safety; 2) Make provisions for incorporating adequate safety controls into the operations; and 3) Include monitoring of control procedures to ensure continuing effectiveness. The following seven HACCP principles shall be followed: Carry out a hazard analysis; Identify critical control points (CCPs); Establish critical limits for each CCP; Implement monitoring procedures at each CCP; Develop corrective action procedures in the event that critical limits are exceeded; Incorporate an effective record keeping system into the plan; Develop procedures to verify that the system is working; With respect to the above, the following guidelines are provided: 7.2.1 Assemble a HACCP team: to develop an effective HACCP plan it is essential to assemble a HACCP team that has the expertise and knowledge to determine the full scope of the plan. The scope should describe which segment of the food chain is involved and the general classes of hazards to be addressed (e.g. does the plan cover all foods, all hazards or only selected classes). Describe the product: develop a full description of the product. This should include relevant safety information such as ingredients, physical and chemical structure (including pH, water content etc), description of processes such as cooking, freezing, brining, smoking, storage requirements during the various stages of processing, and any other relevant information regarding the safe handling of the ingredients and final product Construct a process flow diagram (PFD): a PFD is essential to show all processes of the food preparation chain from delivery of the raw ingredients, to the use by the final consumer. The flow diagram should show all steps of the entire operation. When applying HACCP, consideration should be given to steps preceding and following the specified operation. Onsite confirmation: it is important before proceeding further to confirm that the processes as described in the PFD are correct. At this stage, necessary changes to the PFD should be made where appropriate. List all potential hazards associated with each step, consider any measures to control identified hazards. (Principle 1) The HACCP team shall list all of the hazards that may be reasonably expected to occur at each step from primary production, processing, manufacture, and distribution until the point of consumption. The HACCP team shall identify those hazards in the plan, which must be eliminated or reduced in order to produce safe food. 7.2.5.1 Wherever possible the following should be included: The likely occurrence of the hazards and severity of their adverse health effects; The qualitative and/or quantitative evaluation of the presence of hazards; Survival or multiplication of microorganisms of concern; Production or persistence in foods of toxins, chemicals or physical agents; 91

7.2

7.2.2

7.2.3

7.2.4

7.2.5

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Food Establishments, SASC-S-04

7.2.6

Conditions which could lead to the above. The HACCP team then should consider what control measures, if any, can be applied for each hazard identified.

Determine CCPs (principle 2). In order to prevent the hazards of food poisoning, or physical or chemical contamination it is necessary to identify CCPs. A CCP point is a step in the preparation, handling or storage of food, which has to be carried out to ensure that the hazard is either eliminated or reduced to a safe level. Here, the following two questions are to be considered: Is there a hazard at this step? Is it necessary to control the hazard at this step, or will a subsequent step eliminate or reduce the hazard to an acceptable limit? Establish critical limits for each CCP (principle 3). This step involves establishing a criterion that must be met for each preventive measure associated with a CCP. Critical limits can be thought of as boundaries of safety for each CCP and may be set for preventive measures such as temperature, time, physical dimensions, water content, pH and available chlorine. Critical limits must be based on recognized Standards such as regulatory Standards, scientific literature, experimental studies and consultation with experts. Establish a monitoring system for each CCP (principle 4). Monitoring is a planned sequence of observations or measurements to assess whether a CCP is under control and to produce an accurate record for use in further verification procedures. There are three main reasons for monitoring: It tracks the systems operations so that a trend towards a loss of control can be recognized and corrective action can be taken to bring the process back into control before a deviation occurs. It indicates when a loss of control and a deviation have actually occurred, when corrective action must be taken, and It provides written documentation for use in verification of the HACCP plan. 7.2.8.1 Instrumentation used for monitoring critical limits must be carefully calibrated for accuracy. Records of calibration must be kept as part of the HACCP plan documentation

7.2.7

7.2.8

7.2.9

Establish corrective actions (principle 5). Specific corrective actions shall be developed for each CCP in the system to deal with deviations when they occur. The corrective actions must be clearly defined and be specific for that CCP. For example: If the temperature of the food falls below 60C (145F) it must be reheated to over 74C (165F) in its entirety for a minimum of 3 minutes. If the temperature of the food falls below 60C (145F) again then it must be discarded. Establish documentation and record keeping (principle 6). Efficient and accurate record keeping is essential to the application of a HACCP system. Documentation and record keeping shall be appropriate to the nature and size of the operation, but should include: Hazard Analysis, CCP determination, Critical limit determination, CCP monitoring activities, deviations and associated corrective actions, temperature records and employee training Establish verification procedures (principle 7). Verification and auditing methods, procedures and tests, including random sampling and analysis, can be used to determine if the system is working. The frequency of verification shall be sufficient to confirm that the system is working effectively. Examples of verification activities can include: Review of the HACCP systems and documents to ensure that the plan is being followed. Review of CCP records and determination of correct actions being taken when deviations occur, independent auditing, random sampling, visual inspections of operations to observe if CCPs are under control

7.2.10

7.2.11

FACILITY DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION (GENERAL) 8.1 The exterior walking and driving areas shall be surfaced with concrete, asphalt, or other materials that have been effectively treated to facilitate maintenance and to minimize dust. If subject to flooding or accumulation of water, exterior walking and driving surfaces shall be graded to drain. 92

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8.2

The food establishment shall be enclosed in a building consisting of floors, walls and overhead structures that comply with the minimum requirements prescribed by this Code Section. The size of the building shall be compatible with the purpose intended without crowding of equipment, personnel or materials. It shall include sufficient space for storage of both raw materials and finished products. The design shall allow sufficient space for maintenance and cleaning operations and for sound hygienic control at all stages of production. The food establishment shall be so designed as to apply hygienic operation in a regulated flow in the process lines, from the arrival of raw materials to the complete processing of the finished product. Different food establishment operations shall be conducted independently of each other, as applicable. Separate areas shall be provided for each of the following functional categories: a) maintenance; b) water treatment; c) dry storage of nonperishable ingredients and packaging; d) bulk storage of goods; e) cold storage of perishable ingredients and products; f) manufacturing, processing, packaging, preparing (bakery, meat, vegetables, etc.), cooking and serving; g) warewashing and storage; h) product holding, storage and shipping; i) laboratory; j) toilet and dressing areas; and k) storage of refuse prior to final disposal; l) retail sales outlets; and m) general offices. Where this is not feasible, the various operations shall be located in a way that does not contribute to cross contamination or interfere with one another.

8.3

FLOORS 9.1 Floors of all rooms where perishable ingredients are stored; ingredients and food are manufactured, processed, packaged, prepared, cooked, chilled, frozen, stored or served; equipment and utensils are washed and stored; food or food contact surfaces are exposed; as well as floors in dressing rooms, locker rooms, toilet rooms and vestibules; shall be constructed of non-slippery, nontoxic, sealed concrete, terrazzo, ceramic tile or other equally impervious material that is not affected by weak acids, alkalis or steam; shall be finished such that they are smooth, free from crevices and pits and are easily cleanable; and shall be properly sloped to a trapped drain. These floor surfaces shall be coved at the juncture of the floor and wall, as well as at the wall and ceiling, with a 10 millimeter (3/8 inch) minimum radius coving. The coving material shall extend up the wall at least 10 centimeters (4 inches). All materials shall be properly grouted and sealed. Floors of all other rooms, including those where nonperishable dry ingredients, packaging materials and nonperishable finished products are stored, shall comply with the above specifications, except floor drains need not be provided. Coving of wall/floor junctions is desirable, but is not mandatory if junctions can be kept clean. Floors of walk-in refrigerators and freezers shall be graded to drain all parts of each floor to the outside through a wastepipe, doorway, or other opening. Mats and duckboards are prohibited, except as permitted in Section SASC-S-9. Utility lines and pipes shall not be unnecessarily exposed on floors. Carpeting, if used, shall be of closely woven construction, properly installed, easily cleanable and maintained in good repair. Carpeting is prohibited in rooms where ingredients and food are manufactured, processed, packaged, prepared, cooked, chilled, frozen, stored or served; equipment and utensils are washed and stored; food or food contact surfaces are exposed; as well as in dressing rooms, locker rooms, toilet rooms and vestibules.

9.2

9.3

9.4 9.5 9.6

10

WALLS, CEILINGS AND APPURTENANCES 10.1 Walls, ceilings and non-supporting partitions, including all appurtenances thereto, of rooms where perishable ingredients are stored; ingredients and food are manufactured, processed, packaged, prepared, cooked, chilled, frozen, stored or served; equipment and utensils are washed and stored; food or food contact surfaces are exposed; as well as floors in dressing rooms, locker rooms, toilet 93

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Food Establishments, SASC-S-04

rooms and vestibules; shall have a durable, nonabsorbent, smooth, washable, light colored and easily cleanable surface. They shall not support the accumulation of dirt, condensation or mold development. The use of rough or unsealed and unfinished building materials, such as brick, concrete blocks and wooden beams, is prohibited in these rooms. Concrete or pumice blocks used for interior wall construction shall be finished and sealed to provide a smooth, easily cleanable surface. 10.2 Studs, joists and rafters shall not be exposed in rooms outlined above. If exposed in other rooms of the food establishment, they shall be properly finished to provide a smooth, easily cleanable surface. All surfaces shall be continuous, easily cleanable and free from cracks, crevices and open joints. Conduits, pipes and cables shall be properly chased into the structure of the building wherever practicable. When otherwise installed conduits, pipes and cables shall be kept to a minimum, properly protected and covered with a material that will facilitate easy cleaning. Wall or ceiling mounted light fixtures, vent covers, fans, decorative materials, equipment and appurtenances shall be installed in a way that does not obstruct or prevent cleaning, shall be designed and constructed to facilitate cleaning, shall be made of easily cleanable materials, and shall be maintained in good repair.

10.3 10.4

10.5

11

DOORS AND WINDOWS 11.1 All openings to the outside shall have solid doors or glazed windows that shall be kept tightly closed when not in use. Doors, windows and appurtenances thereto, shall be designed and constructed to avoid accumulation of dirt and shall be finished such that they are smooth, nonabsorbent and easily cleanable. All outer doors shall be tight fitting and self-closing. All doors, including sliding or folding types, shall be constructed so that the space between the lower edge of the door and the threshold does not exceed 6.4 millimeters (0.25 inch). The space between sections of folding and sliding doors, when closed, shall not exceed 6.4 millimeters (0.25 inch). All exposed edges of the lower 20.3 centimeters (8 inches) of wooden doors and jambs serving exterior entrances, or any other door easily accessible to rodents shall be protected by covering such edges of doors and jambs with metal sheeting that cannot be gnawed through. All ventilation and other non-window openings that cannot be solidly sealed and that remain accessible to insects and rodents shall be appropriately screened by grills, hardware cloth or other material capable of precluding the entrance of insects, rodents and other vermin. Note that the swingtype louvered flaps that automatically close when an exhaust or ventilation fan is switched off are deemed to be acceptable screening if they are kept clean and in good repair. Effective means shall be provided to prevent entrance of flies when outside doors must be opened for immediate passage through the door. This shall be deemed satisfied when all outside door openings are fitted with properly operated air curtain devices or other equally effective means for impeding the entry by flies. Note that these devices are designed to hamper, not completely stop, the movement of flies through a door. They do not block entry by crawling insects, rodents, animals or other vermin; and they do not hold cool air in or keep hot air, dust smoke and other potential sources of contamination out of the food establishment. Provision of such devices does not in any way reduce the need for solid, tight-fitting, self-closing doors that are kept tightly closed when not in immediate use. Openable windows shall be provided with suitable screens made of non- corrosive materials and designed in such a way as to facilitate their cleaning and maintenance (screening shall not be less than six mesh per centimeter {16 mesh per inch}). Note that the desert environment of Saudi Arabia is very dusty and subject to high temperatures and extreme temperature shifts. Opened windows represent a contamination hazard and are likely to tax ventilation and temperature control systems. It is recommended that windows not be opened except to air the building in response to a specific emergency situation. Openable windows shall be kept tightly closed at all other times. 94

11.2

11.3

11.4

11.5

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Food Establishments, SASC-S-04

12

ILLUMINATION 12.1 Shatter-proof protective light shields designed to contain broken glass from exploding electric light bulbs shall be provided for all artificial lights fixed and suspended over areas where ingredients and packaging are stored; food is manufactured, processed, packaged, prepared, cooked, chilled, frozen, stored or served; equipment and utensils are washed or stored; and food contact surfaces are exposed. The levels of illumination, whether from natural or artificial sources, shall be provided as per requirements in Table 1. In all cases, illumination shall be evenly distributed and of sufficient intensity to avoid discoloration, shadows and strong glare. Illumination shall meet the requirements of SAES-P123, Saudi Aramco Engineering Standards.

12.2

Area to be Illuminated Desk in office Dining room Food service area Hallway Packaging areas Processing at work surface/ preparation areas Stairway Storage areas Warewashing area All other indoor areas Walk in chiller/freezers Dry good stores Buffets/salad bars Handwashing areas Toilets

TABLE 1 Illumination Illumination Levels Required* Lux Foot candles 320 30 320 30 540 50 110 10 215 20 540 50 110 215 540 110 110 110 220 220 220 10 20 50 10 10 10 22 22 22

Measured at a distance of 76 centimeters (30 inches) above the floor, unless otherwise stated.

13

VENTILATION 13.1 Ventilation shall be provided to remove gases, odors, steam, excessive heat, grease, vapors and smoke from the food establishment. Ventilation systems shall be installed and operated according to Standards equivalent to those outlined in Saudi Aramco Engineering Standards. Intake air ducts shall be designed and maintained to prevent the entrance of dust, dirt and other contaminating materials. Grills, hardware cloth or other material capable of precluding entrance of insects and rodents shall appropriately screen all ventilation openings. Note that automatic fan ventilation openings are acceptable for rodent stoppage if the fan covering is maintained in good repair. Positive air pressure shall be required between clean areas and less clean areas. A clean area is defined as an area where foods are manufactured, processed, packaged, prepared, cooked, chilled, frozen or stored.

13.2

13.3

14

PLUMBING AND CROSS CONNECTION CONTROL 95

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Food Establishments, SASC-S-04

14.1

Plumbing shall be designed, sized and installed according to Standards equivalent to the Saudi Aramco Plumbing Code. Plumbing and plumbing fixtures shall be operated and maintained in a way that prevents contamination. Plumbing and plumbing fixtures shall be kept clean, operative and in good repair. The water supply to any kitchen, processing or manufacturing area, and food preparation room or to any potable water faucet shall be adequately protected against back siphonage and backflow of contaminated water. In a system where there is the potential for backflow or back siphonage of water, no hose will be fitted to the faucet unless a suitable back flow prevention device is installed. There shall be no cross connection between the potable water supply and any unsafe or questionable water supply, sewerage system or any source of pollution that might contaminate or otherwise degrade the potable water supply. There shall be no direct physical connection between the sewerage system and any drain originating from equipment that contains food or food equipment and utensils. 14.4.1 Drainage from equipment, refrigeration units and other equipment shall be discharged to a floor sink, funnel drain or evaporator basin. An air gap of at least twice the inner diameter of the discharge outlet shall be provided between the discharge outlet and the flood-level rim of the receiving drain/basin. Dishwashing machines may be connected directly to the sewer immediately downstream from a floor drain or they may be drained through an approved indirect connection. Indirect waste receptors shall be located to be readily accessible for inspection and cleaning.

14.2

14.3

14.4

14.4.2

14.4.3 14.5

Where a carbonating device is installed on equipment, the integrity of the water supply to the device shall be protected against contamination by carbon dioxide or carbonic acid by being a completely enclosed system, with air gap or proper effective check valves installed between the two systems. A non-potable water system is permitted only for purposes such as air conditioning and fire protection. There shall be no connection whatsoever between a potable water supply and a nonpotable water supply unless there is no other alternative. Where a connection does exist the maximum protection shall be installed between the two systems in the provision of a reduced pressure back flow preventor or other devices approved by EPD upon application/request. Piping systems, exclusive of food establishment process and product systems shall be color-coded. Non-toxic paints shall be used (the use of paints containing lead shall be avoided). The following colorcoding scheme is recommended:

14.6

14.7

TABLE 2 Piping System Color-Code Piping System Chilled Water Chlorine, Gas and Liquid Condensate Water Distilled and Demineralized Water Raw Water Sea, Salt or Brine Water Treated (any process)
Note:

Base Color Blue Yellow Blue Blue Blue Blue Blue

Identifying Color Stripe 1-Gray 1-Oxide Red 1-White 1-Aluminum 1-Black 1-Yellow 1-Oxide Red

HVAC lines and electrical conduits are not color-coded but are painted the same color as the background construction

96

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15

WATER 15.1 Water shall be obtained, conveyed, treated, stored and distributed in a closed system. Design, construction, maintenance and operational Standards, as well as quality criteria, shall comply with requirements equivalent to those outlined in Section SASC-S-01 of this Code and Standards referenced in Saudi Aramco Engineering Standards. Water wells (or other water source) and collection, conveyance, treatment, storage and distribution systems, or parts thereof, which are newly constructed, have been repaired or have otherwise become contaminated, shall be disinfected according to requirements outlined in Section SASC-S-01 of this Code before being used. The supply shall be purged of all but normal residual amounts of disinfectant (less than 3.0 milligrams per liter if chlorine is used to disinfect the system) before a sample for bacteriological testing is collected. All water not provided directly by pipe to the food establishment from the source shall be transported in a bulk water transport system that is used for no other purpose. Hauled water shall be delivered directly to the closed water system at the food establishment. The bulk water transport system shall comply with requirements outlined in Section SASC-S-01 of this Code. Water storage tanks shall be enclosed from the filling inlet to the discharge outlet. Tanks shall be designed with openings that permit visual inspection of the tank and provide access for cleaning and disinfection. All openings shall be covered. Covers shall overlap openings, be sloped so they are selfdraining and shall be provided with gaskets and devices for securing them in place. All openings in the top of the tank shall be flanged upward to form a curb that prevents surface water from entering openings. Vents and overflows shall terminate in a downward direction and shall be screened to prevent entry by birds and other animals. All water storage tanks shall be provided with a sample tap. All potable water supplied to the food establishment shall be disinfected by chlorination or other means or methods of equal efficacy in the killing or removal of organisms capable of causing infection. When chlorination is employed, a sufficient amount of chlorine shall be added to the water to maintain a chlorine residual of at least 0.5 milligrams per liter (0.5 parts per million) at all points in the distribution system from which water may be withdrawn. Cold running water shall be delivered to all equipment that uses water. Additionally, hot water shall be provided to all hand washbasins, showers and warewashing facilities. Water shall be delivered at a minimum pressure of at least 1.4 kilograms per square centimeter (20 pounds per square inch) with a minimum flow of at least 3.8 liters per minute (1 gallon per minute). The temperature of hot water shall equal or exceed 49C (120F). Sufficient taps and hoses shall be provided to support food establishment operations. A hose used for conveying potable water to water storage tanks shall be constructed of safe materials, shall have a smooth interior surface, shall be used for no other purpose and shall be clearly identified as to its use. Caps and keeper chains shall be provided for water system inlet and outlet fittings, as well as hose fittings. All such fittings shall be capped when not in immediate use. The hose shall be stored and used so as to be kept free of contamination. Water treatment equipment, devices, filters, or any other water treatment or conditioning apparatus, shall be made of safe materials; shall be designed to be disassembled for periodic replacement of active elements/media, cleaning and service; shall be operated, inspected and serviced according to the manufacturers' instructions and specifications; and shall not be operated beyond their rated capacity. All such equipment shall be maintained in a clean and sanitary condition and, if necessary, shall be sanitized by approved means. Steam used in contact with food or food contact surfaces shall be produced from potable water and shall be free from any harmful materials or additives. 97

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15.3

15.4

15.5

15.6

15.7

15.8

15.9

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Food Establishments, SASC-S-04

15.10

Drinking water fountains and associated requirements: 15.10.1 Drinking fountains, if provided, shall be approved angle-jet type and shall be provided with an adequate supply of water under pressure. Spillage, overflow, drainage or wastewater from drinking fountains and faucets shall be discharged to the sewerage system through approved drains to prevent impoundment of water, creation of mud holes or other nuisance conditions. Open containers from which water must be dipped or poured, such as barrels, pails or tanks, whether or not they are fitted with a cover, are prohibited. Where single service paper cups are provided, cups shall be dispensed from a sanitary device designed for this purpose and a waste receptacle shall be provided for disposal of used cups. The common drinking cup is prohibited.

15.10.2

15.10.3

15.10.4

15.10.5 16 SEWAGE 16.1

Sewage and all liquid wastes shall be disposed of according to requirements equivalent to those outlined in Section SASC-S-02 of this Code. Pit latrines, outhouses and other non- water-carried sewage disposal methods are prohibited. Sewage shall be discharged to a municipal sewerage system. Where no such system is available, sewage shall be discharged to a suitable treatment and disposal facility that is sized, constructed, maintained and operated according to requirements equivalent to those outlined in Section SASC-S-02 of this Code. Floor drains and sewer pipes shall be large enough to carry off all wash and wastewater and sanitary sewage. Sufficient clean-out places shall be provided in sewer drainpipes. If used, grease traps shall be located so they are easily accessible for cleaning.

16.2

16.3

16.4

17

TOILETS, SHOWERS AND HANDWASHING (GENERAL) 17.1 Sufficient individually accessible toilet and handwashing facilities shall be provided, as appropriate. They shall be designed and located to permit simultaneous use. TABLE 3 Numbers and Types of Fixtures Required persons Number of toilets and Number of hand washbasins the food urinals* 1 2 3 4 6 7 one for each 10 additional persons 98 1 2 3 4 6 7 one for each persons 10 additional

Number of employed in establishment From 1 to 10 From 11 to 20 From 21 to 30 From 31 to 50 From 51 to 60 From 61 to 70 More than 70

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Food Establishments, SASC-S-04

Installation Hand washbasin Shower cubical Shower stall Toilet compartment Urinal 17.2

TABLE 4 Minimum Space Required for Each Type of Installation Minimum Minimum Minimum Space Per Width Depth Unit 2 60 cm 105 cm 1.1 m 2 75 cm 75 cm 1.3 m 2 75 cm 75 cm 1.3 m 2 80 cm 105 cm 1.5 m 2 60 cm 105 cm 1.1 m

Urinals may be substituted for water closets on a one to one basis, except that the number of water closets may not be reduced to less than two-thirds of the number required. Toilet rooms, and where provided, shower rooms, shall be completely enclosed. They shall be designed, constructed and maintained according to Sections outlined in this Code. Toilet and handwashing facilities shall be accessible and conveniently located for employees use. Facilities are not considered to be readily accessible if an employee is required to climb more than one floor-to-floor flight of stairs or if they are located more than 61 meters (200 feet) from the location where the employee normally works. Entrance/exit doors to toilet rooms and shower rooms shall be tight fitting, self-closing and shall be kept closed when not in immediate use. Toilet room/shower room doors shall not open directly into areas where ingredients and packaging are stored; ingredients and food are manufactured, processed, packaged, prepared, cooked, chilled, frozen, stored or served; equipment and utensils are washed and stored; or where food or food contact surfaces are exposed. An exception to the above requirement is if there is provided an intervening ventilated space between the entrance to the toilet and an entrance to a food room. The intervening ventilated space shall be exhausted to the outside through its own mechanical exhaust system independent of the food establishment ventilation system, or the toilet/shower room ventilation system. Walls and ceilings shall be constructed of durable materials and shall have light colored, smooth, easily cleanable surfaces. Ceilings shall be at least 2.1 meters (7 feet) high as measured to the lowest projection from the ceiling. The junctions between the walls and floors shall be sealed and coved. The walls in toilet compartments and next to handwashing facilities shall be impervious to water, detergents and disinfectants and tiled to a minimum of 1.2 meters (4 feet). The walls in shower compartments shall be lined with glazed ceramic tiles or other suitable, continuous, easily cleanable surface to a minimum of 1.8 meters (6 feet) The walls or partitions between toilet/shower compartments may be less than the height of the room walls, but the tops shall not be less than 1.8 meters (6 feet) from the floor. If partitions are used, the bottoms of the partitions shall be raised at least 15 centimeters (6 inches) above the floor. In situations where a raised partition is not desirable, such as partitions separating eastern style toilet fixtures where a raised partition may not afford suitable privacy, partitions shall be placed on a continuous raised masonry or concrete base at least 15 centimeters (6 inches) high, or a properly designed and constructed wall that joins the floor shall be provided. Floors shall be constructed of durable materials, which are slip- resistant, smooth, easily cleanable, and impervious to water, detergents and disinfectants (carpeting is prohibited). Floors shall be sloped to trapped floor drains. The junctions between floors and walls shall be sealed and coved. Each toilet fixture (water closet) shall occupy a separate compartment. 17.8.1 Toilet bowls shall be set entirely free and open from all enclosing structures and shall be so installed that the space around the fixture can be easily cleaned. This does not prohibit the use of wall-hung toilets. 99

17.3

17.4

17.5

17.6

17.7

17.8

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Food Establishments, SASC-S-04

17.8.2

Every western-type toilet shall be made of substantial materials having a smooth, nonabsorbent, easily cleanable finish. They shall be fitted with a hinged, open-front seat. A holder supplied with toilet tissue shall be provided in each toilet compartment. Every eastern-type toilet shall be made of substantial material having a smooth, nonabsorbent, easily cleanable finish. Each toilet compartment shall be provided with a water tap for washing (and a supply of toilet paper with holder, where indicated). Water taps in eastern toilet compartments shall be fitted with appropriate backflow prevention devices designed to protect the water distribution system from contamination. Covered waste receptacles shall be provided in all toilet compartments used by women.

17.8.3

17.8.4 17.9

Toilet room handwashing facilities shall comply with the same requirements as those outlined in sub-section 18 of this Code Section Each shower fixture (shower bath) shall occupy a separate compartment. The compartment shall be composed of a cubical with a bench and a clothes hook and a separated shower stall. The visual privacy of the bather shall be maintained. Privacy curtains, if used, shall be of easily cleanable material and kept clean. 17.10.1 Shower floors shall be self-draining. The design shall preclude the flow of water into adjacent areas. Shower floors shall be slip-resistant or be provided with impervious, non-slip mats. If impervious mats are used, they shall be cleaned, sanitized and air dried at least once daily. Mats shall not be kept on the shower floor when not in use. Showers shall be supplied with water at a temperature of at least 32C (90F) at a rate of at least 11.4 liters (3 gallons) per minute. Thermostatic, tempering or mixing valves shall be installed to prevent scalding of bathers. Any slow-closing faucet used, shall provide a flow of water for at least 30 seconds without the need to reactivate the faucet.

17.10

17.10.2

17.10.3

17.11

All facilities shall be well ventilated and free of excessive condensation. They shall be suitably cooled or heated. They shall be provided with mechanical ventilation systems capable of providing the equivalent of five air changes per hour. At least 20 percent of the air supply shall be taken from the outside. Note that the requirements regarding the circulation of air from clean to "less clean" areas may dictate that an independent mechanical ventilation system be provided. If this is not feasible, mechanical extract fans may be used in lieu of the required mechanical ventilation system. Extract fans shall be capable of exhausting 1 cubic meter (35 cubic feet) of air per minute for each toilet, urinal, shower or hand washbasin installed. The storage of ingredients, equipment, utensils or single service articles in toilet rooms, shower rooms, handwashing areas or vestibules is prohibited. Legible signs made of durable materials directing all users to wash their hands after using the toilet/urinal shall be posted in every toilet room (in Arabic, English and other appropriate languages).

17.12

17.13

18

HANDWASH BASINS AND HAND WASHING 18.1 Conveniently located, accessible handwash basins shall be provided for food handlers to wash hands. As a minimum all food handlers in food production areas, processing areas, food preparation or packaging areas, and those persons engaged in cooking, serving or ware-washing should have access to conveniently located handwash basins. EPD will determine, on a case-by-case basis, whether handwash basins are conveniently located, adequate or accessible. Sinks that are used for food preparation, utensil washing and janitor sinks are not considered acceptable as substitutes for handwash basins.

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18.2

Where there are adequate food preparation and ware-wash sinks, EPD may permit the use of a food preparation sink to be used for hand washing purposes provided that the sink is dedicated for hand washing only, has a sign indicating that the sink is for hand washing only and there are extenuating circumstances for not providing a proper handwash sink. Hand washing facilities that are constructed or remodeled shall be provided with tempered water from a self-closing combination or premixing faucet that supplies warm water for a minimum of 15 seconds while both hands are free for washing and rinsing (also refer to water supply requirements in sub-section 15 of this Code Section). A foot, knee or elbow operated combination or premixing faucet may be substituted for a self-closing faucet. The manually operated, stem-type hot and cold mixing valves currently installed in existing facilities shall be scheduled for remodeling at the earliest possible date. Hand washing cleanser and single-use paper towels shall be provided in dispensers at or next to hand washbasins at all times (common towels are prohibited). A refuse container lined with a disposable plastic bag shall be provided next to paper towel dispensers. The refuse container need not be covered if used on a continuing basis for nothing other than the disposal of paper towels.

18.3

18.4

19

CHANGING AREAS AND LOCKERS 19.1 A changing area, separate from toilet rooms and food related areas, shall be provided wherever the work performed involves exposure to excessive dirt, heat, fumes, vapor or moisture. Where the process in which the worker is engaged is such that his work clothing becomes wet or has to be washed between shifts, provision shall be made to ensure that such clothing is dry before reuse. Lockers or other suitable facilities shall be provided and used for the storage of employee's street clothing and personal belongings. Since a clean uniform must be worn each day, facilities for storing wet uniforms for reuse are not required. Hooks or a rail fitted with captive hangers shall be provided for hanging aprons and other reusable protective clothing. The hooks/hangers shall be sufficiently spaced to allow free air circulation around all items when all hooks/hangers are used. Shoe/boot racks shall be provided for proper air-drying of shoes and boots. The racks shall be sufficiently spaced to allow free air circulation around all items when all hooks/racks are used. Clothes shall not be hung in any area other than those areas specifically designated in sub-section 19 of this Code Section.

19.2

19.3

19.4

19.5

19.6

20

AMBIENT STORAGE FACILITIES 20.1 Non-refrigerated storage facilities: 20.1.1 Adequate and suitable space, fixed shelving and movable storage dollies, skids, racks and open-ended pallets shall be provided to accommodate orderly, uncluttered, off-the-floor storage of all dry goods, packaging materials and products. Fixed shelving shall be designed and made of (or finished with) materials that are durable, smooth, impervious and easily cleanable. The bottom shelf of a fixed shelving unit shall be raised at least 15 centimeters (6 inches) above the floor. In warehouses and large dry stores, as a minimum, an aisle 60cm (2 feet) but preferably 90cm (3 feet) shall be provided between walls and fixed shelving units, and between fixed shelving units running parallel to each other.

20.1.2

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20.1.3

Movable dollies, skids, racks and open-ended pallets may rest directly on the floor if the storage device can be moved easily by hand operated or motorized moving equipment. If used, movable dollies, skids, racks or open-ended pallets shall be placed at least 46 centimeters (18 inches) away from all walls. Temperatures in dry goods and non-refrigerated ambient food stores shall be maintained at below 30C (86F).

20.1.4

20.2

Non-refrigerated storage practices: 20.2.1 Dry goods, packaging materials and products shall be stored in an orderly, uncluttered, offthe-floor manner on fixed shelving or on movable dollies, skids, racks or open-ended pallets in a way that allows access for proper cleaning, ventilation, stock rotation and pest control activities, and that protects stored items from contamination. Dry goods, packaging materials and products shall not be stored under exposed sewer lines or in areas subject to flooding, drainage, overhead leakage, condensation or other physical, bacterial or chemical contaminants. They shall be protected from contamination and adulteration by all agents, including dust, coughs and sneezes, insects, vermin, toxic substances, unclean equipment and utensils. An easily distinguishable first-in first-out stock rotation system, such as expiry date placarding of pallets, shall be used in the facility to avoid using outdated stock. The first- in first-out system shall identify and use supplies that will expire first, not those that were received first. All stored items shall be examined regularly for signs of damage, pest infestation and to ensure that they are used before they expire. Unusable items, e.g. blown, severely dented and seam damaged cans, as well as outdated items, shall be discarded. If such items must be held until they have been written-off, a separate area shall be designated and utilized for storage of damaged and/or outdated stock. Damaged and/or outdated stock shall be removed from the premises expeditiously to avoid mixing with regular stock. Stored foods, whether raw or prepared, if removed from the containers they were received in, shall be enclosed in clean, covered, food-grade containers that have been used for no purpose other than food storage. 20.2.5.1 Bulk storage containers and container covers shall be labeled to identify stored foods by their common names. The use of cloth towels or plastic bags as container covers is prohibited. Properly designed and constructed plastic or stainless steel scoops shall be provided for bulk ingredient/ food dispensing. Cans and garden shovels are not acceptable substitutes for proper scoops. Scoops shall be jabbed into the bulk food item with the handle up for storage.

20.2.2

20.2.3

20.2.4

20.2.5

20.2.5.2

20.2.6

Foods not subject to further washing or cooking shall be protected from contamination by foods requiring washing or cooking, e.g. washed fruit shall be stored separately from unwashed fruit. After a fire, flood, power outage or other disaster that might result in the contamination of food or that might prevent potentially hazardous food from being held at required temperatures, the person in charge shall immediately contact Saudi Aramco EPD. On receiving notice of this occurrence, EPD shall take whatever action is required to protect public health.

20.2.7

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21

REFRIGERATED STORAGE 21.1 Refrigerated storage facilities: 21.1.1 Sufficient and adequate, conveniently located refrigeration/freezer units shall be provided to accommodate orderly, uncluttered, off-the-floor storage of all ingredients and products on shelves and racks that comply with requirements outlined in sub-section 25 of this Code Section. Each refrigerator/freezer shall be designed to include at least one built-in temperature indicating device that is accurate to 1C (2F). The temperature-sensing probe shall be located to measure the air temperature in the warmest part of the unit. The temperature display device shall be positioned so that it is easily readable, preferably built-in to the outside face of the refrigerator/freezer unit at eye level. Where cook-chill is practiced a commercial blast chiller shall be provided to reduce the temperature of hot foods rapidly to below 5C (41F). Where cook-freeze is practiced, a commercial blast freezer shall be provided to reduce the temperature of hot foods rapidly to below -18C (0F). Refrigeration units shall be capable of maintaining a temperature of 5C (41F) or below at all times under maximum load/use conditions. Freezer units shall be capable of maintaining a temperature of -18C (0F) or below at all times under maximum load/use conditions.

21.1.2

21.1.3

21.1.4

21.2

Refrigerated storage practices: 21.2.1 All foods requiring refrigeration shall be maintained at a temperature of 5C (41F) or below. The temperature of frozen food shall be maintained at -18C (0F) or below. If a separate refrigeration unit is used to rapidly cool foods from hot/warm temperatures to 5C (41F) or below, cooled foods shall be transferred immediately to a Section holding refrigeration unit for routine storage. This is required to ensure that adequate space and capacity is available for rapid cooling of hot/warm foods. Temperature gauges of refrigerators chill display cabinets and freezers shall be checked a minimum of twice daily, 8 12 hour intervals but preferably thrice daily and the temperature recorded on a log sheet. Log sheets to be kept at the facility for a minimum of 6 months. In open chill display cabinets food product temperatures shall also be checked on a daily basis and the temperature recorded. Checking of food temperature may be by the use of an approved commercial Infra-red directional thermometer or by the use of a sanitized probe thermometer. Refrigerators and freezers shall not be over stocked. All items shall be stored in an orderly, uncluttered, off-the-floor manner on shelves or racks. The free circulation of air shall be maintained in refrigerators and freezers. Stored items shall not be placed in front of the cooling unit. Freezers shall be defrosted regularly. Food shall not be stored in contact with undrained ice. Stored foods, whether raw or processed, if removed from the original containers, shall be enclosed in clean, covered, food-grade containers that have been used for no purpose other than food storage. Additionally, frozen foods shall be adequately wrapped to avoid freezer burn.

21.2.2

21.2.3

21.2.4

21.2.5

21.2.6 21.2.7 21.2.8

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21.2.9

Cloth, toweling and other fabrics shall not be used to cover containers, except that specially cared for towel covers essential to the leavening of dough may be permitted if suitable alternative materials are unavailable for this unique process. All raw foods considered as potentially contaminated shall be totally segregated in storage from cooked and ready to eat foods. Wherever practical, separate refrigerators, suitably labeled, shall be provided. Where it is unavoidable to store raw and cooked foods together in the same refrigerator then raw foods shall be placed on the lowest shelves in the refrigerator. All possible steps shall be taken to prevent cross contamination in the refrigerator. Raw and cooked foods shall be totally segregated and there shall be no risk of drips or spillage from raw foods contaminating cooked and ready to eat foods. Containers shall be arranged in the refrigerator/freezer to provide for unrestricted heat transfer through the container walls. Containers subject to rapid cooling shall be loosely covered during the cooling period so as not to restrict airflow to the surface of the food. Cooled containers shall be tightly covered. Ice that has been used for cooling stored food; food containers or food utensils shall not be used for human consumption.

21.2.10

21.2.11

21.2.12

22

GARBAGE AND REFUSE 22.1 Garbage and refuse facilities: 22.1.1 Prior to removal from the premises all garbage and refuse shall be stored in a way that makes it inaccessible to insects, rodents and other vermin. Outside storage of garbage or refuse in open piles or in any container other than an approved garbage or refuse container is prohibited. Inside storage of waste in open piles on the floor of the garbage/refuse storage room is prohibited, but waste may be stored in properly closed, heavy duty plastic bags that may be stacked on the floor of a properly designed and constructed refuse facility. A garbage/refuse storage room, whether located outside or inside the food establishment, shall be large enough to store the garbage/refuse containers that accumulate between disposal periods. Walls, ceilings and all attachments thereto, shall be constructed of smooth, easily cleanable, nonabsorbent materials. The floor shall be constructed of a smooth, easily cleanable, nonabsorbent material, such as sealed concrete, and shall be properly sloped to a trapped drain. The structure shall be insect and rodent-proof. The entrance door to the room shall be fitted with an air curtain device. The storage room shall be kept clean and maintained in good repair. Additionally, garbage/refuse storage rooms shall not be located inside a food facility unless they are refrigerated to 5C (41F) or less. All dedicated garbage rooms shall be of adequate size to accommodate refuse generated from the food establishment that accumulates between collection periods. Facilities shall be provided for cleaning garbage/refuse containers, lugger boxes and compactor systems after they are emptied. As a minimum, the facility shall be provided with hot running water delivered at a minimum pressure of at least 1.4 kilograms per square centimeter (20 pounds per square inch) with a minimum flow of at least 3.8 liters per minute. A floor constructed of a smooth, easily cleanable, nonabsorbent material, such as sealed concrete, that is properly sloped to a trapped drain connected to the sewerage system.

22.1.2

22.1.3

22.1.4

22.2

Garbage and refuse containers: 22.2.1 Approved garbage and refuse containers shall include Standard 115 liters (30 gallons) steel garbage cans, modified 210 liters (55 gallons) steel drums, purpose-built lugger boxes and compactor systems. All such containers shall be made of durable, nonabsorbent, easily cleanable materials that are impervious to attack by insects, rodents and other vermin. They 104

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Food Establishments, SASC-S-04

shall be designed and constructed so that they do not leak. Drain plugs, where required, shall be in place at all times except during cleaning. 22.2.2 Refuse equipment and containers shall be provided with tight- fitting lids, doors or covers. 22.2.2.1 The lids, doors or covers of outside refuse equipment and containers shall be kept in the closed position when not in immediate use. Refuse containers that are being actively used in the food facility need not be covered. Refuse containers shall be covered when not being actively used. Filled refuse containers shall be covered and removed from the food establishment to the refuse storage facility.

22.2.2.2

22.2.3

The cover and the outside surface of the 210 liters (55 gallons), 115 liters (30 gallons) and smaller containers shall be labeled with the word "GARBAGE" or "REFUSE." Once used as garbage or refuse container, the lid and container shall not be used for any other purpose, especially food preparation or storage. The 210 liters (55 gallons), 115 liters (30 gallons) and smaller containers shall be lined with heavy duty plastic bags to minimize cleaning requirements and facilitate removal of refuse. Refuse containers shall be provided where refuse is generated. There shall be a sufficient number of approved containers to hold all the garbage and refuse that is produced at the work site and to accommodate the total amount accumulated in the refuse holding facility between disposal periods. After being emptied, each container shall be thoroughly washed with hot water and detergent on the inside and outside in a way that does not contaminate food, equipment, utensils or food preparation areas. Refuse equipment and containers shall not, by their location or installation, create a nuisance or prevent cleaning of adjacent space.

22.2.4

22.2.5

22.2.6

22.2.7

22.3

Garbage and refuse disposal: 22.3.1 Refuse shall be disposed of often enough to prevent the development of odors and the attraction of insects and rodents. Waste shall be removed to the disposal facility in a purpose- built refuse transport vehicle. All refuse shall be disposed of in a municipal sanitary landfill. Open dumps and burn pits are prohibited.

22.3.2 22.3.3

23

JANITOR'S CLOSET 23.1 A room, area, or cabinet separated from areas where ingredients and packaging are stored; ingredients and food are manufactured, processed, packaged, prepared, cooked, chilled, frozen, stored or served; equipment and utensils are washed and stored; or where food or food contact surfaces are exposed shall be provided for the storage of cleaning equipment and supplies, e.g. mops, buckets, brooms, cleansers and waxes. The food establishment shall be equipped with at least one of the following to be used exclusively for general cleaning purposes and for the disposal of mop bucket wastes and other liquid wastes: a) a one compartment, nonporous janitorial sink; or b) a slab, basin, or floor constructed of concrete or equivalent material, curbed and sloped to a drain. Such systems shall be connected to a properly trapped drain, provided with a hot and cold water supply through a mixing valve, and the water supply protected against back siphonage. 105

23.2

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Food Establishments, SASC-S-04

24

CLEANING AND PREVENTIVE MAINTENANCE 24.1 A single individual shall be assigned responsibility for the cleanliness of the food establishment. This individual shall have assistant personnel, all of whom are well trained on the assembling and use of special cleaning tools and the safe and effective use of detergents and disinfectants. At least one of these assistants shall be capable of assuming his responsibilities should he be absent from the food establishment. All personnel shall be aware of the hazards of contamination. A cleaning and preventive maintenance program shall be developed and implemented. For purposes of this Code Section, non-food contact surfaces of some large equipment, e.g. conveyer lines, outer surfaces of washing machines, outer surfaces of ovens and outer surfaces of refrigeration units, are part of the physical facility and shall be subject to programmed cleaning as well as routine equipment cleaning. 24.2.1 The program shall identify all physical facilities, both inside and outside the food establishment. Each individual facility shall be assessed as to how it might contribute to the contamination of ingredients, products, equipment, utensils and other food contact surfaces. After this is completed, assess how cleaning and maintenance of each individual facility can most effectively reduce or prevent contamination. Formulate specific cleaning/maintenance policies, procedures and methods designed to reduce the risk of contamination. The completed program shall include a manual that lists all facilities; the cleaning and/or maintenance needs unique to each facility; the specific equipment, tools and chemicals, as well as the step by step procedures and methods required to complete each cleaning and/or maintenance task; and the name of the individual(s) responsible for completing the task.

24.2

24.2.2

24.3

A cleaning schedule shall be developed and implemented. The schedule shall outline the frequency that all facilities identified in the cleaning program will be cleaned. Specific dates and times shall be assigned to daily, weekly, monthly and quarterly cleaning cycles. Maintenance and cleaning tools, such as brooms, mops, buckets, vacuum cleaners, shall be stored in a way that prevents contamination of ingredients, equipment, utensils and products; and in a way that expedites cleaning of the maintenance equipment facility (refer to sub-section 22 of this Code Section). The cleaning of mops and similar cleaning tools, and the disposal of mop water and similar liquid wastes in food preparation sinks, hand washbasins and warewashing facilities, are prohibited (refer to sub-section 22 of this Code Section). Single-use, disposable paper towels shall be used for cleaning food contact surfaces. If multi-use, disposable paper cloths are used for cleaning non-food contact surfaces, they shall be rinsed frequently in an approved sanitizing solution, stored in that solution between uses and shall be used for no other purpose. If hypochlorite solution is used the concentration of available chlorine shall not be less than 100 parts per million. The disposable paper cloth shall be replaced as often as is necessary. All facilities shall be kept clean, in good repair and free of insects, rodents and objectionable odors. All toilet, shower and handwashing fixtures, and adjacent floors and walls subject to splash, shall be cleaned with detergent, rinsed and then sanitized with a 0.3 to 0.6 percent hypochlorite solution, or equivalent, at least once daily. Dustless methods shall be used, such as vacuum cleaning, wet cleaning, or the use of dust-arresting sweeping compounds on floors. High level cleaning of ceilings, gantries, rafters and light fixtures requires special access equipment that shall be available, either in the food establishment or through an agreement with a company that provides such equipment when needed. 106

24.4

24.5

24.6

24.7

24.8

24.9

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Food Establishments, SASC-S-04

24.10

Cleaning, except emergency cleaning, shall be done during periods when the least amount of equipment, ingredient and product is exposed, such as after the day's production is completed.

25

EQUIPMENT AND UTENSILS (GENERAL) 25.1 All new and replacement equipment shall meet or be equivalent to applicable U.S. National Sanitation Foundation (NSF) Standards or, in the absence of applicable NSF Standards, be approved by Saudi Aramco EPD. Equipment components, such as doors, seals, hinges and fasteners, shall be kept intact, tight and adjusted according to the manufacturers' specifications and good engineering practices. All machines shall be designed to perform their functions with minimal operator assistance. If operators must perform a task manually, the machine shall be designed such that manual operation may be performed without the operator or his clothing touching food contact surfaces or the product. Color-coded knife handles and matching cutting boards shall be provided for different food preparation activities. This is required to minimize and control cross contamination (also see subsection 31.5 of this Code Section). Where color coded knives and boards are provided the following recognized color scheme is recommended: Red Yellow White Green Brown Blue 25.5 Materials: 25.5.1 All equipment and utensils shall be made of, repaired with and finished with safe, nontoxic, corrosion resistant, nonabsorbent materials which are resistant to denting, buckling, pitting, chipping and crazing. Materials shall not impart odors, color or taste, nor contribute to the contamination of food. Food contact surfaces shall not contain lead, antimony or cadmium; whether it be contained in the base metal alloy or it is plated onto the surface of the base metal. The use of solder containing antimony, cadmium or lead for repairing food equipment is prohibited. All solder used shall be specifically formulated for repair of food equipment and shall be composed of safe materials and be corrosion resistant. Galvanized metal shall not be used as a food contact surface. Cast iron shall not be used for utensils or food contact surfaces of equipment, except that cast iron may be used as a heated cooking surface for grills and griddles, and as a utensil serving surface if the utensil is used as part of an uninterrupted cooking process from cooking through service. Copper and copper alloys shall not be used for acid foods or for fittings or tubing downstream from either a check valve or a backflow device exposed to carbon dioxide. Equipment made of copper or its alloys shall be plated with tin so that foods shall not directly contact the copper or copper alloy metal. Hardwood, such as maple may be used for baker's tables or butchers blocks. The use of wood as a food contact surface under any other circumstance is prohibited, except that wood may be used for shipping crates that only contact fresh, whole fruits and vegetables. Raw meats products Cooked meat products Bakery/Dairy products Salad vegetables Raw vegetables Raw fish

25.2

25.3

25.4

25.5.2

25.5.3

25.5.4 25.5.5

25.5.6

25.5.7

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25.5.8

Glass, plastic and rubber or rubber-like materials are permitted for repeated use as food contact surfaces if they: a) are resistant under normal conditions of use to scratching, scoring, decomposition, crazing, chipping and distortion; b) are of sufficient weight and thickness to permit cleaning and sanitizing by normal dishwashing methods; c) are free of formaldehyde or any other substance that can affect the characteristics of the food it contacts; and d) they comply with all other requirements outlined in sub-section 25 of this Code Section. Conveyor belts shall be made of suitable, easily cleanable, nonabsorbent materials.

25.5.9 25.6

Design and fabrication: 25.6.1 All equipment and utensils shall be designed and fabricated for durability under conditions of normal use. Food contact surfaces, as well as non-food contact surfaces that require frequent cleaning or are exposed to splash or food debris, shall be designed and fabricated to be smooth and easily cleanable; free of breaks, open seams, cracks, chips, pits and similar imperfections; and free of unnecessary ledges, projections and difficult-to-clean internal corners and crevices. Threads shall be designed to facilitate cleaning. Ordinary "V" type threads are prohibited. Unless designed for in-place cleaning, food contact surfaces shall be accessible for cleaning and inspection by one of the following methods: a) cleaning and inspection without disassembly; b) cleaning and inspection after disassembly without the use of tools; or c) cleaning and inspection after disassembly with the use of simple tools kept available near the equipment, such as a mallet, a screwdriver or an open-ended wrench. Cutting or piercing parts of package openers shall be readily removable for cleaning. Sinks and drain boards shall be self-draining. Equipment requiring unsafe lubricants shall be designed and constructed so that the lubricant cannot leak, drip or be forced onto a food contact surface. Ventilation hoods and devices shall be designed to prevent condensate from dripping into ingredients, products, or onto food contact surfaces. Filters, if used, shall be readily removable for cleaning and replacement. Ventilation equipment shall be properly operated and maintained. Unless water-tight joints are provided, all piping, thermometers, rotary shafts and other parts extending into a food container shall be collared with a condensation, drip or dust sealing apron. Equipment shall be self-draining. The drain shall comply with requirements outlined in subsection 14.4 of this Code Section. Equipment and utensils fitted with blades, saws or other sharp-edged cutting tools shall be guarded and otherwise designed to protect operators from injury.

25.6.2

25.6.3 25.6.4 25.6.5

25.6.6

25.6.7

25.6.8

25.6.9

25.7

Location and installation: 25.7.1 Food equipment and food contact surfaces shall not be located in a locker room, toilet room, toilet room vestibule, garbage room, mechanical room, bedroom, or under an exposed sewer line, exposed non-potable water line, leaking water line, a surface where water condenses, any surface that drips, an open stairwell or under any other potential source of contamination. Aisles and working spaces between units of equipment and between equipment and walls shall be unobstructed and of sufficient width to permit personnel to perform their duties 108

25.7.2

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Food Establishments, SASC-S-04

readily without contamination of ingredients, products or food contact surfaces by clothing or personal contact. 25.7.3 Equipment that is placed on a table or counter unless portable shall be sealed to the table or counter or mounted on legs at least 10 centimeters (4 inches) high. All equipment shall be installed to facilitate cleaning of the equipment and adjacent areas. Equipment is not portable within the meaning of this Code Section unless: a) it is small and light enough to be moved easily by one person; and b) it has no utility connection, or has a utility connection that can be disconnected quickly, or has a flexible utility connection line of sufficient length to permit the equipment to be easily moved for cleaning. Floor mounted equipment, unless readily movable, shall be installed in one of the following ways: a) sealed to the floor; b) installed on a raised platform of concrete or other smooth material in a way that prevents liquids or food debris from seeping or settling underneath, between, or behind the equipment in spaces that are not open for cleaning and inspection; or c) installed on legs at least 15 centimeters (6 inches) off the floor, except that vertically mounted floor mixers may be elevated as little as 10 centimeters (4 inches) off the floor if no part of the floor under the mixer is more than 15 centimeters (6 inches) from the cleaning access. Unless sufficient space is provided for ease of cleaning between and behind each unit of floor mounted equipment, the space between it and adjoining equipment and between it and adjacent walls shall be closed. If exposed to seepage, the equipment shall be sealed to the adjoining equipment or adjacent walls.

25.7.4

25.7.5

25.7.6

25.8

Only safe food grade lubricants shall be used on equipment designed to receive lubrication of bearings and gears on, or within, a food contact surface. A three-compartment sink with two integral drain boards, accessory drain boards and drying racks shall be provided. Sink compartments and drain boards shall be large enough to accommodate the largest object cleaned. Hot and cold potable water that complies with requirements outlined in subsection 14 of this Code Section shall be provided to each sink compartment through a mixing valve.

25.9

26

TRANSPORTATION 26.1 All food, food products, drink and drink products transported to or between food establishments shall be protected by individually wrapped cartons, cases or crates, packaged so as to properly safeguard them from dust, dirt, filth, droplet infection, contamination, pollution, tastes, odor or other noxious substances. All perishable foods shall be transported in a way that protects them against deterioration, spoilage or lowering of quality. Precautions shall be taken to ensure that they reach their destination in the same quality and sanitary condition as when they were loaded on the vehicle. Refrigerated vehicles shall be used to transport chilled foods. Hot foods shall be transported in insulated containers that keep them hot. All vehicles used to transport food shall be so constructed and operated as to protect their contents from contamination and to ensure that required temperature limits, if applicable, are maintained. They shall not be used for any purpose other than the transport of food. They shall be kept clean and in good repair. Where cooked or chilled foods are transported between sites in containers that meet the requirements of this Code, prior to leaving the preparation site the temperature of all hazardous foods shall be checked with an accurate thermometer and the temperatures recorded. When the food arrives at the destination site the temperature of hazardous foods shall be checked by a competent, trained food services supervisor and the temperatures recorded. Throughout transportation, delivery and serving chilled food must be maintained at 5C (41F) or below and hot foods at 60C (140F) or 109

26.2

26.3

26.4

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Food Establishments, SASC-S-04

above. If, when checked, the temperature of the food is greater than 5C (41F) or below 60C (140F) then it must be consumed within 2 hours. 27 CLEANING AND SANITIZATION OF EQUIPMENT 27.1 The cleaning frequency of equipment and utensils shall be based on the temperature conditions during processing operations, type of ingredients (whether hazardous or non-hazardous foods), and degree of processing and potential exposure to contamination. The frequency of cleaning and sanitization shall be increased as the ambient temperature increases, the amount of processing increases, etc. 27.1.1 Utensils and food-contact surfaces that are not used continuously shall be cleaned and sanitized: a) after a substantial interruption in their continuous use, and b) after each period of use. Food-contact surfaces of mixers, production line, processing or continuously operating equipment shall be cleaned and sanitized: a) after a substantial interruption in the operation; b) throughout the day at intervals required to eliminate food temperature hazards and to reduce food particle accumulation; and c) at the end of each day's production. The food-contact surfaces of cooking devices shall be cleaned at least once per day except that this shall not apply to hot oil cooking equipment and hot oil filtering systems. Utensils and food contact surfaces of equipment not specified shall be cleaned and sanitized at a frequency based upon the type of food, temperature, risk of contamination and the amount of food particle accumulation. In general, such items shall be cleaned and sanitized after each period of use or at least once every four (4) hours. Non-food contact surfaces of equipment shall be cleaned as frequently as is necessary to keep surfaces free of accumulated dust, dirt, food particles and other soil. Refer to programmed cleaning schedules for physical facilities discussed in sub-section 24.2 of this Code Section. The boxes, baskets and other receptacles in which food establishment products are transported shall be maintained in good repair and kept free of accumulated dust, dirt, insects, rodents and other contamination.

27.1.2

27.1.3

27.1.4

27.1.5

27.1.6

27.2 27.3

Soiled equipment, utensils, etc shall be handled in a way that precludes contamination of cleaned items with soiled items. Dry cleaning methods such as scraping, brushing or vacuuming shall be used to remove accumulations of dust or dry food particles from surfaces that contact only dry, non-potentially hazardous food. Sanitization of those surfaces is not required. Equipment used in dry cleaning methods shall not be used for any other purpose. Multi-use dishes, utensils, pots/pans and disassembled parts of food contact equipment shall be subjected to the successive steps of washing, rinsing and sanitizing in a three compartment sink or warewashing machine. When cleaning in sinks or warewashing machines is impractical, e.g. when the equipment is too large or is fixed, cleaning shall be done by alternate methods. Alternative procedures shall provide for all three steps of the warewashing process. Utensils and equipment shall be disassembled to permit access to internal food contact surfaces. Dishes, utensils, pots/pans and disassembled parts shall be pre-flushed and/or pre-scraped and, when necessary, pre-soaked to remove gross food particles and soil. Fixed equipment shall be flushed, scraped or rough cleaned, as appropriate, to remove gross food particles and soil.

27.4

27.5 27.6

110

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27.7

Cleaning agent(s) shall be applied to all food contact surfaces to remove food particles and soil, e.g. hand swabbing while immersed in a hot detergent solution (35C [95F] or hotter) in the first compartment of a three compartment sink; mechanical cleaning as outlined in sub-section 28 of this Code Section; application of high pressure detergent sprays or low pressure foams on fixed equipment; or by other task specific cleaning method. Washed items shall be rinsed with hot water (35C [95F] or hotter) to remove cleaning agents and flush away abrasives (note that there may be special situations where the rinse and sanitization process is combined in one step [see sub-sections 27.9 and 27.9.7 of this Code Section). If using a three-compartment sink, immerse each item in the hot rinse water contained in the second sink compartment, turning and agitating the item as it is placed in the rinse water. Rinsed equipment and utensils shall be sanitized by one of the following methods (note that sanitizers and detergent-sanitizers shall be of the type which does not require a potable water rinse and they shall not be used in a concentration which exceeds the maximum concentration indicated by the manufacturers' label instructions): 27.9.1 Contact with a solution of 100 milligrams per liter (100 parts per million) residual chlorine for 30 seconds. Large vessels and fixed equipment may be sprayed with a solution containing not less than 100 milligrams per liter residual chlorine (100 parts per million) that is allowed to stand for at least 30 seconds before the equipment is used. Items shall not be rinsed and shall be allowed to air dry. Contact with hot water at a temperature of at least 77C (170F) for 30 seconds. When this method is used, the following facilities shall be provided and used: a) an integral heating device or fixture installed in or under the sanitizing compartment of the sink that is capable of maintaining the water temperature in the sink at 77C (170F) or above; and b) dish baskets of such size and design to permit complete immersion of the equipment and utensils in the hot water. Contact with a solution of 12.5 milligrams per liter (12.5 parts per million) available iodine for one minute. Iodine based chemical sanitizers shall be used only in solutions which have a pH of 5.0 or less, unless the container label specifies a higher pH limit of effectiveness. Contact with a quaternary ammonium solution at a concentration and a contact time indicated by the manufacturers' label instructions. Quaternary ammonium compounds shall be used only in water with 500 milligrams per liter (500 parts per million) hardness or less. Exposure to clean steam that is free from harmful materials or additives while enclosed in a steam cabinet or closed tank, piping network or other such closed system. Equipment and utensils shall be exposed to steam in the closed system for at least 15 minutes at a temperature of at least 82C (180F) or for at least five minutes at a temperature of at least 93C (200F). Exposure to an enclosed jet of clean, live steam that is free from harmful materials or additives for not less than one minute. When a detergent-sanitizer is used in the first compartment of a two-compartment sink, the same detergent-sanitizer shall be used to sanitize in the second compartment (note that chlorine may be used as the sanitizer in the second sink compartment in lieu of the detergent-sanitizer if it is used in accordance with the requirements outlined in sub-section 27.9.1 of this Code Section). If the detergent-sanitizer is a chlorine based compound, the chlorine concentration and contact time of the sanitizing solution shall comply with the requirements outlined in sub-section 27.9.1 of this Code Section. If the detergent- sanitizer is a non-chlorine based compound, the concentration of the sanitizing solution shall comply with the limits indicated by the manufacturers' label instructions, the contact time shall be increased from 30 seconds to one minute and the sanitizing solution shall be at a temperature of at least 24C (75F). 111

27.8

27.9

27.9.2

27.9.3

27.9.4

27.9.5

27.9.6

27.9.7

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27.10

All cleaned and sanitized equipment and utensils shall be allowed to air dry in a self-draining position on approved, properly protected hooks or racks. Testing equipment and materials shall be provided to adequately measure applicable chemical, temperatures and other pertinent parameters. For example, a numerically scaled indicating thermometer accurate to 1C (2F) shall be provided to check water temperatures. All cleaned and sanitized equipment; pans, apparatus and utensils shall be handled so as to be protected from contamination. Cleaned items shall be handled in a way that precludes cross contamination with soiled items. Spoons, knives and forks shall be touched only by their handles. Cups, glasses and bowls shall be handled without contact with inside surfaces or with surfaces that contact the user's mouth. Cleaned and sanitized equipment and utensils shall be stored in a way that protects them from contamination. Cleaned and sanitized equipment and utensils and movable equipment shall be stored at least 46 centimeters (18 inches) above the floor in a clean, dry location that protects them from contamination by splash, dust and other means. The food contact surfaces of fixed equipment shall also be protected from contamination. Cleaned and sanitized equipment and utensils shall not be stored in a locker room, toilet room, toilet room vestibule, garbage room, mechanical room, bedroom, or under an exposed sewer line, exposed non- potable water line, leaking water line, a surface where water condenses, any surface that drips, an open stairwell or under other potential source of contamination. In-Place Cleaning (CIP): Pipes, tubes, valves and lines intended for in- place cleaning shall be designed and fabricated so: a) cleaning and sanitizing solutions can be circulated throughout a fixed system using an effective cleaning and sanitizing regimen; b) cleaning and sanitizing solutions will contact all interior food contact surfaces; c) in-line thermometers are located to measure the least heated sections of the line; d) the system is self-draining and can be evacuated completely; and e) the equipment can be dismantled for interior inspection and microbiological sampling. Wherever practical, stored utensils shall be covered or inverted. Facilities for the storage of spoons, knives and forks shall be provided and shall be designed to present the handle to the employee or customer. Tableware should be set prior to serving a meal only if glasses and cups are inverted, and knives, forks and spoons are wrapped or otherwise covered. All unused preset tableware shall be collected for washing and sanitizing after the meal period.

27.11

27.12

27.13

27.14

27.15

27.16

27.17

28

MECHANICAL CLEANING AND SANITIZATION 28.1 Mechanical cleaning and sanitizing may be done by spray-type or immersion-type warewashing machines, or other device if it can be proved to thoroughly clean and sanitize a specific item or class of items. Such machines and devices shall be installed and maintained in good repair according to the manufacturers' instructions. All equipment shall display the U.S. National Sanitation Foundation "Seal of Approval" or comply with requirements equivalent to the U.S. National Sanitation Foundation's Sections for mechanical warewashing machines. Warewashing machines and their auxiliary components shall be operated in accordance with the manufacturers' instructions. Warewashing machine conveyors shall be accurately timed to assure proper exposure times during wash, rinse and sanitizing cycles in accordance with the specifications attached to the machines.

28.2

28.3

112

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Food Establishments, SASC-S-04

28.4

Detergents, sanitizing agents and other chemicals shall be automatically dispensed to the various compartments of the machine. Automatic dispensers shall be properly installed, operated and maintained. The pressure of water supplied to a spray-type dishwashing machine shall not be less than 1 kilogram per square centimeter (15 pounds per square inch) or more than 1.8 kilograms per square centimeter (25 pounds per square inch) measured in the water line immediately adjacent to the machine. A 6.3 millimeters (0.25 inch) IPS valve shall be provided immediately upstream from the final rinse control valve to permit checking the flow pressure of the final rinse water. Separate, easily readable, numerically scaled, indicating thermometers accurate to 2C (3F) shall be provided to indicate water temperature in each tank of the machine and the temperature of the final rinse water as it enters the manifold. Staging tables and racks shall be of adequate size for the proper handling of soiled pans. They shall be located so they do not interfere with the proper use of the dishwashing facilities. If necessary, items shall be scraped and soaked prior to being washed in the warewashing machine. After precleaning, items shall be loaded into racks, trays or baskets or onto conveyors in a selfdraining position that will expose each item to the unobstructed spray from all cycles. The temperature of the wash water in spray-type ware-washers shall not be less than: a) 74C (165F) in a single-tank, stationary-rack, single temperature machine; b) 71C (160F) in a single-tank, conveyor machine; c) 65.6C (150F) in a single-tank, stationary-rack, dual temperature machine; d) 65.6C (150F) in a multi-tank, conveyor machine; e) 65.6C (150F) in a single-tank, pot, pan and utensil washer (stationary or moving rack; or f) 50C (120F) in a spray-type glass washer. Rinse water tanks shall be protected by baffles or other effective means to minimize the entry by wash water into the rinse water. Washed items shall be rinsed free of particulate matter, detergent and abrasives with potable water. When machines use hot water for sanitization, rinse waters shall be kept clean. The temperature of the primary rinse water shall be maintained at not less than 71C (160F) and the temperature of the final rinse water shall not be less than 82C (180F) except that the temperature shall be 74C (165F) in a single-tank, stationary rack, single temperature machine. The temperature of the primary rinse shall be measured in the rinse compartment tank and the temperature of the final rinse water shall be measured at the manifold.

28.5

28.6

28.7

28.8

28.9

28.10

28.11

28.12

28.13 The suggested schedule for cleaning and sanitizing dishwashing, bottle washing and other warewashing machines is outlined in Table 5. TABLE 5 Suggested Schedule and Procedure for Cleaning and Sanitizing Dishwashing, Pan Washing, Bottle Washing and Warewashing Machines Part of Machine to be Frequency of Cleaning Procedure Cleaned(If Cleaning Applicable) Prerinse Compartment Twice daily Inspect and flush if foreign matter has accumulated or bad odor present. Weekly Drain and remove foreign matter. Flush with hot water. Sanitize with 100 ppm chlorine solution with 4 hour contact time. Caustic Soda Each time recharged Drain and remove foreign matter Compartments Flush thoroughly with hot water 113

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Wash Compartments Screens/Pans Inside Brushes

Each time recharged Daily Twice daily Weekly

Rinse Compartments

Twice daily Daily Weekly

Entire Machine 29

As required

Drain and remove foreign matter. Flush thoroughly with hot water. Remove debris, flush, air dry Inspect and flush with hot water. Inspect and flush with hot water. Sanitize with 25 ppm chlorine solution allowing overnight contact time. Drain and leave to dry. Inspect jets and remove any material clogging jets. Drain and flush with hot water. Drain and leave to air dry. Drain and flush with hot water. Sanitize with 100 ppm chlorine solution with 4 hour contact time. Drain and leave to air dry. De-scale machine.

HANDLING FOODS, INGREDIENTS AND PACKAGING 29.1 Raw materials, foods, ingredients and packaging materials shall be obtained from sources that produce such items in purpose-built food establishments under sanitary conditions and according to generally accepted industry practices. They shall be unadulterated, wholesome and free from spoilage, filth or other contamination. They shall be safe for human consumption. They shall have a fresh, wholesome flavor and odor and shall be sound and have a normal appearance. All foods, ingredients and raw materials shall be maintained within a temperature range that is considered optimum for maximum shelf life. Potentially hazardous food shall be maintained at or below 5C (41F) or above 60C (140F) at all times. They shall be at a safe temperature when received. They shall be handled and processed according to requirements outlined in this Code Section. All raw materials, foods, ingredients and packaging materials shall obtained from reputable sources such as those vendors currently on the Saudi Aramco Approved Vendors List or those approved by EPD. Only those raw materials, foods, ingredients and packaging materials packed in the original manufacturers' labeled container shall be received and used. 29.3.1 The label shall honestly represent the package contents in accordance with Saudi Arab Government Sections. The label must list all additives. The item is misbranded if the labeling is false or misleading in any way or the package contains a chemical preservative not stated on the label. The dates of production and expiration shall be recorded on the packaging.

29.2

29.3

29.3.2 29.4

Raw materials, foods, ingredients and packaging materials shall not be accepted: 29.4.1 If they contain decomposed, toxic or extraneous substances that will not be removed to acceptable levels by normal food establishment procedures of sorting, preparation or processing. 29.4.2 If the packaging in which they are received exhibits signs of damage, contamination, deterioration, spoilage or intentional tampering which may have rendered the contents unsafe and unfit for use.

29.5

If raw materials, foods, ingredients or packaging materials are inadvertently received and then defects outlined in sub-section 29.4 of this Code Section are discovered, the offending item(s) shall be segregated, audited, written-off and disposed of in accordance with the organization's Section operating procedures. 114

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29.6

Raw materials, foods, ingredients and packaging materials shall be stored in a manner that protects them against contamination, infestation and quick deterioration. Stores and their doors and windows shall be constructed so as to prevent entrance of rodents. If rodents are present, stores shall be completely emptied and the rodent infestation shall be eliminated. The store shall be tightly closed to prevent reentry by rodents. Raw materials, foods, ingredients and packaging materials shall be protected at all times, including while being manufactured, processed, cooked and packaged, from contamination. They shall be protected against contamination resulting from the addition of, or cross contamination with, unsafe or unapproved foods, ingredients and additives. Prior to introduction into the processing line, or at a convenient point within it, raw materials and ingredients shall be inspected, sorted and selected as required to remove unsuitable materials. Such steps shall be carried out under hygienic conditions so that only sound and clean raw materials and ingredients shall be processed. Raw materials shall be washed as needed to remove dust or other contaminants. Water used for such purposes shall not be recirculated unless suitably treated.

29.7

29.8

29.9

30

INGREDIENTS 30.1 Water: The quality of water used in the food establishment shall conform to requirements equivalent to those described in Section SASC-S-01 of this Code. If water is used for conveying raw materials, it shall also comply with Section SASC-S-01 of this Code. All sweeteners, preservatives, anti-oxidants, acids, flavorings, emulsifiers, stabilizers and coloring agents shall comply with the relevant Saudi Arabian Standards Organization (SASO) Standards. No food additives other than those approved by SASO shall be permitted. All food additives, including preservatives, anti-oxidants, flavoring, emulsifiers, stabilizers and coloring agents shall be stored in suitable, sealed, easily cleanable containers, or their original packaging, until opened. Once opened, remaining food additives shall be transferred to containers with lids that are properly labeled. Acids and flavors: Citric, tartaric, or other edible organic acids and their salts may be used in food establishment products. Acids and flavors shall be stored in suitable containers, properly labeled and protected against contamination. Colors: Only caramel, U.S. certified coal tar and approved vegetable colors, shall be used in food establishment products. Note that the use of coloring agents in bread products is prohibited. 30.5.1 30.5.2 All colors shall be prepared in small batches. All color solutions shall be boiled for at least two minutes immediately before being added to the product. Color solutions shall be stored in a dark place.

30.2

30.3

30.4

30.5

30.5.3 30.6

Eggs: Only clean, whole eggs with shells intact and without cracks or checks, or pasteurized egg products, shall be used. 30.6.1 Eggs and pasteurized egg products shall be obtained from Saudi Aramco approved sources. They shall be delivered to the food establishment in refrigerated vehicles. The internal temperature of eggs and pasteurized egg products shall not exceed 5C (41F) at the time they are off-loaded from the refrigerated vehicle. Note that properly packaged dried egg products are exempt from these temperature requirements. 115

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30.6.2

Upon receipt, all eggs and egg products shall be placed in approved refrigeration equipment and held at a temperature equal to or less than 5C (41F) until used. This requirement is waived if the eggs or egg products will be used as an ingredient in a food that will achieve a time/temperature relationship adequate to pasteurize the entire volume of the processed food within two hours of receipt of the eggs or egg products. Eggs and egg products shall only be used as an ingredient in foods, which are heated. The heating process shall achieve a time/temperature relationship adequate to pasteurize the entire volume of the processed food. Eggs and egg products shall not be added to the food after the food has been pasteurized. Eggs and egg products that will be served directly, i.e. not incorporated as an ingredient in a processed food, shall be heated to 74C (165F) or higher before being served. Dried eggs and dried egg products shall be reconstituted before they are heated.

30.6.3

30.6.4

30.7

Pasteurized milk and milk products: 30.7.1 Only pasteurized milk and milk products shall be used, or intended for use or for sale, in whole or in part, for human consumption. 30.7.2 All pasteurized milk and milk products, including condensed evaporated or dried milk, shall comply with requirements outlined in SASC-S-06 of this Code for grade "A" pasteurized milk (requires an average bacterial plate count not exceeding 20,000 per cubic centimeter or gram). A specific exception to this requirement is permitted in the case of a pasteurized milk or milk product that will be used as an ingredient in a food that will be processed and pasteurized in a commercial food plant, i.e. the maximum bacterial plate count may be increased to 50,000 per cubic centimeter or gram if the pasteurized milk or milk product complies with all other grade "A" quality Standards (note that the exception may be increased to a maximum bacterial plate count of 100,000 per cubic centimeter or gram in the case of cream). All pasteurized milk and milk products shall have an internal temperature of not more than 5C (41F) when delivered to the food establishment (condensed, evaporated and UHT milk are exempt from this temperature requirement). All pasteurized milk and milk products shall, upon receipt, be placed in approved refrigerators and held at a temperature equal to or less than 5C (41F) until used. This is not required if the milk or milk product will be used as an ingredient in a food that will achieve a time/temperature relationship adequate to pasteurize the entire volume of the food within two hours of receipt of the milk or milk product. Dry milk products shall only be used as an ingredient in foods, which are heated. The heating process shall achieve a time/temperature relationship adequate to pasteurize the entire volume of the processed food. Dry milk ingredients shall not be added to the food after the food has been pasteurized. Dried milk and dried milk products that will be served directly, i.e. not incorporated as an ingredient in a processed food, shall be reconstituted and then heated to 74C (165F) or higher before being served.

30.7.3

30.7.4

30.7.5

30.7.6

30.8

Ice intended for human consumption or that may contact ingredients; water or food contact surfaces shall be produced in accordance with requirements outlined in sub-section 39 of this Code Section. Compressed air used in the food, beverage or ice production process shall be filtered or otherwise treated to render it free of dust, insects and extraneous material. Air intakes shall be properly located and maintained. Filters shall be located upstream from the compressor and shall be easily removable for cleaning and replacement. The blower or compressor supplying air shall be designed so that it will deliver oil-free air. 116

30.9

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31

FOOD PREPARATION AND PROCESSING 31.1 Food shall be processed and prepared with the least possible manual contact, with suitable utensils and on surfaces that, prior to use, have been cleaned and sanitized. Utensils may be placed in the food with the handle extended or laid flat on a clean portion of the food preparation table or cooking equipment during brief pauses in preparation. The time that potentially hazardous foods are between 5C (41F) and 60C (140F) shall be kept to a minimum. During cooking, the time taken to increase the temperature from 5C to 60C (41F 140F) shall be undertaken as quickly as practicable without simmering or slow cooking. 31.2.1 Potentially hazardous foods that are displayed for service shall be maintained at over 60C (140F) at all times. Potentially hazardous foods that are normally sold cold shall be kept at below 5C (41F) except foods that are consumed within 2 hours of preparation from ingredients that have been maintained at or below 5C (41F) i.e. sandwiches that have been prepared using ingredients that are potentially hazardous may be exempt from the temperature control requirement providing they are consumed within 2 hours of preparation. Any potentially hazardous food that is not kept within the temperature requirements of the requirements will be discarded after a period of 2 hours outside of the required temperatures. Foods that are to be chilled after cooking must be chilled as quickly as possible after final cooking and preparation. A blast chiller or blast freezer shall be used for chilling and freezing of such food products. Other methods of quick cooling such as placing the product in thin layers/flat trays or portioning of large joints of meat and placing in chiller or freezer may be acceptable if approved by EPD.

31.2

31.2.2

31.2.3

31.2.4

31.3

Raw fruits and raw vegetables shall be washed thoroughly before being cooked. Those to be processed raw shall be sanitized in a solution containing 100 milligrams per liter (100 parts per million) residual chlorine with a minimum contact time of 10 minutes. Separate utensils shall be used for raw and cooked ingredients or, if this is not possible, they shall be thoroughly cleaned and sanitized between each use. Color-coding is the recommended method of keeping utensils separate, e.g. different colored knife handles and cutting boards for different activities. All reasonable precautions shall be taken to prevent the contamination or cross contamination of food whilst being prepared. Separate areas, equipment and cutting surfaces shall be available for the various activities undertaken in the kitchen. Where a single food preparation surface is the only one available, all necessary steps shall be taken to prevent cross contamination. Proper disinfection techniques shall be practiced, and in this event separate color coded boards and utensils shall be provided. Frozen food shall be thawed by one of the following methods only: 31.6.1 Approximately 24 to 48 hours in advance of planned cooking time, place the frozen food in a refrigerator operating at a temperature of 5C (41F) or less. 31.6.2 As part of the continuous uninterrupted regular cooking process, i.e. by continuously cooking from the frozen state until the food is thoroughly cooked. (This refers to frozen food items, which, according to manufacturers instructions, may be cooked directly from frozen). Thaw food in a microwave oven and immediately transfer to regular cooking units as part of a continuous cooking process. Thaw food in a microwave oven when the entire uninterrupted cooking process takes place in the microwave oven. 117

31.4

31.5

31.6

31.6.3

31.6.4

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Food Establishments, SASC-S-04

31.7

Food that requires cooking will be cooked to heat all parts of the food to a temperature of at least 63C (145F) except that: 31.7.1 31.7.2 Roast beef may be cooked to an internal temperature of 60C (140F). Poultry, poultry stuffing, stuffed meat and all precooked frozen food shall be cooked to heat all parts of the food to at least 74C (165F) with no interruption of the cooking process.

31.8

Food that was cooked and then refrigerated shall be reheated quickly to a center temperature of at least 74C (165F) for a minimum of 15 seconds before being placed in a hot holding unit for use. Steam tables or other hot food holding units are neither designed to, nor are they capable of, rapidly heating food to a center temperature of 74C (165F) in 30 minutes. Attempting to use hot holding equipment for reheating food is strictly prohibited. Dried milk, reconstituted dried milk, dried-milk products, dried eggs, and dried-egg products that will be served directly, i.e. not incorporated as an ingredient in a processed food, shall be heated to 74C (165F) for a minimum of 15 seconds or higher before being served (see sub-section 30 of this Code Section). Non-dairy products may be reconstituted on the premises only when they will be prepared and stored in sanitized, covered containers not exceeding 3.8 liters (1 gallon) in capacity and are rapidly cooled to 5C (41F) or below after preparation.

31.9

31.10

31 PACKAGING AND LABELING 32.1 Every commercial product that is sold, offered for sale, or held for sale shall have a protective wrapping, or other packaging. Packaging materials shall be non-absorbent, tasteless and odorless and shall assure convenient protection of the product against contamination. Packaging materials shall not contain substances that cause objectionable organoleptic changes in the product, that render the product toxic or that adversely affect the product in any way. Packaging materials shall be protected from contamination during storage and production. They shall be kept in a clean, dry place until used. Handling shall be minimized. Packaging shall be carried out under suitable hygienic conditions. The packaging shall protect the product from contamination and infestation. Processed products prepared for sale, or those distributed during processing or packaging, shall be coded to enable identification of lots and their production date, so that a specified lot that may have become contaminated or unfit for the purpose of its intended use shall be segregated. Labeling of food products shall comply with the latest edition of Saudi Arab Standards Organization Standard #1, Labeling of Prepackaged Foods.

32.2

32.3

32.4

32.5

33

STORAGE OF FINISHED GOODS 33.1 The finished product shall be stored under such conditions as to preclude contamination or proliferation of microorganisms. The product shall be protected against deterioration or damage to packaging. The product shall be stored in a way that does not interfere with processing, production or packaging operations. During storage, periodic inspection shall be carried out on the finished product to ensure that it is fit for human consumption and that it complies with the Standard specifications of the finished product. Store rooms shall be rodent-proof, moisture free and air conditioned and refrigerated, as appropriate, per the requirements of sub-sections 20 and 21 of this Code Section. 118

33.2

33.3

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Food Establishments, SASC-S-04

33.4

The finished product shall be transported under such conditions as to preclude contamination or proliferation of microorganisms. The product shall be protected against deterioration or damage to packaging. Transport vehicles shall comply with requirements outlined in sub-section 26 of this Code Section.

34

FOOD DISPLAY AND SERVICE 34.1 Potentially hazardous foods shall be kept at a temperature of 5C (41F) or lower, or at a temperature of 60C (140F) or higher during display and service. Food on display shall be protected from consumer contamination by the use of easily cleanable, counter-protector devices, display cases and similar equipment, as well as other means of protection. Suitable utensils shall be used by employees and provided to consumers who serve themselves to avoid unnecessary contact with food. Between uses during service, utensils shall be stored in the food containers with the food they are being used to serve; clean and dry; or in running water. Ice for consumer use shall be dispensed by automatic, self-service ice dispensing machines or by a food service employee. Food service employees shall dispense ice with scoops, tongs, or other ice dispensing utensils. Ice dispensing utensils and receptacles shall be protected from contamination during service and storage. Condiments, sugar, seasonings and dressings for self-service use shall be provided only in individual packages or from dispensers that protect their contents. Milk and milk products for drinking purposes shall be provided to the consumer in an unopened, commercially filled package not exceeding 1 liter (1.06 quart) in capacity, or served from an approved bulk milk dispenser. Once served to a consumer, individual portions of food shall not be served again.

34.2

34.3

34.4

34.5

35

SINGLE-SERVICE ARTICLES Single-service articles shall be commercially packaged for individual use or shall be available to the consumer from a dispenser in a way that prevents contamination of surfaces that may contact food or the user's mouth. Single- service articles shall be used only once. Handling of single-service articles in bulk should be conducted in a way that protects them from contamination. Single-service articles shall be stored above the floor on clean shelves and in closed containers that protect them from contamination.

36

QUALITY STANDARDS 36.1 Carbonated beverages and non-carbonated juices: 36.1.1 36.1.2 36.1.3 36.2 Heterotrophic Plate Count (HPC) shall not exceed 100 bacteria per milliliter. Most Probable Number (MPN) of coliform bacteria shall not exceed 2.2 per 100 milliliters. Yeasts and molds shall not exceed 20 per milliliter.

Ice-cream and frozen desserts: 36.2.1 36.2.2 36.2.3 Heterotrophic Plate Count (SPC) shall not exceed 50,000 bacteria per gram. Coliform bacteria shall not exceed 10 per gram. Phosphatase shall be less than 1 microgram per gram if milk or milk products are used as an ingredient.

119

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Food Establishments, SASC-S-04

36.2.4

Yeasts and molds shall not exceed 10 per gram if cultured milk products are used as an ingredient.

37

MOBILE FOOD ESTABLISHMENTS 37.1 Mobile food establishments shall comply with the requirements of this Code Section, including application and inspection requirements outlined in sub-sections 1 and 2 of this Code Section. Except as otherwise provided in this Section, Saudi Aramco EPD may impose additional requirements to prevent hazards and protect health, may prohibit the sale of some or all potentially hazardous foods, and when no health hazard will result, may waive or modify requirements of this Code Section relating to physical facilities (requirements outlined in sub-sections 37.2 through 37.7 of this Code Section shall not be waived). Running water and central sewage are not required for a mobile food unit which serves only food that was prepared and packaged in individual servings which are transported and stored as required by this Code Section. Beverages served in such a mobile unit must not be potentially hazardous and must be dispensed from covered urns; other protected equipment or in commercially packaged individual serving containers. For those mobile food units not provided with water or adequate cleaning facilities, all equipment and utensils shall be thoroughly cleaned and sanitized at a central food service establishment at least once each day. A mobile food unit requiring a water system shall have a potable water system under pressure. The system shall be of sufficient capacity to furnish enough hot and cold water for food preparation, equipment and utensil cleaning and sanitization and hand washing in accordance with the requirements of this Code Section. All water distribution pipes and tubing shall be constructed and installed in compliance with the general requirements of Section SASC-S-01 of this Code. The water inlet shall be located in a position that prevents contamination by waste discharges, road dust or other sources. The water inlet shall be provided with a transition connection of a size or type that prevents connection to any other service. Mobile food units shall provide only single-service articles for use by the consumer. If liquid waste results from operation of a mobile food unit, it shall be stored in permanently installed retention tanks that are at least 50 percent larger than the water supply tank. Liquid wastes shall not be discharged from the retention tank when the mobile food unit is in motion. Utility service connections for waste disposal shall be of a different size or type than those used for supplying potable water to the mobile food unit. Waste connections shall be located below the level of water connections to preclude contamination of the potable water system. Mobile food units shall operate from an approved base commissary or other fixed food service establishment that is constructed and operated in compliance with the requirements of this Code Section. An enclosed service building separated from the base commissary operations shall be provided for supplying and maintaining mobile food units. The service area shall be constructed and operated in compliance with the requirements of this Code Section. 37.7.1 Potable water transfer equipment shall be stored and handled in a way that protects the water and equipment from contamination. The mobile food unit liquid waste retention tank, where used, shall be thoroughly flushed and drained each time the mobile food unit is serviced. All liquid waste shall be discharged to a sanitary sewage disposal system. The flushing and draining area for liquid wastes shall be separate from the area used for loading and unloading of food and related supplies.

37.2

37.3

37.4 37.5

37.6

37.7

37.7.2

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Food Establishments, SASC-S-04

38

TEMPORARY FOOD SERVICE ESTABLISHMENTS 38.1 A temporary food service establishment shall comply with the requirements of this Code Section, except as otherwise provided in this Section. Saudi Aramco EPD may impose additional requirements to protect against health hazards related to the conduct of temporary food service establishments, may prohibit the sale of some or all potentially hazardous foods, and when no health hazard will result, may waive or modify requirements of this Code Section, except those requirements of sub-sections 38.2 through 38.12 of this Code Section. Self-directed groups, service organizations or anyone else preparing and/or handling food for public consumption shall present the following details prior to "approval" from Saudi Aramco EPD: a) type of food; b) origin of food; c) methods of storage, transportation and preparation; d) date of preparation; and e) proposed date of consumption. Only those potentially hazardous foods requiring limited preparation, such as hamburgers and frankfurters, which require seasoning and cooking, shall be prepared or served by temporary food establishments permitted under the provisions of sub-sections 38.1 and 38.2 of this Code Section. The preparation or service of other potentially hazardous foods, including pastries filled with cream or synthetic cream, custards and similar products, and salads or sandwiches containing meat, poultry, eggs or fish, is prohibited. This prohibition does not apply, however, to any potentially hazardous food that has been prepared and packaged under conditions meeting the requirements of this Code Section, is obtained in individual servings, is stored at a temperature of 5C (41F) or below or at a temperature of 60C (140F) or above in facilities that meet the requirements of this Code Section. Ice that is consumed or that contacts food or food contact surfaces shall have been made under conditions meeting the requirements of sub-section 39 of this Code Section. The ice shall be obtained only in chipped, crushed, or cubed form and in single-use, food-grade plastic or wet-strength paper bags filled and sealed at the point of manufacture. Equipment shall be located and installed in a way that facilitates cleaning the establishment and that prevents food contamination. Food contact surfaces of equipment shall be protected from contamination by consumers and other contaminating agents. All necessary steps shall be taken to prevent consumers contaminating food or food contact surfaces. Sufficient potable water shall be available in the establishment for cleaning and sanitizing utensils and equipment and for hand washing. A heating facility located on the premises and capable of producing enough hot water for these purposes shall be provided. The storage of packaged food in contact with water or undrained ice is prohibited, although cans or bottles of non-hazardous beverages may be so stored when the water contains at least 100 milligrams per liter (100 parts per million) of available chlorine and is changed often enough to keep both the water and containers clean. Liquid waste shall be disposed of in accordance with Sections equivalent to those outlined in SASCS-02 of this Code. A facility shall be provided for employee/operator hand washing. Where water under pressure is unavailable, the facility shall consist of at least a basin, warm water, soap and individual paper towels. Floors shall be made of concrete, tight wood, asphalt, or other easily cleanable material. Walls and ceilings of food preparation areas shall be constructed in a way that prevents the entrance of insects and rodents. Ceilings shall be made of wood, canvas, or other material that protects the interior of the establishment from the weather. Screening material used for walls shall be at least six mesh per centimeter (16 mesh per inch). This Section does not prohibit outdoor cooking where the operation is conducted in a sanitary manner. 121

38.2

38.3

38.4

38.5

38.6

38.7

38.8

38.9

38.10 38.11

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Food Establishments, SASC-S-04

38.12

Service openings, if any, shall not be larger than is necessary for the particular operation conducted. These openings shall be provided with tight-fitting solid or screened doors or windows or shall be provided with fans installed and operated to restrict the entrance of flying insects. Doors and windows, if any, shall be kept closed when not in use.

39

ICE PLANTS 39.1 Production of ice in automatic ice making machines is a very limited process. An automatic ice plant is a food establishment and shall comply with the requirements of this Code Section, except as otherwise provided in this Section. Saudi Aramco EPD may waive or modify requirements of this Code Section when no health hazard will result (requirements outlined in sub-sections 39.2 through 39.17 of this Code Section shall not be waived). The "general requirements" outlined in sub-section 3 of this Code Section shall apply. The "personnel" requirements outlined in sub-section 4 of this Code Section shall apply except: 39.3.1 The on-the-job food sanitation training program may be limited to personal hygiene, equipment handling, proper packaging techniques and storage of packaging and filled ice bags. Requirements pertaining to bathing and wearing of masks are relaxed. Uniform and hair restraint requirements are limited to individuals that fill ice bags or work with ice contact surfaces. Requirements pertaining to jewelry and handling soiled tableware are not applicable.

39.2 39.3

39.3.2 39.3.3

40.3.4 39.4

All requirements pertaining to poisonous or toxic materials; general facility design and construction; floors; walls, ceilings and appurtenances thereto; doors, windows and ventilation openings; illumination; ventilation; plumbing and cross connection control; water; and sewage are applicable. 39.4.1 Ice shall be made from potable water that complies with requirements outlined in Section SASC-S-01 of this Code. Ice shall be free of rust and other foreign materials and shall meet the same bacteriological, chemical and physical Sections of quality as for drinking water as outlined in Section SASCS-01 of this Code.

39.4.2

39.5

Requirements pertaining to toilets and toilet room hand washing facilities apply, but showers are not required. Separate handwashing facilities are not required in the packaging area if the toilet room handwashing facilities are readily accessible. The requirement for a dressing area and lockers is relaxed. Requirements pertaining to non-refrigerated storage facilities and practices are limited to packaging materials. Requirements pertaining to refrigerated storage facilities and practices are relaxed. Freezer units need not be maintained at any required temperature as long as the unit keeps the ice solidly frozen (as evidenced by the fact that bags in which ice is stored remain dry). Requirements pertaining to garbage and refuse facilities are relaxed. Refuse facilities shall comply with Sections applicable to any other place of employment (see Section SASC-S-12 of this Code).

39.6

39.7

39.8

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Food Establishments, SASC-S-04

39.9

Requirements pertaining to the janitor's closet and cleaning and preventive maintenance of physical facilities are generally applicable. General requirements pertaining to equipment and utensils apply. Requirements pertaining to specialized equipment and installations do not apply, except that an eye wash sink is required in the area where large refrigeration units area maintained. In response to Company-wide practice, requirements pertaining to transportation of ice do not apply. Requirements pertaining to cleaning and sanitization of equipment apply. Requirements pertaining to mechanical cleaning and sanitization; ingredients (other than water); raw materials handling; and preparation and processing (other than prevention of contamination) do not apply. 39.13.1 Ice, while being manufactured, processed, packaged, stored and transported, shall be protected from contamination. Hands shall not come into direct contact with the ice when other methods of handling can be used. If ice must be touched with the hands, clean/sanitized rubber gloves or disposable plastic gloves shall be worn.

39.10

39.11 39.12 39.13

39.13.2

39.14

Packaging requirements apply, but labeling requirements are not applicable. 40.14.1 Ice shall not be processed or packaged on open platforms or on trucks or other vehicles used for delivery. Ice shall be packaged in single-use, food-grade plastic or wet- strength paper bags. Packaging shall not impart odors, color or taste, nor contribute to the contamination of ice.

40.14.2

39.15 39.16

Requirements pertaining to the storage of the finished product apply. Requirements pertaining to food display and service and single-service articles (other than ice bags) do not apply. Requirements pertaining to laboratory control methods and specialized product quality Standards apply.

39.17

40

MARINE VESSEL GALLEYS Refer to Code Section SASC-S-09 Marine Vessels sub-section 7.

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Food Establishments, SASC-S-04

REFERENCES: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. The Prevention of Food Poisoning Jill Trickett (3 Edition) Stanley Thornes Publishers, Cheltenham, England Industry Guide to Good Hygiene Practice Baking Guide Chadwick House Group Ltd., London, England HACCP Standard for Food Business. A complete management system for hazard analysis. STS Ltd., Farnham, Surrey, England HACCP A practical approach Sara Mortimore and Carol Wallace. Chapman and Hall (Publishers), London, England The 1997 Codex Alimentarius - Food Standards Program Codex Alimentarius, Rome, Italy. HACCP Reference Book National Restaurant Association, The Educational Foundation - Chicago, USA Food Safety - Questions and Answers Food Safety Advisory Center, London, UK 8. Health Service Catering Hygiene UK Dept. of Health, HMSO 10. UK Department of Health guide General Temperature Regulations 11. UK Department of Health guide Assured Safe Catering UK Department of Health guide Guide to the 1995 Food Hygiene Regulations 13. UK Department of Health guide Food Hazards and Your Business UK Department of Health article A guide to Food Hazards and Your Business UK Department of Health article A guide to the General Food Hygiene Regulations 1995 16. USFD Administration Seafood HACCP Regulations. USFDA Article Application of HACCP to Retail Food Systems 18. USFDA Article Food Additives USFDA Article Sulfites Safe for Most Dangerous for Some 20. USFDA Article Monosodium Glutamate 21. Australian Food Council fact sheet Australian Safe Food USFDA Food Consumers report HACCP a State of the Art Approach to Food Safety Industry Guide to Good Hygiene Practices Catering Guide HMSO London, England 24. US Department of Health and Human Services 1997 FOOD CODE Managing Food Safety - A HACCP principles guide for operators of food establishments at the retail level USFDA Guidebook for the preparation of HACCP plans. US Dept of Agriculture
rd

12. 14. 15. 17. 19.

22. 23. 25. 26

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Solid Waste Management, SASC-S-03

SASC-S-03 SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT

Inadequate solid waste collection, storage and disposal practices are a nuisance, hazardous to health and they adversely impact the environment. This Section specifies the public health requirements, limitations and procedures pertinent to treatment, storage, collection, transportation and disposal of solid waste. Compliance with these requirements will protect the public health and welfare while preserving the quality of the air, water and land. NOTE: All sub-sections should be read in conjunction with appropriate referenced documents listed at the end of this Code Section and Saudi Aramco Engineering Standard SAES-S-007. DEFINITIONS: Composting: Controlled microbial degradation of organic waste yielding a nuisance-free product of potential value as a soil conditioner. Cover Material: Granular material, generally soil that is used to cover compacted solid waste in a sanitary landfill, generally free of large objects that would hinder compaction and free of organic content that would be conducive to vector harborage, feeding and/or breeding. Hazardous Solid Waste; Solid waste that may, by itself or in combination with other solid waste, be infectious, explosive, poisonous, highly flammable, caustic, toxic, or otherwise dangerous or injurious to human, plant or animal life. Incinerator: Any device used for the burning of refuse where the factors of combustion, i.e. temperature, retention time, turbulence; and combustion air, can be controlled. Landfill Gas: A by-product of the digestion by microorganisms of putrescible matter present in the waste deposited in landfill sites. The gas is predominantly methane (64%) together with carbon dioxide (34%) and trace concentrations of vapors and other gases. Landfill, sanitary: (1) A method of disposing of refuse on land without creating nuisances or hazards to public health or safety, by utilizing the principles of engineering to confine the refuse to the smallest practical area, to reduce it to the smallest practical volume, and to cover it with a layer of earth at the conclusion of each days operation or at such more frequent intervals as may be necessary. (ASCE definition). (2) A sanitary landfill is a system for final disposal of solid waste on land, in which the waste is spread and compacted on an inclined, minimized working face in a series of cells and a daily cover of earth is provided so that no hazard or insult to the environment results. Leachate: The result of liquid seeping through a landfill and, by doing so extracting substances from the deposited waste. Lower Explosive Limit (LEL): The lower percentage by volume of a mixture of explosive gases in air that will propagate a flame at 25C at atmospheric pressure. Modified landfill: The disposal of solid waste by compaction in or upon the land and the covering of all wastes deposited with earth or other approved cover material at specific designated intervals, but not each operating day. Open burning: Uncontrolled burning of wastes in the open or in an open dump. Scavenging: The uncontrolled picking of materials by animals or humans. Sludge: Means any solid, semi-solid or liquid waste generated from a municipal commercial or industrial wastewater treatment plant or air pollution control facility exclusive of the treated effluent from a wastewater treatment plant. 71
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Solid Waste Management, SASC-S-03

Solid waste: Means any garbage, or refuse, or sludge from a wastewater treatment plant, water supply treatment plant, or air pollution control facility and other discarded material including solid, liquid, semi-solid or contained gaseous material resulting from commercial, mining and agricultural operations, and from community activities but does not include solid or dissolved materials in irrigation return flows, or regulated hazardous materials. 1 DETAILED PLANS AND SPECIFICATIONS Before a new treatment facility/disposal site is established, constructed or operated, and before an existing site is substantially altered, expanded or modified, the proponent shall submit all data and reports required by SAES-S-007 together with a detailed operating plan and timetable for implementation to the Environmental Protection Department (EPD) for review, concurrence and approval. The operating plan shall include the proposed method and sequence of site development, utilization and operation, procedures for monitoring and reporting any environmental effects resulting there from and address the design criteria specified by SAES-S-007. The design study shall address the provision of composite liners, leachate collection and gas management systems in Class I and II landfill sites. 2 REQUIRED APPROVALS 2.1 The proponent shall receive written approval for the site study and operating plan from EPD before beginning construction, modification or operation of a treatment facility/disposal site. The proponent shall ensure that the approved plans and specifications, including any conditions or limitations attached thereto, are implemented. EPD, on application, may approve a variance, of any requirements of this Code Section, when circumstances at the treatment facility/ disposal site, operating procedures or other condition indicate that the purpose and intent of this Code Section can be achieved through equally effective methods that do not adversely impact public health or the environment. Waivers to any engineering standards must be reviewed and concurred by Manager, EPD for any public health related issues.

2.2

SUPERVISION OF SITES Every landfill, incinerator, composting plant and other solid waste processing and disposal facility shall be operated under the close supervision of a responsible individual who is thoroughly familiar with the established operating procedures, including a) the types of wastes that are approved for disposal in the facility; b) the individuals/agencies authorized to deposit waste in the facility; c) air, dust, flood, noise, vermin, landfill gas and water control concepts and methods; d) the flow and processing of waste from receipt to final disposition; e) keeping of records; and f) site safety and general sanitation.

REQUIRED RECORDS FOR SITES 4.1 EPD may require such records and reports as are considered to be reasonably necessary to ensure compliance with this Code Section. Waste Manifests specified by GI 430.001 must be retained at the waste disposal/treatment facility for inspection by EPD. An operating record stating the quantity of each waste delivery must be maintained by every incineration plant and waste treatment facility. Combustion conditions, waste analyses, monitoring and testing carried out must be logged daily. Records must be available for inspection by EPD.

4.2

4.3

4.4

STORAGE AND COLLECTION 72


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Solid Waste Management, SASC-S-03

5.1

Storage and collection of waste shall be conducted in a way that prevents a) vermin breeding and harborage; b) conditions conducive to transmission of disease to man or animals; c) hazards to workers, users and the public; d) air, noise and water pollution; e) objectionable odors, dust, unsightliness and nuisance conditions, f) corrosion or wear of storage containers, and g) accidental spillage or leakage during storage or transport. Hazardous wastes shall be disposed of in accordance with the Materials Supply Organization Instruction, CU 13.1 Processing of Hazardous Material.

5.2

STORAGE, COLLECTION AND TRANSFER DEVICES AND VEHICLES 6.1 The containment compartment of storage, collection and transfer devices and vehicles shall be made of durable, impervious materials and shall be designed to provide a watertight tank with smooth and easily cleanable surfaces. The containment compartment and appurtenances thereto shall be cleaned at least once weekly to prevent propagation of odors, insects, rodents or other nuisance conditions (more often if necessary). Storage, collection and transfer devices and vehicles shall be loaded and operated so as to prevent dropping, leaking, sifting, blowing or other escape of waste from the device or vehicle. Storage containers shall be covered when not in immediate use. Collection and transfer devices and vehicles carrying loads that are likely to blow from the containment compartment shall have a cover which is either an integral part of the device or vehicle, or which is a separate cover of suitable material with fasteners designed to secure all sides of the cover to the device or vehicle. The cover shall be used while in transit.

6.2

6.3

FACILITIES FOR CLEANING STORAGE, COLLECTION AND TRANSFER DEVICES AND VEHICLES 7.1 If storage, collection and transfer devices and vehicles are cleaned on the site after they are emptied, the following minimum facilities shall be provided: a) live steam or hot water delivered at a minimum pressure of at least 1.4 kilograms per square centimeter (20 pounds per square inch) with a minimum flow of at least 3.8 liters per minute (1 gallon per minute); and b) a floor or pavement constructed of a smooth, easily cleanable, non-absorbent material, such as sealed concrete, which is properly sloped to a holding basin or disposal system that complies with requirements outlined in SAES-A-104. Storage, collection, transfer equipment and vehicles that are used for toxic or hazardous waste, shall not be used for ordinary solid waste.

7.2

CONTROL OF DRAINAGE AND RUNOFF FROM SITES 8.1 All disposal sites, e.g. sanitary landfills, incinerators, composting plants and sludge disposal sites, shall be designed, located, sloped or protected so that rainfall, contaminated surface water run-off and other surface water drainage will be diverted around or away from the operational area of the site. Any water which, comes into contact with waste, is leachate and shall be collected and treated in the manner specified in paragraph 9 below. The surface contours of the site shall be maintained such that surface water runoff will not flow into or through the site. Sanitary landfills, sludge disposal sites and composting plants that may be subject to flooding shall, be protected by dikes that are impervious to the passage of water and are designed to prevent erosion and washout of operational and disposal areas of the site.

8.2

8.3

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Solid Waste Management, SASC-S-03

CONTROL OF LEACHATE Leachate production shall be minimized. If there is any likelihood or evidence to indicate that leachate will pollute groundwater or the environment, then leachate shall be collected, treated or otherwise controlled in a manner approved by EPD

10

RESTRICTIONS ASSOCIATED WITH GROUNDWATER 10.1 The vertical distance between the bottom of a sanitary landfill, composting site or sludge disposal site and the maximum water table elevation shall be restricted to a distance that prevents leachate from entering the groundwater. Wastes that will decompose shall not be deposited in areas of the disposal site that are directly or indirectly connected with the restricted groundwater zone. Uncontaminated rock, dirt, brick, concrete rubble and similar materials that will not decompose may be placed in the restricted groundwater zone.

10.2

11

MONITORING WELLS 11.1 To properly assess compliance with approved plans and conditions of operation, EPD may require monitoring wells to be installed at the boundaries of waste disposal sites, including sanitary landfills, composting plants and sludge disposal sites, to monitor the effect of the disposal process on usable groundwater resources and detect gas migration from landfill sites. Monitoring wells shall be designed and operated to detect the movement of groundwater and gas migration. If not equipped with continuous monitoring equipment, monitoring wells must be constructed in a manner to facilitate the ready collection of samples. EPD may require monitoring for explosive gases at least quarterly. Records must be maintained of all gas measurements. If the gas level exceeds 25% of the lower explosive limit (LEL) the operator must immediately notify EPD.

11.2

11.3

12

ACCESS ROADS All-weather roads shall be provided from the highway to the disposal sites, as well as within the disposal site. Roads shall be designed and maintained to prevent traffic congestion, traffic hazards, dust and noise pollution.

13

FENCING 13.1 Access to a sanitary landfill that is not attended on a twenty-four hour per day basis shall be controlled by means of lockable gates. The site shall be completely enclosed by a perimeter fence, unless, access is adequately controlled by the natural terrain features of the site. Access to an incinerator, composting plant, and sludge disposal site shall be controlled by means of a complete perimeter fence and lockable gates.

13.2

14

SCREENING As far as is practicable, the active waste disposal site shall be screened or blocked from public view.

15

FIRE PROTECTION AND CONTROL 15.1 Fire protection shall be provided in accordance with design and operating plans approved by the Chief Fire Prevention Engineer. 74
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Solid Waste Management, SASC-S-03

15.2

All reasonable precautions, such as segregation of combustible wastes and early removal of hot spots", shall be taken to prevent accidental ignition or spontaneous combustion of waste at a sanitary landfill. Hot or burning materials, or any materials likely to cause a fire, shall be deposited temporarily at a safe distance from the fill area and shall not be included in the landfill operation until the fire hazard is eliminated.

Where necessary and practicable, a pressurized fire water system and appropriate fire fighting equipment shall be provided at the site. If not practicable, a supply of water provided in fire water drums equipped with appropriate buckets, a stockpile of earth or other means recommended by the Chief Fire Prevention Engineer shall be available to extinguish such fires as may occur. The use of mechanical equipment such as a bulldozer may be utilized for such purposes, providing that machinery is operated in a safe manner by person(s) qualified and trained in the use of such equipment. 15.4 15.5 Open burning of waste at a sanitary landfill site is prohibited. Immediate action shall be taken to extinguish and control the spread of fire occurring at or in the vicinity of any waste disposal site or waste treatment facility. The Fire Master at the nearest Saudi Aramco facility must be notified immediately a fire is out of control.

15.3

16

SIGNS AND RULES Clearly visible, legible signs, written in Arabic, English and other appropriate language stating disposal site rules shall be erected at the site entrance and wherever necessary to ensure adequate compliance with the approved operating plan. As a minimum, signs shall contain the following information: a) name of facility and owner; b) emergency phone number of attendant; c) permitted materials; and d) hours of operation during which wastes will be received for disposal. Depending of the type of waste disposal site and degree to which access is restricted, additional signs may be required, e.g. a sign warning herdsmen of the hazards to animals and human beings should animals graze on garbage.

17

CONTROL OF NUISANCES AND HEALTH HAZARDS 17.1 17.2 17.3 Blowing debris shall be controlled such that the entire disposal site is free of litter. Dust and odors shall be controlled. Insects, rodents and vermin shall be controlled. The control program shall be based on proper handling and disposal of waste to prevent attraction, propagation and harborage of vectors and pests. Trapping, baiting and insecticide spraying may be required to control insects, rodents and vermin, which are inadvertently delivered to the site in waste. The services of a competent person or firm shall be retained to carry out periodic surveys and implement eradication and control measures. Any condition that could promote the transmission of disease to man or animals shall be controlled. Protection and conservation of the air, water and land environment over, on, under and around the disposal site shall be emphasized. This shall include prevention, control and treatment of discharges, emissions and other factors, which could degrade the environment or create a public health hazard/nuisance.

17.4

17.5

18

SALVAGING AND SCAVENGING Salvaging or scavenging shall be controlled so as not to interfere with optimum disposal site operation and not to create unsightly conditions or vector harborage. All salvaged materials shall be removed from the disposal site at the end of each operating day, unless some other recycling or storage program is authorized in the operating plan approved by EPD. Food products, garbage, hazardous materials, 75
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Solid Waste Management, SASC-S-03

containers used for hazardous materials and furniture and bedding with concealed filling shall not be salvaged from a disposal site. 19 HANDLING OF SPECIAL TYPES OF WASTE 19.1 Large dead animals or bulk animal waste, sewage sludge, septic wastewater, hospital waste and other materials which may be hazardous or difficult to manage shall not be deposited at a disposal site unless special provisions for such disposal are included in the operating plan approved by EPD No toxic or hazardous waste shall be deposited at any disposal site without prior written approval of EPD. A program shall be implemented for detecting and preventing the disposal of toxic or hazardous waste and other non-approved waste. The program will make provision for the random inspection of incoming loads, maintenance of records and staff training. EPD must be notified immediately if non-approved wastes are received at the site. In general, toxic or hazardous waste shall be properly contained and stored pending reclamation or final disposal, at a facility specifically designed for this purpose. Refer to GI 430.001, Waste Management and Materials Supply Organization instruction, CU 13.1 Processing of Hazardous Material, for requirements in relation to the classification, manifesting and handling of difficult and hazardous wastes. Large quantities of waste oil, grease, oil sludge or oil-soaked waste shall not be placed in any disposal site unless the disposal site is specifically designed and approved for the disposal of such waste, and designated as an oil waste disposal site and special precautions are taken to prevent fires and to protect and conserve the air, water and land environment in accordance with the operating plan approved by EPD. Whole, scrap tires shall not be disposed of in Company operated sanitary or construction waste landfill sites. Tires that have been suitably shredded may be disposed of in landfill sites. Proponent organizations are responsible for the proper disposal of all scrap and used tires. Upon request, proponent organizations shall furnish EPD with documentation verifying proper disposal. Containers holding liquid must not be placed in a landfill site unless the container is small in size similar to that typically found in household waste. Sanitary landfills incorporating large quantities of combustible materials shall be sectioned into cells by earth dikes designed to prevent the spread of fire between cells. Equipment shall be provided of sufficient size and design to densely compact materials included in the landfill.

19.2

19.3

19.4

19.5

19.6

20

SPECIAL FACTORS PERTINENT TO THE SANITARY LANDFILL METHOD OF WASTE DISPOSAL 20.1 Approved types of landfills: 20.1.1 The sanitary landfill method of waste disposal according to the operating plan approved by EPD and other concerned agencies. 20.1.2 The modified landfill method of waste disposal if it is determined by EPD and other concerned agencies that special circumstances, such as climate, geographic area, site location, nature or quantity of waste material to be landfilled or population density justifies less than daily compaction and cover. Note that modified landfills shall be located at least 0.4 kilometers (0.25 miles) from the nearest existing residence or commercial establishment other than those used by the landfill operator. 20.1.3 Open dumps and burn-pits are prohibited. 20.2 Adequate quantities of cover material shall be available to provide for daily cover of the active waste cells at the end of each operating day and for final cover and phased restoration of the site. The consistency of the final cover material shall be such that it can be compacted, and that the 76
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Solid Waste Management, SASC-S-03

compacted cover material is not prone to cracking and that the compacted cover material will minimize percolation of surface water. 20.3 Sufficient equipment, including provision of auxiliary or standby equipment which is adequate to operate a landfill site including placement, compaction and covering of waste under all anticipated weather and soil conditions shall be available at all times. Methods of operation: 20.4.1 Unloading of waste on the site shall be confined to the smallest area practicable. The area of exposed waste material on the active landfill face shall be kept to a minimum. 20.4.2 Waste shall be spread on a slope no steeper than 3 horizontal to 1 vertical and compacted in layers not to exceed 61 centimeters (2 feet) in depth up to maximum cell height. Each layer shall be covered with not less than 15 centimeters (6 inches) of compacted cover material. 20.4.3 A layer of not less that 61 centimeters (2 feet) of compacted cover material, in addition to intermediate cover material, shall be placed over the completed fill following the final placement of waste. The final cover shall be graded to prevent cracking, erosion and ponding of water. 20.5 Closure of landfills: 20.5.1 Before a landfill may be closed or abandoned to further use, all waste at the disposal site shall be covered, compacted and graded according to requirements outlined in sub-section 20.4.3 of this Code Section. The site shall be restored in a manner approved in writing by EPD. 20.5.2 A maintenance program for continued control of erosion, repair and stabilization of the compacted cover material shall be provided until the completed fill has stabilized to the point where maintenance is no longer required. Groundwater and landfill gas monitoring shall continue post closure, until the site has stabilized. 21 INCINERATION OF SOLID WASTE 21.1 All incineration equipment and air pollution control appurtenances shall comply with air pollution control rules and regulations and emission standards of Saudi Aramco and the Meteorology and Environmental Protection Administration (MEPA). The delivery of waste shall be coordinated with the producers and transporters to ensure that a steady stream of waste is received for incineration. Too little or too much waste can adversely impact the handling capabilities of the facility and the efficiency of the incineration process. In general, waste shall be incinerated as it is received. Accumulation of waste shall be kept to a minimum. All waste that is not incinerated upon delivery to the site shall be confined to a designated staging area. Special provisions shall be made to handle and contain waste stored in the staging area. Note that hospital and other potentially hazardous waste shall be properly contained until incinerated according to the operating plan approved by EPD. Accumulation of ashes and residues shall be kept to a minimum. Ashes and residues in a cold state shall be disposed of in an approved landfill or handled otherwise in accordance with a written plan approved by EPD.

20.4

21.2

21.3

21.4 21.5

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Solid Waste Management, SASC-S-03

21.6

During start up and shut down waste must not be fed into the incinerator unless it is operating within its design specification for temperature and air feed rate. Automatic cut-off devices must be installed to prevent wastes being fed into the incinerator when the operating temperature and combustion gas conditions are outside the design specification. Combustion temperature and waste feed rate must be monitored on a continuous basis. Carbon monoxide must be monitored on a continuous basis at a point in the incinerator downstream of the combustion zone and prior to release to atmosphere. The incinerator and associated equipment (pumps, valves and pipes) must be subject to a thorough visual inspection at least daily, for leaks, spills and fugitive emissions. Daily inspection logs must be maintained and made available for inspection as required by paragraph 4.3 above. The emergency waste feed cut-off system and associated alarms must be tested at least daily to verify operability. A daily inspection log must be maintained and made available for inspection as required by paragraph 4.3 above.

21.7

21.8

21.9

21.10

22

COMPOSTING METHOD OF WASTE DISPOSAL 22.1 All compostable waste shall be subjected to complete processing in accordance with the equipment manufacturer's operating instructions. Facilities and procedures shall be provided for handling, recycling or disposing of wastes that are non-biodegradable by composting. An adequate supply of water shall be available for plant operation and cleaning purposes. There shall be no direct connection between a potable water supply and any processing plant or equipment or cross-connection with any unsafe or questionable water supply, sewerage system or any source of pollution that might contaminate or otherwise degrade the potable water supply. Composting operations shall not be located in odor-sensitive areas. Odors shall be maintained at the lowest levels practicable. Provisions shall be made to effectively collect, treat and dispose of leachate or drainage from stored compost and the composting operation. Compost shall be removed from the composting plant site as frequently as possible, but not later than one year after treatment is completed. Composted waste offered for use by the general public shall contain no pathogenic organisms, shall be relatively odor-free and shall not endanger public health or safety. All waste delivered to the composting plant shall be placed in the compost stream or confined to a designated staging area prior to composting. Stored waste shall be handled according to requirements outlined in sub-section 5.1 of this Code Section. The volume of stored waste shall be kept to minimum. Residues shall be handled according to requirements outlined in sub-sections 8 and 9 of this Code Section. Accumulation of residues shall be kept to a minimum.

22.2

22.3

22.4

22.5

22.6

22.7

22.8

22.9

23

SLUDGE DISPOSAL METHOD 23.1 Prohibited methods of sludge disposal: 23.1.1 Septic tank waste and raw sewage sludge shall not be disposed of by land spreading unless specifically approved in writing by EPD. 78
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23.1.2 Except for heat-treated sewage sludge, sewage sludges, including septic tank waste and raw sewage sludges, shall not be: a) used as fertilizer on root crops, vegetables, low growing berries or fruits that may be eaten raw; b) applied to land later than one year prior to planting where vegetables are to be grown; c) used on grass or shrubbery in public areas; or d) be given or sold to the public. 23.1.3 Sewage sludge shall normally have a minimum solids content of 30% prior to disposal in a landfill. Sludge will be considered at 30% when it is in the form of a dry cake. Liquid sludges shall not be deposited in landfills except according to the operating plan approved by EPD. 23.2 Operation of sludge disposal sites: 23.2.1 Sludge lagoons shall be located at least 1.6 kilometers (1 mile) from the nearest existing residence or commercial establishment other than those used by the lagoon operator or attendant. 23.2.2 Sludge shall not be spread on land where natural run-off could carry a residue into surface or ground waters. 23.2.3 If non-digested sludge is spread on land within 1.6 kilometers (1 mile) of residence, community or public use area, it shall be plowed under the ground, buried or otherwise incorporated into the soil within five (5) days after application. 23.2.4 Lagoons shall be designed and constructed in accordance with SAES-A-104. 23.2.5 Water or sludge shall not be pumped or otherwise removed from a lagoon, except according to a written plan approved by EPD.

REFERENCES 1. State of California, California Solid Waste Management, 1973. 2. USEPA 40 CFR Ch.1: Parts; 258 - Criteria For Municipal Solid Waste Landfills, 7-1-99 Edition 264 - Standards for Owners and Operators of Hazardous Waste treatment, Storage and Disposal Facilities. 1987/97 3. UK, Department of the Environment, Waste Management Paper 26B Landfill Design Construction and Operational Practice, 1995. 4. Saudi Aramco Sanitary Code, 1996. 5. GI 430.001 Waste Management General Instruction 6. SAES-S-007 Solid Waste Landfill Standard, 1998. 7. SAES-A 104 Wastewater Treatment, Reuse and Disposal 2001 8. CU 13.1 Processing of Hazardous Material

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Food Manufacturing, Processing and Packaging, SASC-S-05

SASC-S-05 FOOD MANUFACTURING, PROCESSING AND PACKAGING


This Section specifies requirements for food manufacturers, processors and/or packers. These requirements, where applicable, are in addition to the general requirements of Section SASC-S-04 Food Establishments. Food manufacturers and processors covered by this Section include: meat processors, both raw and cooked, poultry slaughterhouse and processors, bakeries, juice and beverage producers, both carbonated and noncarbonated, confectioners, frozen vegetable processors, food canneries, fish and shellfish processors and food packers. Note: All sub-sections should be read in conjunction with appropriate referenced documents listed at the end of this Code Section. DEFINITIONS: Refer also to glossary at the beginning of SASC-S-04. Acid Foods or Acidified Foods: Foods that have an equilibrium pH of 4.6 or below Batter: A semi fluid substance, usually composed of flour and other ingredients, into which principal components of food are dipped or with which they are coated, or which may be used directly to form bakery foods. Blanching: Except for tree nuts and peanuts, means a prepackaging heat treatment of foodstuffs for a sufficient time and at a sufficient temperature to partially or completely inactivate the naturally occurring enzymes and to effect other physical or biochemical changes in the food. Carcass: The commercially prepared or dressed body of any animal intended for human food. Disinfection Unit: A container for sanitizing knives, cleavers, and hand held saws and other hand held tools used during slaughter, dressing, boning, portioning or meat cutting operations. Lot: The food produced during a period of time indicated by a specific code. Meat/poultry Processing Plant: A commercial plant that slaughters, processes, supplies or stores meat or meat products or poultry or poultry products. It may be one or more buildings and includes barns, holding pens, slaughtering facilities, meat/poultry processing rooms, cold stores and freezers. Microorganisms: Means yeasts, molds, bacteria, and viruses and includes, but is not limited to, species having public health significance. The term "undesirable microorganisms" includes those microorganisms that are of public health significance, that subject food to decomposition, that indicate that food is contaminated with filth. Offal: Waste parts of a slaughtered or butchered animal. Plant: The building or facility, or parts thereof, used for or in connection with the manufacturing, packaging, labeling, or holding of human food. Processing: Steps in the manufacture, preparation and packaging of a food product into its final form. Production Room: The room or area in which processing occurs.

APPLICATION BY FOOD MANUFACTURERS OR PROCESSORS FOR ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH APPROVAL 1.1 Owners of privately operated food manufacturers wishing to conduct business with Saudi Aramco shall apply through Saudi Aramco Environmental Protection Department (EPD) accordance with 125

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procedures. (Exception for Concessionaire Contracts) Water and ice manufacturers shall apply through Saudi Aramco Purchasing Department as per their procedures 1.2 All such applicants shall comply with relevant requirements of sub-section 1 of SASC-S-04. 2 INSPECTIONS 2.1 Once approval has been granted, Saudi Aramco EPD will conduct, from time to time, inspections of the plant, operations and facility as deemed necessary. 2.2 If Saudi Aramco EPD finds that a food manufacturer, processor or packer does not comply with one or more requirements of any relevant Sections of the Saudi Aramco Sanitary Code, then action as detailed in SASC-S-04 sub-section 2 will be implemented. (Warning or Suspension). 3 GENERAL REQUIREMENTS 3.1 The food manufacturer, processor or packer shall comply with all of sub-sections in SASC-S-4 Food Establishments and SASC-S-05 Food Manufacturing, Processing and Packaging, where applicable. 3.2 Quality Assurance, and Quality Control procedures, protocols and operating plans shall be documented. 3.3 Good Manufacturing Practice shall be followed at all times. Recognized Good Manufacturing Practices in the food industry are the procedures that identify, control or eliminate hazards resulting in a quality, safe product, free of harmful microorganisms, chemicals or foreign bodies. 3.4 Food manufacturers, processors and packers shall implement HACCP (Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point) operating systems or other recognized Quality System to assess food hazards, determine critical control points and implement monitoring procedures. Requirements of SASC-S-04, sub-section 7 Control of Operations shall be followed. A fully documented system is required. 3.5 Only food additives such as preservatives, flavorings, coloring agents, anti-oxidants, emulsifiers, stabilizers, anti-caking agents etc. that are approved and used in accordance with Saudi Arab Government SASO Standards shall be permitted. 3.6 A written Standard Operating Procedure (SOP) shall be developed for the use, and application, of all food additives used. The SOP shall describe fully the composition of the additive, storage conditions, methods of mixing and application to the food. Product information such as toxicity, handling procedures, personal protective equipment to be used when handling the substances and other pertinent information shall also be included in the SOP. 3.7 Labeling of all food products shall meet the requirements of the Saudi Arab Government SASO Standards and: 3.7.1 All packaged food items shall display a 'Principle Display Panel' that is large enough to accommodate all relevant information clearly and conspicuously. The principle display panel shall display the following information: Identify the common or usual name of the product. List the ingredients of the food by common or usual names in descending order of predominance by weight. The name and place of business of the manufacturer, packer and/or distributor. List all food additives by their common or usual name, chemical name or recognized 'E' number.

3.7.2

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3.8 Date codes, including date of production and date of expiry shall be included on all packaging and meet the requirements of the Saudi Arab Government SASO Standards. Re-labeling or re-dating of products that have not been processed shall be deemed as inappropriate. Date of production of foods that have simply beingre-packaged shall display original production date. Simply portioning of foods, also, is not considered processing so therefore original production date must be displayed on new packaging. Processing shall include one of the following: pasteurization or sterilization by cooking, autoclaving, heat-treating, irradiation or other method of treatment to remove all pathogenic organisms from the food, change of composition of the food to extend the shelf life by the addition of approved or GRAS (generally recognized as safe) preservatives or other food additives, or other processes approved by EPD. 4 GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICE PERSONNEL 4.1 Plant Management shall take all reasonable measures and precautions to ensure the following: 4.1.1 Any person who, by medical examination or Supervisory observation, is shown to have, or appear to have, an illness or lesion including boils, sores, or infected wounds, or any other abnormal source of microbial contamination by which there is a reasonable possibility of food, food contact surfaces or food packaging materials becoming contaminated, shall be excluded from any operation, which may result in such contamination, until the condition is corrected. Personnel shall be instructed to report such health conditions to their Supervisors. All persons working in direct contact with food, food contact surfaces, and food packaging material shall conform to hygiene practices while on duty to the extent necessary to protect against contamination of food and shall: 4.1.2.1 Wear outer garments suitable to the operations in a manner that protects against the contamination of food, food contact surfaces, or food packaging materials. 4.1.2.2 Maintain adequate personal cleanliness. Handwash thoroughly and as necessary to protect against contamination with undesirable organisms in an adequate hand washing facility before starting work, after re-entering the working area after breaks and at any other time when the hands may have become soiled or contaminated. 4.1.2.3 Remove all unsecured jewelry and other objects that might fall into food, equipment or containers and remove hand jewelry that cannot be adequately sanitized during periods in which food is manipulated by hand. 4.1.2.4 Wear, where appropriate, in an effective manner, hairnets, headbands, caps, beard covers or other effective hair restraints. 4.1.2.5 Store clothing, or other personal belongings in areas other than where food is exposed or where equipment or utensils are stored or washed. 4.1.2.6 Abstain from eating food, chewing gum, using tobacco or drinking beverages in places where foods are stored, manufactured or prepared and in areas where utensils or equipment are washed. 4.2 Education and Training. Personnel responsible for Quality Control/Quality Assurance shall have a background of education or experience, or combination thereof, to provide a level of competency necessary for production of clean and safe foods. Food handlers and Supervisors shall receive appropriate training on proper food handling techniques and food protection principles and shall be informed of the danger of poor personal hygiene and insanitary practices. 127

4.1.2

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4.3 Supervisor. Supervisors shall be competent, experienced and hold necessary certification demonstrating that they are fully cognizant with good food hygiene practices, appropriate food manufacturing procedures and capable of effective supervision including personal and food hygiene training. 5 GROUNDS 5.1 The grounds about a food plant, under the control of the operator shall be kept in a condition that will protect against the contamination of food. The method for adequate maintenance of grounds shall include, but not necessarily be limited to: 5.1.1 Properly storing equipment, necessary litter and waste, and cutting weeds or grass within the immediate vicinity of the plant buildings or structures that may contribute an attraction, breeding place or harborage for pests. Maintaining roads, yards and parking lots so that they do not constitute a source of contamination in areas where food is exposed Adequately draining areas that may contribute to contamination to food by seepage, footborne filth, or providing breeding places for pests. Operating systems for waste management and waste disposal in an adequate manner so that they do not constitute a source of contamination in areas where food is exposed. Where grounds in the immediate vicinity are not in the control of the operator, the operator shall, through inspections and appropriate control methods, take steps to prevent pests, dirt and filth entering the premises.

5.1.2

5.1.3

5.1.4

5.1.5

PLANT CONSTRUCTION AND DESIGN 6.1 Plant buildings and structures shall be suitable in size, construction and design to facilitate maintenance and sanitary operations for the specific food manufacturing operations undertaken at the plant. The plant shall: 6.1.1 Provide sufficient space for such placement of equipment as is necessary for the production of food without creating congested, unsafe, crowded or hazardous conditions. Provide sufficient space for the proper storage of equipment, raw ingredients and finished products necessary for the maintenance of sanitary operations and the production of safe food. Permit the taking of proper precautions to reduce or eliminate the potential for contamination of food, food contact surfaces or food packaging materials with microorganisms, chemicals, filth or other extraneous materials. Be constructed in such a manner that all walls, floors and ceilings can be adequately cleaned and kept clean and in good repair; that drip or condensate from fixtures, ducts and pipes does not contaminate food, food contact surfaces or food packaging materials and that aisles or working spaces are provided between equipment and walls and are unobstructed and of adequate width to permit employees to perform their duties and to protect against contaminating food or food contact surfaces with clothing or personal contact. Provide adequate lighting as per SASC-S-04, sub-section 12, Table I.

6.1.2

6.1.3

6.1.4.

6.1.5

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6.1.6

Provide safety type light bulbs, shatter proof diffusers, fixtures, skylights or other glass suspended over exposed food in any step of preparation or otherwise protect against food contamination in case of glass breakage.

SANITARY OPERATIONS 7.1 Buildings, fixtures, and other physical facilities of the plant shall be maintained in a sanitary condition and shall be kept in repair sufficient to prevent food from contamination. Cleaning and sanitizing of utensils and equipment shall be conducted in a manner that protects against contamination of food, food contact surfaces, or food packaging materials. Substances used in cleaning and sanitizing shall be safe and adequate under the conditions of use. Only the following toxic materials shall be used or stored in a plant where food is processed or exposed: Those required maintaining clean and sanitary conditions; Those necessary for use in laboratory testing procedures; Those necessary for plant and equipment maintenance and operations; Those necessary for use in the plants operations. Toxic cleaning compounds, sanitizing agents, and pesticide chemicals shall be identified, held, and stored in a manner that protects against contamination of food, food contact surfaces, or food packaging materials. No pests shall be allowed in any area of a food plant. Effective measures shall be taken to exclude pests from food processing areas and to protect against the contamination of food on the premises by pests. The use of insecticides or rodenticides is permitted only under precautions and restrictions that will protect against the contamination of food, food contact surfaces, and food packaging materials. All food contact surfaces, including utensils and food contact surfaces of equipment, shall be cleaned as frequently as necessary to protect against contamination of food. Food contact surfaces used for manufacturing or holding low moisture food shall be in a dry, sanitary condition at the time of use. When the surfaces are wet cleaned, they shall, when necessary, be sanitized and thoroughly dried before subsequent use. In wet processing, when cleaning is necessary to protect against the introduction of microorganisms into food, all food contact surfaces shall be cleaned and sanitized before use and after any interruption during which the food contact surfaces may have become contaminated. Where equipment and utensils are used in a continuous production operation, the utensils and food contact surfaces of the equipment shall be cleaned and sanitized as necessary. Non food contact surfaces of equipment used in the operation of food plants shall be cleaned as frequently as necessary to protect against contamination of food.

7.2 7.3

7.4

7.5

7.6

7.7

7.8

7.9

SANITARY FACILITIES AND CONTROL 8.1 Each plant shall be equipped with adequate sanitary facilities and accommodations, including, but not limited to: 8.1.1 Water supply. The water supply shall be sufficient for the operations intended and shall be derived from an approved source. The water supply in all respects, shall meet requirements of SASC-S-01. Sewage disposal. Sewage disposal shall be made into an adequate sewerage system or disposed of through other adequate means. 129

8.1.2

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8.1.3

Toilet facilities. Each plant shall provide its employees with adequate, readily accessible toilet facilities that meet, in full, requirements of SASC-S-04, sub-section 17. Hand washing facilities shall be provided as necessary and comply in full with SASC-S04, sub-section 18. Readily understandable signs directing employees handling unprotected food, unprotected food packaging materials, of food contact surfaces to wash and, where appropriate, sanitize their hand before they start work, after each absence from post of duty, and when their hands may have become soiled or contaminated. These signs may be posted in the processing room(s) and in all other areas where employees may handle such food, materials, or surfaces. Refuse receptacles that are constructed and maintained in a manner that protects against contamination of food. Rubbish and any offal shall be so conveyed, stored, and disposed of as to minimize the development of odor, minimize the potential for the waste becoming an attractant and harborage or breeding place for pests, and protect against contamination of food, food contact surfaces, water supplies, and ground surfaces.

8.1.4

8.1.5

EUIPMENT AND UTENSILS 9.1 All plant equipment and utensils shall be so designed and of such material and workmanship as to be adequately cleanable, and shall be properly maintained. The design, construction, and use of equipment and utensils shall preclude the adulteration of food with lubricants, fuel, metal fragments, contaminated water, or any other contaminants. All equipment shall be so installed and maintained as to facilitate the cleaning of the equipment and of all adjacent surfaces. Food contact surfaces shall be corrosion resistant. They shall be made of non-toxic materials and designed to withstand the environment of their intended use and the action of food, and, if applicable, cleaning compounds and sanitizing agents. Food contact surfaces shall be maintained to protect food from being contaminated by any source, including unlawful indirect food additives. Seams on food contact surfaces shall be smoothly bonded or maintained so as to minimize accumulation of food particles, dirt, and organic matter and thus minimize the opportunity for growth of microorganisms. Equipment that is in the manufacturing or food handling area and that does not come into contact with food shall be so constructed that it can be kept in a clean condition. Holding, conveying, and manufacturing systems, including gravimetric, pneumatic, closed, and automated systems, shall be of a design and construction that enables them to be maintained in an appropriate sanitary condition. Each freezer and cold storage compartment used to store and hold food capable of supporting growth of microorganisms shall be fitted with an indicating thermometer, temperature measuring device, or temperature recording device so installed as to show the temperature accurately within the compartment, and shall be fitted with an automatic control for regulating temperature or with an automatic alarm system to indicate a significant temperature change in a manual operation. Instruments and controls used for measuring, regulating, or recording temperatures, pH, acidity, water activity, or other conditions that control or prevent the growth of undesirable microorganisms in food shall be accurate and adequately maintained, and adequate in number for their designated uses. Compressed air or other gases mechanically introduced into food or used to clean food contact surfaces or equipment shall be treated in such a way that food is not contaminated with unlawful indirect food additives.

9.2

9.3

9.4

9.5

9.6

9.7

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10

PROCESSES AND CONTROLS 10.1 All operations in the receiving, inspecting, transporting, segregating, preparing, manufacturing, packaging, and storing of food shall be conducted in accordance with adequate sanitation principles. Appropriate quality control operations shall be employed to ensure that food is suitable for human consumption and that food-packaging materials are safe and suitable. Overall sanitation of the plant shall be under the supervision of one or more competent individuals assigned responsibility for this function. All reasonable precautions shall be taken to ensure that production procedures do not contribute contamination from any source. Chemical, microbial, or physical material testing procedures shall be used where necessary to identify sanitation failures or possible food contamination. Raw materials and other ingredients shall be inspected and segregated or otherwise handled as necessary to ascertain that they are clean and suitable for processing into food and shall be stored under conditions that will protect against contamination and minimize deterioration. Raw materials shall be washed or cleaned as necessary to remove soil or other contamination. Water used for washing, rinsing, or conveying food shall be safe and of adequate sanitary quality. Water may be reused for washing, rinsing, or conveying food if it does not increase the level of contamination of the food. Containers and carriers of raw materials shall be inspected on receipt to ensure that their condition has not contributed to the contamination or deterioration of food. Raw materials and other ingredients shall either not contain levels of microorganisms that may produce food poisoning or other disease in humans, or they shall be pasteurized or otherwise treated during manufacturing operations so that they no longer contain levels that would cause the product to be harmful. Raw materials, other ingredients and rework shall be held in bulk, or in containers designed and constructed so as to protect against contamination and shall be held at such temperature and relative humidity and in such a manner as to prevent the food deteriorating. Frozen raw materials and other ingredients shall be kept frozen. If thawing is required prior to use, it shall be done in a manner that prevents the raw materials and other ingredients from becoming contaminated or adulterated. Liquid or dry raw materials and other ingredients received and stored in bulk form shall be held in a manner that protects against contamination. Equipment and utensils and finished food containers shall be maintained in an acceptable condition through appropriate cleaning and sanitizing, as necessary. Insofar as necessary, all equipment shall be taken apart for thorough cleaning. All food manufacturing, including packaging and storage, shall be conducted under such conditions and controls as are necessary to minimize the potential for the growth of microorganisms, or for the contamination of food. Work in process shall be handled in a manner that protects against contamination. Effective measures shall be taken to protect finished food from contamination by raw materials, other ingredients, or refuse. When raw materials, other ingredients, or refuse are unprotected, they shall not be handled simultaneously in a receiving, loading or shipping area if that handling could result in contamination of food. Food transported by conveyor shall be protected against contamination as necessary. Equipment, containers, and utensils used to convey, hold, or store raw materials, work in process, rework, or food shall be constructed, handled, and maintained during manufacturing or storage in a manner that protects against contamination. 131

10.2

10.3

10.4

10.5

10.6

10.7

10.8

10.9 10.10

10.11

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10.12

Effective measures shall be taken to protect against the inclusion of metal or other extraneous material in food. Compliance with this requirement may be accomplished by using sieves, traps, magnets, electronic metal detectors, and other suitable effective means. Food, raw materials, and other ingredients that are to be destroyed shall be disposed of in a manner that protects against the contamination of other food. Mechanical manufacturing steps such as washing, peeling, trimming, cutting, sorting and inspecting, mashing, dewatering, cooling, shredding, extruding, drying whipping, defatting, and forming shall be performed so as to protect food against contamination. Compliance with this requirement may be accomplished by providing adequate physical protection of food from contaminants that may drip, drain, or be drawn into the food. Protection may be provided by adequate cleaning and sanitizing of all food contact surfaces, and by using time and temperature controls at and between each manufacturing step.

10.13

10.14

10.15 Heat blanching, when required in the preparation of food, shall be affected by heating the food to the required temperature, holding it at this temperature for the required time, and then either rapidly cooling the food or passing it to subsequent manufacturing without delay. Thermophilic growth and contamination in blanchers should be minimized by the use of adequate operating temperatures and by periodic cleaning. Where the blanched food is washed prior to filling, water used shall be safe and of adequate sanitary quality. 10.16 Batter, sauces, gravies, dressings, and other similar preparations shall be treated or maintained in such a manner that they are protected against contamination. Compliance with this requirement may be accomplished by any effective means, including one or more of the following: 10.17 Using ingredients free of contamination Employing adequate heat processes where applicable Using adequate time and temperature controls Providing adequate physical protection of components from contaminants that may drip, drain, or be drawn into them. Cooling to an adequate temperature during manufacturing

Filling, assembling, packaging, and other operations shall be performed in such a way that the food is protected against contamination. Compliance with this requirement may be accomplished by any effective means, including: Use of a quality control operation in which the critical control points are identified and controlled during manufacturing. Adequate cleaning and sanitizing of all food contact surfaces and food containers Using materials for food containers and food packaging materials that are safe Providing physical protection from contamination, particularly airborne contamination Using sanitary handling procedures

10.18

Food such as, but not limited to, acid and acidified food, that relies principally on the control of pH for preventing the growth of undesirable microorganisms shall be monitored and maintained at a pH of 4.6 or below. Compliance with this requirement may be accomplished by any effective means, including employment of one or more of the following practices: Monitoring of pH of raw materials, food in process and finished food. Controlling the amount of acid or acidified food added to low acid food.

10.19

When ice is used to contact with food, it shall be made from water that is safe, of adequate sanitary quality that meets SASC-S-01, and shall be used only if it has been manufactured in accordance with current good manufacturing practice as outlined in this part. 132

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10.20

Food manufacturing areas and equipment used for manufacturing human food shall not be used to manufacture non-human food, animal feed or inedible products, unless there is no risk to human food. Storage and transportation of finished food shall be under conditions that will protect food against physical, chemical, and microbial contamination as well as against deterioration of the food and the container. National Food Manufacturers on Saudi Aramcos list of Approved manufacturers or vendors shall not use Genetically Modified (GM) foods of animal origin, or of animals fed GM foods in the manufacturer of any food product. Nor shall any food, or food product containing GM products of animal origin be permitted to be stored, handled or packaged within the food facility. GM foods of plant origin (fruits and vegetables), may be used in the manufacture of foods, or sold without further treatment, modification or change providing that the food or food product containing any GM material of plant origin is clearly labeled in both Arabic and English, indicating that the food contains such material.

10.21

10.22

10.23

11 SPECIFIC REQUIREMENTS FOR RAW MEAT/POULTRY PROCESSING PLANTS


In addition to all requirements of SASC-S-04 and general requirements and good manufacturing practices in this Section, raw meat/poultry processing plants shall meet the following: 11.1 Premises: 11.1.1 The premises shall present a clean and orderly appearance, be well drained and free of environmental conditions and/or materials that are a nuisance or a hazard to sanitation. Outside areas shall be free of weeds, debris and unused equipment and materials. Solid and liquid waste shall be stored in such a manner that they do not create nuisance or are a health hazard.

11.1.2 11.1.3

11.2

Construction of buildings: 11.2.1 The building(s) shall be large enough to accommodate the entire operation without compromising good sanitary practices. Floors, walls and ceilings shall be constructed of materials that can be kept clean, sanitary and in good repair. Overhead wiring, pipes, hangers and ducts shall be constructed or appropriately enclosed to prevent contaminants such as dust, paint or other debris from falling on food or food contact surfaces. Exterior openings, including doors, windows, conveyor openings, pipe openings and vents shall be in good repair and be equipped with screens or other effective means to prevent the ingress of insects, birds and/or other animals. Screen doors, where fitted, shall open outwards, and be self-closing. Meat or poultry processing rooms shall not open directly into barns, stables, living quarters, toilet rooms, garages, retail sales stores, or maintenance shops. Separate facilities shall be provided, where applicable, for: Dry goods (non-food) and packaging materials Dry goods (food) 133

11.2.2 11.2.3

11.2.4

11.2.5 11.2.6

11.2.7

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Food Manufacturing, Processing and Packaging, SASC-S-05

11.3

Finished products Cleaning chemicals Toilet rooms, dressing rooms, hand washing: 11.3.1 11.3.2 Toilets shall be provided in accordance with SASC-S-04 sub-section 17. Toilet rooms shall be conveniently located, constructed of materials that can be easily and satisfactorily cleaned and sanitized. Toilet rooms shall be separately ventilated to the outside. Extracted air from toilet rooms shall not be recirculated. Toilet rooms shall not open directly to any food room or area where components or products are processed or stored.

11.3.3

11.3.4

11.4

Livestock pens: 11.4.1 Livestock pens, ramps, unloading chutes, curbs and runways shall be of such construction, materials and finish that they can be readily and easily cleaned. Pens shall be provided with a water supply with well-located hose connections equipped with back flow prevention devices. Adequate curbing of an impervious material, a minimum of 12 inches (30.48cm) shall be installed around the borders of the pens to confine liquid waste. Water troughs, or devices, with suitable overflows shall be located over, or next to, pen floor drains. A separate pen shall be provided to isolate sick animals. Holding pens shall be well ventilated, well lit and adequate in size to perform antemortem inspection. Livestock pens shall be cleaned daily.

11.4.2

11.4.3

11.4.4

11.4.5 11.4.6

11.4.7 11.5

Holding and shackling pens: Holding and shackling pens shall be located outside of, or effectively separated from, the slaughtering area by a full height partition of impervious material to avoid dust, odor and contamination of the slaughtering area.

11.6

Slaughtering area: 11.6.1 Adequate facilities shall be provided for slaughtering operations. Construction and materials in the slaughtering area shall be such that all surfaces can be readily and easily cleaned and sanitized. Beef shall be dressed on either a moveable rail system or cradles and hoists. Sheep, goats and veal shall be slaughtered on either a manual or mechanical rail system. Poultry shall be inverted, shackled and slaughtered over a bleed trough. Handwash basin(s) shall be installed in the slaughtering area. The handwash basin shall have hot and cold water through a mixer valve at a minimum temperature of 45C (105F). The faucets to the handwash basin shall be operated by means other than the hands. 134

11.6.2 11.6.3 11.6.4 11.6.5

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Food Manufacturing, Processing and Packaging, SASC-S-05

11.6.6

A cold water supply shall be provided in the 'dressing' area for washing carcasses. The water used for washing carcasses shall contain a minimum of 20mg/L of available chlorine. Areas for de-horning, skinning, evisceration and head, carcass and offal inspection shall be provided. Materials and surface in all areas shall be easily cleanable.

11.6.7

11.7

Lighting: 11.7.1 Each and every room in the plant shall have sufficient natural and/or artificial lighting for the purpose for which it is to be used. Sufficient lighting shall be present in all areas to permit adequate visibility for cleaning and sanitary inspection of operations. (See Table I). Lights in production areas and other rooms where food is processed, stored, or chilled shall be fitted with protective shields or diffusers or be so constructed that they will not shatter if broken. The following levels of light, whether from natural sources or artificial sources, shall be provided. (Table 1) Light shall be evenly distributed and of sufficient intensity to avoid distortion, shadows and strong glare. Table I Illumination Area to be illuminated Illumination levels required* Lux 215 110 110 540 110 320 320 540 215 215 Foot Candles 20 10 10 50 10 30 30 50 20 20

11.7.2

11.7.3

Pens Stairways Storage Areas Processing Areas (Boning/Portioning) Hallway Slaughtering Eviscerating Inspection area (QA/QC) Locker room/toilets Coolers/chillers 11.8 Ventilation and humidity: 11.8.1

* Measured at a distance of 76 centimeters (30 inches) above the floor

Humidity shall be regulated with ventilation or air movement to control condensation, objectionable odors and mold growth. Air for ventilation shall be adequately filtered or directed outside as appropriate to prevent contamination. Ventilation systems shall be clean and maintained in good repair at all times. All openable windows shall be fitted with mesh screen to prevent flying insects entering the biding when the widows are left open.

11.8.2

11.8.3 11.8.4

11.9

Water supply: The water supply shall meet all requirements of Section SASC-S-01.

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11.10

Disposal of waste: 11.10.1 Liquid waste shall be conveyed to a public sewer system through enclosed piping or shall be disposed of in an alternate sewage system such as septic tanks. Liquid waste from the plant shall not be disposed of in such a manner that it can cause contamination of the land, water table, streams, camel troughs, or water wells. All solid and liquid waste shall be placed in suitable covered receptacles conveniently located throughout the plant premises. Waste offal and putrescible waste shall be stored in an air-conditioned room that is only used for the purpose of holding such material. The temperature of the room shall be maintained at or below 10C (48F). All solid waste material removed from the premises shall be done so in a hygienic manner that does not cause nuisance from odor, flies or spillage. All liquid and solid waste removed from the premises shall be disposed of at an approved municipality treatment plant, landfill or disposal site. It is the responsibility of the facility management to ensure that all wastes are properly handled and disposed of or otherwise treated. Waste food material that is contaminated or 'unfit' for human consumption shall be stored in waterproof containers that are colour coded and bear the words 'unfit for human consumption'. All waste containers/receptacles shall be thoroughly cleaned, steam cleaned or sanitized regularly.

11.10.2

11.10.3

11.10.4

11.10.5

11.10.6

11.10.7

11.10.8

11.11

Toilet/dressing rooms and hand washing facilities: 11.11.1 A suitable changing/locker room shall be provided for staff to change into coveralls/working clothes. All process workers shall be provided with a locker for storing personal clothing, boots, and coveralls. The locker room shall be located adjacent or conveniently near a toilet/washroom so workers can hand wash prior to commencing work. A sign shall be displayed in the locker room; changing room and toilet room reminding staff to hand wash before entering food production or slaughtering areas. Handwash sinks shall be provided in accordance with SASC-S-04 sub-section 18. Hot and cold water from a mixer valve shall be provided to all handwash sinks. Minimum temperature of the hot water shall be not less than 105F (45C). Soap and soap dispenser (liquid or powder) shall be provided at hand wash sinks. Sanitary single service towels or hot air blower type hand dryer shall be provided and conveniently located in all toilet rooms.
NOTE: Warm air hand dryers shall not be the sole means of hand drying in employee lavatories.

11.11.2

11.11.3

11.11.4 11.11.5 11.11.6

11.11.7

11.11.8

Toilet rooms and fixtures, dressing and changing rooms and hand washing facilities shall be maintained in a clean orderly manner.

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11.11.9

Toilet rooms, dressing and changing rooms shall not be used for storage of cleaning equipment.

11.11.10 Dressing and changing rooms/locker rooms shall be separated from toilet rooms but may adjoin one another 11.12 Construction and repair of equipment and utensils: 11.12.1 Equipment and utensils shall be designed, constructed and used to preclude adulteration of food with toxic lubricants, fuel, metal fragments, contaminated water or other contaminants. Lubricants used on product handling and processing equipment shall be 'food-grade' and non-toxic and used sparingly in a manner that prevents contamination of food or food contact surfaces. All equipment and utensils shall be of such material and workmanship to be smooth, easily cleanable and durable. All materials shall be non-absorbent and corrosion resistant. Food contact surfaces and solder shall not contain antimony, bismuth, brass, copper, cadmium, lead, zinc and/or other toxic materials. Equipment shall be located in a manner that provides adequate space for cleaning, maintenance and inspection.

11.12.2

11.12.3

11.12.4

11.12.5

11.13

Cleaning and sanitizing: 11.13.1 Methods used for cleaning and sanitizing shall not contaminate nor adulterate food/food products. Cleaning and sanitizing chemicals shall be properly labeled and stored. Cleaning and sanitizing chemicals shall be used as prescribed by the manufacturer. If water alone is used as a sanitizer, it must be not less than 170F (77C) with a minimum contact time of 30 seconds. All personnel employed in cleaning and sanitizing shall be properly trained in such procedures. A cleaning schedule detailing all surfaces, pieces of equipment and items to be cleaned and sanitized shall be developed. The cleaning schedule shall detail the methods and frequencies of cleaning and sanitizing all areas and the equipment and materials to be used.

11.13.2 11.13.3 11.13.4

11.13.5

11.13.6

11.14

Disinfection units 11.14.1 Disinfection units shall be constructed of rust resistant metal and shall be of sufficient size for complete immersion of saws, knives, cleavers and other tools in water at a minimum of 170F (77C). Disinfection units shall be installed in all locations where meat/poultry is slaughtered, processed, cut or sawn. Disinfection units shall be heated by electricity, steam or centrally heated water.

11.14.2 11.14.3 11.15

Cooling/refrigeration:

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11.15.1

Chill rooms shall be free of objectionable odors and mold, and maintained in a sanitary condition. Chill rooms and freezers shall be capable of maintaining temperatures and humidity necessary for the preservation of the food being stored or processed. Chill rooms shall be maintained at 40F (4C) or below. Meat processing rooms i.e. where raw meat/poultry is trimmed, portioned, packaged, sliced, de-boned shall be maintained at 50F (10C) or below during the processing operations. Frozen food storage facilities shall be maintained at 0F (-18C) or below Frozen food storage facilities shall be adequately maintained to ensure circulation of refrigerated air, and shall be defrosted as frequently as necessary to maintain efficiency. Chill rooms and freezers shall be equipped with a thermometer graded in not more than 2F (1C) divisions and with an accuracy of + or - 2F (1C) throughout the specified scale range.

11.15.2

11.15.3 11.15.4

11.15.5 11.15.6

11.15.7

11.16

Control of insects, birds, rodents and other animals: Insects, birds, rodents and other animals shall be excluded from all areas of the facility. Effective measures for the control of insects, birds, rodents and other animals shall always be maintained.

11.17

Vehicles and transportation facilities: 11.17.1 Vehicles and transportation equipment shall be constructed and operated to protect contents from contamination and deterioration. Vehicles for transporting meat, meat products, poultry and poultry products shall be completely enclosed and refrigerated. Vehicles used for transporting frozen food products shall operate at 0C (-18F), or below and vehicles for transporting chilled foods shall operate at 4C (40F) or below. Refrigerated and freezer vehicles shall be fitted with continuous temperature chart records, which shall be used whenever chilled or frozen foods are stored or are being transported. Charts will be retained for a minimum period of 6 months. Vehicles used for transporting meat/meat products, poultry and poultry products shall not be used for carrying trash, garbage, or other materials that could cause contamination to food at any time.

11.17.2

11.17.3

11.17.4

12

SPECIAL REQUIREMENTS FOR WATER BOTTLING AND BEVERAGE MANUFACTURING PLANTS In addition to all requirements of SASC-S-04 and general requirements and good manufacturing practices in this Section, water bottling and beverage manufacturers shall meet the following: 12.1 Premises: Shall meet the general requirements as for raw meat/poultry processing plants subs-section 12.1 of this Code Section. 12.2 Construction of buildings: 138

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Food Manufacturing, Processing and Packaging, SASC-S-05

Structure of buildings shall meet general requirements as for raw meat/poultry processing plant subsections 11.2.1 through 11.2.5 and 11.2.7 of this Code Section. 12.3 Toilet room, dressing room, hand washing: Facility shall meet general requirements as for raw meat/poultry processing plants sub-sections 11.3.1 to 11.3.4 of this Code Section. 12.4 Apparatus and testing equipment: 12.4.1 A metal stem-type, numerically scaled indicating thermometer with a range from -18C (0F) to 104.5C (220F) and accurate to 1C (2F) at all temperatures within the range shall be provided and used to measure temperatures. An electronic digital thermometer equipped with a metal probe of equal range and accuracy may be used in conjunction with, or in place of, the mechanical indicating thermometer. Where the facility treats and chlorinates water, an approved test kit shall be provided to measure the concentration of residual chlorine in the treated water. The test kit shall have a range from at least 0.0 to 2.5 milligrams per liter (0.0 to 2.5 parts per million) and a sensitivity of at least 0.1 milligram per liter. Acid and sugar hydrometers, graduated measuring devices and other laboratory apparatus shall be provided as needed. Alkali and caustic soda testing equipment or devices for measuring the strength of the soaker solutions employed in bottle washing shall be provided as needed. If product is carbonated, an apparatus for measuring the degree of carbonation of he finished product shall be provided.

12.4.2

12.4.3

12.4.4.

12.4.5

12.5

Syrup-making equipment, if provided: 12.5.1 All vats, jar, vessels, tanks, pipelines, filters and other apparatus employed in mixing, conveying or storing ingredients and syrup shall be constructed of stainless steel or other suitable material resistant to corrosion by the action of ingredients and syrup. The use of galvanized iron, lead, zinc, copper, brass, or other potentially deleterious material is prohibited. All apparatus, equipment and utensils employed in syrup making shall comply with the general requirements as per SASC-S-04 sub-section 25 and shall be designed and constructed so that they are self-draining and so they can be readily flushed, cleaned and sanitized. All vessels, tanks, jars and vats shall be provided with suitable covers to protect them against dust, dirt, insects and other sources of contamination. Mixing shall be by mechanical means only. The mixing mechanism shall be designed, constructed and operated to prevent contamination of the syrup. Filter elements shall be single-service and shall be stored in a clean, dry place.

12.5.2

12.5.3

12.5.4

12.5.5 12.6

An eyewash designed for flushing the eyes with potable water shall be provided in close proximity to areas where water is chlorinated, hazardous chemicals are used and equipment containing hazardous chemicals is maintained. If circumstances warrant, a safety shower shall also be provided. Operation of the eyewash and safety shower shall be by means of a simple push bar, pull ring or step pad. Special equipment and procedures for washing returnable bottles: 139

12.7

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Food Manufacturing, Processing and Packaging, SASC-S-05

12.7.1

If returnable bottles are used, bottles shall be thoroughly cleaned and sanitized immediately before they are filled by means of an automatic mechanical bottle washing machine (bottles that are washed and then stored empty shall be rewashed immediately before they are filled). Washing bottles by hand, except as a preliminary step prior to mechanical bottle washing, is prohibited. The capacity of the bottle washing machine shall be equal to or greater than the capacity of the bottle-filling machine. The wash and rinse compartments shall be fitted with thermometers, preferably of the recording type. Bottle washing and inspection: 12.7.4.1 Unclean bottles shall be exposed to a three percent alkali solution (known as the soaker solution) containing not less than 60 percent caustic soda (sodium hydroxide), for a period of not less than five minutes at a temperature of not less than 55C (131F), or to an equivalent cleansing and sanitizing process. The strength of this solution shall be checked at least twice daily and shall be maintained at the desired concentration by adding more cleaning compound as needed. The soaker solution shall be completely changed as often as is necessary to ensure that bottles are properly cleaned. Bottles shall be rinsed free of all caustic soda with potable water prior to filling. All bottles leaving the washing machine shall be carefully inspected. Improperly cleaned or otherwise defective bottles shall be removed.

12.7.2

12.7.3

12.7.4

12.7.4.2 12.1.4.3

12.8

Handling foods, ingredients and packaging 12.8.1 Raw materials, foods, ingredients and packaging materials shall be gained from sources that produce such items in purpose-built food establishments under sanitary conditions and according to generally accepted industry practices. They shall be unadulterated, wholesome and free from spoilage, filth or other contamination. They shall be safe for human consumption. They shall be delivered to the food establishment in a vehicle that complies with the requirements of SASC-S-04 sub-section 27. Locally manufactured raw materials, foods, ingredients and packaging materials shall be obtained from manufacturers and vendors currently on the Saudi Aramco Approved National Manufacturers and Vendors List. Imported raw ingredients or products shall be imported from Countries that are recognized by EPD as acceptable. Only those raw materials, foods, ingredients and packaging materials packed in the original manufacturers' labeled container shall be received and used. The label shall honestly represent the package contents in accordance with Saudi Arab Government Standards. The label must list all additives. The item is misbranded if the labeling is false or misleading in any way or the package contains a chemical preservative not stated on the label. The dates of production and expiration shall be recorded on the packaging.

12.8.2

12.8.3

12.8.4

12.8.5 12.9

Raw materials, foods, ingredients and packaging materials shall not be accepted: 12.9.1 If they contain decomposed, toxic or extraneous substances, 140

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Food Manufacturing, Processing and Packaging, SASC-S-05

12.9.2 If the packaging in which they are received exhibits signs of damage, contamination, deterioration, spoilage or intentional tampering which may have rendered the contents unsafe and unfit for use. 12.10 Raw materials, foods, ingredients and packaging materials shall be stored in a manner that protects them against contamination, infestation and deterioration. Raw materials, foods, ingredients and packaging materials shall be protected at all times, including while being manufactured, processed, cooked and packaged, from contamination. Prior to introduction into the processing line, or at a convenient point within it, raw materials and ingredients shall be inspected, sorted and selected as required to remove unsuitable materials. Such steps shall be carried out under hygienic conditions so that only sound and clean raw materials and ingredients shall be processed. Raw materials shall be washed as needed to remove dust or other contaminants. Water used for such purposes shall not be recirculated unless suitably treated. Compressed air used in the food, beverage or ice production process shall be filtered or otherwise treated to render it free of dust, insects and extraneous material. Air intakes shall be properly located and maintained. Filters shall be located upstream from the compressor and shall be easily removable for cleaning and replacement. The blower or compressor supplying air shall be designed so that it will deliver oil-free air. Preparation of syrups: 12.15.1 Syrups shall be prepared, processed and stored in a way that prevents contamination and adulteration. 12.15.2 Syrups shall be clarified by mechanical filtration. 12.15.3 Wherever feasible and practicable, syrups shall be heated to boiling for not less than five minutes to destroy potentially pathogenic microorganisms and substantially reduce overall microbial population. 12.15.4 Finished syrups shall not be handled or exposed to the air, dust or other potential sources of contamination, but shall be conveyed to final mixing or storage tanks through a closed, clean, sanitized and properly protected system of pipes and pumps. The system shall be designed for in place cleaning (CIP) or shall be designed so that it can be easily dismantled for cleaning. 12.16 Bottle filling, capping and associated practices: 12.16.1 Bottles shall be filled and capped with automatic machinery.

12.11

12.12

12.13

12.14

12.15

12.16.2 The operator or his clothing shall not come in contact with the inner surface of the bottle or cap, or any portion of the machinery that comes in contact with the inner surface of the bottle or cap. Caps that have been touched on the inner surface by the operator shall be discarded. Bottles that have been touched on the inner surface shall be rejected, emptied and reprocessed as a dirty bottle. The delivery tube or orifice of the filling equipment shall be protected from manual contact, dust, insects, rodents and other contamination. 12.16.3 The delivery tube or orifice of filling equipment shall be designed so that condensation or moisture is diverted from the normal filling position of the container receiving the product. 12.16.4 Imperfectly capped bottles shall be rejected, emptied and reprocessed as a dirty bottle. 141

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Food Manufacturing, Processing and Packaging, SASC-S-05

12.16.5 In the case of bottled beverages and other clear liquids, the final package (capped bottle) shall be inspected to detect the presence of any foreign objects in the bottles. 12.16.6 Caps shall be stored in a special compartment or cabinet that is used for no other purpose and that is maintained free from dust, flies, vermin and other sources of contamination and pollution 12.17 Storage of finished goods 12.17.1 The finished product shall be stored under such conditions as to preclude contamination or proliferation of microorganisms. The product shall be protected against deterioration or damage to packaging. The product shall be stored in a way that does not interfere with processing, production or packaging operations. 12.17.2 During storage, periodic inspection shall be carried out on the finished product to ensure that it is fit for human consumption and that it complies with the standard specifications of the finished product. 12.17.3 Store rooms shall be rodent-proof, moisture free and air conditioned and refrigerated, as appropriate. 12.17.4 The finished product shall be transported under such conditions as to preclude contamination or proliferation of microorganisms. The product shall be protected against deterioration or damage to packaging. Transport vehicles shall comply with requirements outlined in subsection 26 of SASC-S-04. 12.18 Laboratory Controls and Quality Requirements 12.18.1 Food plants shall have a laboratory to carry out tests necessary to assure the safety of products. EPD shall periodically take samples representative of the water, ice, ingredients and products used by Saudi Aramco. These shall be analyzed to monitor the safety of food, beverages and ice provided to Saudi Aramco employees and their dependents.

12.18.2

12.18.3 The following bacteriological Standards shall apply: 12.18.3.1 Heterotrophic Plate Count (HPC) shall not exceed 100 bacteria per milliliter. 12.18.3.2 Most Probable Number (MPN) of coliform bacteria shall not exceed 2.2 per 100 milliliters. 12.18.3.3 All Ultra heat treated (UHT) products shall have a HPC of <1 bacteria per ml and <1 coliform per ml. 12.18.3.4 Yeasts and molds shall not exceed 20 per milliliter.

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REFERENCES: 1. The Prevention of Food Poisoning Jill Trickett (3 Edition) Stanley Thornes Publishers, Cheltenham, England 2. HACCP Standard for Food Business A complete management system for hazard analysis STS Ltd., Farnham, Surrey, England 3. HACCP A practical approach Sara Mortimore and Carol Wallace. Chapman and Hall (Publishers), London, England 4. The 1997 Codex Alimentarius - Food Standards Program Codex Alimentarius, Rome, Italy. 5. HACCP Reference Book National Restaurant Association, The Educational Foundation - Chicago, USA 6. Food Safety - Questions and Answers Food Safety Advisory Center, London, UK 7. Health Service Catering Hygiene UK Dept. of Health, HMSO 8. UK Department of Health guide -General Temperature Regulations 9. UK Department of Health guide - Assured Safe Catering 10. UK Department of Health guide -Guide the 1995 Food Hygiene Regulations 11. UK Department of Health guide -Food Hazards and Your Business 12. UK Department of Health article - A guide to Food Hazards and Your Business 13. UK Department of Health article -A guide to the General Food Hygiene Regulations. 1995 14. USFD Administration - Seafood HACCP Regulations. 15. USFDA Article -Application of HACCP to Retail Food Systems 16. USFDA Article - Food Additives 17. USFDA Article - Sulfites Safe for Most Dangerous for Some 18. USFDA Article - Monosodium Glutamate 19. Australian Food Council fact sheet Australian Safe Food 20. USFDA Food Consumers report - HACCP a State of the Art Approach to Food Safety 21. Industry Guide to Good Hygiene Practices Catering Guide HMSO London, England 22. US Department of Health and Human Services 1997 FOOD CODE 23. Managing Food Safety - A HACCP principles guide for operators of food establishments at the retail level USFDA
rd

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Dairies and Grade "A" Pasteurized Milk Plants, SASC-S-06

SASC-S- 06 DAIRY FARMS AND PLANTS


Dairy farms and milk plants are food manufacturing plants and this Code Section is simply an extension of Sections SASC-S-04 and SASC-S-05. As such, this Section expands upon, but does not repeat, public health standards that are required by Sections SASC-S-04 and SASC-S-05. Dairymen, operators and regulatory agencies shall, therefore, comply with all three Code Sections. NOTE: All sub-sections should be read in conjunction with appropriate referenced documents listed at the end of this Section.

DEFINITIONS: Adulterate: To make impure by the addition of a foreign, inferior, or harmful substance. Bonnet: - The diversion valve housing, which contains the valve actuating mechanism on an HTST pasteurizing unit. Booster Pump: An optional auxiliary pump used to assist another pump. Centrifugal Pump: A pump consisting of an impeller fixed on a rotating shaft and enclosed in a casing, and having an inlet and a discharge connection. The rotating impeller creates pressure in the liquid by the velocity derived from centrifugal force. Clarifier: A machine, which removes foreign matter from milk by centrifugal force. Clean-in-place, (CIP): CIP refers specifically to the cleaning and sanitizing of food processing equipment and piping in its assembled condition by recirculation of the necessary rinse, detergent, and sanitizing solutions under appropriate conditions of time, temperature, detergency, and physical action. CIP systems are now present to some extent in practical every food and dairy processing plant. Combine: Add to or mix completely, i.e. combines these ingredients with the other ones. Constant Level Supply Tank: A tank situated in such a way as to provide a constant supply to the high temperature short time pasteurizer system. Deflector Plate: In a high temperature short time pasteurizer, a plate designed to route the flow of milk through groups of plates (passes) in the regenerator. Enzymes: A large class of complex proteinaceous molecules, which act as catalysts in biochemical reactions. Flavored Milk or Milk Products: Milk and milk products to which have been added a flavor and/or sweetener. Frozen Dessert: Any clean, frozen or partially frozen combination of two or more of the following: milk or milk products, eggs or egg products, sugars, fruit or fruit juices, candy, nuts, meats, or other harmless and wholesome food products, flavors, color, or harmless stabilizer and shall be deemed to include ice cream, frozen custard, ice milk, milk sherbet, ices and other similar products. Grade A Pasteurized Milk and Milk Products: Milk and milk products that were produced, processed and pasteurized in conformance with standards equivalent to those outlined in the Saudi Aramco Sanitary Code. These standards are in conformance with the latest edition of the United States Public Health Service Grade A Pasteurized Milk Ordinance. Hermetically Sealed Container: A container that excludes the passage of gas or of microorganisms. A container that prevents the re-entry of microbes, thereby preventing spoilage from external sources after the container has been sealed. The canned food should remain unspoiled indefinitely if properly heat processed, and if the seal remains intact. 144

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Dairies and Grade "A" Pasteurized Milk Plants, SASC-S-06

Homogenized Milk: Milk which has been treated to ensure breakup of the fat globules to such an extent that, after 48 hours of quiescent storage at 4.0 degrees C (40 degrees F), no visible cream separation occurs in the milk, and the fat percentage of the top 100 ml of milk in a liter, or of proportionate volumes in containers of other sizes, does not differ by more than 10% from the fat percentage of the remaining percentage of the top A container that excludes the passage of gas or of microorganisms. A container that prevents the re-entry of microbes, thereby preventing spoilage from external sources after the container has been sealed. The canned food should remain unspoiled indefinitely if properly heat processed, and if the seal remains intact. Laban: A fluid product resulting from the souring, by lactic acid producing bacteria or similar culture, of pasteurized skim milk, pasteurized low fat milk, or whole milk and has a titratable acidity of not less than 0.5%, expressed as lactic acid. Labneh: Fermented milk resulting from concentrating full cream yogurt by removing a suitable amount of whey from it. The maximum acidity level determined as lactic acid shall not exceed 2.5%. Edible salt shall not exceed 1.5%. The minimum fat level shall be at least 7% and total solids not fat shall be 15%. Low Fat Milk: Milk from which a sufficient portion of milk has been removed to reduce its milk fat content to not less than 0.5% and not greater than 2.0%. Metering Pump: A positive displacement type pump which controls the rate of flow through the high pressure short time pasteurizer to ensure that ever particle of product is held for the minimum legal holding time in the holding tube. Milk: The lacteal secretion, practically free from colostrum, obtained by the complete milking of healthy cows, which contains not more than 8.5% milk solids-not-fat or the normal percentage produced in a commingled milk sample from the specific herd in questions and not 3.0% milk fat (milk fat r butterfat is the fat of milk.). The word milk shall be interpreted to include goat milk. Milk Products: Includes cream, light cream, coffee cream, table cream, whipping cream, light whipping cream, heavy cream, heavy whipping cream, whipped cream, whipped light cream, sour cream, cultured sour cream, half-and-half, sour half-and-half, cultured half-and-half and reconstituted or recombined milk and milk products, concentrated milk products, skim milk, low fat milk, fortified milk and milk products, vitamin D milk and milk products, homogenized milk, flavored milk or milk products, laban, yogurt, labneh, cottage cheese, and cultured milk. This definition is not intended to include such products as sterilized milk and milk products hermetically sealed in a container and so processed, before or after sealing, as to prevent microbial spoilage, or evaporated milk, condensed milk, butter, ice cream and other frozen desserts, dry milk products (except as defined herein) or cheese, except when combined with other substances to produce any pasteurized milk or milk product defined herein. Milk Products & Milk, (Frozen Desserts): Used in mix or frozen desserts shall include milk, cream, frozen cream, fluid skim milk, butter, sweetened evaporated skim milk, sweetened and unsweetened condensed milk, sweet cream buttermilk, sweet cream condensed buttermilk, or any of these products from which lactose has been wholly or partially removed. Orifice: (1) A flow restrictor of sanitary design which may be installed in the diversion line if needed to maintain approximately equal pressures during diverted flow as those pressures which occur during forward flow. It provides backpressure approximately equal to that developed in the cooling section. (2) The entrance or outlet of any cavity of the body. (3) Any foramen, meatus or opening. Pasteurization: the process of heating every particle of milk or milk product in properly designed and operated equipment to specific temperature for a specified period of time and holding it continuously at or above that temperature. Pesticide: Any chemical used to control animal/plant growth.

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Dairies and Grade "A" Pasteurized Milk Plants, SASC-S-06

Phosphatase: An enzyme occurring in milk. The standard time/temperature relationship of the pasteurization process is sufficient to inactivate this enzyme. Presence of the enzyme in pasteurized milk is, therefore, evidence of inadequate pasteurization. Reconstituted or Recombined Milk and Milk Products: Milk or milk products defined in this Section which result from the recombining of milk constituents with potable water. Sour Cream or Cultured Sour Cream: Fluid or semi fluid cream resulting from the souring, by lactic acid producing bacteria or similar culture, or pasteurized cream, which contains not less than 0.5% acidity expressed as lactic acid. Sour cream contains not less than 18% milk fat. Standard Methods: An assembly of analytical techniques and descriptions commonly accepted in water and wastewater treatment or procedures in milk and food testing. Steam: (1) To cook food with the hot gas that rises above the boiled water. (2) Vaporized water, usually under pressure from a power plant or waste heat boiler. Ultra-pasteurized: The term to describe a dairy product that has been thermally processed at or above 138C (280F) for at least two seconds, either before or after packaging, so as to produce a product which has an extended shelf life under proper storage conditions. Whipped Cream: Cream into which air or gas has been incorporated. Whipping Cream: Cream which contains not less than 30% milk fat. Yogurt: A cultured milk product, which contains the lactic acid producing bacterial Lactobacillus bulgaricus and Streptococcus thermophilus. It shall be pasteurized or ultra-pasteurized prior to the addition of bacterial culture and bulk flavoring material. Yogurt before addition of flavors or bulk flavors contains not less than 8.25% milk solids not fat, and has a titratable acidity of not less than 0.9%, expressed as lactic acid.

1 1.1

APPLICATION TO OPERATE A DAIRY ESTABLISHMENT Any person, company or Saudi Aramco organization, either separately or jointly, desiring to sell or give milk, or milk products intended for human consumption to the Saudi Aramco population shall make a written application through the appropriate Saudi Aramco proponent organization as outlined in sub-section 1.2 of this Code Section. Submission of written application: 1.2.1 Owners of privately operated dairies, milk and milk product vendors, warehouses and dairy farms wishing to conduct business with Saudi Aramco shall apply through Saudi Aramco Environmental Protection Department (EPD). Formalities as required by other involved Saudi Aramco departments such as Contracting Department or Community Services Department shall be followed as dictated by protocol. Applications to EPD shall include the following information: 1.2.1.1 1.2.1.2 1.2.1.3 1.2.1.4 The name, address and telephone number of each applicant. The exact location of the existing/proposed food establishment. The type of food establishment. The design, materials and layout of work and support areas, and the type, model and arrangement of fixed equipment. 146

1.2

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Dairies and Grade "A" Pasteurized Milk Plants, SASC-S-06

1.2.1.5 1.2.1.6

The methods and vehicles that will be used to transport food. For temporary food establishments the date of commencement of operations shall be given. Whenever a Saudi Aramco food establishment is to be constructed, an existing Saudi Aramco structure is converted to use as a food establishment, or whenever any Saudi Aramco food establishment is remodeled or altered, properly prepared plans and specifications for such construction, conversion, remodeling or alteration shall be submitted during the planning phase of the proposed project. The signatures of all applicants.

1.2.1.7

1.2.1.8 1.3

Only those products, goods and services specifically defined in the application will be considered, but the evaluation process will assess ALL factors that could directly or indirectly affect products, goods and services offered to Saudi Aramco. After receiving a written application from a Saudi Aramco organization or written notice from the milk, milk product manufacturer, dairy, vendor, warehouse or dairy farm Saudi Aramco EPD shall, as appropriate: 1.4.1 Review the terms of the application according to the requirements of the Saudi Aramco Sanitary Code to verify that the application is complete and valid. Review plans and specifications. Inspect the food establishment to ensure that the facility, management, supervisors and systems in place are in full compliance with this and other relevant Sections of the Saudi Aramco Sanitary Code. 1.4.3.1 If Saudi Aramco EPD finds that the premises are in full compliance with the Saudi Aramco Sanitary Code, apart from minor discrepancies, EPD shall give conditional approval. If it is found that the facility meets all Saudi Aramco Sanitary Code requirements shall approve the facility.

1.4

1.4.2 1.4.3

1.5

If Saudi Aramco EPD find that the products, goods and services; the operating methods, practices and procedures; or equipment and facilities proposed in the application do not comply with the requirements of the Saudi Aramco Sanitary Code, then EPD will not approve the facility. Until such time that the food establishment is approved Saudi Aramco shall not accept products, goods or services, whether offered for sale or as a gift, from the non-compliant applicant. When a conditional approval is granted, outstanding deficiencies must be corrected within a specified time frame. 1.6.1 If significant new deficiencies have not developed and all conditional deficiencies are corrected by the required date, i.e. the food establishment achieves compliance with provisions of this Code Section; Saudi Aramco EPD will approve the facility. If the applicant fails to correct identified deficiencies within the specified time frame, or if significant new deficiencies have developed since the original inspection, Saudi Aramco EPD will suspend the approval, or issuance of a warning notice.

1.6

1.6.2

1.7

After a facility has been approved, a NEW APPLICATION is required:

147

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1.7.1

Prior to any proposed addition, alteration, conversion, expansion or modification to the physical facility or any change in the ownership, location, physical facility, equipment, process or procedure related to products, goods or services offered to Saudi Aramco. Prior to any proposed addition of products, goods or services to be offered to Saudi Aramco.

1.7.2 1.8

If an approved food establishment fails to submit a new application, prior to making a change defined in sub-section 1.7 of this Code Section, Saudi Aramco EPD shall rescind the approval If an approved food establishment fails to continue to comply with the requirements of this Code Section: 2.9.1 EPD may send a Warning Notice requiring corrective action

1.9

1.10

EPD Definition of "approved: 1.10.1 The approval by E PD of a food establishment indicates that, at the time of inspection, the structure, products, practices, procedures and associated equipment and facility, as stated in the application, complied with all requirements of the Saudi Aramco Sanitary Code. As noted in sub-section 1.10.1., above, the "approval" is valid only for the specific person, location, processes, facilities, products, goods and services included in the application. Approval by EPD indicates only that the food establishment complies with all Saudi Aramco Sanitary Code requirements and does not imply or suggest approval or acceptance of the products or services by Saudi Aramco Purchasing Department, or any other Saudi Aramco organization or affiliated concessionaire, contractor, vendor or other agency.

1.10.2

1.10.3

INSPECTIONS 2.1 Saudi Aramco EPD will inspect each dairy farm and/or milk plant as often as is necessary to ensure that the dairy farm and/or milk plant is in compliance with this, and other relevant Code Sections. It is assumed that dairy farm and/or milk plant management will cooperate fully with Saudi Aramco EPD during inspections and ensure that deficiencies are corrected within the time limit established by Saudi Aramco EPD. If Saudi Aramco EPD finds that a dairy farm and/or milk plant does not comply with one or more requirements of this or other relevant, Code Sections, it shall either: 2.2.1 Recommend that the dairy farm and/or milk plant comply with Saudi Aramco EPD written recommendations by the next unannounced inspection; or Issue a warning notice requiring compliance by a specific date; or Issue a suspension notice

2.2

2.2.2 2.2.3 2.3

Dairy farm and/or milk plant management shall conduct periodic "in-plant" sanitation inspections (at least weekly). Records of these inspections, as well as follow-up actions, shall be kept on file. The reports shall be made available to Saudi Aramco EPD representatives at the time of each inspection.

CONTROL OF OPERATION 3.1 The operator of the food establishment shall carry out a Food Safety Risk Assessment by developing an appropriate and effective HACCP (Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point) plan. The plan 148

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Dairies and Grade "A" Pasteurized Milk Plants, SASC-S-06

shall: 1) Identify any steps in the operation that are critical to food safety; 2) Make provisions for incorporating adequate safety controls into the operations; and 3) Include monitoring of control procedures to ensure continuing effectiveness. 3.2 The following seven HACCP principles shall be followed: ? Carry out a hazard analysis; ? Identify critical control points (CCPs); ? Establish critical limits for each CCP; ? Implement monitoring procedures at each CCP; ? Develop corrective action procedures in the event that critical limits are exceeded; ? Incorporate an effective record keeping system into the plan; ? Develop procedures to verify that the system is working; With respect to the above, the following guidelines are provided: 3.2.1 Assemble a HACCP team: to develop an effective HACCP plan it is essential to assemble a HACCP team that has the expertise and knowledge to determine the full scope of the plan. The scope should describe which segment of the food chain is involved and the general classes of hazards to be addressed (e.g. does the plan cover all foods, all hazards or only selected classes). Describe the product: develop a full description of the product. This should include relevant safety information such as ingredients, physical and chemical structure (including pH, water content etc), description of processes such as cooking, freezing, brining, smoking, storage requirements during the various stages of processing, and any other relevant information regarding the safe handling of the ingredients and final product Construct a process flow diagram (PFD): a PFD essential to show all processes of the food preparation chain from delivery of the raw ingredients, to the use by the final consumer. The PFD should show all steps of the entire operation. When applying HACCP, consideration should be given to steps preceding and following the specified operation. Onsite confirmation: it is important before proceeding further to confirm that the processes as described in the flow diagram are correct. At this stage, necessary changes to the flow diagram should be made where appropriate. List all potential hazards associated with each step, consider any measures to control identified hazards. (Principle 1) The HACCP team shall list all of the hazards that may be reasonably expected to occur at each step from primary production, processing, manufacture, and distribution until the point of consumption. The HACCP team shall identify those hazards in the plan, which must be eliminated or reduced in order to produce safe food. 3.2.5.1 Wherever possible the following should be included: ? The likely occurrence of the hazards and severity of their adverse health effects; ? The qualitative and/or quantitative evaluation of the presence of hazards; ? Survival or multiplication of microorganisms of concern; ? Production or persistence in foods of toxins, chemicals or physical agents; ? Conditions, which could lead to the above. The HACCP team then should consider what control measures, if any, can be applied for each hazard identified. 3.2.6 Determine CCPs (principle 2). In order to prevent the hazards of food poisoning, or physical or chemical contamination it is necessary to identify CCPs. A CCP is a step in the preparation, handling or storage of food, which has to be carried out to ensure that the hazard is either eliminated or reduced to a safe level. Here, the following two questions are to be considered: Is 149

3.2.2

3.2.3

3.2.4

3.2.5

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Dairies and Grade "A" Pasteurized Milk Plants, SASC-S-06

there a hazard at this step? Is it necessary to control the hazard at this step, or will a subsequent step eliminate or reduce the hazard to an acceptable limit? 3.2.7 Establish critical limits for each CCP (principle 3). This step involves establishing a criterion that must be met for each preventive measure associated with a CCP. Critical limits can be thought of as boundaries of safety for each CCP and may be set for preventive measures such as temperature, time, physical dimensions, water content, pH and available chlorine. Critical limits must be based on recognized standards such as regulatory standards, scientific literature, experimental studies and consultation with experts. Establish a monitoring system for each CCP (principle 4). Monitoring is a planned sequence of observations or measurements to assess whether a CCP is under control and to produce an accurate record for use in further verification procedures. There are three main reasons for monitoring: It tracks the systems operations so that a trend towards a loss of control can be recognized and corrective action can be taken to bring the process back into control before a deviation occurs. It indicates when a loss of control and a deviation have actually occurred, when corrective action must be taken, and it provides written documentation for use in verification of the HACCP plan. 3.2.8.1 Instrumentation used for monitoring critical limits must be carefully calibrated for accuracy. Records of calibration must be kept as part of the HACCP plan documentation

3.2.8

3.2.9

Establish corrective actions (principle 5). Specific corrective actions shall be developed for each CCP in the system to deal with deviations when they occur. The corrective actions must be clearly defined and be specific for that CCP. For example: If the temperature of the food falls below 60C (145F) it must be reheated to over 74C(165F) in its entirety for a minimum of 3 minutes. If the temperature of the food falls below 60C (145F) again then it must be discarded. Establish documentation and record keeping (principle 6). Efficient and accurate record keeping is essential to the application of a HACCP system. Documentation and record keeping shall be appropriate to the nature and size of the operation, but should include: Hazard Analysis, CCP determination, Critical limit determination, CCP monitoring activities, Deviations and associated corrective actions, Temperature records and Employee training Establish verification procedures (principle 7). Verification and auditing methods, procedures and tests, including random sampling and analysis, can be used to determine if the system is working. The frequency of verification shall be sufficient to confirm that the system is working effectively. Examples of verification activities can include: Review of the HACCP systems and documents to ensure that the plan is being followed. Review of CCP records and determination of correct actions being taken when deviations occur, independent auditing, random sampling, visual inspections of operations to observe if CCPs are under control

3.2.10

3.2.11

THE EXAMINATION OF MILK AND MILK PRODUCTS 4.1 Collection of samples: 4.1.1 Samples of milk and milk products from dairy retail stores, food service establishments, grocery stores, and other places where milk and milk products are sold shall be examined periodically as determined by Saudi Aramco EPD. During any consecutive six month period, at least four samples of raw milk for pasteurization or ultra-high temperature treatment shall be taken from each producer and four samples of raw milk for pasteurization or ultra-high temperature treatment shall be taken from each milk plant after 150

4.1.2

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receipt of the milk by the milk plant and prior to pasteurization or ultra-high temperature treatment. 4.1.3 During any consecutive six-month period, at least four samples of pasteurized or ultra-high temperature treated milk and at least four samples of each milk product defined in the approved application shall be taken from every milk plant. Samples of milk and milk products shall be taken while in possession of the producer or distributor at any time prior to final delivery.

4.2

Examination of milk and milk products: 4.2.1 Required bacterial counts, somatic cell counts, and cooling temperature checks shall be performed on raw milk for pasteurization or ultra-high temperature treatment. In addition, antibiotic tests on each producer's raw milk or commingled raw milk shall be conducted at least four times during any consecutive six-month period. When commingled milk is tested, all producers shall be represented in the sample. All individual sources of raw milk shall be tested when test results on the commingled raw milk are positive. Required bacterial counts, coliform determinations, antibiotic tests, phosphatase tests and cooling temperature checks shall be performed on pasteurized or ultra-high temperature treated milk and milk products.

4.2.2

4.3

Response to positive samples: 4.3.1 Whenever two of the last four consecutive bacterial counts, somatic cell counts, coliform determinations or cooling temperature checks, taken on separate days, exceed requirements outlined in Table 1, Saudi Aramco EPD shall transmit a written warning notice to the Company. The warning notice shall remain in effect so long as two of the last four consecutive samples exceed standards. An additional sample shall be taken within 21 days of the sending of such warning notice, but not before the lapse of three days. A suspension notice shall be issued whenever the standard is exceeded by three of the last five bacterial counts, somatic cell counts, coliform determinations or cooling temperature checks. Whenever a phosphatase test is positive, the cause shall be determined. Where the cause is improper pasteurization the problem shall be corrected and any milk or milk products involved shall not be offered for sale. Whenever an antibiotic or pesticide residue test is positive, the cause shall be investigated and the problem shall be corrected. An additional sample shall be taken and tested for antibiotic or pesticide residues. No milk shall be offered for sale until a follow-up sample indicates that the milk is free of, or below actionable levels, for antibiotic or pesticide residues.

4.3.2

4.3.3

4.4

All sampling procedures and required laboratory examinations shall be in substantial compliance with the latest edition of Standard Methods for the Examination of Dairy Products of the American Public Health Association and the latest edition of Official Methods of Analysis of the Association of Official Analytical Chemists. Examinations and tests shall be conducted to detect adulterants, including pesticides, as Saudi Aramco EPD shall require.

ABNORMAL MILK 5.1 Cows, which show evidence of the secretion of abnormal milk in one or more quarters, based upon bacteriological, chemical or physical examinations, shall be milked last or with separate equipment. The milk obtained from these cows shall be discarded. 151

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5.2.

Cows treated with, or cows which have consumed, chemical, medicinal or radioactive agents which are capable of being secreted in the milk and which, in the judgment of Saudi Aramco EPD, may be deleterious to human health, shall be milked last or with separate equipment. The milk obtained from these cows shall be discarded.

STANDARDS FOR MILK AND MILK PRODUCTS All Grade "A" raw milk for pasteurization or ultra-high temperature treatment and all Grade "A" pasteurized or ultra-high temperature treated milk and milk products shall be produced, processed, pasteurized or ultra-high temperature treated according to the sanitary requirements outlined in SASC-S-04 and this Code Section. They shall conform to the bacteriological, chemical and temperature requirements outlined in table 1. TABLE 1 Chemical, Bacteriological, and Temperature Standards Parameters to be Standards Examined Temperature Cooled to 5C (41F) or less within two hours after milking Bacterial Levels Individual producer's milk not to exceed 100,000/mL prior to commingling with other producers' milk. Not to exceed 300,000/mL as commingled milk prior to pasteurization/ultra-high temperature treatment. No zone greater than or equal to 16 mm (0.63 in) with the Bacillus stearothermophilus disc assay method Individual producer milk not to exceed 1,500,000/mL Cooled to 5C (41F) or less and maintained thereat Not to exceed 20,000/mL. Ultra-high temperature milk and milk products shall be less than 1.0/mL. Not to exceed 10/mL. In the case of bulk milk transport tank shipments, not to exceed 100/mL. Less than 1.0 g/mL by the Scharer Rapid Method or equivalent. No zone greater than or equal to 16 mm (0.63 in) with the Bacillus stearothermophilus disc assay method. Not to exceed 10/gm in cultured products.
*** Not applicable to UHT dairy

Type of Milk or Milk Product Grade "A" Raw Milk for Pasteurization or Ultra-High Temperature Treatment

Antibiotics Somatic Cell Count Temperature Bacterial Levels* Coliform Phosphatase *** Antibiot ics Yeast and Molds**
*

Grade "A" Pasteurized and Ultra-High Temperature Milk and Milk Products

Not applicable to cultured products. ** Not applicable to other than cultured products. products.

ANIMAL HEALTH 7.1 The herd shall be given tuberculin tests (T.B) once every two years. A qualified veterinarian shall make all tests and re-tests. Positive reactors shall be removed from the farm. For tuberculosis test purposes, the herd is defined as all adult cattle 24 months of age and over, including any commingled beef animals. Dairy cattle less than two years of age and already milking shall be included in the herd test. All milk intended for pasteurization shall be from herds participating in a Brucellosis ring-testing (BRT) program, which is conducted at least once each year. Herds with positive milk ring results shall have the appropriate follow-up. All reactors disclosed by paired blood sample agglutination tests or other confirmative test methods shall be removed immediately from the farm. Saudi Aramco shall not purchase the milk from herds residing on farms where positive reactors are kept. A certificate identifying each animal, signed by a veterinarian, shall be filed as directed by Saudi Aramco EPD. 152

7.2

7.3

7.4

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COWYARD The cow yard shall be graded and sloped to one end of the yard. It shall have no standing pools of water or accumulations of organic wastes. In loafing or cattle-housing areas, cow droppings and soiled bedding shall be removed, or clean bedding added, at sufficiently frequent intervals to prevent the soiling of the cow's udder and flanks. Feeding shall be conducted in a concreted area and waste feed shall be removed either by automatic flushing or daily hosing of the entire area. Goats, camels and sheep shall be kept out of the cowyard.

INSECT AND RODENT CONTROL 9.1 Manure shall be handled in a way that prevents insect breeding, e.g.: 9.1.1 9.1.2 Spread directly on the fields; or Stored for not more than four days in a pile on the ground surface and then spread on the fields; or Stored for not more than seven days in an impervious floored bin, or on an imperviously curbed platform, and then spread on the fields; or Stored in a tightly-screened and trapped manure shed; or Effectively treated with larvicide; or Disposed of by ponding in a manner, which controls insect breeding.

9.1.3

9.1.4 9.1.5 9.1.6 9.2

Manure stacks in loafing areas, stables without stanchions, pen stables, resting barns, wandering sheds, and free-stall housing shall be properly bedded and managed to prevent fly breeding.

10

MILKING BARN, STABLE, OR PARLOR 10.1 A milking barn, stable, or parlor shall be provided on all dairy farms in which the milking herd shall be housed during milking time operations. The following is required in addition to design, construction, operation and maintenance requirements outlined in Section SASC-S-04 of this Code: 10.1.1 Sufficient floor space to accommodate all animals without overcrowding shall be provided, e.g. walkways and feedways accessible. Separate stalls or pens shall be provided for horses, calves and bulls. Dust-tight covered boxes, bins or separate storage facilities for ground, chopped, or concentrated feed shall be provided. Goats, camels and sheep shall be kept out of milking areas.

10.1.2 10.1.3

10.1.4 10.2

Milking shall be conducted in the milking barn, stable or parlor. 10.2.1 The flanks, bellies, udders, teats and tails of all milking cows shall be free from visible dirt. All brushing shall be completed prior to milking. The udders and teats of all milking cows shall be cleaned and treated with a sanitizing solution just prior to the time of milking, and shall be relatively dry before milking. Wet hand milking is prohibited. The hair on the udders shall be of such length that it is not incorporated with the teat in the inflation during milking. Surcingles, milk stools and anti-kickers shall be kept clean and stored above the floor. 153

10.2.2

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Dairies and Grade "A" Pasteurized Milk Plants, SASC-S-06

10.2.3 11

Handwashing shall be emphasized.

TRANSFER AND PROTECTION OF RAW MILK Raw milk shall be transferred immediately from the milking barn, stable, or parlor to the milkhouse through sanitary piping. No milk shall be strained, poured, transferred or stored unless it is protected from contamination. 11.1 Equipment and operations shall be so located within the milking barn and milkhouse as to prevent overcrowding and contamination of cleaned and sanitized containers, equipment and utensils by splash, condensation, or manual contact. During processing, pipelines and equipment used to contain or conduct milk shall be effectively separated from tanks or circuits containing cleaning and/or sanitizing solutions. All milk, which has overflowed, leaked, been spilled, or improperly handled, shall be discarded. All product-contact surfaces of containers, equipment, and utensils shall be covered or otherwise protected to prevent the access of insects, dust, condensation and other contamination. All openings, including valves and piping attached to milk storage and transport tanks, pumps or vats, shall be capped or otherwise properly protected. Gravity type strainers in the milkhouse do not have to be covered. Milk pipelines used to convey milk from pre-coolers to the farm bulk tank must be fitted with effective drip deflectors. Whenever air under pressure is used for the agitation or movement of milk, or is directed at a milkcontact surface, it shall be free of oil, dust, rust, excessive moisture, extraneous materials, and odors, and shall otherwise comply with applicable standards. Antibiotics and medicines shall be stored in such a manner that they cannot contaminate the milk contact surface of the equipment, containers or utensils.

11.2

11.3 11.4

11.5

11.6

12

MILKHOUSE OR MILKROOM A milkhouse or milkroom of sufficient size shall be provided in which the cooling, handling and storing of milk, and the washing, sanitizing and storing of milk containers and utensils will be conducted. The following is required in addition to design, construction, operation and maintenance requirements outlined in Sections SASC-S-04 and SASC-S-05: 12.1 There shall be no direct opening into any barn, stable, or into a room used for domestic purposes, except that a direct opening between the milkhouse and milking barn, stable, or parlor is permitted when a tight-fitting, self-closing, solid door(s) hinged to be single or double acting is provided. If the transfer of milk from a bulk-holding/cooling tank to a transport tank is through a hose port located in the milkhouse wall, the port shall be equipped with a tight-fitting door which shall be kept closed when not in use. When a transportation tank is used for the cooling and storage of milk on the dairy farm, such a tank will be provided with a suitable shelter for the receipt of milk. Such a shelter shall be adjacent to, but not a part of, the milkroom and shall comply with the requirements of the milkroom with respect to construction, light, drainage, insect and rodent control, and general maintenance. A three compartment sink of adequate size to wash all pieces of disassembled equipment which are not routinely cleaned and sanitized during cleaning-in-place (CIP) procedures shall be provided in the milkhouse. 154

12.2

12.3

12.4

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13

COOLING RAW MILK Raw milk for pasteurization or ultra-high temperature treatment shall be cooled to 5C (41F) or less within two hours after milking. The milk shall be maintained at that temperature until delivery. Re-circulated cold water used in plate or tubular coolers or heat exchangers must be from a safe source and protected from contamination. Such water shall be tested at least twice each year and shall comply with the bacteriological requirements of SASC-S-01 of this Code.

14

TRANSPORTATION OF RAW MILK Vehicles used to transport milk from the dairy farm to the milk plant or receiving station shall be constructed of stainless steel and operated to protect their content from heat and contamination. If required, vehicles shall be parked under sunshades to reduce the heat load on the refrigeration equipment. Vehicles shall be kept clean, inside and out. The vehicle shall not be used to transport any substance other than milk.

15

EQUIPMENT AND CONTAINERS 15.1 All milk contact surfaces of multi-use containers and equipment shall consist of stainless steel of the ANSI 300 series or equivalent metal or approved heat resistant glass or plastic or rubber or rubber-like materials. Where a rotating shaft is inserted through a surface with which milk or milk products come into contact, the joint between the moving and stationary surfaces shall be close fitting. Where a thermometer or temperature-sensing element is inserted through a surface with which milk or milk products come into contact, a pressure-tight seal shall be provided ahead of all threads and crevices. All openings in covers of tanks, vats, separators, etc. shall have raised edges, or shall otherwise be protected from the entrance of surface drainage. Condensation-diverting aprons shall be provided as close to the tank or vat as possible on all pipes, thermometers, or temperature sensing elements, and other equipment extending into a tank, bowl, vat, or distributor, unless a watertight joint is provided. Milk cans shall have umbrella-type covers. Strainers, if used, shall be of perforated metal design, and so constructed as to utilize single-service strainer media. Multiple-use woven material shall not be used for straining milk. An exception may be made to this requirement when, for functional reasons inherent to the production of certain milk products, such as buttermilk, whey, and dry milk products, a woven material is more practical than perforated metal. However, woven material parts shall be mechanically cleaned by such methods that thoroughly clean the woven material and do not contaminate the product. Wing nuts, bayonet locks, and similar devices shall be used whenever possible in lieu of bolts and nuts, to promote easy disassembly. There shall be no threads used in contact with milk or milk products except where needed for functional and safety reasons, such as in clarifiers, pumps, and separators. Such threads shall be designed to facilitate cleaning. Ordinary "V" type threads are prohibited.

15.2

15.3

15.4 15.5

15.6

15.7

16

PIPING 16.1 All sanitary piping, connection and fittings shall consist of stainless steel of the ANSI 300 series or equivalent metal or approved heat resistant glass. Approved plastic, or rubber and rubber-like materials, may be used for gaskets, sealing applications, and for short flexible takedown jumpers or connections where flexibility is required for essential or functional reasons. 155

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16.2

All interior surfaces of demountable piping, including valves, fittings, and connections are designed, constructed, and installed to permit inspection and drainage. All cleaned-in-place milk pipelines and return-solution lines shall be rigid, self-draining, and so supported to maintain uniform slope and alignment. Return solution lines shall be constructed of materials that comply with specifications outlined in sub-section 16.1 above. If gaskets are used, they shall be selfpositioning, shall be made of materials that comply with specifications outlined in sub-section 16.1 above, and shall be designed, finished, and applied to form a smooth, flush interior surface. If gaskets are not used, all fittings shall have self-positioning faces designed to form a smooth, flush interior surface. All interior surfaces of welded joints in pipelines shall be smooth and free from pits, cracks or inclusions. Each cleaning circuit shall have access points for inspection in addition to the entrances and exits. These may be valves, removable sections, fittings, or other means or combinations that are adequate for inspection of the interior of the line. These access points shall be located at sufficient intervals to determine the general condition of the interior surfaces of the line. No alteration or addition shall be made to any welded milk pipeline system without prior application and "approval".

16.3

16.4

16.5

17

CLEANING OF PIPELINES 17.1 Pipelines and/or equipment designed for cleaning-in-place (CIP) shall meet the following requirements: 17.1.1 17.1.2 An effective cleaning and sanitizing regimen for each separate cleaning circuit shall be followed. During processing, pipelines and equipment used to contain or conduct milk and milk products shall be effectively separated from tanks or circuits containing cleaning and/or sanitizing solutions. An accurate temperature-recording device shall be installed in the return solution line to record the temperature and time during which the line or equipment is exposed to cleaning and sanitizing. Temperature recording charts shall be identified, dated, and retained for three months.

17.1.3

17.2

A three compartment sink of adequate size to wash all pieces of disassembled equipment which are not cleaned and sanitized as part of the cleaning-in-place (CIP) process shall be provided in the milk plant.

18

PROTECTION FROM CONTAMINATION 18.1 18.2 Only culinary-grade air and steam shall be used. Receiving and dump vats shall be completely covered, except during washing and sanitizing, and when milk is being dumped. Where strainers are used, the cover for the vat opening shall be designed to cover the opening with the strainer in place. All milk or milk products or ingredients, which have been spilled, overflowed, or leaked, shall be discarded. Milk and milk products drained from processing equipment at the end of a run, or collected from a defoamer system which does not continuously return such product to the filler bowl, shall be repasteurized only if such milk or milk products are handled in a sanitary manner and maintained at 5C (41F) or less. When the handling and/or refrigeration of such milk and milk products is not in compliance with this requirement, they shall be discarded. Returned packaged milk and milk products shall not be repasteurized for Grade "A" use.

18.3

18.4

156

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18.5

During processing, pipelines and equipment used to contain or conduct milk products shall be effectively separated from tanks or circuits containing cleaning, and/or sanitizing solutions. All product contact surfaces of containers, equipment, and utensils shall be covered or otherwise protected to prevent the access of insects, dust, condensation, and other contamination. All openings, including valves and piping attached to milk storage and transport tanks, pumps, or vats, etc. shall be capped or otherwise properly protected. The application of suitable filters to the manholes of transport tanks during unloading shall be considered satisfactory. Standardization is done before the pasteurization process is started, unless pasteurized milk or milk products are used for standardization. Such pasteurized milk products shall be protected against contamination. In no case shall pasteurized milk or milk products be standardized with unpasteurized milk unless the standardized product is subsequently pasteurized. Standardization of Grade "A" milk and milk products with milk and milk products of other than Grade "A" quality is prohibited. The processing of goods and/or drinks other than Grade "A" milk and milk products are performed to preclude the contamination of such milk and milk products. Pasteurized milk shall not be strained or filtered except through a perforated metal strainer. Multipleuse woven material shall not be used for straining milk.

18.6

18.7

18.8

18.9

19

PASTEURIZATION TEMPERATURE REQUIREMENTS 19.1 Standard pasteurization requires that every particle of milk or milk product be heated in properly designed and operated equipment to one of the temperatures given in the following table and then held continuously at or above that temperature for at least the corresponding time specified: Temperature in Degrees Celsius Fahrenheit 63* 145 72* 161 89 191 90 194 90 201 96 204 100 212 Time 30.00 mins 15.00 secs 1.00 secs 0.50 secs 0.10 secs 0.05 secs 0.01 secs

* If the fat content of the milk product is 10% or more, or if it contains added sweeteners, the specified temperature shall be increased by 3C (5F)

19.2

Ultra-high temperature treatment requires that every particle of milk or milk product be heated in properly designed and operated equipment to 138C (280F) or above and held at that temperature for at least two seconds, either before or after packaging, so as to produce a product which has an extended shelf life under proper storage conditions. All indicating and recording thermometers used in connection with pasteurization or ultra-high temperature milk or milk products shall be accurate to within 0.2C (0.5F) throughout specified scale range. All recording thermometer charts shall comply with all the applicable requirements of sub-section 23 of this Code Section.

19.3

20

BATCH PASTEURIZATION 20.1 Time, temperature and holding controls for batch pasteurizers:

157

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Dairies and Grade "A" Pasteurized Milk Plants, SASC-S-06

20.1.1

The vat shall be provided with adequate agitation, operating throughout the holding period. No batch of milk or milk product shall be pasteurized unless it covers a sufficient area of the agitator to ensure adequate agitation. The pasteurizer shall be so designed that the simultaneous temperature difference between the milk or milk product at the center and the coldest milk or milk product in the vat will not exceed 0.5C (1F) at any time during the holding period. Each batch pasteurizer shall be equipped with both an indicating and a recording thermometer. The thermometers shall read not less than the required pasteurization temperature throughout the required holding period. The plant operator shall check daily the temperature shown by the recording thermometer against the temperature shown by the indicating thermometers; this comparison shall be noted on the recording thermometer chart. The recording thermometer shall not read higher than the indicating thermometer. No batch of milk or milk products shall be pasteurized unless it is sufficient to cover the bulbs of both the indicating and the recording thermometers. Assurance of minimum holding periods: 20.1.4.1 Batch pasteurizers shall be operated so that every particle of milk product will be held at not less than the minimum pasteurization temperature continuously for at least 30 minutes. When milk or milk products are raised to pasteurization temperature in the vat, and cooling is begun in the vat simultaneously with or before the opening of the outlet valve, the recorder chart shall show at least 30 minutes at not less than minimum pasteurization temperature. When milk or milk products are preheated to pasteurization temperature before entering the vat, the recorder chart shall show a holding period of at least 30 minutes at not less than the minimum pasteurization temperature plus the time of filling from the level of the recorder bulb. When cooling is begun in the holder after the opening of the outlet valve, or is done entirely outside the holder, the chart shall show at least 30 minutes at not less than the minimum pasteurization temperature plus the time of emptying to the level of the recording thermometer bulb. When the recorder time interval on the recorder chart at the pasteurization temperature includes filling and/or emptying time, such intervals shall be indicated on the recorder chart by the operator, by removing the recording thermometer bulb from the milk for a sufficient time to depress the pen, or by turning cold water into the vat jacket at the end of the holding period, or by inscribing the holding time on the chart. The filling time and the emptying time for each holder so operated shall be determined by EPD representative, initially and after any change which may affect these times. No milk shall be added to or removed from the holder after the start of the holding period.

20.1.2

20.1.3

20.1.4

20.1.4.2

20.1.4.3

20.2

Airspace heating: 20.2.1 Means shall be provided and used in batch pasteurizers to keep the atmosphere above the milk and milk products at a temperature at least 3C (5F) higher than the minimum required temperature of pasteurization during the holding period. Each batch pasteurizer shall be equipped with an airspace thermometer. The surface of the milk or milk product shall be at least 2.5 centimeters (1 inch) below the bottom of the thermometer bulb when the vat is in operation. 158

20.2.2

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Dairies and Grade "A" Pasteurized Milk Plants, SASC-S-06

20.2.3

The temperature shown by the airspace thermometer shall be recorded on the recording thermometer chart each time the pasteurizer is in operation.

20.3

Design and installation of valves and connections: 20.3.1 Valves and pipeline connections shall meet the requirements of sub-section 16 of this Code Section. All pipelines and fittings shall be so constructed and so located that leakage will not occur. Dependence shall not be placed on soldered joints to prevent leakage. To prevent clogging and to promote drainage, all leak-protection grooves shall be at least 5 millimeters (0.2 inches) wide, and at least 2.5 millimeters (0.1 inches) deep at the center. Mating grooves shall provide these dimensions throughout their combined length whenever the valve is in, or approximately in, the fully closed position. All single-leak grooves, and all matingleak grooves when mated, shall extend throughout the entire depth of the seat, so as to divert leakage occurring at all points throughout the depth of the seat, and so as to prevent air bindings. Washers or other parts shall not obstruct leak-protector grooves. A stop shall be provided on all plug-type outlet valves and on all plug-type inlet valves in order to guide the operator in closing the valve so that unpasteurized milk may not inadvertently be permitted to enter the outlet line or the holder, respectively. The stop shall be designed so that the plug will be irreversible when the plug is provided with any grooves or their equivalent, unless duplicate, diametrically opposite grooves are also provided. In the case of two-way, plug-type valves (i.e. those having only one inlet and one outlet), a 180 degree stop, or any combination of stops permitting two fully closed positions, may be substituted for a 90 degree stop, provided that there are no air-relief grooves in the plug and that all leak grooves are located symmetrically with respect to the valve inlet. Stops shall be designed so that the operator cannot turn the valve beyond the stop position either by raising the plug or by any other means. Outlet valves, in addition to the requirements listed above, shall be designed to prevent the accumulation of unpasteurized milk in the milk passages of the valve when the valve is in any closed position. All inlet pipelines and outlets from vat pasteurizers shall be equipped with leak-protector valves. Installations not equipped with leak-protector inlet valves shall be accepted when the piping is so arranged that only one vat can be connected to the inlet at a time, and such piping is disconnected during the holding and emptying periods. Inlet and outlet connections, other than through close-coupled valves, shall not enter or leave the pasteurizer below the level of the milk inside. In cases where the inlet line enters the holder above the milk level, and in which the inlet line may be submerged and thus prevent its complete emptying when the inlet valve is closed, the inlet line shall be provided with an automatic air-relief or vent, located either at the valve or elsewhere, and designed to function in every closed position of the valve. A vent may be provided by drilling a hole at least 3 millimeters (0.125 inches) in diameter in the vat pipe, below the vat cover, but above the maximum milk level. All leak-protector valves shall be installed in the proper position to ensure the function of the leak-diversion device. Inlet valves shall not be located in vertical pipelines unless they can be installed so that one of the groove systems is at the lowest level of the valve; and pipelines between the inlet valve and the pasteurizer shall be as short as practicable and shall be sloped to drain. 159

20.3.2

20.3.3

20.3.4

20.3.5

20.3.6

20.3.7

20.3.8

20.3.9

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Dairies and Grade "A" Pasteurized Milk Plants, SASC-S-06

20.3.10

All outlet valves shall be kept fully closed during filling, heating, and holding periods; and all inlet valves shall be kept fully closed during holding and emptying periods.

21

(HTST) CONTINUOUS FLOW PASTEURIZATION (see further explanation in Appendix I) 21.1 All indicating thermometers and recorder/controller instruments and devices used in connection with the high temperature, short time (HTST) continuous flow pasteurization of milk or milk products shall comply with specifications set forth in sub-section 19.3 and sub-section 24 of this Code Section. Automatic milk-flow controller: 21.2.1 Each high temperature, short time (HTST) continuous flow pasteurization system shall be equipped with an automatic milk-flow control device of the diversion type which complies with the following definition, specifications, and performance requirements: The term "automatic milk-flow controls" shall mean those safety devices which control the flow of milk in relation to the temperature of the milk; heating medium; and/or pressure, vacuum or other auxiliary equipment. Milk-flow controls shall not be considered as part of the temperature control equipment. Milk-flow controls shall be of the flow-diversion type which automatically cause the diversion of the milk in response to a substandard pasteurization temperature. At substandard temperatures, flow-diversion devices return the milk to the raw milk side of the heating system continuously until required pasteurization temperatures are obtained. After required pasteurization temperatures are obtained, the automatic milk-flow control device restores forward flow through the pasteurizer.

21.2

21.2.2

21.3

All flow-diversion devices used in continuous pasteurizers shall comply with the following or equally satisfactory specifications: 21.3.1 Forward flow of sub-temperature milk due to the omission or looseness of the connecting clip shall be prevented by one of the following or by any other equally satisfactory means: 21.3.1.1 21.3.1.2 Making the valve and its actuating mechanism integral. Where there is a connecting device, by making it impossible to assemble the valve and its actuating mechanism in a way that will function other than properly. Where there is a connecting device which may be omitted or shaken loose, by providing for pushing instead of pulling the valve to the diverted position. By designing the system so that the pump will shut down when the milk is below the pasteurization temperature and the valve is not in the fully diverted position;

22.3.1.3

21.3.1.4

21.3.2

When a packing gland is used to prevent leakage around the actuating stem, it shall not be possible to tighten the stem-packing nut to such an extent as to prevent the valve from assuming the fully diverted position. A leak escape shall be installed on the forward-flow side of the valve seat. However, when backpressure is exerted on the forward-flow side of the valve seat while the milk flow is being diverted, the leak escape should lie between two valve seats, or between two portions of the same seat, one upstream and the other downstream from the leak escape. The leak escape shall be designed and installed to discharge all leakage to the outside, or to the constant-level tank through a line separate from the diversion line. When leakage is discharged to the constantlevel tank, a sight glass shall be installed in the leak escape line to provide a visual means of leak detection. 160

21.3.3

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Dairies and Grade "A" Pasteurized Milk Plants, SASC-S-06

21.3.4

The closure of the forward-flow seat shall be sufficiently tight so that leakage past it will not exceed the capacity of the leak escape device, as evidenced when the forward-flow line is disconnected; and, in order that proper seating may not be disturbed, the length of the connecting rod shall not be adjustable by the user. The flow-diversion device shall be so designed and installed that failure of the primary motivating power shall automatically divert the flow of milk. The flow-diversion device shall be located downstream from the holder. The flow sensor shall be located not more than 46 centimeters (18) upstream from the flow-control device. The pipeline from the diversion port of the flow-diversion device shall be self-draining and shall be free of restrictions or valves unless such restrictions or valves are so designed that stoppage of the diversion line cannot occur. When it is used, the pipeline from the leak detector port of the flow-diversion device shall be selfdraining and shall be free of restrictions or valves, unless such restrictions or valves are so designed that stoppage of the leak detector line cannot occur.

21.3.5

21.3.6

21.3.7

21.3.8

21.4

Milk-flow controller instrumentation shall comply with the following requirements: 21.4.1 The thermal limit controller shall be set and sealed so that forward flow of product unless the temperature at the controller sensor is above the required pasteurization as defined in sub-section 19 of this Code Section for the milk or milk product and used, nor continue during descending temperatures when the temperature is below pasteurization temperature. 21.4.1.1 cannot start temperature the process the required

The seal shall be applied by Saudi Aramco EPD representative after testing and shall not be removed without immediately notifying a Saudi Aramco EPD representative. The system shall be so designed that no milk can be bypassed around the controller sensor that shall not be removed from its proper position during the pasteurization process. The cut-in and cut-out milk temperatures, as shown by the indicating thermometer, shall be determined at the beginning of each day's operation and entered upon the recorder chart daily by the plant operator.

21.4.1.2

21.4.1.3

21.4.2 Manual switches for the control of pumps, or other devices which produce flow through the holder, shall be wired so that the circuit is completed only when milk is above the required pasteurization temperature as defined in sub-section 19 of this Code Section, or when the diversion device is in the fully diverted position. 21.5 Holding tube: 21.5.1 Holders shall be designed to provide for the holding of every particle of milk or milk product for at least the time required in sub-section 19 of this Code Section for the milk or milk product and the process used. The holder shall be so designed that the simultaneous temperature difference between the hottest and coldest milk in any cross section of flow at any time during the holding period will not be greater than 0.5C (1F). This requirement may be assumed to have been satisfied 161

21.5.2

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Dairies and Grade "A" Pasteurized Milk Plants, SASC-S-06

without test in tubular holders of 18 centimeters (7 inches) of smaller diameter, which are free of any fittings through which the milk may not be thoroughly swept. 21.5.3 No device shall b e permitted for short-circuiting a portion of the holder to compensate for changes in rate of milk flow. Holding tubes shall be installed so that sections of pipe cannot be left out, resulting in a shortened holding time. The holding tube shall be arranged to have a continuously upward slope in the direction of flow of not less than 2 centimeters per meter (0.25 inches/foot). Supports for tubes shall be provided to maintain all parts of holding tubes in a fixed position, free from any lateral or vertical movement. The holder shall be so designed that no portion between the inlet and the flow-control temperature sensor is heated.

21.5.4

21.5.5

21.5.6

21.6

An indicating thermometer shall be located as near as practicable to the temperature sensor of the recorder/controller, but may be located a short distance upstream from the latter where milk between the two thermometers does not differ significantly in temperature. 21.6.1 The temperature shown by the recorder/controller shall be checked daily by the plant operator against the temperature shown by the indicating thermometer. Readings shall be recorded on the chart. The recorder/controller shall be adjusted to read no higher than the indicating thermometer. The recorder/controller charts shall comply with the applicable provisions of sub-section 22 of this Code Section.

21.6.2

21.7

The pump(s) and other equipment, which may produce, flow through the holder shall be located upstream from the holder. Pumps and other flow-promoting devices may be located downstream from the holder if means are provided to eliminate negative pressure between the holder and the inlet to such equipment. When vacuum equipment is located downstream from the holder, an effective vacuum breaker, plus an automatic means of preventing a negative pressure in the line between the flow-diversion device and the vacuum chamber, shall be provided. 21.7.1 The speed of pumps or other flow-promoting devices governing the rate of flow through the holder shall be so controlled as to ensure the holding of every particle of milk or milk product for at least the time required in sub-section 19 of this Code Section. In all cases, the motor shall be connected to the metering pump by means of a common drive shaft, or by means of gears, pulleys, or a variable-speed drive, with the gear box, the pulley box, or the setting of the variable speed protected in such a manner that the holding time cannot be shortened without detection by the Saudi Aramco EPD representative. This shall be accomplished by the application of a suitable seal(s) after testing by the Saudi Aramco EPD representative. Such a seal shall not be broken without immediately notifying Saudi Aramco EPD. This provision shall apply to all homogenizers used as timing pumps. Variable speed drives used in connection with the metering pump shall be so constructed that wearing or stretching of the belt results in a slowdown, rather than a speed-up, of the pump. The metering or timing pump shall be of the positive displacement type. The holding time shall be taken to mean the flow of the fastest particle of milk, at or above the required pasteurization temperature as defined in sub-section 19 of this Code Section for the milk or milk product and the process used, through the holder section; i.e. that portion of the system that is outside of the influence of the heating medium, that slopes continuously upward in the downstream direction, and that is located upstream from the flow-diversion device. Tests for holding time shall be made when all equipment and devices are operated and adjusted to 162

21.7.2

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Dairies and Grade "A" Pasteurized Milk Plants, SASC-S-06

provide for maximum flow. When a homogenizer is located upstream from the holder, the holding time shall be determined with the homogenizer in operation with no pressure on the homogenizer valves. Where bypass lines are provided, either upstream or downstream from the metering pump, the holding time shall be tested with both the regular and bypass line open, unless the bypass valve is so designed that both lines cannot be open at the same time. The holding time shall be tested during both forward and diverted flow. If necessary to lengthen the holding time during diverted flow, an identifiable restriction may be placed in the vertical portion of the diversion pipeline. When vacuum equipment is located downstream from the holder, the holding time shall be tested with the metering pump operating at maximum flow and the vacuum equipment adjusted to provide for the maximum vacuum. The holding time shall be tested in both forward and diverted flow by Saudi Aramco EPD initially, semiannually thereafter, after any alteration or replacement that may affect the holding time, and whenever the seal of the speed setting has been broken. 21.8 Means shall be provided to preclude the backup and overflow of water from the vacuum condenser to the vacuum chamber when a water feed line is connected to a vacuum condenser and the vacuum condenser is not separated from the vacuum chamber by a physical barrier. This provision may be satisfied by the use of a safety shutoff valve located on the water feed line to the vacuum condenser that is automatically actuated by a control which will shut off the influent water if, for example, the condensate pump stops and the water level rises above a predetermined point in the vacuum condenser. This valve may be actuated by water, air, or electricity, and shall be so designed that failure of the primary motivating power will automatically stop the flow of water into the vacuum condenser.

22

PASTEURIZATION EMPLOYING REGENERATIVE HEATING 22.1 Pasteurizer systems employing milk-to-milk regenerative heating with both sides closed to the atmosphere shall comply with the following or equally satisfactory specifications: 22.1.1 Regenerators shall be constructed, installed, and operated so that pasteurized product in the regenerator will automatically be under greater pressure than raw milk in the regenerator at all times. The pasteurized product, between its outlet from the regenerator and the nearest point downstream open to the atmosphere, shall rise to a vertical elevation of 30 centimeters (12 inches) above the highest raw milk level downstream from the constant-level tank and shall be open to the atmosphere at this or a higher elevation. The overflow of the top rim of the constant level raw milk tank shall always be lower than the lowest milk level in the regenerator. No pump or flow-promoting device which can affect the proper pressure relationships within the regenerator shall be located between the pasteurized outlet from the regenerator and the nearest downstream point open to the atmosphere. No pump shall be located between the raw milk inlet to the regenerator and the raw milk supply tank unless it is designed and installed to operate only when milk is flowing through the pasteurized product side of the regenerator and when the pressure of the pasteurized product is higher than the maximum pressure produced by the pump. This may be accomplished by wiring the booster pump so that it cannot operate unless: a) the metering pump is in operation; b) the flow-diversion device is in forward-flow position; and c) the pasteurized product pressure exceeds 0.071 kilograms per square centimeter (1 pound per square inch) the maximum pressure developed by the booster pump. Pressure gauges shall be installed at the raw milk inlet to the regenerator and the pasteurized product outlet of the regenerator or the outlet of the cooler.

22.1.2

22.1.3

22.1.4

22.1.5

163

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Dairies and Grade "A" Pasteurized Milk Plants, SASC-S-06

22.1.6

The motor, casing and impeller of the booster pump shall be identified, and such records thereof maintained as directed by EPD. All electric wiring interconnections should be in permanent conduit (except that rubber covered cable may be used for final connections), with no electrical connections to defeat the purpose of any provisions of this Code Section. All raw milk in the regenerator will drain freely back into the constant-level raw milk tank when the raw milk pump(s) are shut down and the raw milk outlet from the regenerator is disconnected. When vacuum equipment is located downstream from the flow-diversion device, means shall be provided to prevent the lowering of the pasteurized product level in the regenerator during periods of diverted flow or shutdown. An effective vacuum breaker, plus an automatic means of preventing a negative pressure, shall be installed in the line between the vacuum chamber and the pasteurized product inlet to the regenerator. When the differential pressure controller is installed and wired to control the flow-diversion device, the raw product booster pump may be permitted to run at all times provided that the metering pump is in operation.

22.1.7

22.1.8

22.1.9

22.2

Milk-to-water-to-milk regenerators with both the milk and the heat-transfer water in the raw milk section closed to the atmosphere shall comply with the following or equally satisfactory specifications: 22.2.1 Regenerators of this type shall be so designed, installed, and operated that the heat-transfermedium side of the regenerator in the raw milk section will, automatically, be under greater pressure than the raw milk side at all times. Only potable water shall be used in the heat-transfer system. The water shall be stored in a covered tank, which is open to the atmosphere. The elevation of the water shall be at least 30 centimeters (12 inches) higher than any raw milk level downstream from the constant-level tank. The heat-transfer water between its outlet from the regenerator and the nearest point downstream open to the atmosphere shall rise to a vertical elevation of at least 30 centimeters (12 inches) above any raw milk in the system and shall be open to the atmosphere at this or a higher elevation. The heat-transfer water circuit shall be full of water at the beginning of the run, and all loss of water from the circuit shall be automatically and immediately replenished whenever raw milk is present in the regenerator. The overflow of the top rim of the constant level raw milk tank shall always be lower than the lowest milk level in the raw milk section of the regenerator. The regenerator shall be designed and installed so that all raw milk shall drain freely back to the upstream supply tank when the raw milk pumps are shut down and the raw milk line is disconnected from the regenerator outlet. No pump shall be located between the raw milk inlet to the regenerator and the raw milk supply tank, unless it is designed and installed to operate only when water is flowing through the heattransfer section of the regenerator, and when the pressure of the heat-transfer water is higher than the pressure of the raw milk. This may be accomplished by wiring the booster pump so that it cannot operate unless: a) the heat-transfer water pump is in operation; and b) the heattransfer water pressure exceeds by at least 0.07 kilograms per square centimeter (1 pound per square inch) the raw milk pressure in the regenerator. Pressure gauges shall be installed at the raw milk inlet and the heat-transfer water outlet of the regenerator. The accuracy of the required pressure gauges shall be checked by the regulatory agency on installation, quarterly thereafter, and following repair or replacement.

22.2.2

22.2.3

22.2.4

22.2.5

164

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Dairies and Grade "A" Pasteurized Milk Plants, SASC-S-06

23

U.H.T. (Ultra-High Temperature) 23.1 The chemical, physical and bacteriological standards for Grade "A" raw milk utilized to produce ultrahigh temperature (UHT) milk and milk products shall conform with the requirements stipulated in subsection 6 of this Code Section. Only Grade "A" milk powder and butterfat shall be used to produce UHT milk products.

23.2 24

TEMPERATURE RECORDING CHARTS All temperature-recording charts shall be preserved for a period of three months. The use of such charts shall not exceed the time limit for which they are designed. Overlapping of recorded data shall be a violation of this item. 24.1 Batch pasteurizer recording charts shall contain the following information: 24.1.1 24.1.2 25.1.3 The name of the milk plant and the date. Number or location of recorder when more than one is used. Extent of holding period, including filling and emptying times when required (see sub-section 20 of this Code Section). Reading of airspace thermometer within the holding period at a given time or reference point as indicated on the chart (see sub-section 20 of this Code Section). Reading of indicating thermometer within the holding period at a given time or reference point as indicated on the chart (see sub-section 20 of this Code Section). Quarterly, the initials of the regulatory agency opposite the required readings of the indicating thermometer and airspace thermometer (see sub-section 20 of this Code Section). Semi-annually, the time accuracy of the recorder, as determined by Saudi Aramco EPD Amount and name of pasteurized milk or milk product represented by each batch or run on the chart. Record of unusual occurrences. Signature or initials of operator.

24.1.4

24.1.5

24.1.6

24.1.7 24.1.8

24.1.9 24.1.10 24.2

High temperature, short time pasteurizer recording thermometer charts shall contain all the information specified in sub-section 24.1 above, except reference to holding period (including filling and emptying), and reference to airspace thermometers, may be omitted. The following additional information is required: 24.2.1 24.2.2 A record of the time during which the flow diversion device is in the forward-flow position. The cut-in and cut-out milk temperatures recorded daily by the operator at the beginning of the run, and initialed quarterly by the regulatory agency.

165

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25

EQUIPMENT TESTS AND EXAMINATIONS Saudi Aramco EPD shall perform the indicated tests on the instruments and devices initially on installation, and at least once each six months thereafter, and whenever any alteration or replacement is made which may affect the proper operation of the instrument or device.

26

COOLING OF MILK All raw milk and milk products shall be maintained at 5C (41F) or less until processed. All pasteurized milk and milk products, except those to be cultured, shall be cooled immediately prior to filling or packaging in approved equipment to a temperature of 5C (41F) or less. All pasteurized milk and milk products shall be stored at a temperature of 5C (41F) or less. On delivery vehicles, the temperature of milk and milk products shall not exceed 5C (41F). Every room or tank in which milk or milk products are stored shall be equipped with an accurate thermometer.

27

PACKAGING 27.1 27.2 Packaging of milk products shall be in single service containers. All milk and milk products, including concentrated milk and milk products, shall be packaged at the plant where final pasteurization is performed. Such packaging shall be done without undue delay following final pasteurization. All packaging shall be done on approved mechanical equipment. The term "approved mechanical equipment" shall not be interpreted to exclude manually operated machinery. Packaging machines shall be designed to minimize the need for adjustment during operation. Packaging machine supply tanks and bowls shall have covers, which are constructed to prevent any contamination from reaching the inside of the filler tank or bowl. All covers shall be in place during operation. A drip deflector shall be installed on each filler valve. Such drip deflector shall be designed and adjusted to divert condensation away from the open container. Container in-feed conveyors to automatic packaging machines shall have overhead shields to protect the packages from contamination. Such shields shall extend from the forming unit discharge to the filling unit and from the filling unit to the closure unit. Container-fabricating materials, such as paper stock, foil, wax, plastic, etc. shall be handled in a sanitary manner and protected against undue exposure during the package assembly operation. Packaging machine floats shall be designed to be adjustable without removing the cover. The filler pipe of all bottling and packaging machines shall have an apron or other approved device as close to the filler bowl as possible to prevent condensation or drip from reaching the inside of the filler bowl. Filling cylinders on packaging machines shall be protected from contamination by the use of overhead shields. When any lubricant is applied to the filler pistons, cylinders, or other milk contact surfaces, the lubricant shall be nontoxic, sterile, and shall be sparingly applied in a sanitary manner. Closing of packages: 27.12.1 The closing of milk and milk product containers shall be done in a sanitary manner on approved mechanical closing equipment. The term "approved mechanical closing equipment" shall not 166

28.3

27.4 27.5

27.6

27.7

27.8

27.9 27.10

27.11

27.12

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exclude manually operated machinery. Hand-capping is prohibited except in the case of 11 liters (3 gallons) or larger containers where suitable mechanical equipment for the closing of such containers is not available, and then only if the required application is submitted and the review and inspection procedure proves to Saudi Aramco EPD that the proposed method of closing such large containers eliminates all possibility of contamination. 27.12.2 All mechanical closure mechanisms shall be designed to minimize the need for adjustment during operation. Packages, which have been imperfectly closed, shall be emptied immediately into approved sanitary containers. Such milk or milk products shall be protected from contamination, maintained at 5C (41F) or less, and subsequently repasteurized or discarded. All closures shall protect the pouring lip of multi-use containers to at least the greatest diameter. Single-service containers shall be so constructed that the product and the pouring and opening areas are protected from contamination during handling, storage and when the containers are initially opened. Closures shall be handled in a sanitary manner.

27.12.3

2712.4

27.12.5 28 VEHICLES

In addition to requirements outlined in sub-section 26 of SASC-S-04, all vehicles used for transportation of pasteurized milk and milk products shall be constructed and operated so that the milk and milk products are maintained at 5C (41F) or less. If required, vehicles shall be parked under sun shades to reduce the heat load on the refrigeration equipment. 29 RESIDUAL BACTERIAL COUNTS (PACKAGING) The residual bacteria count of multi-use and single-service containers used for packaging pasteurized milk and milk products shall not exceed one per mL of capacity or not over one colony per square centimeter (50 colonies per 8 square inches) of product-contact surface in three out of four samples taken at random on a given day. All multi-use and single-service containers shall be free of coliform organisms.

167

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SASC-S-06 APPENDIX I
30 INTRODUCTION TO THE HTST PASTEURIZATION SYSTEM 30.1 Public health significance: 30.1.1 Pasteurization, at this time, is the most practical means of insuring a consistently safe milk supply. Pasteurized milk is now one of our safest foods; but when contaminated, it may become the most dangerous because milk is a perfect medium for bacterial growth. The high temperature short time (HTST) pasteurizer unit is designed with safeguards to prevent human error or equipment malfunction. These safeguards are necessary to ensure pasteurization of every particle of milk. The heating and the cooling regeneration features of the HTST unit offer important efficiencies by conserving heat, refrigeration, space, and time requirements. Carefully selected temperature and time relationships (one is as important as the other) are required to destroy pathogenic or disease-producing bacteria and coliform microorganisms found in raw milk. Emphasis must be placed on the fact that pasteurization should not be considered a substitute for good sanitary practices.

30.1.2

30.1.3

30.1.4

30.2

Milk flow through basic HTST pasteurization system: 30.2.1 Raw milk, in a constant level supply tank at approximately 5C (41F), is sucked into the regenerator section of the HTST pasteurizer. In the regenerator section, the cold raw milk is warmed to approximately 57.2C (135F) by hot pasteurized milk flowing in a counter current direction on the opposite sides of thin stainless steel plates. In turn, the hot pasteurized milk, at least 71.7C (161F), is cooled to approximately 32C (90F) by the cold raw milk. The warm raw milk, which is still under suction, passes through a positive displacement timing pump. The timing pump, having pulled the milk from the constant level supply tank, delivers the milk under pressure through the rest of the HTST pasteurization system. Warm raw milk is pumped through the heater section where hot water on the sides of thin stainless steel plates opposite the milk heats the milk to a temperature of at least 71.7C (161F). The milk, now at pasteurization temperature, and under pressure, flows through the holding tube. The maximum velocity of the milk through the tube, predetermined by adjusting the maximum speed of the timing pump and the length of the tube, is such that each particle of milk is held in the holding tube for at least 15 seconds. 168

30.2.2

30.2.3

30.2.4

30.2.5

30.2.6

30.2.7 30.2.8

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Dairies and Grade "A" Pasteurized Milk Plants, SASC-S-06

30.2.9 30.2.10

Located at the end of the holder are two thermometers, one an indicating thermometer and one a recorder controller. The milk passes the bulbs of both these instruments. The milk then passes into the flow diversion valve which automatically assumes a forward flow position if the milk passes the recorder controller bulb at 72.2C (162F) or higher. The valve automatically assumes the diverted flow position if the milk passes the recorder controller bulb below 71.7C (161F). Improperly heated milk flows through the diverted flow line back to the raw milk constant level supply tank. The heated milk flows through the forward flow line to the regenerator section where it heats the cold raw milk and is simultaneously cooled to approximately 32C (90F). The warm pasteurized milk passes through the cooling section where coolant (opposite the pasteurized milk) cools the milk to a temperature of 5C (41F) or below. The coolant may be refrigerated water, nontoxic food-grade propylene glycol, or a combination of the two. The cold pasteurized milk then passes to a storage tank or vat to await packaging.

30.2.11

30.2.12

30.2.13

30.2.14 30.3

Heat exchangers: 30.3.1 The heat exchanger plates are constructed of seamless stainless steel with synthetic rubber gaskets bonded to the plates. The gaskets are impervious to absorption. The number of plates used must be adequate to provide a maximum number of counter current streams and turbulent flow. No bypass or short circuits around the plates are permitted, except automatically controlled valves for startup, as may be provided in accordance with the USPHS Pasteurized Milk Ordinance and Code. The raw product passage baffle plate is drilled to permit drainage of raw product.

30.3.2 30.3.3

30.3.4

30.3.5 30.4

Requirements for the holding tube: 30.4.1 The velocity of a constant column of liquid flowing through a tube will increase upon decreasing the diameter of the tube. The holding tube is required to continuously slope upwards from the inlet of the holding tube to the flow diversion valve, to preclude the entrapment of air. Such air entrapment has the effect of decreasing tube diameter and increasing product velocity. To prevent variance in the slope of the holding tube, the tube supports should be permanently fixed. Shortening the holding tube will decrease holding time. No short-circuiting of the tube is permitted. In the case of holding tubes which form a loop, short sections of pipe on opposing sides shall be of unequal length to prevent omitting a section.

30.4.2

30.4.3

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Dairies and Grade "A" Pasteurized Milk Plants, SASC-S-06

REFERENCES

1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

Saudi Arabian Standards Organization, Standards for Pasteurized Milk, 1977. Standard Methods for the Examination of Dairy Products, 15th Ed., 1985. US Public Health Services: Food Service Sanitation Manual, PHS Pub. #934, 1962. Grade A Pasteurized Milk Ordinance, 1978.

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Camps and Communal Living Facilities, SASC-S-07

SASC-S-07 CAMPS AND COMMUNAL LIVING FACILITIES


Communal living facilities shall provide for the basic health needs of each individual housed therein. If the operator of a communal living facility should fail in this responsibility, one ill individual can spread a communicable disease to all susceptible individuals living in the facility. Individuals who are ill can spread diseases in Saudi Aramco workplaces and communities, as well as to the general public. The costs in terms of pain and suffering and lost-time from work could be incalculable. This Section specifies the public health requirements necessary to the maintenance of hygienic, safe camps and communal living facilities. NOTE: Whilst it is the intention of this Section to regulate living conditions in communal facilities, it is not always practicable to comply in all respects due to the diverse nature of the accommodation and premises used (e.g. trailers, villas, apartments, etc.) Consideration must be given to the nature of the accommodation, the location, number of residents and what is a reasonable expectation taking into account the practicalities of compliance and the duration the communal facilities will be occupied. Where circumstances render a particular Saudi Aramco Sanitary Code requirement impractical, an individual or firm may request, in writing, that Environmental Protection Department (EPD) grant a variance specific to that sub-section requirement. All sub-sections should be read in conjunction with appropriate referenced documents listed at the end of this Code Section.

DEFINITIONS Bedding, Animal: Material, usually organic, which is placed on the floor surface of livestock buildings for animal comfort to absorb urine and other liquids and thus promote cleanliness. Camp, Aramco: Any of the residential compounds established by Saudi Aramco to house individuals and/or families. Campsite: Any specific area within an organized campground or other recreation area which is used for overnight stays by an individual, family, group or other similar entity. Cesspool: A lined, or partially lined, covered underground pit into which household wastewater is discharged. Solids are collected in the pit and liquids seep through the bottom and sides into the surrounding soil. Sometimes called leaching cesspool. Chemical Closet: A toilet facility where the waste is not discharged to the sewer, but is collected in a container charged with a chemical solution for the purpose of disinfecting and deodorizing the waste until it is removed. Domestic Wastewater: Wastewater derived principally from dwellings, business buildings, institutions, and the like. It may or may not contain groundwater, surface water, or storm water. Habitable Room: A room occupied by one or more persons for living eating, sleeping or working purposes. It does not include bathrooms, toilet facilities, laundries, storage areas, corridors and other such spaces. Mobile Home/Recreational Vehicle: Means a transportable dwelling unit containing plumbing, waste disposal and electrical conveniences. Mobile Home/Recreational Vehicle Park: means a plot of ground divided into spaces under the ownership or management of one person for the purposes of renting two or more mobile homes and/or recreational vehicles or mobile home/recreational vehicle spaces for dwelling or sleeping purposes. Private Residential Swimming Pool: Any swimming pool under the control of a Saudi Aramco community resident, the use of which is limited to the family members and invited guests of the resident. (The design, construction and operation of such pools are not subject to the provisions of these requirements).

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Camps and Communal Living Facilities, SASC-S-07

Service Building: Means a structure, housing, toilet, lavatory, shower and such other facilities as may be required by these rules and regulations. Sewer Connection: The connection consisting of all pipes, fittings and appurtenances from the drain outlet of the mobile home or recreational vehicle to the inlet of the corresponding sewer riser pipe of the sewerage system serving the mobile home/recreational vehicle park. Sewer Riser Pipe: That portion of the sewer lateral which extends vertically and terminates above ground elevation to allow hook-up with the mobile home or recreational vehicle sewer connection, Small Camp: A self-contained living area designed to support the basic needs of the individuals housed therein. Contractor camps, rig camps, drilling camps and holiday camps are examples of small camps.

INSPECTION REQUIREMENTS 1.1 Proponent organizations shall inspect all communal living facilities for which they are responsible as often as is necessary to ensure compliance with the Saudi Aramco Sanitary Code. All inspections shall be recorded and such records shall be made available to Saudi Aramco Environmental Protection Department (EPD) upon request. Saudi Aramco EPD shall inspect communal living facilities routinely according to requirements outlined in Saudi Aramco General Instructions 2.718 and 0151.006, as well as the Saudi Arab Government Labor Law. A written report will be provided to the proponent organization. Prior to commencement of any contractor service the proponent organization shall obtain concurrence from the Manager, EPD that the Contractors communal housing accommodation complies with Saudi Aramco Sanitary Code requirements. 1.3.1 The proponent organization shall submit to the Manager, EPD, detailed plans and specifications for any new or substantially modified camp or communal living accommodation for review and concurrence. Prior to the commencement of any contractor service the proponent organization shall arrange for an inspection of the proposed employee housing in conjunction with EPD to ensure that the accommodation has been constructed in accordance with approved plans and specifications and complies with Saudi Aramco Sanitary Code requirements.

1.2

1.3

GENERAL CONSIDERATIONS 2.1 To ensure that all dormitories, habitable rooms, toilet rooms, shower rooms, hand washing facilities and service buildings are maintained in a clean condition, a person, or persons shall be appointed to ensure that proper cleaning is being carried out. A master-cleaning schedule shall be developed, and implemented. This schedule shall identify areas to be cleaned, persons responsible and materials and equipment to be used. A checklist and system for monitoring the efficiency of the cleaning schedule should also be developed and used.

2.2

The site shall be well drained and shall not be located in an area subject to periodic flooding, nor located in such a manner as to permit contamination of a private or public water supply, nor located adjacent to marshes, railroads, stockyards, industrial sites, pipelines or other such areas which would constitute a health or safety hazard. All areas shall be kept free of nuisance and safety hazards (see Section SASC-S-18 of this code.)

2.3

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Camps and Communal Living Facilities, SASC-S-07

2.4

Live animals, including those intended for slaughter, shall be excluded from the premises. Animals shall not be slaughtered in any place other than a Saudi Arab Government approved slaughterhouse. Driveways, parking areas and access walkways to portables and link ways between portables and communal facilities in trailer parks shall be suitably paved and drained to provide an all weather surface. Preventive Maintenance Program is considered to be essential in ensuring that standards are maintained. Regular Preventive Maintenance Inspections must be conducted and documentation kept on findings and action taken to correct deficiencies. Fire Safety shall be in accordance with standards equivalent to those specified in Inspection, Testing and Maintenance of Fire Protection Equipment (G.I. # 1781.00). 2.7.1 Fire extinguishers suitable for all classifications of fire must be provided in kitchens. Additional fire extinguishers should be provided in hallways or other convenient locations where dormitory blocks are separate from the kitchens or are large enough where the kitchen extinguisher is not easily accessible. Fire Plans - need to be posted in each floor where there are a large number of dormitory rooms and where escape is via a corridor and stairway. These should show locations of stairs, fire exits and fire extinguishers. Smoke Alarms - Smoke alarms should be provided in Kitchens/Dining Areas. They must also be provided in Common Corridors where dormitory blocks are large. Fire Risks - Deficiencies including faulty electric equipment, overloaded sockets, jointed cables, gas cylinders inside buildings and improper materials used for connection gas cylinders to cookers, e.g. rubber tubing instead of rigid metal tubing and approved threaded connections need to be addressed.

2.5

2.6

2.7

2.7.2

2.7.3

2.7.4

GENERAL CONSTRUCTION REQUIREMENTS, VENTILATION AND LIGHTING 3.1 Floors: 3.1.1 The floors of dormitories shall be constructed of durable, smooth and easily cleanable materials. Carpeting, if used, shall be designed for heavy use, shall be of closely woven construction, shall be properly installed, shall be easily cleanable and shall be maintained in good repair and in a clean condition at all times. The floors of kitchens, laundry rooms, shower rooms, toilet rooms, utility rooms and handwashing facilities shall have smooth, hard, easily cleanable surfaces that are non - slip, and impervious to water, detergents and disinfectants (carpeting is prohibited in these areas). These floors shall be sloped to properly trapped floor drains and the junctions between the floors and walls shall be coved and sealed. Utility service lines and pipes shall not be unnecessarily exposed on floors. If exposed, they shall be installed in a way that does not obstruct cleaning. Floor mats and duckboards are prohibited in wet areas, e.g. kitchens, laundry rooms, shower rooms, toilet rooms, utility rooms and handwashing facilities.

3.1.2

3.1.3

3.1.4

3.2

Walls and Ceilings: 173

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Camps and Communal Living Facilities, SASC-S-07

3.2.1

Walls and ceilings shall be constructed of durable materials and shall have light colored, smooth, easily cleanable surfaces. In addition, the walls in toilet and shower rooms shall be Impervious to water, detergents and disinfectants to a minimum height of 1.2 meters (4 feet) in toilet rooms and 1.8 meters (6 feet) in shower rooms. The junctions between the floors and walls in kitchens, laundry rooms, shower rooms, toilet rooms, utility rooms and handwashing facilities she all be coved and sealed (see sub-section 3.1.2. of this Code Section) The use of rough or unsealed and unfinished building materials, such as brick, concrete blocks and wooden beams, is prohibited in habitable rooms, toilet rooms and shower rooms. Studs, joists and rafters shall not be exposed in habitable rooms, toilet rooms and shower rooms. Covering materials, such as sheet metal, linoleum and vinyl, shall be attached and sealed to wall and ceiling surfaces so that they leave no open spaces, cracks or sharp edges and be fitted so that the entire surface is easily cleanable. Acoustical paneling may be utilized providing it is installed not less than 1.8 meters (6 feet) above the floor. Any perforations shall not penetrate the entire depth of the panel, shall not be greater than 3 millimeters (0.13 inches) in any dimension, and shall not comprise more than 25 percent of the exposed panel surface. The paneling shall otherwise meet the requirements of this Code Section. Utility service lines and pipes shall not be unnecessarily exposed on walls and ceilings. If exposed, they shall be installed in a way that does not obstruct or prevent cleaning. Wall or ceiling mounted light fixtures, vent covers, fans, decorative materials, equipment and appurtenances shall be installed in a way that does not obstruct or prevent cleaning, shall be designed and constructed to facilitate cleaning, shall be made of easily cleanable materials and shall be maintained in good repair. All such equipment should be installed and operated in such a manner that there is no risk to injury. All moving parts should be adequately guarded and all electrical wiring and connections be installed to current, recognized Saudi Aramco electrical standards. The ceilings in all habitable rooms shall be at least 2.3 meters (7.5 feet) high as measured to the lowest projection from the ceiling. All such equipment should be installed and operated in such a manner so that there is no risk to injury. All moving parts should be adequately guarded and all electrical wiring and connections installed to current recognized Saudi Aramco standards. The ceilings in hallways, corridors, bathrooms and water closet rooms shall be at least 2.1 meters (7 feet) high as measured to the lowest projection from the ceiling. The walls or partitions between toilet/shower compartments may be less than the height of the room walls, but the tops shall not be less than 1.8 meters (6 feet) from the floor. If partitions are used, the bottoms of the partitions shall be raised at least 20 centimeters (8 inches) above the floor. In situations where a raised partition is not desirable, such as partitions separating eastern style toilet fixtures where a raised partition may not afford suitable privacy, partitions shall be placed on a continuous raised masonry or concrete base at least 15 centimeters (6 inches) high, or a properly designed and constructed wall that joins the floor shall be provided.

3.2.2

3.2.3

3.2.4

3.2.5

3.2.6

3.2.7

3.2.8

3.2.9

3.2.10

3.3

Doors, Windows and Screening: 174

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Camps and Communal Living Facilities, SASC-S-07

3.3.1

All openings to the outside shall be provided with solid doors or glazed windows that shall be kept tightly closed when not in use (excludes passageways between rooms within an enclosed building). If outside openings are appropriately protected from the entry by insects and rodents according to the requirements outlined in sub-section 3.3.4 of this Code Section, solid doors and glazed windows may be considered to be "in use" if they are left open to ventilate the structure. All outer doors and screen doors shall be tight-fitting and self-closing. All doors and screen doors, including sliding or folding types, shall be constructed so that the space between the lower edge of the door and the threshold does not exceed 6.4 millimeters (0.25 inches). The space between sections of folding and sliding doors, when closed, shall not exceed 6.4 millimeters (0.25 inches). All exposed edges of the lower 20.3 centimeters (8 inches) of doors and jambs that are made of materials through which rodents could gnaw, especially outer doors and doors known to be accessible to rodents, shall be protected by covering such edges of doors and jambs with metal sheeting that cannot be gnawed through. All outer doors of dormitories, kitchens, laundry rooms, shower rooms, toilet rooms, utility rooms and handwashing facilities shall be fitted with self-closing screen doors that open outwards. Saudi Aramco EPD may accept other effective fly control devices, e.g. air curtains in lieu of screen doors. If applicable, the bottoms of screen doors shall be covered with metal sheeting in accordance with sub-section 3.3.2 of this Code Section. All open able outer windows of dormitories, kitchens, laundry rooms, shower rooms, toilet rooms, utility rooms and handwashing facilities which are not solidly closed and are accessible to insects and rodents, shall be appropriately screened by grills, hardware cloth or other material capable of precluding the entry by insects and rodents. The effective mesh size of screening material shall not be less than 6 meshes per centimeter (16 mesh per inch). Internal windowsills, if any, shall be sloped downward and away from the window to prevent accumulation of filth, eliminate resting sites for insects and rodents and to discourage personnel from using sills as shelving. Doors, windows and appurtenances thereto, shall be designed and constructed to avoid accumulation of dirt and shall be finished such that they are smooth, nonabsorbent and easily cleanable. Doors, windows, as well as appurtenances thereto, shall be kept clean and maintained in good repair.

3.3.2

3.3.3

3.3.4

3.3.5

3.3.6

3.4

Ventilation and air conditioning: 3.4.1 The temperature in all habitable rooms and other rooms in which personnel live and work shall be controlled by mechanical means and maintained at a level conducive to the healthful performance of the activity conducted in the area. All habitable rooms and public corridors shall be sufficiently ventilated by means of natural or mechanical ventilation. The requirement is deemed satisfied when it can be demonstrated that the ventilation system exchanges at least two volumes of air per hour in all habitable rooms and public corridors. If mechanical ventilation is used, at least one fifth of the air supply shall be taken from the outside. All shower rooms, toilet rooms, laundry rooms and similar areas shall be well ventilated and free of excessive condensation. They shall be suitably cooled or heated. They shall be provided with mechanical ventilation systems capable of providing the equivalent of five air changes per hour. At least 20 percent of the air supply shall be taken from the outside. If this is not feasible, mechanical exhaust fans may be used in lieu of the required mechanical ventilation system. Exhaust fans shall be capable of exhausting 1 cubic meter (35 cubic feet) 175

3.4.2

3.4.3

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Camps and Communal Living Facilities, SASC-S-07

of air per minute for each toilet, urinal, shower, and hand washbasin or laundry sink/washing machine installed. 3.4.4 All ventilation and other non-window openings that cannot be solidly sealed and that remain accessible to insects and rodents shall be appropriately screened by grills, hardware cloth or other material capable of precluding the entry by insects, rodents and other vermin. Note that the swing-type louvered flaps that automatically close when an exhaust or ventilation fan is switched off are deemed to be acceptable screening if they are kept clean and in good repair.

3.5

Illumination: 3.5.1 The following levels of illumination, whether from natural or artificial sources, shall be provided. In all cases, light shall be evenly distributed and of sufficient intensity to avoid discoloration, shadows and strong glare. Also refer to lighting requirements outlined in SAES-P-123, Saudi Aramco Engineering Standards. TABLE 1 Illumination Illumination Levels Required* Area to be Illuminated Lux Footcandles Athletic/sports competition As appropriate to sport Eye level above hand washbasin 540 50 Food Service area 540 50 General play/work areas 320 30 Hallway 110 10 Kitchen 540 50 Shower/toilet block 215 20 Sleeping room 160 15 Stairway 110 10 All other indoor areas 110 10
* Measured at a distance of 76 centimeters (30 inches) above the floor

POTABLE WATER 4.1 Water shall be obtained, conveyed, treated, stored and distributed in a closed system. Design, construction, maintenance and operational standards, as well as quality criteria, shall comply with requirements equivalent to those outlined in Section SASC-S-01 of this Code and standards referenced in Saudi Aramco Engineering Standards. Adequate potable water for the needs of the communal living facility shall be obtained from the municipal water supply. If a municipal water supply is not available, then water shall be obtained from an adequate, easily accessible source that has been properly located and protected to ensure that water obtained is of a safe and sanitary quality. All necessary steps shall be taken to ensure that underground or surface contamination is prevented from reaching the source. Facilities shall be operated and maintained by competent individuals. No part of the system shall be used for any other purpose. Water wells (or other water source) and collection, conveyance, treatment, storage and distribution systems, or parts thereof, which are newly constructed, have been repaired or have otherwise become contaminated, shall be thoroughly disinfected according to requirements outlined in Section SASC-S-01 of this Code before being used. The supply shall be purged of all but normal residual amounts of disinfectant (less than 3 milligrams per liter if chlorine is used to disinfect the system) before a sample for bacteriological testing is collected.

4.2

4.3

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Camps and Communal Living Facilities, SASC-S-07

4.4

All water not provided directly by pipe to the communal living facility from the source shall be transported in a bulk water transport system that is used for no other purpose. At the time water is obtained from the approved source, enough chlorine shall be added to the water in the bulk water transport system to create a 0.5 to 1.5 milligrams per liter (0.5 to 1.5 parts per million) free chlorine residual. Hauled water shall be delivered directly to the closed water system at the communal living facility. The bulk water transport system shall comply with requirements outlined in Section SASC-S-01 of this Code. Water storage tanks shall be enclosed from the filling inlet to the discharge outlet. Tanks shall be designed with openings that permit visual inspection of the tank and provide access for cleaning and disinfection. All openings shall be covered. Covers shall overlap openings, be sloped so they are selfdraining and shall be provided with gaskets and devices for securing them in place. All openings in the top of the tank shall be flanged upward to form a curb that prevents surface water from entering openings. Vents and overflows shall terminate in a downward direction and shall be screened to prevent entry by birds and other animals. All water storage tanks shall be provided with a sample tap. Plumbing with emphasis on cross connection control: 4.6.1. Plumbing shall be designed, sized and installed according to standards outlined in Saudi Aramco Engineering Standards. Plumbing and plumbing fixtures shall be operated and maintained in a way that prevents contamination. Plumbing and plumbing fixtures shall be kept clean and in good repair. The potable water system shall be designed and constructed to prevent the possibility of backflow. Devices to protect against backflow and backsiphonage shall be installed on all water outlets and equipment where an air gap of at least twice the inner diameter of the water outlet, and in any event the air gap shall not be less than 25mm between the water outlet and the flood-level rim of the receiving drain or receiving basin of the drain fixture, and wherever else backflow or backsiphonage may occur. A hose shall not be attached to a faucet unless a backflow prevention device is installed. There shall be no cross connection between the potable water supply and any unsafe or questionable water supply, sewerage system or any source of pollution that might contaminate or otherwise degrade the potable water supply. There shall be no direct physical connection between the sewerage system and any drain originating from equipment that contains food or food equipment and utensils. 4.6.4.1 Drainage from refrigeration units and other equipment shall be discharged to a floor sink, funnel drain or evaporator basin. An air gap of at least twice the inner diameter of the discharge outlet shall be provided between the discharge outlet and the flood level rim of the receiving drain/basin. Dishwashing machines may be connected directly to the sewer immediately downstream from a floor drain or they may be drained through an approved indirect connection. Indirect waste receptors shall be located to be readily accessible for inspection and cleaning.

4.5

4.6

4.6.2

4.6.3

4.6.4

4.6.4.2

4.6.4.3

4.6.5

A non-potable water system is permitted only for purposes such as air conditioning and fire protection. It shall not be directly or indirectly connected with the potable water system. Water from the system shall not be used for any domestic purpose. The piping of the non-potable water system shall be durably identified so that it is readily distinguishable from piping that carries potable water. 177

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Camps and Communal Living Facilities, SASC-S-07

4.7

All potable water supplied to the communal living facility shall be from a Municipal supply, or alternatively from a source approved by Manager, EPD, and be disinfected by chlorination or other means of equal efficiency in the killing or removal of organisms capable of causing infection. When chlorination is employed a sufficient amount of chlorine shall be added to the water to maintain a chlorine residual of at least 0.5 milligrams per liter (0.5 parts per million) at all points in the distribution system from which water may be withdrawn. Hot and cold potable water shall be provided to all hand washbasins, showers, warewashing facilities and laundry facilities. The hot water heating system shall be capable of producing a constant flow of hot water at a temperature of at least 50C (122F) Specific requirements pertinent to the hot and/or tempered water discharged from each class of fixture are outlined in appropriate Standards. If hoses are used for conveying potable water, they shall be constructed of safe materials, shall have a smooth interior surface, shall be used for no other purpose and shall be clearly identified as to its use. Caps and keeper chains shall be provided for water system inlet and outlet fittings, as well as hose fittings. All such fittings shall be capped when not in immediate use. Hoses shall be stored and used so as to be kept free of contamination. A hose shall not be attached to a faucet unless a backflow prevention device is installed. Water treatment equipment, devices, filters, or any other water treatment or conditioning apparatus, shall be made of safe materials, shall be designed to be disassembled for periodic replacement of active elements/media, cleaning and service, shall be operated, inspected and serviced according to the manufacturers instructions and specifications, and shall not be operated beyond their rated capacity. All such equipment shall be maintained in a clean and sanitary condition and, if necessary, shall be sanitized by application of a chlorine solution or by other approved means. Compressed air used to pressurize the potable water system shall be filtered or otherwise treated to render it free of dust, insects and extraneous material. Air intakes shall be properly located and maintained. Filters shall be located upstream from the compressor and shall be easily removable for cleaning and replacement. The blower or compressor supplying air shall be designed so that it will deliver oil- free air. Oil-free air shall be produced by a method equivalent to one of the following: a) use of carbon ring piston compressor; b) use of an oil-lubricated compressor with effective provision for removal of oil vapor; or c) high-pressure, water-lubricated or non-lubricated blowers. Records of equipment operation and maintenance, quantities of product water produced, types and amounts of chemical added to treated water, pH and chlorine residual maintained shall be kept in a log book. The logbook shall be available for review by authorized Saudi Aramco representatives at all times. The biological and chemical quality of the water after treatment shall be as good as, or better than, it was before treatment.

4.8

4.9

4.10

4.11

4.12

4.13

DRINKING WATER FOUNTAINS 5.1 Drinking fountains, if provided, shall be approved angle-jet type and shall be provided with an adequate supply of water under pressure. Spillage, overflow, drainage or wastewater from drinking fountains and faucets shall be discharged to the sewerage system through approved drains to prevent impoundment of water, creation of mud holes or other nuisance conditions. Open containers from which water must be dipped or poured, such as barrels, pails or tanks, whether or not they are fitted with a cover, are prohibited.

5.2

5.3

178

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Camps and Communal Living Facilities, SASC-S-07

5.4

Where drinking water is from dispensers, such as igloos, single service paper cups shall be provided. Cups shall be dispensed from a sanitary device designed for this purpose and a waste receptacle shall be provided for disposal of used cups. The common drinking cup is prohibited.

5.5 6

SEWAGE 6.1 Sewage shall be collected, treated and disposed of in accordance with requirements equivalent to those specified in Section SASC-S-02 of this Code and those outlined in the Saudi Aramco Engineering Standards. Where a public sewer system is available, all plumbing fixtures and building sewers shall be connected to it. In no case shall sewage or liquid waste of any type be discharged or otherwise disposed of on the surface of the ground, or into any well, cave, open ditch or reservoir until it has been properly treated and the disposal method has been approved by Manager, EPD. Pit latrines, outhouses and other non-water-carried sewage disposal methods are prohibited. Floor drains and sewer pipes shall be large enough to carry off all wastewater and sanitary sewage. Sufficient clean-out places shall be provided in sewer drainpipes. Grease traps, if used, shall be located so they are easily accessible for cleaning. All sewer pipes or drains through which rodents may pass shall be closed with a properly secured, perforated metal or iron cover. Perforations shall not admit a cylinder 13 millimeters (0.5 inches) in diameter. Defective sewer pipes, traps, drains and vents shall be repaired or replaced promptly and professionally. Crude repairs with wood, tape or metal strips are unsatisfactory.

6.2

6.3 6.4

6.5

DORMITORIES 7.1 General: 7.1.1 All outside premises, floors, hallways, carpets on floors, walls, ceilings and appurtenances shall be maintained in a sanitary condition at all times. Each room shall be completely cleaned after each change of occupancy. Common areas shall be cleaned at least once daily. No cooking shall be undertaken in any room of a habitable structure unless such room was specifically designed for this purpose and the use of such room for cooking is approved by Saudi Aramco EPD. Noise levels in habitable rooms shall conform to the standards outlined in SAES-A-105, Saudi Aramco Engineering Standards. Hallways, entrances to fire escapes and stairways must be kept free of obstructions.

7.1.2

7.1.3

7.1.4 7.2

Floor space in sleeping rooms shall be allocated at a rate of not less than 4.6 square meters (50 square feet) per occupant, preferably 6.5 square meters (70 square feet) per occupant. Furnishings: 7.3.1 A bed, mattress, mattress pad and pillow shall be provided for each occupant. All bedding and linen shall be clean, sanitary and in good repair. At least one table, chair and reading lamp shall be provided for each sleeping room. 179

7.3

7.3.2

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Camps and Communal Living Facilities, SASC-S-07

7.3.3

All curtains, carpeting, furniture and other furnishings shall be clean, sanitary and in good repair.

7.4

A storage closet or cabinet shall be provided for storing the clothing and other personal items of each occupant. A refuse container shall be provided for each habitable room.

7.5 8

TOILET ROOMS, SHOWER ROOMS, HANDWASHING (GENERAL) 8.1 Toilets, urinals, showers, hand washbasins and utility sinks shall be designed to be easily cleanable. They shall be cleaned at least once daily, shall be kept free of objectionable odors and shall be maintained in good repair. All fixtures and walls and floors subject to splash, shall be cleaned with an approved detergent, rinsed and than sanitized with a 0.3 to 0.6 percent hypochlorite solution (3000 to 6000 ppm) or equivalent disinfectant approved by EPD Toilet and shower rooms shall be conveniently located at a distance of not more than 61 meters (200 feet) from the farthest habitable room or one floor to floor height of stairs and shall be accessible at all times the location shall be plainly marked by signs in Arabic and English. Shower rooms, toilet rooms, laundry rooms, handwashing facilities and other such service areas shall be separated from food preparation and sleeping rooms by a self-closing, tight-fitting door. The storage of food, equipment, utensils or personal articles in such areas is prohibited. Toilets, hand washbasins and showers shall be separately installed to be individually accessible and to permit simultaneous use. Open-bay, military barracks-type toilet and shower arrangements are permitted, but are not recommended. Hand washbasins and other sinks, faucets and hydrants not specifically designed and approved for such use, shall not be used for cleaning or preparing food or for washing dishes or utensils. The number of shower, toilet/urinal and hand washbasin fixtures required per numbers of persons housed in the communal living facility is outlined in Table 2.

8.2

8.3

8.4

8.5

8.6

8.7

TABLE 2 Numbers and Types of Fixtures Required Number of persons housed in the Number of Number of toilets communal living facility showers/baths and urinals* From 1 to 6 1 1 From 7 to 10 2 2 From 11 to 20 4 4 From 21 to 40 6 6 From 41 to 60 8 8 From 61 to 80 10 10 From 81 to 100 12 12 More than 100 one per 10 one per 10 additional persons additional persons
*

Number of hand washbasins 1 2 4 6 8 10 12 one per 10 additional persons

Where 10 or more men are housed urinals should be provided. Urinals may be substituted for water closets on a one to one basis,

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Camps and Communal Living Facilities, SASC-S-07

except that the number of water closets shall not be reduced to less than two-thirds of the number specified in Table 2 (see subsection 9.3 of this Code Section). This clause does not apply to communal living facilities provided for females.

8.8

The minimum size of, and floor space allotted for, toilets, hand washbasins, urinals and showers shall be as follows:

TABLE 3 Minimum Space Required for Each Type of Installation Installation Minimum Minimum Minimum Space Per Width Depth Unit 2 Hand washbasin 60 cm 105 cm 1.1 m 2 Shower cubical 75 cm 75 cm 1.3 m 2 Shower stall 75 cm 75 cm 1.3 m 2 Toilet compartment 80 cm 105 cm 1.5 m Urinal 60 cm 105 cm 1.1 m
2

8.9 8.10

All facilities shall be well ventilated (see sub-section 3.4.3 of this Code Section). Legible signs made of durable materials directing all users to wash their hands after using the toilet/urinal shall be conspicuously posted in every toilet room (in Arabic, English and other appropriate languages).

TOILET ROOMS AND TOILETS 9.1 Toilet rooms shall be completely enclosed to ensure that an individuals need for privacy does not interfere with his commitment to personal hygiene. The entrance to a toilet room shall be provided with a door(s) according to requirements outlined in sub-section 3.3 of this Code Section. Urinals shall be provided according to requirements outlined in Table 2 of this Code sub-section. Note that 60 centimeters (24 inches) of trough urinal space is considered to be equivalent to one urinal. Toilet bowls shall be set entirely free and open from all enclosing structures and shall be so installed that the space around the fixture can be easily cleaned. This does not prohibit the use of wall-hung toilets. Every western-type toilet shall have a hinged, open-front seat made of substantial material having a smooth, nonabsorbent, easily cleanable finish. A holder supplied with toilet tissue shall be provided in each toilet compartment. Every eastern-type toilet shall be made of substantial material having a smooth, nonabsorbent, easily cleanable finish. Each toilet shall be provided with a water tap for washing (and a supply of toilet paper with holder, where indicated). Water taps provided for eastern-type toilets shall be fitted with appropriate backflow prevention devices designed to protect the water distribution system from contamination (see sub-section 4.6.2 of this Code Section). Covered waste receptacles shall be provided in all toilet compartments used by women.

9.2

9.3

9.4

9.5

9.6

9.7

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10

HANDWASHING FACILITIES 10.1 Adequate handwashing facilities shall be conveniently located adjacent to toilet facilities. Note that 60 centimeters (24 inches) of a trough hand washbasin space is considered to be equivalent to one hand washbasin. Also note that laundry tubs and service sinks are not acceptable substitutes for hand washbasins. Tempered running water shall be provided to each hand washbasin. Water shall be tempered by means of a mixing valve or combination faucet. Water shall be delivered at a minimum pressure of at least 1.4 kilograms per square centimeter (20 pounds per square inch) with a minimum flow of at least 3.8 liters per minute (1 gallon per minute). The temperature of the water discharged from the tap shall be at least 37C (98.6F) but not less than 50c (122F). Any slow-closing faucet used shall provide a flow of water for at least 15 seconds without the need to reactivate the faucet. If residents are provided with personal supplies of handwashing cleanser and their own towels, then these need not be provided adjacent to handwashing facilities. If not provided, handwashing cleanser and single-use paper towels shall be provided in dispensers at or next to hand washbasins at all times (common towels are prohibited). Mechanical hot air blowers for drying the hands may be substituted for paper towels. A refuse container lined with a disposable plastic bag shall be provided next to handwashing facility. The refuse container need not be covered.

10.2

10.3

10.4

11

SHOWER ROOMS 11.1 Shower rooms shall be completely enclosed. Individually enclosed shower stalls are not required within the shower room, but are recommended to ensure that an individual's need for privacy does not interfere with his commitment to personal hygiene. It is recommended that each shower fixture occupy a separate compartment. The compartment should be composed of a cubical with a bench and a clothes hook and a separated shower stall. The visual privacy of the bather should be maintained. Privacy curtains, if used, shall be of easily cleanable material and kept clean. Showers shall be designed and constructed to be self-draining and to preclude the flow of water into the dressing area space. Shower floors shall be skid-resistant or be provided with non-slip, impervious mats. Where impervious mats are used, they shall be cleaned and air dried at least once daily and shall not be kept on the shower floor when not in use. Wooden racks (duckboards) over shower floors are prohibited). Showers shall be supplied with water through thermostatic, tempering or mixing valves at a temperature of at least 37c (98.6F), but not more than 50 (122F) at a rate of at least 11.4 liters (3 gallons) per minute. Any slow-closing faucet used shall provide a flow of water for at least 30 seconds without the need to reactivate the faucet. If individual shower compartments are not provided, the shower room shall include a dressing area. The dressing area shall be equipped with a bench and clothes hooks.

11.2

11.3

11.4

11.5

12

LAUNDRY ROOMS 12.1 Where a contractual obligation exists, employee uniforms shall be laundered either in a Commercial Laundry approved by Manager, EPD, or in a laundry provided by the contractor which is designed and operated in accordance with requirements outlined in the Laundry Section, SASC-S-11 of this Code, If the latter option is chosen, a qualified and experienced laundry operator must be appointed to oversee laundering. 182

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Camps and Communal Living Facilities, SASC-S-07

12.1.1

In addition to the aforementioned requirement provision must be made available for staff to launder personal items of clothing and bedding. All laundering must be undertaken in a separate room designated for this purpose.

12.2

Where a laundry is provided for personal linen only, a minimum of two washers and two dryers must be provided for each 50 occupants or part thereof. All laundry equipment shall be installed, operated and maintained according to the manufacturer's instructions. Sorting tables, storage racks and other surfaces that contact linen shall be made of substantial material having a smooth, nonabsorbent, easily cleanable finish. All equipment and facilities shall be kept clean and in good repair. Washing machines shall be supplied with hot water at a temperature of at least 66C (150F) at a rate of at least 11.4 liters (3 gallons) per minute. This is likely to require a separate booster water heater for the laundry room. Soiled linen and clothing: 12.5.1 Soiled linen and clothing shall be sorted and processed in an area separate from that used to sort, iron, process and store cleaned linen and clothing. Sorting soiled items on a clean floor is preferable to sorting them on the same table used for cleaned items. Sheets, pillowcases, washable undergarments and colorfast work clothes shall be washed in hot water in a washing machine. The machine shall be set for the longest wash/rinse cycle, hot water wash, heavy/regular action, and appropriate load size. The wash formula shall include heavy-duty laundry detergent, and commercial laundry bleach, both of which shall be used in accordance with the manufacturer's instructions and per the design criteria of the washing machine being used. All heavily soiled items, e.g. mops and oily work clothing, shall be washed separately. All other clothing and delicate items shall be processed according to the maker's recommendations. Cloth bags used to contain soiled items shall be washed along with their contents.

12.3

12.4

12.5

12.5.2

12.5.3 12.5.4

12.5.5 12.6

Cleaned Linen and Clothing: 12.6.1 Washed sheets, pillowcases, undergarments and work clothes shall be tumbled dry on the hot cycle. All other clothing and delicate items shall be processed according to the maker's recommendations. After drying, it is recommended that sheets, pillowslips and undergarments be ironed to reduce bacterial counts. Cleaned items shall be protected from contamination.

12.6.2

12.6.3 13

GARBAGE AND REFUSE 13.1 Garbage and refuse storage facilities: 13.1.1 Prior to removal from the premises, garbage and other refuse shall be stored in a way that makes it inaccessible to insects, rodents and other vermin. Outside storage of garbage or refuse in open piles or in any container other than an approved garbage or refuse container is 183

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Camps and Communal Living Facilities, SASC-S-07

prohibited, e.g. storage in paper bags or cardboard boxes. Inside storage of waste in open piles on the floor of the garbage/refuse storage room is prohibited. Heavy-duty plastic bags may be stacked on the floor of a properly designed and constructed refuse storage room if the waste contained therein is satisfactorily sealed in the bag, i.e. the bag does not represent an "open pile". 13.1.2 The garbage/refuse storage room, if provided, shall be large enough to store all garbage/refuse containers that accumulate between disposal periods. Walls, ceilings and all attachments thereto, shall be made of substantial material having a smooth, nonabsorbent, easily cleanable finish. The floor shall be constructed of a smooth, easily cleanable, nonabsorbent material, such as sealed concrete, and shall be properly sloped to a trapped, covered drain that is connected to the sewerage system. The structure shall be insect- and rodent-proof, including the provision of a solid door designed to preclude the entry by rodents. Additionally, a screen door that opens outward, an air curtain device or other effective means of excluding flies shall be provided. The storage room shall be kept clean and maintained in good repair. The floor of an outside garbage/refuse storage area shall be constructed of a smooth, easily cleanable, nonabsorbent material, such as sealed concrete or machine laid asphalt; and shall be large enough to accommodate the garbage/refuse containers that accumulate between disposal periods. Facilities shall be provided for cleaning garbage/refuse containers, lugger boxes and compactor systems after they are emptied. As a minimum, the facility shall be provided with hot running water delivered at a minimum pressure of at least 1.4 kilograms per square centimeter (20 pounds per square inch) with a minimum flow of at least 3.8 liters per minute (1 gallon per minute). The floor shall be constructed of a smooth, easily cleanable, nonabsorbent material, such as sealed concrete, and shall be properly sloped to a trapped, covered drain that is connected to the sewerage system.

13.1.3

13.1.4

13.2

Garbage and Refuse Containers: 13.2.1 Approved garbage and refuse containers shall include standard 115 liters (30 gallons) steel garbage cans, modified 210 liters (55 gallons) steel drums, purpose-built lugger boxes and compactor systems. All such containers shall be made of durable, nonabsorbent, easily cleanable materials that are impervious to attack by insects, rodents and other vermin. They shall be designed and constructed so that they do not leak. Drain plugs, where required, shall be in place at all times except during cleaning. Refuse equipment and containers shall be provided with tight- fitting lids, doors or covers. 13.2.2.1 The lids, doors or covers of outside refuse equipment and containers shall be kept in the closed position when not in immediate use. Refuse containers that are being actively used in the facility need not be covered. Refuse containers shall be covered when not being actively used. Filled refuse containers shall be covered and removed from the facility to the refuse storage facility. The cover and the outside surface of the 210 liters (55 gallons), 115 liters (30 gallons) and smaller containers shall be labeled with the word "GARBAGE" or "REFUSE." Once used as a garbage or refuse container, the lid and container shall not be used for any other purpose, especially food preparation or storage.

13.2.2

13.2.2.2

13.2.2.3

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Camps and Communal Living Facilities, SASC-S-07

13.2.3

The 210 liters (55 gallons), 115 liters (30 gallons) and smaller containers shall be lined with heavy duty plastic bags to minimize cleaning requirements and facilitate removal of refuse. Refuse containers shall be provided where refuse is generated. There shall be a sufficient number of approved containers to hold all the garbage and refuse produced and to accommodate the total amount accumulated in the refuse holding facility between disposal periods. Periodically, each container shall be thoroughly washed with hot water and detergent on the inside and outside in a way that does not contaminate water, food or the environment. Refuse equipment and containers shall not, by their location or installation, create a nuisance or prevent cleaning of adjacent space.

13.2.4

13.2.5

13.2.6

13.3

Garbage and Refuse Disposal: 13.3.1 Refuse shall be disposed of often enough to prevent the development of odors and the attraction of insects and rodents, but not less than twice per week. Waste shall be removed to the disposal facility in a purpose- built refuse transport vehicle. All refuse shall be disposed of in a municipal or approved sanitary landfill. Open dumps and burn-pits are prohibited.

13.3.2 13.3.3

13.4

Garbage and Refuse Disposal in Remote Locations: 13.4.1 Drilling rigs oftentimes operate in remote locations where municipal sanitary landfills are unavailable. Open dumping in these areas supports the breeding of flies and rodents and they directly threaten the health of rig employees. In these unique cases, the only suitable alternative method of garbage and refuse disposal is controlled incineration. If garbage and refuse must be burned at a remote location, it shall not be burned in a pit, but shall be burned in an incinerator. The incinerator can be as simple as an oil drum with both ends removed and several lengths of "rebar" forming a grate pattern approximately one foot from the bottom of the drum. The drum, grate side down, is raised approximately 25 centimeters (10 inches) off the ground by placing it on concrete blocks, rocks, or other nonflammable supports in a way that steadies the drum, but does not close the bottom of the drum. 13.4.2.1 A small amount of refuse is placed in the incinerator on the rebar grate and is ignited. The heat from the fire will rise and draw air in from the open bottom of the drum. The temperature of the fire will increase as the rising heat draws more air in from the bottom of the drum and the cycle will repeat itself as more fuel is added. The disposal cycle simply involves controlled addition of garbage and refuse to the top of the incinerator until all waste is consumed. The ashes that fall through the grate, along with cans and bottles, shall be shoveled into a collection drum. When the collection drum is full, it shall be transported to a Saudi Aramco sanitary landfill for disposal or the contents shall be buried beneath two feet of compact soil. If burned waste is buried, the burial site shall be dry, not subject to flooding and shall not permit contamination of private or public water supplies. The area around the incinerator shall be kept clean and orderly. The incinerator is a tool, not a toy, and its safe use shall be emphasized. 185

13.4.2

13.4.2.2

13.4.2.3

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Camps and Communal Living Facilities, SASC-S-07

13.4.2.4

The area around the incinerator shall be kept clean and orderly. The incinerator is a tool, not a toy, and its safe use shall be emphasized.

14

INSECT AND RODENT CONTROL 14.1 The communal living facility shall be designed, constructed, equipped, maintained and operated to prevent the entry and harborage of insects, rodents, animals, birds and other vermin, as well as environmental contaminants, such as smoke and dust. Effective measures, such as excluding, inspecting and exterminating, shall be used to minimize the entry, presence and propagation of vermin, both inside and outside of the communal living facility. All buildings, structures and associated facilities shall be insect- and rodent-proofed, freed of vermin before occupancy and shall be maintained in an insect and rodent free condition. All sewer or drain openings shall be closed with a properly secured perforated metal cover. Perforations shall not admit a cylinder 12.7 millimeters (0.5 inches) in diameter. There shall be no openings in exterior walls, foundations, basements, and roofs that admit insects, rodents or other vermin. Openings for pipes, conduits and other utility services in foundations or exterior walls, floors or roofs shall be closed solidly by metal sheeting, concrete or other impervious material. If metal sheeting is used to seal holes around pipes, conduits and ducts, it shall extend at least 7.6 centimeters (3 inches) beyond all sides of the opening. No contractor, employee, operator or occupant shall place, leave, dump or permit to accumulate any garbage or trash in any building, or on any premises or open lot, in a manner that will afford food and harborage for insects and rodents. No contractor, employee, operator or occupant shall accumulate, or permit the accumulation of, any lumber, pipes, boxes, barrels, bricks, stones or construction material on any premise or open lot unless such material is stored on racks 30 centimeters (1 foot) above the ground. Control of harmful or annoying insects, rodents and other pests, including control of breeding sites (e.g. standing water), shall be the responsibility of the operator and/or proponent responsible for the communal living facility. The presence of lice, bedbugs, fly larvae, rodents or any other vermin, or the traces, droppings, trails, runs or other evidence of the presence of such vermin, shall be evidence of the presence of filth and unsatisfactory sanitary conditions. Environmental Health will report such evidence to the operator and/or proponent and they shall take immediate action to control the infestation. They shall report the results of their control activities to Saudi Aramco EPD within 72 hours of receipt of the notification. Whenever conditions inside, outside or under any building or structure, or on any premise or open lot, provide such extensive harborage for insects and rodents that normal control measures are likely to be ineffective, Saudi Aramco EPD shall prepare a report with corrective recommendations for action by the Saudi Aramco proponent responsible for the communal living facility. The proponent shall ensure that the deficiencies are corrected immediately. The pest control program shall encompass all areas outside and inside the communal living facility. Areas along fences, around buildings, under stored materials, in and around refuse facilities, as well as floors, walls and ceilings in buildings, shall be inspected frequently to detect the presence of insects, rodents and other vermin. Preventive control measures are preferable to eradication campaigns.

14.2

14.3

14.4

14.5

14.6

14.7

14.8

14.9

14.10

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14.10.1

Insects, rodents and other vermin shall be controlled by elimination of breeding and harborage sources, proper sanitary practices, vermin proofing of buildings and structures, proper storage of materials, extermination, and by other approved control methods.

14.10.2 Pesticides shall be dispensed and handled by authorized, properly trained personnel. Restricted-use pesticides shall be applied by a qualified pest control operator. 14.10.3 Pesticides shall not be applied in areas where food handling, warewashing or other such operations are in progress or in a way that contaminates food equipment, utensils or other food contact surfaces. Fly electrocution devices, if used, shall be designed to have "escape-resistant" trays. They shall be installed so that dead insects are prevented from falling on food and food contact surfaces. Trays shall be emptied into an outside refuse container at least once each day. Bait stations shall be tamper-proof or covered or, if open, maintained so that the rodenticide is kept within the station. If used inside a kitchen, bait stations shall be used in non- food handling areas only and are restricted to rodenticides falling within the anticoagulant group. Exclusion is the preferred method of rodent control inside a kitchen. If this fails and rodents must be exterminated, trapping is recommended. Tracking powders shall not be used inside a kitchen.

14.10.4

14.10.5

14.10.6

15

SWIMMING POOLS Swimming pools and natural swimming areas shall be operated, maintained and used in compliance with requirements equivalent to those specified in Section SASC-S-13 of this Code.

16

BARBER SHOPS Barber shops shall be operated and maintained in compliance with requirements equivalent to those specified in Section SASC-S-14 of this Code.

17 KITCHENS AND FOOD FACILITIES 17.1 In Communal Living Facilities where meals are catered, all meals shall be prepared in a kitchen which meets the design, construction and materials of structures and equipment, as well as the general operating methods and procedures used to store, handle and protect food, equipment and utensils, as specified in Section SASC-S-04 of this code. Where self-catering kitchens are provided and used, the design, construction and installation of equipment shall also comply with requirements equivalent to those specified in Section SASC-S-04 of this Code 17.2.1 Self catering kitchens shall be provided with a minimum of the following: Refrigerator space 1/2 cubic foot per occupant. Freezer space 1/2 cubic foot per occupant. Dry food storage space-3 cubic feet per occupant. Cooking facilities 1 Burner per 6 occupants. (Extractor canopy necessary where multiple burners provided) Warewashing facilities 1 Large double sink with draining boards per 25 occupants or part thereof. Food preparation sinks 1 Large preparation sink 187

17.2

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Camps and Communal Living Facilities, SASC-S-07

per 25 occupants or part thereof. Hand washing facilities 1 Wash basin with hot and cold water, hand cleanser, single use towels and dispensers. Dining facilities Sufficient tables and chairs to accommodate 50% of the residents.

18

VESSEL CREW ACCOMMODATIONS Refer to Code Section SASC-0S-09 Marine Vessels

19

MOBILE HOMES 19.1 Defined as transportable dwelling units suitable for occupancy and containing the same water supply and waste as immobile housing and shall comply with requirements specified in this Section. A Land Use Permit shall be obtained before using Saudi Aramco land. General layout 19.2.1 The mobile home or recreational vehicle park shall be located on a well-drained site and shall be so situated and maintained as not to create a public health hazard or nuisance. 19.2.2 Each mobile home or recreational vehicle space shall be numbered or designated by suitable means. 19.2.3 Access roads shall be provided to each mobile home or recreational vehicle space. Access roads shall be surfaced with crushed rocks, aggregate road base, blacktop, concrete or other suitable material. 19.3 Service buildings 19.3.1 Service buildings shall be adequately equipped with flush-type toilet fixtures, lavatories and showers with hot and cold water provided. 19.3.2 Service buildings shall be located not more than 200 feet from any camping vehicle and greater than 20 feet from any mobile home, recreational vehicle or camping vehicle. 19.3.3 Each mobile home/recreational vehicle park serving camping vehicles shall have at least one service building. Service buildings shall have a minimum of one toilet, shower and lavatory for each sex for each ten camping vehicle sites up to the first 30 sites. One additional toilet, shower and lavatory shall be provided for every additional ten camping spaces. 19.3.4 If laundry facilities are provided, the room containing them shall be separate from the toilet rooms and shall have an exterior entrance, be air conditioned and have an electrical mechanical exhaust fan or a window that opens and have hot and cold water. 19.3.5 Service buildings shall be provided with toilet paper and lavatory facilities shall be provided with soak and paper towels. 19.3.6 The interior finish of service building walls shall be moisture-resistant to a minimum height of four (4) feet to facilitate washing and cleaning. The interior finish of walls and ceilings in shower areas shall be moisture resistant. 19.3.7 The floors shall be constructed of material impervious to water and be easily cleanable. Any toilet building having flush-type toilets shall be provided with a floor drain in the toilet room. 188

19.2

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Camps and Communal Living Facilities, SASC-S-07

19.4

Water supply 19.4.1 An accessible, adequate, safe and potable supply of water shall be provided in each mobile home or recreational vehicle park. For all new construction where a public supply of water of satisfactory quantity, quality and pressure is available, connection shall be made thereto and its supply used exclusively and shall comply with requirement outlined in Section SASC-S-01 of this code. When a satisfactory public water supply is not available, a private water supply system shall be developed and used as approved by Manager, EPD. 19.4.2 Individual water connections having a consisting of a water riser pipe designed pipe and located at least three feet from home/recreational vehicle space. Water antisiphon backflow prevention device. minimum of three-quarters inch diameter and to prevent contamination from entering the water any sewer pipe shall be provided at each mobile connections shall be equipped with an approved

19.4.3 Each water connection shall be equipped with a shut off valve not subject to flooding. 19.4.4 An approved source of water must be available within 100 feet of any camping vehicle space. 19.4.5 Each mobile home/recreational vehicle park water distributing system shall be so designed and maintained as to provide a pressure of not less than 20 pounds per square inch with a minimum flow of one gallon per minute at each mobile home or recreational vehicle space. 19.4.6 The water supply system shall be designed and constructed to provide a minimum of 100 gallons per day per space. 19.5 Sewage disposal 19.5.1 All sewage and waste water from mobile homes/recreational vehicles, service buildings and all other buildings shall be drained to a sewage collection system and discharged to a public sewage treatment plant. When a public sewerage system is not available, the method for the sanitary disposal of liquid waste shall be submitted to the Manager, EPD for approval. 19.5.2 All sewer lines shall be located in trenches of sufficient depth to be free of breakage from traffic or other vehicle movements and shall be separated from the park water supply system at a safe distance as determined by SASC-S-02. 19.5.3 The sewer lines shall be constructed of materials complying with Saudi Aramco Engineering standards 19.5.4 The sewer riser pipe shall be a minimum of 4-inch diameter and extend above ground elevation and be capped with a threaded cap when not in use. 19.5.5 The sewer connection shall have a minimum diameter of at least three inches and the slope of any portion thereof shall be at least one-fourth inch per foot toward the sewer riser pipe. All joints shall be watertight. All materials used for sewer connection between mobile home/RV and the sewer riser pipe for any mobile home/RV remaining in space of sixty (60) days or more shall be semi-rigid, corrosion resistant, non-absorbent, durable and have a smooth inner surface. Flex hose is for temporary sewage disposal only to empty sewage from a holding tank to an approved sewage disposal system. 19.5.6 The sewer riser pipe shall be protected from movement by being encased in a concrete slab not less than three and one-half (3 ) inches in thickness and surrounding the inlet not less than six (6) inches on any side, or by equivalent protection as determined by Manager, EPD. 189

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19.5.7 Cleanouts shall be provided at the upper terminal of each sewer main or branch. Cleanouts shall be installed at intervals not exceeding 100 feet along any straight run or portion thereof for a collection system connected to a public sewerage system and not exceeding 50 feet along any straight run or portion thereof for a collection system connected to a private sewerage system.

19.6

Solid waste 19.6.1 The storage, collection and disposal of refuse in the mobile home/recreational vehicle park shall be so conducted as to create no health hazards, rodent harborage, insect breeding areas, accident, fire hazard or air pollution. 19.6.2 Where individual refuse collection is not available, refuse shall be stored in fly tight, waterproof, rodent proof containers. All mobile home/recreational vehicle or camping vehicle spaces shall be located not more than 150 feet from a refuse container. Containers shall be maintained on raised wash down pads.

19.7

Animal control 19.7.1 Reasonable measures shall be taken to control rodent and insect infestations. 19.7.2 Potential rodent and insect habitat shall be eliminated from the park. 19.7.3 Dogs and other pets are not permitted to commit any nuisance within the mobile home/recreational vehicle park.

REFERENCES: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Saudi Aramco Sanitary Code, 1996. Saudi Aramco Engineering Standards. SA Inspection, Testing and Maintenance of Fire Protection Equipment (GI # 1781.00). Saudi Arabian Standards Organization (SASO) Standards 313 and 315. Health Regulations Governing Mobile Home and Recreational Vehicle Parks- NEVADA USA, 1995.

190

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Housing, SASC-S-08

SASC-S-08 HOUSING
This Section describes the public health requirements and specifications for housing. An individual's place of residence is all encompassing, affecting every aspect of his life, health and well being. This Section specifies the public health requirements necessary for the maintenance of hygienic, safe Saudi Aramco provided housing. NOTE: All sub-sections should be read in conjunction with referenced documents listed at the end of this Code Section. DEFINITIONS: Bedding, Animal: Material, usually organic, which is placed on the floor surface of livestock buildings for animal comfort to absorb urine and other liquids and thus promote cleanliness. Camp, Aramco: Any of the residential compounds established by Saudi Aramco to house individuals and/or families. Cesspool: A lined, or partially lined, covered underground pit into which household wastewater is discharged. Solids are collected in the pit and liquids seep through the bottom and sides into the surrounding soil. Sometimes called leaching cesspool. Chemical Closet: A toilet facility where the waste is not discharged to the sewer, but is collected in a container charged with a chemical solution for the purpose of disinfecting and deodorizing the waste until it is removed. Combined Sewage: Combination of sanitary sewage and storm water. Combined Sewer: A sewer intended to receive both wastewater and storm or surface water. Common Sewer: A sewer in which all owners of abutting properties have equal rights. Domestic Wastewater: Wastewater derived principally from dwellings, business buildings, institutions, and the like. It may or may not contain groundwater, surface water, or storm water. Habitable Room: A room occupied by one or more persons for living eating, sleeping or working purposes. It does not include bathrooms, toilet facilities, laundries, storage areas, corridors and other such spaces. House Connection: building sewer or house sewer in plumbing, the extension from the building drain to the public sewer or other place of disposal. Housekeeping Cart: Cart with one or more semi- or fully-enclosed compartments for clean linen, a compartmented tray at the top for supplies, a cloth hamper for soiled linen and a waste receptacle. Housing: A structure containing one or more housing units in which an individual or family is, or individuals and/or families are, sheltered from the elements on a temporary or permanent basis. Private Residential Swimming Pool: Any swimming pool under the control of a Saudi Aramco community resident, the use of which is limited to the family members and invited guests of the resident. (The design, construction and operation of such pools are not subject to the provisions of these requirements).

HOUSING INSPECTIONS 1.1 The Saudi Aramco proponent organization and/or operator of housing facilities shall ensure that housing facilities comply with the terms of this Code Section and that they are kept free of nuisances and safety hazards (see Section SASC-S-18 of this Code). They shall inspect all housing for which 191

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Housing, SASC-S-08

they are responsible as often as is necessary to ensure compliance with the Code. All violations of the Code, nuisance conditions identified, as well as actions taken to correct problems noted, shall be documented. Inspection records shall be maintained in a permanent file and the file shall be made available to Saudi Aramco Environmental Protection Department (EPD) upon request. 1.2 Saudi Aramco EPD will inspect public areas within multi-unit housing structures, dormitories, guesthouses, hotels and associated services facilities routinely. Saudi Aramco EPD will also inspect efficiency dwelling units, apartments, townhouses, single-family residences and other residential units on request. A written report will be provided to the proponent organization. Whenever a nuisance or violation of this Code is observed by any agency, resident or individual other than the Saudi Aramco proponent/operator, it shall be reported to Saudi Aramco EPD. Saudi Aramco EPD will ensure that the Saudi Aramco proponent and/or operator of the housing are aware of the problem and shall provide assistance as required. Every effort shall be made to prevent problems rather than solve them after they have developed. For example, insects, rodents, vermin and other such nuisances shall be controlled by elimination of breeding and harborage sources, proper sanitary practices, vermin proofing of structures, proper storage of materials, and by other approved control methods.

1.3

1.4

LOCATION The site on which housing is located shall be well drained and shall not be located in an area subject to periodic flooding. Housing shall not be located adjacent to marshes, railroads, stockyards, industrial sites, pipelines or other such areas, which constitute a health or safety hazard.

GENERAL CONSIDERATIONS 3.1 Every housing unit, including all furnishings, equipment and fixtures provided by Saudi Aramco, regardless of housing classification, shall be in good repair, in a clean and sanitary condition and free of insects, rodents and other vermin before it is assigned. All temporary housing will be properly inspected, repaired, cleaned and freed of pests between each occupancy. Public areas of multi-unit housing shall be cleaned at least once daily and shall also be maintained in good repair, in a sanitary condition and free from insect, rodent and vermin harborages. Note that all public porches, walkways, garages, sheds, outbuildings, as well as all outside premises, yards, gardens and other areas that are accessible to the public, are subject to these requirements. Guest houses, halls, hotels, inns and other temporary housing facilities shall provide each occupant with a clean bed, mattress, mattress pad and blanket, all of which were inspected and were found to be free of vermin, urine and fecal matter before they were issued. Clean sheets, pillowcases and towels shall be supplied twice weekly and each time the bed or room is reassigned. All badly worn or torn bedding, furniture, chairs, upholstered pieces, carpeting, drapes or other furnishings provided by Saudi Aramco which are not readily cleanable shall be repaired or replaced. In general, each adult occupant of a temporary or permanent housing unit, regardless of housing classification, shall be provided with a storage closet or cabinet for his/her personal items. The floor space occupied by the storage closet or cabinet represents a separate space requirement and shall not be calculated as being part of the required floor space allocation. A systematic procedure shall be established for collection and disposal of solid wastes associated with multi-unit housing.

3.2

3.3

3.4

3.5

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3.6

Food shall not be cooked in any habitable room unless such room was specifically designed for this purpose and the use of such room for cooking is approved by Saudi Aramco EPD. An efficiency living unit is an example of a habitable room in which cooking is permitted. All kitchens referred to in this Code Section shall comply with the minimum requirements specified in Section SASC-S-04 of this Code. Interpretation of Section SASC-S-04 of this Code will be rigidly adhered to in the case of dormitories where large numbers of individuals prepare their food collectively. Interpretation of Section SASC-S-04 of this Code in regards to efficiency living units, apartments, townhouses and single-family residences is limited to basic design criteria and sanitary considerations between occupancies. Noise levels in habitable rooms shall conform to the standards outlined in SAES-A-105, Saudi Aramco Engineering Standards. All public entrances, exits, corridors and stairways shall be properly illuminated. Fire exits shall be provided with illuminated exit signs equipped with emergency power sources. Public entrances, exits, corridors, stairways, fire exits and fire escapes shall be kept free of obstructions. All housing designed to include occupancy of children shall be provided with sufficient yard space and/or outdoor play areas for children residing therein. Live animals, including those intended for slaughter, shall be excluded from the premises. Animals shall not be slaughtered in place other than a Saudi Arab Government approved slaughterhouse.

3.7

3.8

3.9

3.10

3.11

MINIMUM FLOOR SPACE REQUIREMENTS 4.1 Dormitory sleeping rooms shall be allocated floor space at a rate of not less than 4.6 square meters (50 square feet) per occupant, preferably 6.5 square meters (70 square feet) per occupant. Sleeping rooms in guesthouses, halls, hotels, and inns shall be allocated 12 square meters (130 square feet) of floor space per occupant. The minimum floor area allocated for an efficiency living unit shall be not less than 20.4 square meters (220 square feet). An additional 9.3 square meters (100 square feet) of floor area shall be provided for each occupant of such a unit in excess of two occupants per unit. Apartments shall be allocated 18.6 square meters (200 square feet) of floor space per occupant. Every townhouse/single family residence shall have at least one room which shall have not less than 14 square meters (150 square feet) of floor area. Other habitable rooms shall have an area of not less than 6.5 square meters (70 square feet).

4.2

4.3

4.4 4.5

GENERAL CONSTRUCTION REQUIREMENTS 5.1 Floors: 5.1.1 The floors of housing units, including public corridors, shall be constructed of durable, smooth and easily cleanable materials. Carpeting, if used, shall be designed for heavy use, shall be of closely woven construction, shall be properly installed, shall be easily cleanable and shall be maintained in good repair and in a clean condition at all times. The floors of kitchens, laundry rooms, shower/bath rooms, toilet rooms, utility rooms and handwashing facilities shall have smooth, hard, easily cleanable surfaces that are impervious to water, detergents and disinfectants. Junctions between the floors and the walls shall be coved and sealed. 193

5.1.2

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5.1.3

Utility service lines and pipes shall not be unnecessarily exposed on floors. If exposed, they shall be installed in a way that does not obstruct cleaning. Floor mats and duckboards are prohibited in wet areas, e.g. kitchens, laundry rooms, shower rooms, toilet rooms, utility rooms and handwashing facilities.

5.1.4

5.2

Walls and Ceilings: 5.2.1 Walls and ceilings shall be constructed of durable materials and shall have light colored, smooth, easily cleanable surfaces. In addition, the walls in toilet and shower rooms shall be impervious to water, detergents and disinfectants to a minimum height of 1.2 meters (4 feet) in toilet rooms and 1.8 meters (6 feet) in shower rooms. The junctions between the floors and walls in kitchens, laundry rooms, shower rooms, toilet rooms, utility rooms and handwashing facilities shall be coved and sealed (see sub-section 5.1.2 of this Code Section). The use of rough or unsealed and unfinished building materials, such as brick, concrete blocks and wooden beams, is prohibited in habitable rooms, toilet rooms and shower rooms. Studs, joists and rafters shall not be exposed in habitable rooms, toilet rooms and shower rooms. Covering materials, such as Formica, sheet metal, linoleum and vinyl, shall be attached and sealed to wall and ceiling surfaces in a way that leaves no open spaces or cracks. Acoustical paneling may be utilized providing it is installed not less than 1.8 meters (6 feet) above the floor. Any perforations shall not penetrate the entire depth of the panel, shall not be greater than 3 millimeters (0.13 inches) in any dimension, and shall not comprise more than 25 percent of the exposed panel surface. The paneling shall otherwise meet the requirements of this Section. Wall or ceiling mounted light fixtures, vent covers, decorative materials, fans, equipment and appurtenances shall be designed to facilitate cleaning, shall be made of easily cleanable materials, shall be installed in a way that does not obstruct or prevent cleaning and shall be maintained in good repair. Utility service lines and pipes shall not be unnecessarily exposed on walls and ceilings. If exposed, they shall be installed in a way that does not obstruct or prevent cleaning. The ceilings in all habitable rooms shall be at least 2.3 meters (7.5 feet) high as measured to the lowest projection from the ceiling. The ceilings in hallways, corridors, bathrooms and water closet rooms shall be at least 2.1 meters (7 feet) high as measured to the lowest projection from the ceiling. The walls or partitions between toilet/shower compartments may be less than the height of the room walls, but the tops shall not be less than 1.8 meters (6 feet) from the floor. If partitions are used, the bottoms of the partitions shall be raised at least 20 centimeters (8 inches) above the floor. In situations where a raised partition is not desirable, such as partitions separating eastern style toilet fixtures where a raised partition may not afford suitable privacy, partitions shall be placed on a continuous raised masonry or concrete base at least 15 centimeters (6 inches) high, or a properly designed and constructed wall that joins the floor shall be provided.

5.2.2

5.2.3

5.2.4

5.2.5

5.2.6

5.2.7

5.2.8

5.2.9

5.2.10

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5.3

Doors, windows and screening: 5.3.1 All openings to the outside shall be provided with solid doors or glazed windows that shall be kept tightly closed when not in use (excludes passageways between rooms within an enclosed building). If outside openings are appropriately protected from the entry by insects and rodents according to the requirements outlined in sub-section 5.3.4 of this Code Section, solid doors and glazed windows may be considered to be "in use" if they are left open to ventilate the structure. All outer doors and screen doors shall be tight-fitting and self-closing. All doors and screen doors, including sliding or folding types, shall be constructed so that the space between the lower edge of the door and the threshold does not exceed 6.4 millimeters (0.25 inches). The space between sections of folding and sliding doors, when closed, shall not exceed 6.4 millimeters (0.25 inches). All exposed edges of the lower 20.3 centimeters (8 inches) of doors and jambs that are made of materials through which rodents could gnaw, especially outer doors and doors known to be accessible to rodents, shall be protected by covering such edges of doors and jambs with metal sheeting that cannot be gnawed through. All outer doors serving exterior entrances to public corridors, kitchens, dining rooms, laundry rooms, shower/bath rooms, toilet rooms, utility rooms and handwashing facilities shall be fitted with self-closing screen doors that open outwards. Saudi Aramco EPD may accept other effective fly control devices, e.g. air curtains in lieu of screen doors. If applicable, the bottoms of screen doors shall be covered with metal sheeting in accordance with sub-section 5.3.2 of this Code Section. All openable windows which are not solidly closed and are accessible to insects and rodents shall be appropriately screened by grilles, hardware cloth or other material capable of precluding the entry by insects and rodents. The effective mesh size of screening material shall not be less than 6 mesh per centimeter (16 mesh per inch). Doors, windows and appurtenances thereto, shall be designed and constructed to avoid accumulation of dirt and shall be finished such that they are smooth, nonabsorbent and easily cleanable. Doors, windows, as well as appurtenances thereto, shall be kept clean and maintained in good repair.

5.3.2

5.3.3

5.3.4

5.3.5

VENTILATION AND AIR CONDITIONING 6.1 The temperature in all habitable and other rooms in which personnel live and work shall be maintained at a level conducive to the healthful performance of the activity conducted in the area. All habitable rooms and public corridors shall be sufficiently ventilated by means of natural or mechanical ventilation. The requirement is deemed satisfied when it can be demonstrated that the ventilation system exchanges at least two volumes of air per hour in all habitable rooms and public corridors. If mechanical ventilation is used, at least one fifth of the air supply shall be taken from the outside. All kitchens, laundry rooms, shower/bath rooms, toilet rooms, utility rooms and handwashing facilities shall be well ventilated and free of excessive condensation. They shall be suitably cooled or heated. They shall be provided with mechanical ventilation systems capable of providing the equivalent of five air changes per hour. At least 20 percent of the air supply shall be taken from the outside. If this is not feasible, mechanical exhaust fans may be used in lieu of the required mechanical ventilation system. Exhaust fans shall be capable of exhausting 1 cubic meter (35 cubic feet) of air per minute for each toilet, urinal, shower, and hand washbasin or laundry sink/washing machine installed.

6.2

6.3

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6.4

All ventilation and other non-window openings that cannot be solidly sealed and that remain accessible to insects and rodents shall be appropriately screened by grilles, hardware cloth or other material capable of precluding the entry by insects, rodents and other vermin. Note that the swing-type louvered flaps that automatically close when an exhaust or ventilation fan is switched off are deemed to be acceptable screening if they are kept clean and in good repair. All private kitchens shall be provided with an approved mechanical ventilation system fitted inside a hood placed over the stove, the design and specifications of which shall be compatible with the stove used. Screening over exhaust opening shall be easily removable for cleaning.

6.5

ILLUMINATION 7.1 For the purpose of determining illumination requirements, a room may be considered as a portion of an adjoining room when one-half of the area of the common wall joining them is open and provides an opening of not less than one-tenth of the floor area of the interior room or 2.3 square meters (24.7 square feet), whichever is greater. All habitable rooms shall be provided with natural illumination by means of windows or skylights, the area of which shall be not less than one- tenth of the floor area of such rooms and be a minimum of 1 square meter (10 square feet). If an engineering analysis of environmental factors indicates that the required window area will adversely impact the air conditioning system during the high temperatures experienced during the summer months in Saudi Arabia, then the window area may be reduced to achieve an efficient balance between the natural illumination requirement and air conditioning requirement. The following levels of illumination, whether from natural or artificial sources, shall be provided in dormitories, hotels, guesthouses, as well as in public areas/facilities. Note that the residents of efficiency units, apartments, townhouses and single family housing units are normally expected to provide their own light fixtures in living and sleeping rooms, but Saudi Aramco shall adequately illuminate kitchens, laundry rooms, toilet rooms and bath/shower rooms according to requirements listed in Table 1. Illumination shall be evenly distributed and of sufficient intensity to avoid discoloration, shadows and strong glare. Also refer to illumination requirements outlined in SAES-P-123, Saudi Aramco Engineering Standards.

7.2

7.3

TABLE 1 Illumination Area to be Illuminated Dining room Desk in dormitory living room Dormitory living room - general Eye level above hand washbasin Food service area Hallway Kitchen Shower/toilet block Sleeping room Stairway All other indoor areas
*

Illumination Levels Required* Lux Footcandles 320 30 320 30 160 15 540 50 540 50 110 10 540 50 215 20 160 15 110 10 110 10

Measured at a distance of 76 centimeters (30 inches) above the floor

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POTABLE WATER SYSTEMS 8.1 Water shall be obtained, conveyed, treated, stored and distributed in a closed system. Design, construction, maintenance and operational standards, as well as quality criteria, shall comply with requirements outlined in Section SASC-S-01 of this Code and standards referenced in Saudi Aramco Engineering Standards. Enough potable water for the needs of the occupants shall be obtained from the community water supply. If a community water supply is not available, then water shall be obtained from an adequate, easily accessible source that has been properly located and protected to ensure that water obtained is of a safe and sanitary quality. The source shall be constructed in a way that prevents underground or surface contamination from reaching the source. Facilities shall be operated and maintained by competent individuals. No part of the system shall be used for any other purpose. Water wells (or other water source) and collection, conveyance, treatment, storage and distribution systems, or parts thereof, which are newly constructed, have been repaired or have otherwise become contaminated, shall be thoroughly disinfected according to requirements outlined in Section SASC-S01 of this Code before being used. The supply shall be purged of all but normal residual amounts of disinfectant (less than 3 milligrams per liter [3 parts per million] if chlorine is used to disinfect the system) before a sample for bacteriological testing is collected. All water not provided directly by pipe to the housing complex from the source shall be transported in a bulk water transport system that is used for no other purpose. At the time water is obtained from the approved source, enough chlorine shall be added to the water in the bulk water transport system to yield 0.5 to 1.5 milligrams per liter (0.5 to 1.5 parts per million) free chlorine residual. Hauled water shall be delivered directly to the closed water system at the housing complex. The bulk water transport system shall comply with requirements outlined in Section SASC-S-01 of this Code. Water storage tanks shall be enclosed from the filling inlet to the discharge outlet. Tanks shall be designed with openings that permit visual inspection of the tank and provide access for cleaning and disinfection. All openings shall be covered. Covers shall overlap openings, be sloped so they are selfdraining and shall be provided with gaskets and devices for securing them in place. All openings in the top of the tank shall be flanged upward to form a curb that prevents surface water from entering openings. Vents and overflows shall terminate in a downward direction and shall be screened to prevent entry by birds and other animals. All water storage tanks shall be provided with a sample tap. Plumbing with emphasis on cross connection control: 8.6.1 Plumbing shall be designed, sized and installed according to standards outlined in Saudi Aramco Engineering Standards. Plumbing and plumbing fixtures shall be operated and maintained in a way that prevents contamination. Plumbing and plumbing fixtures shall be kept clean and in good repair. The potable water system shall be designed and constructed to prevent the possibility of backflow. Devices to protect against backflow and backsiphonage shall be installed on all water outlets and equipment where an air gap of at least twice the inner diameter of the water outlet and in any event the air gap shall not less than 25mm between the water outlet and the flood-level rim of the receiving drain or receiving basin of the drain fixture, and wherever else backflow or backsiphonage may occur. A hose shall not be attached to a faucet unless a backflow prevention device is installed. There shall be no cross connection between the potable water supply and any unsafe or questionable water supply, sewerage system or any source of pollution that might contaminate or otherwise degrade the potable water. 197

8.2

8.3

8.4

8.5

8.6

8.6.2

8.6.3

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8.6.4

There shall be no direct physical connection between the sewerage system and any drain originating from equipment that contains food or food equipment and utensils. 8.6.4.1 Drainage from refrigeration units and other equipment shall be discharged to a floor sink, funnel drain or evaporator basin. An air gap of at least twice the inner diameter of the discharge outlet shall be provided between the discharge outlet and the flood level rim of the receiving drain/basin. Dishwashing machines may be connected directly to the sewer immediately downstream from a floor drain or they may be drained through an approved indirect connection. Indirect waste receptors shall be located to be readily accessible for inspection and cleaning.

8.6.4.2

8.6.4.3

8.6.5

A non-potable water system is permitted only for purposes such as air conditioning and fire protection. It shall not be directly or indirectly connected with the potable water system. Water from the system shall not be used for any domestic purpose. The piping of the nonpotable water system shall be durably identified so that it is readily distinguishable from piping that carries potable water.

8.7

All potable water supplied to housing shall be disinfected by chlorination or other means or methods of equal efficiency in the killing or removal of organisms capable of causing infection. When chlorination is employed, a sufficient amount of chlorine shall be added to the water to maintain a chlorine residual of at least 0.5 milligrams per liter (0.5 parts per million) at all points in the distribution system from which water may be withdrawn. Hot and cold potable water shall be provided to all hand washbasins, showers, warewashing facilities and laundry facilities. The hot water heating system shall be capable of producing a constant flow of hot water at a temperature of at least 49C (120F). Specific requirements pertinent to the hot and/or tempered water discharged from each class of fixture are outlined in appropriate Standards. If hoses are used for conveying potable water, they shall be constructed of safe materials, shall have a smooth interior surface, shall be used for no other purpose and shall be clearly identified as to its use. Caps and keeper chains shall be provided for water system inlet and outlet fittings, as well as hose fittings. All such fittings shall be capped when not in immediate use. Hoses shall be stored and used so as to be kept free of contamination. A hose shall not be attached to a faucet unless a backflow prevention device is installed. Drinking water fountains and associated requirements. 8.10.1 Drinking fountains, if provided, shall be approved angle-jet type and shall be provided with an adequate supply of water under pressure, and shall be designed and constructed in a way to prevent electric shock. Spillage, overflow, drainage or wastewater from drinking fountains and faucets shall be discharged to the sewerage system through approved drains to prevent impoundment of water, creation of mud holes or other nuisance conditions. Open containers from which water must be dipped or poured, such as barrels, pails or tanks, whether or not they are fitted with a cover, are prohibited.

8.8

8.9

8.10

8.10.2

8.10.3

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8.10.4

Where single service paper cups are provided, cups shall be dispensed from a sanitary device designed for this purpose and a waste receptacle shall be provided for disposal of used cups. The common drinking cup is prohibited.

8.10.5 8.11

Compressed air used to pressurize the potable water system shall be filtered or otherwise treated to render it free of dust, insects and extraneous material. Air intakes shall be properly located and maintained. Filters shall be located upstream from the compressor and shall be easily removable for cleaning and replacement. The blower or compressor supplying air shall be designed so that it will deliver oil- free air. Oil-free air shall be produced by a method equivalent to one of the following: a) use of carbon ring piston compressor; b) use of an oil-lubricated compressor with effective provision for removal of oil vapor; or c) high-pressure, water-lubricated or non-lubricated blowers. If a water treatment plant is provided: 8.12.1 It is suggested that the following piping system be adopted. Non-toxic paints shall be used (the use of paints containing lead shall be avoided. TABLE 2 Piping System Color-Code Piping System Chilled Water Chlorine, Gas and Liquid Condensate Water Distilled and Demineralized Water Raw Water Sea, Salt or Brine Water Treated (any process) Base Color Blue Yellow Blue Blue Blue Blue Blue Identifying Color Stripe 1-Gray 1-Oxide Red 1-White 1-Aluminum 1-Black 1-Yellow 1-Oxide Red

8.12

Note: HVAC lines and electrical conduits are not color-coded but are painted the same color as the background construction.

8.12.2

Equipment, devices, filters, and all other water treatment or conditioning apparatus, shall be made of safe materials, shall be designed to be disassembled for periodic replacement of active elements/media, cleaning and service, shall be operated, inspected and serviced according to the manufacturer's instructions and specifications, and shall not be operated beyond their rated capacity. All such equipment shall be maintained in a clean and sanitary condition and, if necessary, shall be sanitized by application of a chlorine solution or by other approved means. Records of equipment operation and maintenance, quantities of product water produced, types and amounts of chemicals added to treated water, pH and chlorine residual maintained shall be kept in a log book. The logbook shall be available for review by authorized Saudi Aramco representatives at all times. The bacteriological and chemical quality of the water after treatment shall be as good as, or better than, it was before treatment.

8.12.3

8.12.4

SEWAGE 9.1 Sewage shall be collected, treated and disposed of in accordance with requirements outlined in Section SASC-S-02 of this Code and those outlined in Saudi Aramco Engineering Standards. Where a public sewer system is available, all plumbing fixtures, building sewers and vents shall be connected to it. In no case shall sewage or liquid waste of any type be discharged or otherwise disposed of on the surface of the ground, or into any well, cave, open ditch or reservoir until it has been properly treated 199

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and the disposal method has been approved by Saudi Aramco EPD. Pit latrines, outhouses and other non-water-carried sewage disposal methods are prohibited. 9.2 Floor drains and sewer pipes shall be large enough to carry off all wastewater and sanitary sewage. Sufficient clean-out places shall be provided in sewer drainpipes. Grease traps, if used, shall be located so they are easily accessible for cleaning. All sewer pipes or drains through which rodents may pass shall be closed with a properly secured, perforated metal or iron cover. Perforations shall not admit a cylinder 13 millimeters (0.5 inches) in diameter. Defective sewer pipes, traps, drains and vents shall be repaired or replaced promptly and professionally. Crude repairs with wood, tape or metal strips are unsatisfactory.

9.3 9.4

9.5

10

TOILETS, SHOWERS AND HANDWASHING FACILITIES (GENERAL) 10.1 Properly designed and constructed toilet, shower and hand washbasin facilities shall be provided within each housing unit. All facilities shall be easily cleanable. With regards to dormitories, guest houses and other communal housing facilities, toilet, shower and hand washbasin fixtures may be provided in common rooms shared by all residents. All common facilities shall be cleaned at least once daily, shall be kept free of objectionable odors and shall be maintained in good repair. All fixtures, walls and floor subject to splash, shall be cleaned with an approved detergent, rinsed and then sanitized with 03 to 06 percent hypochlorite solution (3000 to 6000ppm) or equivalent disinfectant approved by Manager EPD Toilet and shower rooms shall be conveniently located at distance of not more than 61 meters (200 feet) from the farthest habitable room or on the same floor level and shall be accessible at all times The location shall be plainly marked by signs in Arabic or English. Toilets, showers and hand washbasins shall be separately installed to be individually accessible and to permit simultaneous use. Laundry rooms, shower/bath rooms, toilet rooms, utility rooms and handwashing facilities shall be separated from food preparation and sleeping rooms by a self-closing, tight-fitting door. The storage of food, equipment, utensils or personal articles in such areas is prohibited. Hand washbasins and other sinks, faucets and hydrants not specifically designed and approved for such use, shall not be used for cleaning or preparing food or for washing dishes, utensils or clothing. All facilities shall be well ventilated (see sub-section 6 of this Code Section). Legible signs made of durable materials directing all users to wash their hands after using the toilet/urinal shall be conspicuously posted in every toilet room (in Arabic, English and other appropriate languages). The following number of showers/baths, toilets/urinals and hand washbasins shall be provided for occupants living in dormitories, hotels, guesthouses and other communal housing facilities.

10.2

10.3

10.4

10.5

10.6 10.7

10.8

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TABLE 3 Numbers and Types of Fixtures Required Number of persons housed in Number of Number of toilets the communal living facility showers/baths and urinals* From 1 to 6 1 1 From 7 to 10 2 2 From 11 to 20 4 4 From 21 to 40 6 6 From 41 to 60 8 8 From 61 to 80 10 10 From 81 to 100 12 12 More than 100 one per 10 one per 10 additional persons additional persons
*

Number of hand washbasins 1 2 4 6 8 10 12 one per 10 additional persons

Where 10 or more men are employed, urinals should be provided. Urinals may be substituted for water closets on a one to one basis, except that the number of water closets shall not be reduced to less than two-thirds of the number specified in Table 3

10.9

The minimum size of, and floor space allotted for, toilets, hand washbasins, urinals and showers shall be as follows: TABLE 4 Minimum Space Required for Each Type of Installation Installation Hand washbasin Shower cubical Shower stall Toilet compartment Urinal Minimum Width 60 cm 75 cm 75 cm 80 cm 60 cm Minimum Depth 105 cm 75 cm 75 cm 105 cm 105 cm Minimum Space Per Unit 1.1 m 2 1.3 m 2 1.3 m 2 1.5 m 2 1.1 m
2

10.10 11

Open-bay, military barracks-type shower arrangements are permitted, but are not recommended.

TOILET ROOMS 11.1 Toilet rooms shall be completely enclosed. Individually enclosed toilet compartments are required in toilet rooms provided for communal housing facilities. The entrance to a toilet room shall be provided with a door(s) according to requirements outlined in sub-section 5.3 of this Code Section. Urinals shall be provided according to requirements outlined in Table 3 of this Code Section. Note that 60 centimeters (24 inches) of trough urinal space is considered to be equivalent to one urinal. Toilet bowls shall be set entirely free and open from all enclosing structures and shall be so installed that the space around the fixture can be easily cleaned. This does not prohibit the use of wallhung toilets. Every western-type toilet shall have a hinged, open-front seat made of substantial material having a smooth, nonabsorbent, easily cleanable finish. A holder supplied with toilet tissue shall be provided in each toilet compartment. Every eastern-type toilet shall be made of substantial material having a smooth, nonabsorbent, easily cleanable finish. Each toilet shall be provided with a water tap for washing (and a supply of toilet paper with holder, where indicated). Water taps provided for eastern-type toilets shall be fitted with 201

11.2

11.3

11.4

11.5

11.6

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appropriate backflow prevention devices designed to protect the water distribution system from contamination (see sub-section 8.6.2 of this Code Section). 11.7 12 Covered waste receptacles shall be provided in all toilet compartments used by women.

HANDWASHING FACILITIES 12.1 Adequate handwashing facilities shall be conveniently located adjacent to toilet facilities. Note that 60 centimeters (24 inches) of a trough hand washbasin space is considered to be equivalent to one hand washbasin. Also note that laundry tubs and service sinks are not acceptable substitutes for hand washbasins. Tempered running water shall be provided to each hand washbasin. Water shall be tempered by means of a mixing valve or combination faucet. Water shall be delivered at a minimum pressure of at least 1.4 kilograms per square centimeter (20 pounds per square inch) with a minimum flow of at least 3.8 liters per minute (1 gallon per minute). The temperature of the water discharged from the tap shall be at least 32C (90F). Any slow-closing faucet used shall provide a flow of water for at least 15 seconds without the need to reactivate the faucet. If a personal supply of handwashing cleanser and towels is not provided to each resident of a dormitory, hotel, guest house or other communal housing facility, then handwashing cleanser and single-use paper towels shall be provided in dispensers at or next to hand washbasins at all times (common towels are prohibited). Mechanical hot air blowers for drying the hands may be substituted for paper towels. Note that this requirement does not apply to private housing units where the resident is expected to provide his own handwashing cleanser and towels. A refuse container lined with a disposable plastic bag shall be provided next to hand washbasins provided in dormitories, hotels, guesthouses and other communal housing facilities. The refuse container need not be covered.

12.2

12.3

12.4

13

SHOWER ROOMS 13.1 Communal shower rooms provided within dormitories, guesthouses and other communal housing facilities shall be completely enclosed. Individually enclosed shower compartments shall be provided in the shower room. The compartment shall be composed of a cubical with a bench and a clothes hook and a separated shower stall. The visual privacy of the bather shall be maintained. Privacy curtains, if used, shall be of easily cleanable material and kept clean. 13.2 Showers shall be designed and constructed to be self-draining and to preclude the flow of water into adjacent areas. 13.3 Shower floors shall be skid-resistant. Floor racks (duckboards) are prohibited. 13.4 Showers shall be supplied with water through thermostatic, tempering or mixing valves at a temperature of at least 37C (98.6F) but not more than 50C (122F) at a rate of at least 11.4 liters (3 gallons) per minute. Any slow-closing faucet used shall provide a flow of water for at least 30 seconds without the need to reactivate the faucet.

14

LAUNDRY ROOMS AND LAUNDRY 14.1 14.2 Laundry rooms shall be completely enclosed. All laundry equipment shall be installed, operated and maintained according to the manufacturer's instructions. Sorting tables and other surfaces that contact clothing shall be made of substantial 202

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Housing, SASC-S-08

material having a smooth, nonabsorbent, easily cleanable finish. All equipment and facilities shall be kept clean and in good repair. 14.3 Washing machines shall be supplied with hot water at a temperature of at least 66C (150F) at a rate of at least 11.4 liters (3 gallons) per minute. This is likely to require a separate booster water heater for the laundry room.

15

GARBAGE AND REFUSE 15.1 Garbage and refuse storage facilities: 15.1.1 Prior to removal from the premises, garbage and other refuse shall be stored in a way that makes it inaccessible to insects, rodents and other vermin. Outside storage of garbage or refuse in open piles or in any container other than an approved garbage or refuse container is prohibited, e.g. storage in paper bags or cardboard boxes. Inside storage of waste in open piles on the floor of the garbage/refuse storage room is prohibited. Heavy-duty plastic bags may be stacked on the floor of a properly designed and constructed refuse storage room if the waste contained therein is satisfactorily sealed in the bag, i.e. the bag does not represent an "open pile". The garbage/refuse storage room, if provided, shall be large enough to store all garbage/refuse containers that accumulate between disposal periods. Walls, ceilings and all attachments thereto, shall be made of substantial material having a smooth, nonabsorbent, easily cleanable finish. The floor shall be constructed of a smooth, easily cleanable, nonabsorbent material, such as sealed concrete, and shall be properly sloped to a trapped, covered drain that is connected to the sewerage system. The structure shall be insect- and rodent-proof, including the provision of a solid door designed to preclude the entry by rodents. Additionally, a screen door that opens outward, an air curtain device or other effective means of excluding flies shall be provided. The storage room shall be kept clean and maintained in good repair. Facilities shall be provided for cleaning garbage/refuse containers, lugger boxes and compactor systems after they are emptied. As a minimum, the facility shall be provided with hot running water delivered at a minimum pressure of at least 1.4 kilograms per square centimeter (20 pounds per square inch) with a minimum flow of at least 3.8 liters per minute (1 gallon per minute). The floor shall be constructed of a smooth, easily cleanable, nonabsorbent material, such as sealed concrete, and shall be properly sloped to a trapped, covered drain that is connected to the sewerage system. The floor of an outside garbage/refuse storage area shall be constructed of a smooth, easily cleanable, nonabsorbent material, such as sealed concrete or machine laid asphalt; and shall be large enough to accommodate the garbage/refuse containers that accumulate between disposal periods.

15.1.2

15.1.3

15.1.4

15.2

Garbage and refuse containers: 15.2.1 Approved garbage and refuse containers shall include standard 115 liters (30 gallons) steel garbage cans, modified 210 liters (55 gallons) steel drums, purpose-built lugger boxes and compactor systems. All such containers shall be made of durable, nonabsorbent, easily cleanable materials that are impervious to attack by insects, rodents and other vermin. They shall be designed and constructed so that they do not leak. Drain plugs, where required, shall be in place at all times except during cleaning. Refuse equipment and containers shall be provided with tight- fitting lids, doors or covers. 203

15.2.2

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Housing, SASC-S-08

15.2.2.1

The lids, doors or covers of outside refuse equipment and containers shall be kept in the closed position when not in immediate use. Refuse containers that are being actively used in the facility need not be covered. Refuse containers shall be covered when not being actively used. Filled refuse containers shall be covered and removed from the facility to the refuse storage facility.

15.2.2.2

15.2.3

The cover and the outside surface of the 210 liters (55 gallons), 115 liters (30 gallons) and smaller containers shall be labeled with the word "GARBAGE" or "REFUSE." Once used as a garbage or refuse container, the lid and container shall not be used for any other purpose, especially food preparation or storage. The 210 liters (55 gallons), 115 liters (30 gallons) and smaller containers shall be lined with heavy duty plastic bags to minimize cleaning requirements and facilitate removal of refuse. 16.2.5 Refuse containers shall be provided where refuse is generated. There shall be a sufficient number of approved containers to hold all the garbage and refuse produced and to accommodate the total amount accumulated in the refuse holding facility between disposal periods. Periodically, each container shall be thoroughly washed with hot water and detergent on the inside and outside in a way that does not contaminate water, food or the environment. Refuse equipment and containers shall not, by their location or installation, create a nuisance or prevent cleaning of adjacent space.

15.2.4

15.2.5

15.2.6

15.3

Garbage and refuse disposal: 15.3.1 Refuse shall be disposed of often enough to prevent the development of odors and the attraction of insects and rodents, but not less than twice per week. Waste shall be removed to the disposal facility in a purpose- built refuse transport vehicle. All refuse shall be disposed of in a municipal sanitary landfill. Open dumps and burn-pits are prohibited.

15.3.2 15.3.3

16

INSECT AND RODENT CONTROL 16.1 Housing shall be designed, constructed, equipped, maintained and operated to prevent the entry and harborage of insects, rodents, animals, birds and other vermin, as well as environmental contaminants, such as smoke and dust. Effective measures, such as excluding, inspecting and exterminating, shall be used to minimize the entry, presence and propagation of vermin, both inside and outside of the housing unit. All buildings, structures, associated facilities and individual housing units shall be insect- and rodent-proofed, freed of vermin before occupancy and shall be maintained in an insect, rodent and vermin free condition. There shall be no openings in exterior walls, foundations, basements, ground or first floors, or roofs that will admit insects, rodents or other vermin. Openings for pipes, conduits and other utility services in foundations or exterior walls, floors or roofs accessible to insects and rodents shall be closed solidly by metal, concrete or other impervious material. If metal sheeting is used to seal holes around pipes, conduits and ducts, it shall extend at least 7.6 centimeters (3 inches) beyond all sides of the opening.

16.2

16.3

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Housing, SASC-S-08

16.4

All sewer or drain openings shall be closed with a properly secured perforated metal cover. Perforations shall not admit a cylinder 12.7 millimeters (0.5 inches) in diameter. Control of insects, rodents and other vermin, including control of breeding sites (e.g. artificial bodies of water), shall be the responsibility of the proponent, operator and/or occupant of the housing. The presence of lice, bedbugs, fly larvae, rodents or any other vermin, or the traces, droppings, trails, runs or other evidence of the presence of such vermin, shall be evidence of the presence of filth and unsanitary conditions. Saudi Aramco EPD will report such evidence to the occupant and/or proponent and they shall take immediate action to control the infestation. They shall report the results of their control activities to Saudi Aramco EPD within 72 hours of receipt of the notification. The operator or occupant of housing shall not place, leave, dump or permit to accumulate any refuse or trash in the structure or on the premises in a manner that will afford food and harborage for insects, rodents or other vermin. The operator or occupant of housing shall not accumulate, or permit the accumulation of lumber or other such material on the premises unless such material is stored on racks 30 centimeters (12 inches) above the ground. Whenever conditions inside, outside or under any building or structure, or on any premises or open lot, provide such extensive harborage for insects and rodents that normal control measures are likely to be ineffective, Saudi Aramco EPD shall prepare a report with corrective recommendations for action by the responsible Saudi Aramco proponent. The proponent shall ensure that the deficiencies are corrected immediately. The pest control program shall encompass all areas outside and inside the housing units. Areas along fences, around buildings, under stored materials, in and around refuse facilities, as well as floors, walls and ceilings in buildings, shall be inspected frequently to detect the presence of insects, rodents and other vermin. Preventive control measures are preferable to eradication campaigns. 16.10.1 Insects, rodents and other vermin shall be controlled by elimination of breeding and harborage sources, proper sanitary practices, vermin proofing of buildings and structures, proper storage of materials, extermination, and by other approved control methods. Pesticides shall be dispensed and handled by authorized, properly trained personnel. Restricted-use pesticides shall be applied by a qualified pest control operator. Pesticides shall not be applied in areas where food handling, warewashing or other such operations are in progress or in a way that contaminates food equipment, utensils or other food contact surfaces.

16.5

16.6

16.7

16.8

16.9

16.10

16.10.2

16.10.3

17

KITCHENS The design, construction and materials of structures and equipment, as well as the general operating methods and procedures used to store, handle and protect food, equipment and utensils, shall comply with requirements equivalent to those specified in Section SASC-S-04 of this Code.

REFERENCES: 1. 2. 3. 4. Saudi Aramco Sanitary Code, 1996. Saudi Aramco Engineering Standards. SA Inspection, Testing and Maintenance of Fire Protection Equipment (GI # 1781.00). Saudi Arabian Standards Organization (SASO)- Sub Sections 313 and 415. 205

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Marine Vessels, SASC-S-09

SASC-S-09 MARINE VESSELS


Marine vessels provide a unique living environment due to the very limited space. The health and well being of the crew and passengers could easily be compromised if basic principles of personal hygiene and general sanitation were not followed. In this Section vessel specifications are required, that when incorporated into the planning, design, construction and operation of any vessel will help prevent the spread of infectious diseases and foodborne illnesses. Note: All Code Sections should be read in conjunction with appropriate referenced documents listed at the end of this Section.

DEFINITIONS: Berth: A bed or bunk enclosed by partitions or curtains that provide privacy for sleeping. Bunker: A compartment, bin or tank used for storage, normally for liquids. Bunkering: To fill a ships bunker. Bunker Station: Hoses, connecting devices and other fittings, on a vessel or ship for transferring liquids to the bunker. Crew Accommodation: Includes sleeping rooms, mess rooms, hospital, sanitary and recreation facilities, provided for the use of a marine vessel crew. Domestic Fresh Water: Water used for drinking, cooking, the washing of cooking and eating utensils, and water used for general cleaning and bathing. Is also known as potable water. Galley: The kitchen or an area with facilities in which meals are prepared on a ship. Mess Room: A location designed and designated for consuming food and drink. May also be referred to as a mess. Rating: A member of the crew other than an officer.

SCOPE 1.1 These requirements are applicable to all new and existing Saudi Aramco owned vessels or any vessel on hire, leased or sub-leased, to Saudi Aramco; to include but not limited to, supply or taxi boats, tugs, offshore drilling rigs, jack-up barges, work barges, and other special purpose vessels. Offshore fixed platforms are excluded from this Section. Compliance with this Section does not exclude any vessel from having to comply with other Sections of the Saudi Aramco Sanitary Code (SASC), specific Corporate General Instructions, Saudi Arabian government standards or International Maritime regulations as promulgated by such regulatory authorities as the International Maritime Organization (IMO); International Labour Organization (ILO); International Association of Classification Societies (IACAS). Any conflict between this Code Section and other governing codes, standards or rules requires compliance with the most restrictive.

1.2 1.3

1.4

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Marine Vessels, SASC-S-09

RESPONSIBILITIES 2.1 It is the duty of the Marine Department to inform the Manager, Environmental Protection Department (EPD) of any newly hired, purchased or constructed vessel prior to its entering service with the Marine Department. EPD shall routinely inspect all vessels and provide a written report to the Marine Department. Samples will be taken of water, ice, ingredients, beverages and food, as necessary to monitor environmental health aspects aboard the vessel. The Marine Department shall provide EPD written summaries of corrective actions taken for any deficiency noted on inspection reports. The Proponent Organization shall ensure that the sanitary design of the vessel incorporates materials that are durable, smooth, light in color and impervious to moisture. The installation of equipment, fixtures and furnishings shall be specified to make all areas easily cleanable. The Marine Department shall ensure that all food served aboard the vessel are from Saudi Aramco approved sources (see Section SASC-S-04 of this Code). The Master, or his designate shall make daily inspections of the galley, washrooms and accommodation. The Master is responsible for ensuring that sanitary conditions conform to the requirements of this Code Section; insect and rodent infestations aboard the vessel are eradicated; and copies of pertinent SASC Sections are kept aboard the vessel.

2.2

2.3

2.4

2.5

2.6

2.7

POTABLE WATER SYSTEM (DOMESTIC FRESH WATER) 3.1 Any potable water appurtenances, water treatment facilities (water distillation units or reverse osmosis systems), shall be installed and maintained in accordance with the manufacturers instructions and Section SASC-S-01. Potable water bunker stations shall be installed and maintained in conformance with Section SASC-S-01 on all vessels. Hoses used for conveying potable water shall be constructed of safe materials, shall have a smooth interior surface, shall be used for no other purpose and shall be clearly identified as to its use. Caps and keeper chains shall be provided for water system inlet and outlet fittings, as well as hose fittings. All such fittings shall be capped when not in immediate use. Hoses shall be kept free of contamination when stored and used. All vessels shall utilize an approved potable water disinfection method pursuant to Section SASCS-01. The boundaries of potable water tanks shall be segregated from all other tanks holding substances other than potable water by the use of cofferdams or void spaces. In no case shall potable water tank boundaries be used to separate potable water tanks from non-potable water tanks. Manholes on potable water tanks shall be fitted with raised coamings to prevent the introduction of contaminants. All items that penetrate the potable water tank shall be coated or constructed with a material approved for use in potable water tanks. 207

3.2

3.3

3.4

3.5

3.6

3.7

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Marine Vessels, SASC-S-09

3.8

Pipes carrying sewage or other non-potable liquids shall not pass through potable water tanks unless these pipes are contained within a continuous water or oil tight steel pipe duct, constructed with all welded joints and seams. Potable water piping shall not pass through sewage tanks. Potable water piping that passes through other tanks holding non-potable liquids shall be contained within a continuous water or oil tight steel pipe duct, constructed with all welded joints and seams. The vent of a potable water tank shall not be used for or connected to the vent of a non-potable liquid. Only potable water shall be served to galleys, accommodation showers and sinks. Seawater inlets for potable water makers shall be located forward of all overboard wastewater or non-potable liquid waste discharge outlets. Every scullery sink, mechanical warewasher, ice maker, clothes washer, drinking fountain, etc. which require water of high clarity, shall be fitted with a filter to remove sediment stirred up during "vessel roll".

3.9

3.10

3.11 3.12

3.13

WASTE MANAGEMENT 4.1 Pollution prevention and the management of both liquid and solid wastes aboard vessels shall comply with the requirements of IMO MARPOL 73/78. Discharge of sewage into the sea is prohibited, except when: 4.2.1 The ship is discharging comminuted and disinfected sewage using a system approved by the Administration pursuant to IMO regulations, at a distance of more than 4 nautical miles from the nearest land; or The ship is discharging raw sewage at a distance of more than 12 nautical miles from the nearest land; or The ship has in operation an approved sewage treatment plant (STP) which has been certified by the Administration pursuant to IMO regulations; and carries a valid International Sewage Pollution Prevention Certificate (1973); and the sewage effluent does not produce visible floating solids in, nor cause discoloration of the surrounding water.

4.2

4.2.2

4.2.3

4.3

A sewage-holding tank shall be fitted on all vessels not fitted with a sewage treatment plant, for the storage of sewage while within prescribed distances from land as described in paragraphs 4.2.1 and 4.2.2. Such vessels shall be equipped with a pipeline leading to the exterior, convenient for the discharge of sewage to a reception facility in compliance with IMO MARPOL Annex IV, Regulation 11. Raw sewage discharged from holding tanks shall not be discharged instantaneously, but at a moderate rate when a vessel is proceeding at not less than 4 knots. Toxic or hazardous wastes, industrial or oily wastes shall never be discharged into any part of a vessel's sewerage system. Special purpose slop tanks are required for such wastes. Direct discharges from culinary sink fitted with garbage grinders, mechanical warewashers and clothes washing machines may be excluded from connection to the sewage treatment plant. Excluding discharges from STPs and sewage holding tanks, all wastes, whether generated aboard or transferred to any vessel, shall be transported to an appropriate transfer site for 208

4.4

4.5

4.6

4.7

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Marine Vessels, SASC-S-09

disposal at an EPD approved location. The dumping of solid waste or discharging of any hazardous waste into the marine environment is prohibited. Wastes should be properly segregated and stored to prevent pollution.

FOOD SERVICE 5.1 All food services - galley, food stores, etc. shall comply with Section SASC-S-04 of this Code in design, construction, operation and maintenance. Special requirements are found in subsection 7, Marine Vessel Galleys.

CREW ACCOMMODATION 6.1 Operation and maintenance of accommodation, to include, but not be limited to, cabins, toilets/showers, mess rooms, recreation rooms, gangways, laundry, recreational areas, shall comply with this Code subsection. Design and construction of crew accommodation shall specifically comply with applicable ILO Conventions 90, 92, 133, 144 & 147. Cabins for seamen, passengers and officers shall be cleaned at least weekly, by thorough vacuuming or by other methods that minimize airborne contaminants. Areas to be included are floors/carpets, curtains and upholstery. Special attention should be given to crevices, cracks and rolled seams. Frequent detailed cleaning will help to eliminate ectoparasites which may be introduced in luggage or clothing. Deckhead ventilation grills shall be kept free of dirt and fiber accumulation. Passageway and cabins floors shall be mopped frequently and stripped periodically to remove stains and wax accumulation. Crew and passengers shall be assigned individual towels and bed linen which shall be changed and laundered at least weekly. Bedding shall be cleaned as needed, but not less than once every 3 months; at which time the mattress is rotated. The practice of "hot bedding", where crewmembers working opposite shifts use the same bed, shall be prohibited. All furnishings and materials shall be kept clean and in good repair. All areas of the lavatory and change room shall be thoroughly cleaned and sanitized at least once each day. These shall be thoroughly washed with detergent, rinsed and then disinfected with approximately a 0.5 percent hypochlorite solution, or with an equivalent substitute. Any vessel without an assigned nurse shall carry an approved medicine chest for which readily understandable instructions are provided. First-Aid and other medical supplies shall be kept in the original packaging until used. Products required to be kept refrigerated or frozen shall be stored at 2C to 8C (35.6F to 46F) or 20C to 10C (-4F to 14F). Items outdated shall be disposed of properly. A recreation area appropriately furnished and supplied shall be provided for crew and passengers. Mess rooms may serve this purpose when television, video cassette players, table games, library, etc. are provided. 209

6.2

6.3

6.4 6.5

6.6

6.7

6.8

6.9 6.10

6.11

6.12

6.13

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Marine Vessels, SASC-S-09

6.14

Mechanical clothes washing and drying appliances shall be installed in every vessel. The number of appliances shall satisfactorily meet the needs of the crew, so that linens and bedding can be laundered at the frequency assigned in this Section. Linen shall be tumbled dried to reduce bacterial colonization. The number of water closets, washbasins and showers on any vessel shall meet the requirements of ILO Conventions as specified in paragraph 6.2. No more than 2 ratings or 1 officer shall be placed in a sleeping room. The floor area per person of sleeping rooms shall conform to the requirements specified in ILO Conventions adopted in paragraph 6.2, but in no case shall the floor area be less than 2.75 sq. m. (29.6 sq. ft.). Berths in common sleeping rooms shall be fitted with side curtains and with a small lamp mounted at the head. Adequate provisions for the storage of personal affects and clothing shall be made pursuant to ILO Conventions as specified in paragraph 6.2. Crew accommodation shall be adequately illuminated in conformance with ILO Conventions as specified in paragraph 6.2.

6.15

6.16 6.17

6.18

6.19

6.20

MARINE VESSEL GALLEYS 7.1 Marine vessel galleys (herein referred to as galleys) are food establishments which have special considerations due to space limitations, dictated by the tonnage rating of the vessel. Galleys shall comply with the requirements of this Code Section. Food Handling Practices 7.2.1 7.2.2 Serving potentially hazardous, leftover food from a previous days meal is prohibited. Ice utensils - scoops, shall not be stored inside the ice machine, directly in contact with the ice. Scoops may be stored on hooks or other attachments provided above the level of ice, or kept in a solution of 100 ppm chlorine outside the ice machine. Condensate or accumulated ice shall not contact foods or ingredients. Prepared foods, placed in the chiller, to be served later, shall be labeled with the date of preparation and discarded if not used within 48 hours. Refreezing of any foods, once thawed, is prohibited. Stored ice, intended for human consumption, shall not be used to cool food, food containers or food utensils. Due to the logistics of supplying foodstuffs to vessels, the Master or his representative shall inspect all food items and ingredients to ensure the quality of the foodstuffs. Food supplies not held in conformance with the temperature requirements in Section SASC-S-04 of this Code or foods that appear adulterated shall be rejected and reported to EPD. Boxes, baskets or other receptacles which are used to transfer foodstuffs from the pier to the vessel or from one vessel to another, shall be kept clean and in a safe condition. 210

7.2

7.2.3 7.2.4

7.2.5 7.2.6

7.2.7

7.2.8

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Marine Vessels, SASC-S-09

7.3

Equipment and Design 7.3.1 Walk-in cold stores shall be provided an audible alarm, which when activated from inside a closed walk-in, can be heard in the galley. Exhaust ducts over galley ranges in which grease or fat is likely to accumulate shall have a fixed means for extinguishing a fire with the activation device located outside the galley; be fitted with readily removable grease filters or traps; and have suitably located hatches for inspection/cleaning. The furnishing and floor area of mess rooms for officers and for ratings shall conform to the requirements of ILO Conventions specified in paragraph 6.2. Available at all times for use by the crew, without requiring entry into the galley, shall be a refrigerator of sufficient capacity for the intended use, and facilities for dispensing hot beverages and cool water.

7.3.2

7.3.3

7.3.4

7.4

Galleys and Related Housekeeping 7.4.1 Decks, bulkheads, deckheads, fixtures and equipment shall be kept clean and free of food residue and debris and routinely cleaned in accordance with a written schedule. Areas of high use or traffic are to be scheduled for more frequent cleaning. Cleaning of spills, appliances and equipment shall be done as soon as possible after the spill or after use. Duckboards in dry stores and walk-in chiller/freezers shall be made of durable and easily cleanable materials and removed at least weekly, before restocking if possible. Counters surfaces, cabinets, shelves and drawers shall be wiped down at least once per day. Water closets, washbasins and other fixtures shall be cleaned and disinfected at least once each day. These shall be thoroughly washed with detergent, rinsed and then disinfected with approximately a 0.5 percent hypochlorite solution, or with an equivalent substitute. Mop wastewater shall not be discarded through culinary or warewash sinks, at washbasins or shower drains. Water closets are acceptable for disposal of such wastewater. A written cleaning schedule shall be drafted and implemented which describes in detail the equipment or appliance to be cleaned, the frequency of cleaning, and the procedure to be followed. The chemicals and tools to accomplish the task shall be specified, as well as the step-by-step procedure and method required to properly clean and sanitize each item. The Master shall check the effectiveness of the schedule. As far as possible, a single individual shall be assigned to clean. This should be his primary duty. This person should be fully trained in the use of cleaning/sanitizing chemicals and techniques necessary to accomplish this task. Cleaning tools and appliances, such as brooms, mops, buckets and vacuum cleaners shall be provided, stored and used in a manner which prevents contamination of food, ingredients and food contact surfaces.

7.4.2

7.4.3

7.4.4

7.4.5

7.4.6

7.4.7

7.4.8

7.4.9

7.4.10 Routine cleaning shall be done during periods when food preparation activities are least. To minimize contamination, dustless cleaning methods, such as damp mopping and wiping shall be used.

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Marine Vessels, SASC-S-09

7.4.11 Because galleys are inherently difficult to clean, due to shelf rails, spill lips and capture equipment; a vacuum cleaner shall be provided and used, exclusively for routine cleaning activities in the galley.

REFERENCES:

1. U.S. Public Health Service, CDC: Vessel Sanitation Program Operations Manual, 2000 (Draft) 2. U.S. Public Health Service, CDC: Recommended Shipbuilding Construction Guidelines for Cruise Vessels Destined to Call on U. S. Ports, May 1999 3. Title 46: Code of Federal Regulations, Shipping 4. U.S. Code: Title 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 5. International Maritime Organization: MARPOL 73/78, 1991 Edition 6. International Labour Organization (ILO): Convention Concerning Crew Accommodation on Board Ship, Convention No. 133, 1970. 7. U.K. Department of Transportation: Merchant Shipping Notice, No. M.1214 & M1216 8. Lloyds Register of Shipping Classification Rules: Structure Design - Part 3, Chapter 3 9. Regional Organization for the Protection of the Marine Environment: Protocol Concerning Marine Pollution th 10. Saudi Aramco Sanitary Code, 5 Edition

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Health Care Facilities, SASC-S-10

SASC-S-10 HEALTH CARE FACILITIES


This Section describes the public health requirements and specifications for medical facilities, including all inpatient and outpatient medical and dental facilities operated and/or contracted by the Saudi Aramco Medical Services Organization (SAMSO), medical manufacturing plants and medical storage facilities. This Section specifies those sanitary and infection control practices and procedures that will result in a safe, clean, and infection free facility for patients, staff and visitors. NOTE: All sub-sections should be read in conjunction with appropriate referenced documents listed at the end of this Section. DEFINITIONS Antiseptic: Chemical germicide used to remove microorganisms from skin. Autoclaving: Sterilization by steam under pressure. Cytotoxic waste: Any waste that is produced as a result of preparing or administering cytotoxic (chemotherapeutic) drugs. Disinfectant (in a medical facility): Chemical germicide used to remove pathogenic microorganisms with the exception of bacterial spores, from inanimate objects. Environment of Care: The physical environment in which medical care is provided. A health care facility must provide a safe, accessible, effective, and efficient environment. This includes provisions for life safety (fire detection, response and suppression systems), safety, security, internal and external emergency preparedness, hazardous materials and waste, medical equipment and utility systems. Hazardous chemical waste: Chemical waste that may be a physical hazard, a health hazard, or both a physical and health hazard. Includes combustible liquids, compressed gases, explosives, organic peroxide, pyrophoric materials, unstable (reactive) materials, and water reactive materials. Health hazards include materials that are carcinogens or suspected carcinogens, toxins, irritants, corrosives, sensitizers, agents which act on the hematopoietic system, and agents which damage the lungs, skin, eyes or mucous membranes. HEPA filters: High efficiency particulate air filters that remove up to 99.97% of particles greater or equal to 0.3 microns in diameter. They are very efficient at removing bacteria since most bacteria are present in colony-forming units (CFU) that are larger than 1 micron in size. Infectious waste: Includes laboratory cultures and stocks; pathological waste; human blood, blood products and body fluids; contaminated and unused sharps (needles, syringes, lancets, pipettes, scalpel blades, blood vials, needles with attached tubing, and broken or unbroken glassware); and isolation waste. Medical waste: Any waste that is generated at a medical facility or research laboratory. Nosocomial infection: An infection that is not present or incubating in the patient at the time of admission to a hospital, but that develops while the patient is hospitalized. Regulated medical waste: Waste from a medical facility or research laboratory that may be infectious, cytotoxic, radioactive, or may otherwise present an actual or potential hazard to human health or the environment when improperly handled, transported, treated or disposed of. Standard precautions: A set of practices designed to reduce the risk of transmission of bloodborne pathogens, as well as other pathogens from recognized and unrecognized sources of infection (moist body substances). Standard precautions is the primary tool for successful infection control in a medical facility and includes proper 213

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Health Care Facilities, SASC-S-10

handwashing; use of gloves, masks, eye protection/face shields and gowns; proper care of patient care equipment; environmental controls; proper use and disposal of sharps; proper handling of soiled linen; and proper placement of patients. Sterilization: Complete elimination or destruction of all forms of microbial life, including spores. Unregulated medical waste: All medical wastes that are not covered in the listing of regulated medical waste. 1 PHYSICAL PLANT AND UTILITIES 1.1 Facility Design and Construction 1.1.1 General Considerations 1.1.1.1 The primary reference for health care facility design and construction is Guidelines for Design and Construction of Hospital and Health Care Facilities, American Institute of Architects Academy of Architecture for Health and US Department of Health and Human Services, American Institute of Architects Press, latest edition. The design and construction standards listed below are taken from these Guidelines, and are included here because they impact on infection control and safety. The Guidelines apply to new construction; however, at the time of renovation or modification of existing facilities, every effort shall be made to comply, insofar as practical, with all applicable sections of the Guidelines, and with appropriate sections of National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) 101, covering New Health Occupancies. The facility shall have adequate space to satisfy functional needs. All rooms, offices and areas within the facility shall be numbered and properly labeled as to their function. Signs used throughout the facility shall be consistent in color and format. An adequate number of directional signs in Arabic and English shall be posted to prevent confusion and provide proper traffic control throughout the facility. Entrance to, and utilization of all areas, in Saudi Aramco health care facilities shall be restricted to those individuals who are "authorized" according to the written policies and procedures for the specific area. Access for patients with disabilities shall be provided for all buildings. Facilities for the disabled shall be provided in all inpatient and outpatient areas. Clean and soiled areas shall be separated.

1.1.1.2 1.1.1.3

1.1.1.4

1.1.1.5

1.1.1.6 1.1.2

Nursing Units (Medical and Surgical) Patient Rooms 1.1.2.1 In newly constructed patient rooms shall have a minimum of 9.29 Square meters (100 square feet) of clear floor area per bed in multiple-bed rooms and 11.15 square meters (120 square feet) of clear floor area for single-bed rooms, exclusive of toilet rooms, closets, lockers, wardrobes, alcoves or vestibules. Refer to Guidelines noted above for other space requirements. Each patient room shall have a window in accordance with Standard 7.28.A10 of Guidelines for Design and Construction of Hospitals and Health Care Facilities 214

1.1.2.2

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Health Care Facilities, SASC-S-10

1.1.2.3

Handwashing facilities shall be provided to serve each patient room. These handwashing facilities shall be located in the toilet room. In all new construction an extra sink for handwashing shall be located in all hospital rooms and shall be located outside cubicle curtains to facilitate handwashing access. Each patient shall have access to a toilet room without having to enter the general corridor area. One toilet room shall serve no more than four beds and no more than two patient rooms. The toilet room shall contain a water closet and a handwashing facility, and the door shall swing outward or be double acting. Each patient shall have within his or her room a separate wardrobe, locker or closet suitable for hanging full-length garments, and for storing personal effects. In multiple-bed rooms, visual privacy from casual observation by other patients and visitors shall be provided for each patient. The design for privacy shall not restrict patient access to the entrance, lavatory or toilet.

1.1.2.4

1.1.2.5

1.1.2.6

Service Areas 1.1.2.7 Handwashing facilities shall be conveniently accessible to the nurse station, medication station and nourishment center. One handwashing fixture may serve several areas if convenient to each. Toilet rooms shall be conveniently located for staff use. Staff lounge facilities shall be provided. Secure closets or cabinet compartments for personal articles shall be located in or near the nurse station, or in the staff lounge or changing room. A clean workroom or clean supply room shall be provided. If the room is used for preparing patient care items, it shall contain a work counter, a handwashing fixture, and storage facilities for clean and sterile supplies. If the room is used only for storage and holding as part of a system for distribution of clean and sterile materials, the work counter and handwashing fixture may be omitted. Soiled and clean workrooms or holding rooms shall be separated and have no direct connection. A soiled workroom or soiled holding room shall be provided. This room shall be separate from the clean workroom. The soiled workroom shall contain a clinical sink (or equivalent flushing-rim fixture) for cleaning of bedpans, and a handwashing sink. These fixtures shall have both a hot and cold mixing faucet. The room shall have a work counter and space for separate covered containers for soiled linen and waste. Rooms used only for temporary holding of soiled material may omit the clinical sink and work counter. If the flushingrim clinical sink is eliminated, facilities for cleaning bedpans shall be provided elsewhere. A medication preparation area shall be provided and shall be under visual control of the nursing staff. It shall contain a work counter a sink adequate for handwashing, refrigerator, and locked storage for controlled drugs. 215

1.1.2.8 1.1.2.9 1.1.2.10

1.1.2.11

1.1.2.12

1.1.2.13

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Health Care Facilities, SASC-S-10

1.1.2.14

Each nursing unit shall designate an area for clean linen storage. This may be within the clean workroom, a separate closet or an approved distribution system on each floor. If a closed cart system is used storage may be in an alcove. It must be out of the path of normal traffic and under staff control. A nourishment station shall be provided with sink, work counter, refrigerator, storage cabinets and equipment for hot and cold nourishments between scheduled meals. The nourishment station shall include space for trays and dishes used for nonscheduled meal service. Provisions and space shall be included for separate temporary storage of unused and soiled dietary trays not picked up at mealtime. Handwashing facilities shall be in or immediately accessible from the nourishment station. Each nursing unit shall have equipment to provide ice for treatments and nourishment. Ice-making equipment may be in the clean work room/holding room or at the nourishment station. Ice intended for human consumption shall be from self-dispensing icemakers. Appropriate rooms or alcoves shall be provided for storage of patient care equipment as required by the functional program. Its location shall not interfere with the flow of traffic. Storage space for stretchers and wheelchairs shall be provided in a strategic location, without restricting normal traffic. When individual bathing facilities are not provided in patient rooms, there shall be at least one shower and/or bathtub for each 12 beds without such facilities. Space shall be provided for emergency equipment that is under direct control of nursing staff, such as a cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR or Crash) cart. This space shall be located in an areas appropriate to the functional program, but out of normal traffic. One housekeeping room shall be provided for each nursing unit or nursing floor. It shall be directly accessible from the unit or floor and may serve more than one nursing unit on a floor. Housekeeping closets shall be kept locked when not in use. At least one housekeeping room per floor shall contain a service sink or floor receptor and provisions for storage of supplies and housekeeping equipment. Note: This housekeeping room may not be used for other
departments and nursing units that require separate housekeeping rooms.

1.1.2.15

1.1.2.16

1.1.2.17

1.1.2.18

1.1.2.19

1.1.2.20

1.1.2.21

Airborne Infection Isolation Room 1.1.2.22 At least one airborne infection isolation room shall be provided. A multidisciplinary group designated for that purpose should base the number of airborne infection isolation rooms on an infection control risk assessment. These rooms may be located within individual nursing units and used for normal acute care when not required for isolation cases, or they may be grouped as separate isolation unit. Each room shall contain only one bed and shall comply with the following: Each airborne infection isolation room shall have an area for handwashing, gowning and storage of clean and soiled materials located directly outside or immediately inside the entry door to the room.

1.1.2.23

216

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1.1.2.24

Airborne infection isolation room perimeter walls, ceiling and floors, including penetrations, shall be sealed tightly so that air does not infiltrate the environment from the outside or from other spaces. Such rooms shall be under negative pressure with no return air plenums. (See Table 1.) Airborne infection isolation rooms shall have self-closing devices on all room exit doors. Separate toilet, bathtub or shower, and handwashing facilities shall be provided for each airborne infection isolation room. Airborne infection isolation rooms may be used for noninfectious patients when not needed for patients with airborne infectious disease.

1.1.2.25

1.1.2.26

1.1.2.27

Protective Environment Room 1.1.2.28 The infection control risk assessment may require protective environment rooms if the hospital cares for patients with extreme susceptibility to infection, e.g., immunosuppressed patients with prolonged granulocytopenia, most notably bone marrow recipients; burn patients; or solid-organ transplant recipients and patients with hematological malignancies who are receiving chemotherapy and are severely granulocytopenic. These rooms are not intended for use with patients diagnosed with HIV infection or AIDS unless they are also severely granulocytopenic. Should protective environment rooms be required they shall adhere to ventilation requirements in Table 1 below. In addition to positive air pressure, all supply air must pass through HEPA filters with 99.97 percent efficiency for particles >3m in size.

Seclusion Room 1.1.2.29 At least one seclusion room shall be provided in the facility for patients needing close supervision for medical and/or psychiatric care. Each room shall be for single occupancy; shall be located to permit staff observation of the entrance, preferably adjacent to the nurse station; and each shall be designed to minimize the potential for escape, hiding, injury or suicide. If vision panels are used for observation of patients, the arrangement shall insure patient privacy and prevent casual observation by visitors and other patients. The seclusion room shall be inspected by the Nursing Supervisor and Safety Officer prior to each occupancy.

1.1.3

Critical Care Units General Considerations 1.1.3.1 The location shall offer convenient access from essential departments and services as defined by the functional program. It shall be located so that the medical emergency resuscitation teams may be able to respond promptly to emergency calls within minimum travel time. The location shall be arranged to eliminate the need for through traffic. In new construction, where elevator transport is required for critically ill patients, the size of the cab and mechanisms and controls shall meet the specialized needs. Each patient space, whether separate rooms, cubicles or multiple bed space, shall have a minimum of 13.94 square meters (150 square feet) of clear floor 217

1.1.3.2

1.1.3.3

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Health Care Facilities, SASC-S-10

area with a minimum headwall width of 3.66 meters (12 feet) per bed, exclusive of anterooms, vestibules, toilet rooms, closets, lockers, wardrobes and/or alcoves. Refer to Guidelines for additional requirements regarding space, visual access, monitoring of patients, storage and medication stations, and service spaces. 1.1.3.4 Nurse call systems shall be provided in accordance with sub-section 1.1.27.53. Handwashing fixtures shall be convenient to nurse stations and patient bed areas. There shall be at least one handwashing fixture for every three beds in open plan areas, and one in each patient room. The fixture should be located near the entrance to the patient cubicle or room, should be sized to minimize splashing water onto the floor, and should be equipped with hand-free operable controls. At least one airborne infection isolation room shall be provided. A housekeeping room shall be provided within or immediately adjacent to the critical care unit, and shall not be shared with other nursing units or departments. It shall contain a service sink or floor receptor and provisions for storage of supplies and housekeeping equipment.

1.1.3.5

1.1.3.6 1.1.3.7

Coronary Critical Care Unit 1.1.3.8 Each coronary patient shall have a separate room for acoustical and visual privacy. Each coronary patient shall have access to a toilet in the room.

1.1.3.9

Pediatric Critical Care 1.1.3.10 At least one airborne infection control room shall be provided, with provisions for observation of the patient. Refer to Guidelines for additional requirements.

Newborn Intensive Care Units (NICU) 1.1.3.11 The NICU shall have a clearly identified entrance and reception area for families. The area shall permit visual observation and contact with all traffic entering the unit. A scrub area shall be provided at each public entrance to patient care areas of the NICU. All sinks shall be hands-free operable and large enough to contain splashing. At least one door to each room must be large enough to accommodate portable X-ray equipment. There should be efficient and controlled access to the unit from Labor and Delivery, Emergency Room or other referral entry points. Provision shall be made for indirect lighting and high-intensity lighting in all nurseries. The central control station shall have convenient access to handwashing facilities.

1.1.3.12

1.1.3.13

1.1.3.14

1.1.3.15

218

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1.1.3.16

Each patient care space shall contain a minimum of 9.29 square meters (100 square feet) excluding sinks and aisles. Aisles with a minimum width of 0.91 meter (3 feet) shall be provided adjacent to each patient care space. An airborne infection isolation room is required in at least one level of nursery care. The room shall be enclosed and separated from the nursery unit with provision for observation of the infant from adjacent nurseries or control areas. A consultation/demonstration/breast feeding or pump room shall be provided convenient to the unit. A sink, counter, refrigerator, freezer and storage facilities shall be conveniently located nearby. One housekeeping room shall be provided for the unit, directly accessible, and dedicated exclusively for the NICU. See Guidelines for additional NICU requirements.

1.1.3.17

1.1.3.18

1.1.3.19

1.1.3.20 1.1.4

Newborn Nurseries 1.1.4.1 Hospitals having 25 or more postpartum beds shall have a separate nursery that provides continuing care for infants requiring close observation, for example, those with low birth weight. Minimum floor space per infant in this observation nursery shall be 4.65 square meters (50 square feet), exclusive of auxiliary work areas, with provisions for at least 1.22 meters (4 feet) between and at all sides of bassinets. Normal newborn infants shall be housed in nurseries that comply with the requirements below. Location shall be convenient to the postpartum nursing unit and obstetrical facilities. Each nursery shall contain at least one hands-free operable sink for each eight infant stations. Glazed observation windows shall be provided to permit viewing of infants from public areas, workrooms and adjacent nurseries. A consultation/demonstration/breast feeding or pump room shall be provided convenient to the nursery. A sink, counter, refrigerator, freezer and storage facilities shall be conveniently located nearby. An airborne infection isolation room is required in or near at least one level of nursery care. The room shall be enclosed and separated from the nursery unit with provisions for observation of the infant from adjacent nurseries or control areas. Each full-term nursery shall contain no more than 16 infant stations. The minimum floor area shall be 2.23 square meters (24 square feet) for each infant station, exclusive of auxiliary work areas. When a rooming-in program is used, the total number of bassinets provided in these units may be appropriately reduced, but the full-term nursery may not be omitted in its entirety from any facility that includes delivery services. Hospitals may replace traditional nurseries with infant holding nurseries in postpartum and labor-delivery-recovery-postpartum (LDRP) units. Floor space and other requirements shall be as required for full-term nurseries. Holding 219

1.1.4.2

1.1.4.3

1.1.4.4

1.1.4.5

1.1.4.6

1.1.4.7

1.1.4.8

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Health Care Facilities, SASC-S-10

nurseries should be next to the nurse station on these units and shall be sized to accommodate the percentage of newborns that do not remain with their mothers during the postpartum stay. 1.1.4.9 Each nursery rooms shall be served by a connecting workroom. Guidelines for workroom requirements. See

1.1.4.10

When infant formula is prepared on-site, direct access from the formula preparation room to any nursery room is prohibited. The room may be located near the nursery or at other appropriate locations in the hospital, but must include the following: A separate room for preparing infant formulas is required. It shall contain warming facilities, refrigerator, work counter, formula sterilizer, storage facilities and a handwash sink. Cleanup facilities for washing and sterilizing supplies shall be provided. This area shall contain a handwash sink, bottle-washing facilities, work counter and sterilization equipment. If a commercial infant formula is used the separate clean up and preparation rooms may be omitted. The storage and handling may be done in the nursery workroom or in another appropriate room in the hospital that is conveniently accessible at all hours. A housekeeping services room shall be provided for the exclusive use of the nursery unit.

1.1.4.11

1.1.4.12

1.1.4.13

1.1.4.14

1.1.5

Pediatric Unit 1.1.5.1 Maximum room capacity shall be four patients. Space requirements for pediatric patient beds shall be the same as for adult beds. Additional provisions for hygiene, toilets, sleeping and personal belongings shall be included where the program indicates that parents will be allowed to remain with young children. Each nursery room serving pediatric patients shall contain no more than eight bassinets; each bassinet shall have a minimum clear floor area of 3.72 square meters (40 square feet). Each room shall have a handwash sink operable without hands, a nurses emergency call system and a glazed viewing window. At least one airborne infection isolation room shall be provided in each pediatric unit. See Guidelines for additional requirements for pediatric nursery units.

1.1.5.2

1.1.5.3

1.1.5.4 1.1.6

Psychiatric Nursing Unit 1.1.6.1 Windows or vents in psychiatric units shall be arranged and located so that they can be opened from the inside to permit venting of combustion products and to permit any occupant direct access to fresh air in emergencies. The operation of operable windows shall be restricted to inhibit possible escape or suicide. See Guidelines for additional window requirements. Sub-section 1.1.2 of this Code Section shall apply to patient rooms in psychiatric nursing units except as follows: 220

1.1.6.2

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Health Care Facilities, SASC-S-10

1.1.6.3

A nurses call system is not required, but if it is included, provisions shall be made for easy removal or for covering of call button outlets. Bedpan-flushing devices may be omitted from patient room toilets. Handwashing sinks are not required in patient rooms. A bathtub or shower shall be provided for each six beds not otherwise served by bathing facilities within the patient rooms. See Guidelines for requirements for service areas in psychiatric nursing units. At least one airborne infection isolation room shall be provided in the psychiatric unit. The room designated for isolation in the psychiatric unit may be the seclusion room with appropriate safety precautions. there shall be at least one seclusion room for up to 24 beds or a major fraction thereof. Each room shall be for only one patient and shall have an area of at lest 5.57 square feet (5.57 square meters) and shall be constructed to prevent patient hiding, escape, injury or suicide. Refer to Guidelines for additional seclusion room requirements.

1.1.6.4 1.1.6.5 1.1.6.6

1.1.6.7 1.1.6.8

1.1.6.9

1.1.7

Surgical Suites 1.1.7.1 The number of operating rooms and recovery beds and the sizes of service areas shall be based on the expected surgical workload. The surgical suite shall be located and arranged to prevent unrelated traffic through the suite. When bronchoscopy is performed on persons who are known or suspected of having pulmonary tuberculosis, the procedure room shall meet the airborne infection isolation room ventilation requirements. When invasive procedures are performed on persons who are known or suspected of having airborne infectious disease, these procedures should not be performed in the operating suite. They shall be performed in a room meeting airborne infection isolation ventilation requirements or in a space using local exhaust ventilation. If the procedure must be performed in the OR suite, see the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) Guidelines for Preventing the Transmission of Mycobacterium Tuberculosis in Health Care Facilities. General operating rooms shall have a minimum clear area of 37.16 square meters (400 square feet) exclusive of fixed or wall-mounted cabinets and builtin shelves, with a minimum of 6.10 meters (20 feet) clear dimension between fixed cabinets and built-in shelves; and a system for emergency communication with the surgical suite control station. Rooms for cardiovascular, orthopedic, neurological and other special procedures that require additional personnel and/or large equipment shall have a minimum clear area of 55.74 square meters (600 square feet), with a minimum of 6.10 meters (20 feet) clear dimension exclusive of fixed or wallmounted cabinets and built-in shelves. See Guidelines for further information on room requirements for specialized procedures, including open-heart surgery, orthopedic surgery, cystoscopic and other endo-urological procedures. 221

1.1.7.2

1.1.7.3

1.1.7.4

1.1.7.5

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1.1.7.6

Post-Anesthetic Care Units (PACUs, or Recovery Rooms) shall have a minimum of 7.43 square meters (80 square feet) for each patient bed and at least 1.22 meters (4 feet) of clearance between patient beds and between patient bedsides and adjacent walls. One handwash sink with hands-free controls shall be provided for every four PACU beds. Service areas, except for the enclosed soiled workroom and housekeeping room, may be shared with obstetrical facilities if the functional program reflects this concept. Service areas, when shared with delivery rooms, shall be designed to avoid the passing of patients or staff between the operating room and the delivery room areas. Two scrub positions shall be provided near the entrance to each operating room. Two scrub positions may serve two operating rooms if both are located adjacent to the entrance of each operating room. Scrub facilities shall be arranged to minimize splatter on nearby personnel, medical equipment or supply carts. Scrub sinks should be recessed into an alcove out of the main traffic areas and outside the sterile core. An enclosed soiled workroom shall be provided for exclusive use of the surgical suite. The room shall not have direct connection with operating rooms or other sterile activity rooms. A clean workroom shall be provided. Storage for sterile supplies must be separated from this space. Soiled and clean workrooms or holding rooms shall be separated. An operating room suite design with a sterile core must provide for no cross traffic of staff and supplies from the decontaminated/soiled areas to the sterile/clean areas. The use of facilities outside the OR for soiled/decontaminated processing and clean assembly and sterile processing shall be designed to move the flow of goods and personnel from dirty to clean/sterile without compromising universal precautions or aseptic techniques in both departments. Medical gas storage facilities shall be provided in accordance with NFPA 99. Staff clothing changing areas shall be arranged to encourage a one-way traffic pattern so that personnel entering from outside the surgical suite can change and move directly into the surgical suite. Housekeeping facilities shall be provided for the exclusive use of the surgical suite. Air sampling to determine staff exposure to waste anesthesia gases shall be conducted at least annually.

1.1.7.7

1.1.7.8

1.1.7.9

1.1.7.10

1.1.7.11

1.1.7.12

1.1.7.13 1.1.7.14

1.1.7.15

1.1.7.16

1.1.8

Obstetrical (OB) Facilities 1.1.8.1 The OB unit shall be located and designed to prohibit non-related traffic through the unit. When delivery and operating rooms are in the same suite, access and service arrangements shall be such that neither staff nor patients need to travel through one area to reach the other. 222

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1.1.8.2

A postpartum room shall have a minimum of 9.29 square meters (100 square feet) of clear floor area per bed in a multi-bed room and 11.15 square meters (120 square feet) of clear floor area in single-bed rooms. These areas shall be exclusive of toilet rooms, closets, alcoves or vestibules. In multi-bed rooms there shall be a minimum clear distance of 1.22 meters (4 feet) between the foot of the bed and the opposite wall, 0.91 meter (3 feet) between the side of the bed and the nearest wall, and 1.22 meters (4 feet) between beds. There shall be a maximum of two beds per room. Handwash facilities shall be provided in each patient room. In multi-bed rooms the handwash sink shall be located outside of the patients cubical curtains so that it is accessible to staff. Clean and soiled workrooms and a housekeeping room shall be provided for the exclusive use of the OB suite. See Guidelines for additional requirements for support services for OB. Caesarian/Delivery rooms shall have a minimum clear floor area of 33.45 square meters (360 square feet) with a minimum dimension of 4.88 meters (16 feet) exclusive of built-in shelves or cabinets. There shall be at least one such room in every OB suite. Delivery rooms shall have a minimum clear area of 27.87 square meters (300 square feet) exclusive of fixed cabinets and built-in shelves. An emergency communication system shall be connected with the obstetrical suite control station. Infant resuscitation shall be provided within the Caesarian/delivery rooms and delivery rooms. Refer to Guidelines for space requirements. Six single or three duplex electrical outlets shall be provided for the infant in addition to the facilities required for the mother. A minimum of two labor beds shall be provided for each caesarian/delivery room. In facilities having only one caesarian/delivery room, two labor rooms shall be provided. Labor-delivery-recovery (LDR) rooms may be substituted for labor rooms. Space requirements for labor rooms are listed in Guidelines. Each labor room shall contain a handwash sink and have access to a toilet. One toilet room may serve two labor rooms. At least one shower for patients in labor shall be provided. Each recovery room shall contain at least two beds and include a handwash sink. LDR rooms may be substituted for recovery rooms. Delivery procedures may be performed in labor-delivery-recovery rooms or labor-delivery-recovery-postpartum (LDRP) rooms when birthing concepts require these facilities. See Guidelines for requirements for LDR and LDRP rooms. Two scrub positions shall be provided adjacent to the entrance to each caesarian/delivery room. Refer to Guidelines for additional service area requirements.

1.1.8.3

1.1.8.4

1.1.8.5

1.1.8.6

1.1.8.7

1.1.8.8

1.1.8.9

1.1.8.10

1.1.8.11

1.1.9

Emergency Service 1.1.9.1 Emergency rooms entrances shall be at grade level, well marked, illuminated and covered, with direct access from public roads for ambulance and vehicle 223

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Health Care Facilities, SASC-S-10

traffic. Entrance and driveway shall be clearly marked. If a raised platform is used for ambulance discharge, a ramp for pedestrian and wheelchair access shall be provided. 1.1.9.2 Reception, triage and control station shall be located to permit staff observation and control of access to the treatment area, pedestrian and ambulance entrances and the public waiting area. The triage area requires special consideration. As the point of entry and assessment for patients with undiagnosed and untreated airborne infections, the triage area shall be designed and ventilated to reduce exposure of staff, patients and families to airborne infectious diseases. If determined by the infection control risk assessment, one or more separate, enclosed spaces designed and ventilated as airborne infection isolation rooms shall be required. Facilities for safe decontamination of patients exposed to hazardous materials must be provided. Public waiting areas may also require special measures to reduce the risk of airborne infection and may include enhanced general ventilation similar to inpatient requirements for airborne infection isolation rooms. See Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) Guidelines for Preventing the Transmission of Mycobacterium Tuberculosis in Health Care Facilities. Examination rooms shall have a minimum floor area of 11.15 square meters (120 square feet). When treatment cubicles are in open multiple-bed areas, each cubicle shall have a minimum of 7.43 square meters (80 square feet) of clear floor space, and shall be separated from adjoining cubicles by curtains. Handwashing facilities shall be provided for each four treatment cubicles or major fraction thereof in multiple-bed areas. Trauma/cardiac rooms for emergency procedures, including emergency surgery, shall have at least 23.28 square meters (250 square feet) of clear floor space. Doors leading from the ambulance entrance to the cardiac trauma room shall be a minimum of 1.52 meters (5 feet) wide to simultaneously accommodate stretchers, equipment and personnel. Scrub stations shall be located in or adjacent and convenient to each trauma an/or orthopedic room. Communication shall be available to poison control information and to ambulance service. When there are more than eight treatment areas, a minimum of two toilet facilities, with handwashing facilities in each toilet room, will be required. A housekeeping room shall be provided for exclusive use of the emergency service. Twenty-four-hour security shall be provided for the emergency room and its entrance. At least one airborne infection isolation room shall be provided. At least one holding/seclusion room of 11.15 square meters (120 square feet) shall be provided. This room shall allow for security, patient and staff safety, patient observation, and soundproofing. 224

1.1.9.3

1.1.9.4

1.1.9.5

1.1.9.6

1.1.9.7

1.1.9.8

1.1.9.9

1.1.9.10

1.1.9.11

1.1.9.12 1.1.9.13

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Health Care Facilities, SASC-S-10

1.1.9.14 1.1.10

Refer to Guidelines for additional emergency services design requirements.

Technical Imaging Suite 1.1.10.1 Most imaging requires radiation protection. Appropriate radiation protection requirements shall be incorporated into the specifications and building/renovation plans by a certified physicist or other qualified expert. Where protected alcoves with view windows are required, a minimum of 0.45 meter (18 inches) between the view window and the outside partition edge shall be provided. Radiation protection elements shall meet the requirements of the King Abdul Aziz Center for Science and Technology (KAACST). Special ventilation systems are required when xenon-133 gas is utilized.

Angiography 1.1.10.2 The procedure room should be a minimum of 37.16 square meters (400 square feet). A viewing area shall be provided and should be a minimum of 3.05 meters (10 feet) in length. A scrub sink located outside the staff entry to the procedure room shall be provided for use by staff.

1.1.10.3

Computerized Tomography (CT) Scanning 1.1.10.4 A patient toilet, convenient to the procedure room, shall be provided, If it is directly accessible to the scan room it shall be located so that a patient may leave the toilet without having to reenter the scan room.

Mammography 1.1.10.5 Each X-ray room shall include a shielded control alcove. This area shall be provided with a view window designed to provide full view of the examination table and patient at all times, including full view of the patient when the table is in the tilt position or the chest X-ray is being utilized. For mammography machines with built-in shielding for the operator, the alcove may be omitted when approved by a certified physicist or other radiation protection professional.

Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) 1.1.10.6 A control room shall be provided with full view of the MRI and should be a minimum of 9.29 square meters (100 square feet).

Ultrasound 1.1.10.7 A patient toilet, accessible from the procedure room and from the corridor, shall be provided.

Support Spaces 1.1.10.8 The hospital infection control risk assessment must determine on the necessity of providing special measures in patient waiting areas to reduce the risk of airborne infection transmission. Airborne infection isolation rooms may be required. Refer to CDC Guidelines for Preventing the Transmission of Mycobacterium Tuberculosis in Health Care Facilities. 225

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Health Care Facilities, SASC-S-10

1.1.10.9

Toilet rooms with handwashing facilities shall be provided convenient to the waiting rooms and shall be equipped with an emergency call system. Separate toilets with handwashing facilities shall be provided with direct access from each radiographic/fluoroscopic room so that patients may leave the toilet without having to reenter the R&F room. Rooms used only occasionally for fluoroscopic procedures may utilize nearby patient toilets if they are located for immediate access. Handwashing facilities shall be provided within each procedure room unless the room is used only for routine screening such as chest X-rays where the patient is not physically handled by the staff. Handwashing facilities shall be provided convenient to the MRI room, but need not be within the room.

1.1.10.10

Cardiac Catheterization Lab (Cardiology) 1.1.10.11 The procedure room shall be a minimum of 37.16 square meters (400 square feet) of clear floor space. Scrub facilities with hands-free operable controls shall be provided adjacent to the entrance of procedure rooms, and shall be arranged to minimize incidental splatter on nearby personnel, medical equipment or supplies. Staff changing areas shall be provided and arranged to ensure a traffic pattern so that personnel entering from outside the suite can enter, change their clothing, and move directly into the cardiac catheterization suite. Clean and soiled workrooms and a housekeeping room shall be provided. Refer to Guidelines for additional requirements for the Technical Imaging Suite.

1.1.10.12

1.1.10.13

1.1.10.14 1.1.10.15

1.1.11

Nuclear Medicine 1.1.11.1 A certified physicist or other qualified radiation protection professional shall specify the type, location and amount of radiation protection to be installed. These specifications shall be incorporated into the plans. Floors and walls should be constructed on materials that are easily decontaminated in case of radioactive spills. If radiopharmaceutical preparation is performed on-site, an area adequate to house a radiopharmacy shall be provided with appropriate shielding. See Guidelines for other safety-related requirements. All radiation protection elements shall meet the standards of KAACST. This shall include facilities for long-term storage and disposal of radioactive materials.

1.1.11.2

1.1.11.3

1.1.11.4

Radiotherapy Suite 1.1.11.5 A certified physicist or other qualified radiation protection professional shall specify the type, location and amount of radiation protection to be installed for cobalt, linear accelerators and simulation rooms. These specifications shall be incorporated into the plans. Layouts shall provide for preventing the escape of radioactive particles. Openings into cobalt rooms and linear accelerators, 226

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Health Care Facilities, SASC-S-10

including doors, ductwork, vents and electrical raceways and conduits, shall be baffled to prevent direct exposure to other areas of the facility. 1.1.11.6 Exam rooms for each treatment room shall have a minimum of 9.29 square meters (100 square feet) and shall be equipped with a handwashing facility. A housekeeping room shall be provided.

1.1.11.7 1.1.12

Laboratory Suite 1.1.12.1 Refrigerated blood storage facilities for transfusions shall be equipped with temperature-monitoring and alarm signals. Chemical safety shall be addressed including provision of emergency shower, eyewash stations and appropriate storage for flammable liquids. Facilities and equipment for terminal sterilization of contaminated specimens before transport (autoclave) shall be provided. (Terminal sterilization is not required for specimens that are incinerated on site. If radioactive materials are used facilities shall be available for long-term storage and disposal of these materials. Refer to NFPA code requirements applicable to hospital laboratories. A qualified Chemical Hygiene Officer shall develop and implement a Laboratory Chemical Hygiene Plan.

1.1.12.2

1.1.12.3

1.1.12.4

1.1.12.5 1.1.12.6

1.1.13

Rehabilitation Therapy Department 1.1.13.1 Reception and control stations shall have visual control of waiting and activities areas. Patient toilets shall have handwashing facilities accessible to wheelchair patients. Wheelchairs and stretchers shall be stored out of traffic while patients are using the services. Individual physical therapy treatment areas shall have privacy screens or curtains and shall have a minimum of 6.51 square meters (70 square feet) of clear floor area. Handwashing facilities for staff shall be provided either within or at each treatment space. One handwashing facility may serve several treatment stations.

1.1.13.2

1.1.13.3

1.1.13.4

1.1.13.5

1.1.14

Renal Dialysis Unit 1.1.14.1 Individual patient treatment areas shall contain at least 7.43 square meters (80 square feet). There shall be at least a 1.22-meter (4-foot) space between beds an/or lounge chairs. Handwashing facilities shall be convenient to the nurses station and patient treatment areas. There shall be at least one handwashing facility serving no 227

1.1.14.2

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Health Care Facilities, SASC-S-10

more than four stations. These shall be uniformly distributed to provide equal access from each patient station. 1.1.14.3 1.1.14.4 1.1.14.5 The open unit shall be designed to provide privacy for each patient. The number and need for required airborne infection isolation rooms shall be determined by an infection control risk assessment. If home training is provided in the unit a private treatment area of at least 11.15 square meters (120 square feet) shall be provided for patients who are being trained to use dialysis equipment at home. Separate handwashing facilities shall be provided. An examination room with handwashing facilities shall be provided with at least 9.29 square meters (100 square feet) of floor space. Clean and soiled workrooms shall be provided. See Guidelines for details. If dialyzers are reused, a reprocessing room is required. A housekeeping room shall be provided for the exclusive use of the unit. If required by the functional program, an equipment repair and breakdown room shall be provided and be equipped with a handwashing facility, deep service sink and counter. The water treatment equipment shall be located in an enclosed room. A patient toilet with handwashing facilities shall be provided. A waiting room, toilet room with handwashing facilities, drinking fountain, public telephone and seating accommodations for waiting periods shall be available or accessible to the dialysis unit. Those chemical disinfectants possessing the least hazardous properties shall be used to disinfect dialysis machines.

1.1.14.6

1.1.14.7 1.1.14.8 1.1.14.9 1.1.14.10

1.1.14.11 1.1.14.12 1.1.14.13

1.1.14.14

1.1.15

Respiratory Therapy Service 1.1.15.1 All cough-inducing procedures performed on patients who may have infectious Mycobacterium tuberculosis shall be performed in rooms using local exhaust ventilation devices, e.g., booths or special enclosures with discharge HEPA filters and exhaust directly to the outside. These procedures may also be performed in a room that meets the ventilation requirements for noxious gas or airborne infection control. Physical separation shall be provided between receiving and cleaning soiled materials and storage of clean equipment and supplies. Appropriate local exhaust ventilation shall be provided if glutaraldehyde or other noxious disinfectants are used in the cleaning process.

1.1.15.2

1.1.16

Pharmacy 1.1.16.1 Handwashing facilities shall be provided within each separate room where open medication is handled.

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1.1.16.2

If IV solutions are prepared in the Pharmacy, a sterile work area with laminarflow workstation designed for product protection shall be provided. The laminar-flow system shall include a nonhydroscopic filter rated at 99.97 percent (HEPA), as tested by DOP tests, and have a visible pressure gauge for detection of filter leaks or defects. Refer to NSD 49 for the DOP test protocol.

1.1.17

Dietary Facilities 1.1.17.1 Food service facilities and equipment shall conform to the standards in SASCS-04 of this code, with the standards of the National Sanitation Foundation, and other appropriate codes. Appropriate food preparation workspaces shall be provided for food preparation, cooking and baking, and shall be as close as possible to tray assembly and dining. Additional spaces shall be provided for thawing and portioning. A patient tray assembly area shall be located within close proximity to the food preparation and distribution areas. A cart distribution system shall be provided with spaces for storage, loading, distribution, receiving and sanitizing of the food service carts. The cart traffic shall be designed to eliminate any danger of cross-circulation between outgoing food carts and incoming, soiled carts, and the cleaning and sanitizing process. Cart circulation shall not be through food processing areas. An area for receiving, scraping and sorting soiled tableware shall be adjacent to ware washing and separate from food preparation areas. Ware washing facilities shall be designed to prevent contamination of clean wares with soiled wares through cross-traffic. The clean wares shall be transferred for storage or use in the dining area without having to pass through food preparation areas. Pot washing facilities including multi-compartment sinks of adequate size for intended use shall be provided convenient to the using service. Supplemental heat for hot water to clean pots and pans may be by booster heater or by steam jet. A food waste storage room shall be conveniently located to the food preparation and ware washing areas but not within the food preparation area. It shall have direct access to the hospitals waste collection and disposal facilities. Handwashing fixtures that are operable without the use of hands shall be located conveniently accessible at locations throughout the unit and at or near each segregated food preparation area. Toilets and lockers shall be provided for the exclusive use of the dietary staff. They shall not open directly into the food preparation areas, but must be in close proximity to them. Housekeeping rooms shall be provided for the exclusive use of the dietary department. 229

1.1.17.2

1.1.17.3

1.1.17.4

1.1.17.5

1.1.17.6

1.1.17.7

1.1.17.8

1.1.17.9

1.1.17.10

1.1.17.11

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Health Care Facilities, SASC-S-10

1.1.17.12

Ice making equipment shall be of a type that is convenient for service and easily cleaned. It shall be provided for both beverages and food products (self-dispensing equipment) and for general use (storage-bin type equipment). Provision shall be made for protection of food delivered to insure freshness, retention of heat and cold, and avoidance of contamination. Mechanical devices shall be heavy duty, suitable for the use intended, and easily cleaned. Walk-in chillers, freezers and refrigerators shall be capable of maintaining temperatures stated in Section SASC-S-04 of this code. Interior temperatures shall be indicated digitally so as to be visible from the exterior. Controls shall include audible and visible high and low temperature alarm. Time of alarm shall be automatically recorded. Walk-in units may be lockable from outside but must have a release mechanism for exit from inside at all times. Interiors shall be adequately lighted, and lights shall be shielded. All shelving shall be corrosion resistant, easily cleaned, and constructed and anchored to support a loading of at least 45 kg (100 pounds) per 30 cm (12 inches) of linear shelving space. All cooking equipment shall be equipped with automatic shut-off devices to prevent excessive heat buildup. Under-counter conduits, piping and drains shall be arranged as to not interfere with cleaning of floors. Fire suppression systems, canopy hoods and associated ducting that services hot cooking areas shall be degreased semi-annually in accordance with NFPA standards.

1.1.17.13

1.1.17.14

1.1.17.15

1.1.17.16

1.1.17.17

1.1.17.18

1.1.17.19

1.1.18

Central Services 1.1.18.1 The soiled workroom (decontamination area) shall be physically separated from all other areas of the department and shall be under negative air pressure. Sufficient workspace shall be provided to handle the cleaning and initial disinfection/sterilization of all medical/surgical instruments and equipment. Pass-through doors and washer/sterilizer decontaminators should deliver items into the clean processing area. A clean assembly/workroom shall be provided for terminal sterilizing of medical and surgical equipment and supplies and shall be under positive air pressure. A room for sterile storage shall be provided and shall include provisions for ventilation, humidity and temperature control. Special ventilation systems shall be installed where ethylene oxide gas is utilized. Air sampling shall be conducted at least annually to determine potential staff exposure to ethylene oxide gas.

1.1.18.2

1.1.18.3

1.1.18.4

1.1.19

General Stores General storage room shall be provided with a total area of not less than 1.86 square meters (20 square feet) per inpatient bed. Additional storage for outpatient facilities shall 230

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be provided with a total area of not less than 5 percent of the total area of the outpatient facilities. 1.1.20 Linen Services 1.1.20.1 Provisions shall be made for storing and processing of clean and soiled linen based on the needed of the facility. A separate room shall be provided for receiving and holding soiled linen until ready for pickup or processing. A central clean linen storage and issuing room shall be provided. Cart storage areas shall be provided that are out of the flow of traffic. Handwashing facilities shall be provided in each area where unbagged, soiled linen is handled. Laundry processing equipment shall be laid out to permit an orderly workflow and minimize cross-traffic that might mix clean and soiled operations. Illumination levels shall meet the requirements listed in Table 6A. Soiled linen rooms and linen chute rooms shall comply with the following: Walls, floors and ceilings shall be easily cleanable. Doors shall be self-closing. Outer doors shall be kept closed and locked. Doors for linen chute rooms shall close automatically, and linen chute doors shall close and latch automatically. Soiled linen storage rooms shall be provided with a separate ventilation system exhausting to the outside. The room shall be under negative air pressure in relation to adjacent areas.

1.1.20.2

1.1.20.3 1.1.20.4 1.1.20.5

1.1.20.6

1.1.20.7 1.1.20.8

1.1.21

Housekeeping Services 1.1.21.1 In addition to the housekeeping rooms required in certain departments, sufficient housekeeping rooms shall be provided throughout the facility as required to maintain a clean and sanitary environment. Each shall contain a floor receptor or service sink and storage space for housekeeping equipment and supplies. There shall be a minimum of one housekeeping room for each floor. Adequate facilities shall be provided for storage of all equipment and supplies, including housekeeping carts and powered equipment. Housekeeping carts shall not block corridors, doorways, and fire extinguishers or otherwise interfere with traffic flow.

1.1.21.2

1.1.22

Facilities for Cleaning and Sanitizing Carts Facilities shall be provided to clean and sanitize carts serving the Central Service Department, Dietary Facilities and Linen services. These facilities may be centralized or departmentalized.

1.1.23

Employee Facilities Lockers, lounges and toilets that meet the needs of the facility shall be provided for employees, volunteers and contractor personnel. 231

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1.1.24

Engineering Service and Equipment Areas 1.1.24.1 Sufficient space shall be included in all mechanical and electrical equipment rooms for proper maintenance of equipment. Carbon dioxide fire extinguishers shall be provided in electrical equipment areas. Hazardous materials shall not be stored in mechanical or equipment rooms. Air filters that service hazardous locations shall be changed by staff wearing approved personal protective equipment (PPE).

1.1.24.2

1.1.24.3 1.1.24.4

1.1.25

Outpatient Facilities 1.1.25.1 General-purpose examination rooms shall have a minimum floor area of 7.43 square meters (80 square feet), excluding vestibules, toilets and closets, and shall be fitted with a handwashing sink. Special-purpose examination rooms shall be designed and outfitted to accommodate procedures and equipment used, and shall be fitted with a handwashing sink. Treatment rooms for minor surgical and cast procedures shall have a minimum floor area of 11.15 square meters (120 square feet) and shall be fitted with a handwashing sink. Observation rooms for the isolation of suspect or disturbed patients shall have a minimum floor area of 7.43 square meters (80 square feet) and shall be convenient to a nurse or control station. An examination room may be modified to accommodate this function. A toilet room with sink should be immediately accessible. Refer to Guidelines for additional requirements for outpatient facilities.

1.1.25.2

1.1.25.3

1.1.25.4

1.1.25.5 1.1.26

General requirements for Details and Finishes Doors 1.1.26.1 Minimum door size for inpatient bedrooms in new work areas shall be 1.12 meters (3 feet 8 inches) wide and 2.13 meters (7 feet) high to provide clearance for movement of beds and other equipment. Existing doors not less than 86.36 centimeters (2 feet 10 inches) wide may be considered for acceptance where function is not adversely affected and replacement is impractical. Doors to other rooms used for stretchers (including hospital wheeled-bed stretchers) and/or wheelchairs shall have a minimum width of 86.36 centimeters (2 feet 10 inches). While these standards are intended for access by patients and patient equipment, size of office furniture and other requirements shall also be considered. Doors shall not be painted with oil-based paint that emits volatile organic compounds (VOCS). All doors between corridors, rooms or spaces subject to occupancy, except elevator doors, shall be of the swing type. Manual or automatic sliding doors may be exempt from this requirements where fire and other emergency exiting 232

1.1.26.2

1.1.26.3

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Health Care Facilities, SASC-S-10

requirements are not compromised and where cleanliness of surfaces can be maintained. 1.1.26.4 Grab Bars 1.1.26.5 Grab bars shall be provided in all patient toilets, showers, bathtubs and sit baths at a wall clearance of 3.81 centimeters (1 inches). Bars, including those that are part of such fixtures as soap dishes, shall be sufficiently anchored to sustain a concentrated load of 113.4 kilograms (250 pounds). Linen and refuse chutes shall comply with NFPA standards.

Cubicle Curtains 1.1.26.6 Cubicle curtains and draperies shall be noncombustible or flame-retardant.

Mattresses, Upholstery 1.1.26.7 Materials provided by the facility for finishes and furnishings, including mattresses and upholstery, shall comply with NFPA 101.

Floors 1.1.26.8 Floors shall be constructed of smooth, durable material; shall be so constructed as to be easily cleanable; and shall be kept clean and in good repair. The wall/floor junctions shall be coved and sealed. In all rooms in which water is routinely discharged to the floor, or in which floors are subjected to flood-type cleaning, floors shall be of nonabsorbent materials, shall be sloped to drain and shall be provided with properly installed, trapped floor drains. Floors subject to traffic while wet such as shower and bath areas, kitchens and similar work areas shall have a nonslip surface. In new construction or major renovation work, the floors and bases of all operating rooms and any delivery rooms used for caesarean sections shall be monolithic and joint free. The floor and wall bases of kitchens, soiled workrooms and other areas subject to frequent wet cleaning shall also be homogeneous, but may have tightly sealed joints.

1.1.26.9

Walls and Ceilings 1.1.26.10 Walls, ceilings and partitions of all rooms and areas shall be kept clean and in good repair. All walls and partitions shall be easily cleanable, shall have washable surfaces and should be light colored.

1.1.26.11 In dietary and food preparation areas, wall construction, finish and trim, including the wall/floor junctions, shall be free of insect- and rodent-harboring spaces. 1.1.26.12 In operating rooms, delivery rooms for C-sections, isolation rooms and sterile processing rooms, walls and ceilings shall be free of fissures, open joints, or crevices that may retain permit passage of dirt particles.

1.1.26.13 Ceilings, including exposed structure in areas normally occupied by patients or staff in food-preparation and food-storage areas, shall be cleanable with routine housekeeping equipment. Acoustic and lay-in ceiling, where used, shall not interfere with infection control. 233

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1.1.26.14 Interior finishing materials shall comply with the flame-spread limitations and the smoke-production limitations indicated in NFPA 101. This does not apply to minor quantities of wood or their trim (see NFPA 101) or to wall covering less than four millimeters thick applied over a non-combustible base. Elevators 1.1.26.15 All hospitals having patient facilities or critical services located on other than the grade-level entrance floor shall have electric or hydraulic elevators. In the absence of an engineered traffic study the following guidelines for number of elevators shall apply: 1.1.26.16 At least one hospital-type elevator shall be installed when 1 to 59 patient beds are located on any floor other than the main entrance floor. 1.1.26.17 Two hospital-type elevators shall be installed when 60 to 200 patient beds are located on floor other than the main entrance floor, or where the major inpatient services are located on a floor other than those containing patient beds. At least three hospital-type elevators shall be installed where 201 to 350 patient beds are located on floors other than the main entrance floor, or where the major inpatient services are located on a floor other than those containing patient beds. For hospitals with more than 350 beds, the number of elevators shall be determined from a study of the hospital plan and the expected vertical transportation requirements. See Guidelines for further elevator requirements, particularly for testing and maintenance elements.

1.1.26.18

1.1.26.19

1.1.26.20

Waste Systems 1.1.26.21 Facilities shall be provided for sanitary storage and treatment or disposal of waste using techniques acceptable to the appropriate health and environment authorities. The functional program shall stipulate the categories and volumes of waste for disposal and shall stipulate the methods of disposal for each. 1.1.27 Mechanical Requirements Heating, Ventilation and Air Conditioning (HVAC) Systems 1.1.27.1 All rooms and areas used for patient care in the facility shall have provisions for ventilation. The facility shall meet the standards for air quality, control of air flow, air pressure differentials, temperature, humidity, smoke control and requirements for specific hospital units as described in 1) Guidelines for Design and Construction of Hospital and Health Care Facilities, American Institute of Architects Academy of Architecture for Health and US Department of Health and Human Services, American Institute of Architects Press, latest edition; and 2) 1999 ASHRAE Handbook: Heating, Ventilating and AirConditioning Applications Chapter 7 Health Care Facilities, Chapter 13 Laboratories, and Chapter 30 Kitchen Ventilation, American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers, Inc., Atlanta, Georgia, U.S.A; and the latest Saudi Aramco Engineering Standards. Where there is a 234

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Health Care Facilities, SASC-S-10

conflict between ventilation requirements in these guidelines, the most stringent standard shall apply. 1.1.27.2 For quick reference, ventilation systems should be designed and balanced according to the requirements shown in Table 1 below. These ventilation rates should be used only as model standards; they do not preclude the use of higher, more appropriate rates. Refer to the requirements noted in 1.1.27.1 above for more complete information.

TABLE 1 (1) General pressure relationships and ventilation of hospital areas Function Space Pressure Relationship To Adjacent (2) Areas P P P P E P P Minimum air changes of outdoor air (3) per hour 15 5 15 5 2 2 5
(7)

Minimum Total air Changes (4) Per hour 15 25 15 25 6 15

All air exhausted directly to (5) outdoors Yes Optional Optional Optional Optional Optional Optional Optional

Air recirculated within (6) room No No No No No No No No

Surgery and Critical Care (8) Operating rooms (all outdoor air system) (recircualting air system) (8) Delivery room (all outdoor air system) (recirculating air system) (8) Recovery room Critical and intensive care (9) Trauma room Bronchoscopy, sputum Collection and pentamidine Admin Endoscopy Anaesthesia gas storage Nursing Patient room Toilet room Newborn nursery suite Isolation (airborne pre(10) cautions) Protective environment room Isolation anteroom Labor/Delivery/Recovery And Postpartum Patient Corridor Diagnostic and Treatment Examination/Treatment Room Medical Room Physical Therapy and Hydrotherapy Soiled Utility Room Clean Utility Room

N E E E N P N P N E E P N N P

2 2 Optional 2 Optional 5 2 2 2 2 2

12 6 8 4 10 12 12 15 10 4 4

Yes Optional Yes Optional Yes Optional Yes Yes Yes Optional Optional

No No No Optional No No No Optional No Optional Optional

2 2 2 2 2

6 4 6 10 4

Optional Optional Optional Yes Optional

Optional Optional Optional No Optional

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TABLE 1 (Continued) (1) General pressure relationships and ventilation of hospital areas Function Space Pressure Relationship To Adjacent (2) Areas Minimum air changes of outdoor air (3) per hour Minimum Total air Changes (4) Per hour All air exhausted directly to (5) outdoors Air recirculated within (6) room

Ancillary Radiology X-ray (Diagnostic and treatment) Darkroom Laboratory General Biochemistry Cytology Glass Washing Histology Microbiology Nuclear Medicine Pathology Serology Sterilizing Autopsy Room Pharmacy Sterilizing And Supply EtO Sterilizing Room Sterilizer Equipment Room Decontamination Room Clean Workroom/Sterile Storage Administration Admitting And Waiting Rooms Service Food Preparation Area Warewashing Dietary Day Storage Laundry, general Soiled linen sorting and Storage Clean linen storage Linen and trash chute room Bedpan room Bathroom Janitor Closet

+ N N P N N N N N N P N N P N N N P

2 2 2 2 2 Optional 2 2 2 2 2 Optional 2 2 Optional Optional 2 2

6 10 6 6 6 10 6 6 10 6 6 10 12 4 10 10 6 4

Optional Yes Yes Optional Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Optional Yes Yes Optional Yes Yes Yes Optional

Optional No No No No Optional No No No No No No No Optional No No No Optional

N N N N P No N N N

2 2 Optional Optional 2 Optional 2 (optional) Optional Optional Optional Optional

6 10 10 2 10 10 2 10 10 10 10

Yes Yes Yes Optional Yes Yes Optional Yes Yes Optional Optional

Optional No No No No No Optional No No No No

__________________________________________________________________________________________________ P = Positive N = Negative E = Equal + = Continuous directional control not required

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Table 1 Notes 1. The ventilation rates in this table cover ventilation for comfort, as well as for asepsis and odor control in areas of acute care hospitals that directly affect patient care, and are determined based on health care facilities being predominantly "no smoking" facilities. Where smoking may be allowed, ventilation rates will need adjustments. Areas where specific ventilation rates are not given in the table shall be ventilated in accordance with ASHRAE Standard 62-1999 Ventilation for Acceptable Indoor Air Quality (Continuous Maintenance Standard). Specialized patient care areas, including organ transplant units, burn units and specialty procedure rooms, shall have additional ventilation provisions for air quality as may be appropriate. 2. Design of the ventilation system shall, insofar as possible, provide that air movement is from "clean to less clean" areas. Areas that do require continuous control are noted with P or N to indicate the required direction of air movement in relation to the space named. Where continuous directional control is not required, variations should be minimized, and in no case should a lack of directional control allow the spread of infection from one area to another. 3. To satisfy exhaust needs, replacement air from outside is necessary. Table 1 does not attempt to describe specific amounts of outside air to be supplied to individual spaces except for certain areas such as those listed. Distribution of the outside air, added to the system to balance required exhaust, shall be as required by good engineering practice. Minimum outside air quantities shall remain constant while the system is in operation. 4. Total air changes indicated should be either supplied or, where required, exhausted. Number of air changes may be reduced when the room is unoccupied; if provisions are made to ensure that the number of air changes indicated is reestablished any time the space is utilized. Adjustments shall include provisions so that the direction of air movement shall remain the same when the number of air changes is reduced. Areas not indicated as having continuous directional control may have ventilation systems shut down when space is unoccupied and ventilation is not otherwise needed. 5. Air from areas with contamination and/or odor problems shall be exhausted to the outside and not recirculated to other areas. Note that individual circumstances may require special consideration for air exhaust to outside, e.g., an intensive care unit in which patients with pulmonary infection are treated, and rooms for burn patients. 6. Recirculating HEPA filter units used for infection control (without heating or cooling coils) are acceptable. 7. For operating rooms, 100% outside air should be used only when codes require it and only if heat recovery devices are used. 8. Areas using anesthetic gases require both local exhaust (scavenging) systems for waste anesthetic gases as well as general ventilation. 9. The term trauma room as used here is the operating room space in the emergency department or other trauma reception area that is used for general initial treatment of accident victims. The first aid room and/or emergency room used for initial treatment of accident victims may be ventilated as noted for the treatment room. The operating room within the trauma center that is routinely used for emergency surgery should be treated as an operating room. Treatment rooms used for cryosurgery procedures with nitrous oxide shall contain provisions for exhausting waste gases. 10. The infectious disease isolation room described in these guidelines is to be used for isolating the airborne spread of infectious diseases such as measles, varicella or tuberculosis. The design of airborne infection isolation rooms should include the provision for normal patient care during periods not requiring isolation precautions. Supplemental recirculating devices may be used in the patient room to increase the equivalent room air exchanges; however, such recirculating devices do not provide the outside air requirements. Air from TB isolation and treatment rooms in new or renovated facilities should not 237

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Health Care Facilities, SASC-S-10

be recirculated into the general ventilation. In existing facilities where this is unavoidable HEPA filters must be installed in the exhaust duct leading from the room to the general ventilation system to remove infectious organisms and particulates the size of droplet nuclei. Rooms with reversible airflow provisions for the purpose of switching between protective environment and aII functions are not acceptable. 11. Protective isolation rooms are used for immunocompromised patients. The protective environment airflow design specifications protect the patient from common environmental airborne infectious organisms, e.g., Aspergillus spores. These special ventilation areas shall be designed to provide directed airflow from the cleanest patient care area to less clean areas. These rooms shall be protected with HEPA filters at 99.97 percent efficiency for a 0.3 m sized particle in the supply airstream. These interrupting filters protect patient rooms from maintenance-derived release of environmental organisms from the ventilation system components. Recirculation HEPA filters can be used to increase the equivalent room air exchanges. Constant volume airflow is required for consistent ventilation for the protected environment. If the facility determines that airborne infection isolation is necessary for protective isolation patients, an anteroom should be provided. 12. Food preparation areas shall have ventilation systems that have an excess air supply for positive pressure when hoods are not in operation. The number of air changes may be reduced or varied to any extent required for odor control when the space is not in use. Minimum total air changes per hour should be that required to provide proper makeup air to kitchen exhaust systems. All central ventilation or air conditioning systems shall be equipped with filters with efficiencies equal to, or greater than, those specified in Table 2. Where two filter beds are required, filter bed no. 1 shall be located upstream of the air conditioning equipment and filter bed no. 2 shall be downstream of any fan or blowers. Filter efficiencies shall be average. Filter frames shall be durable and proportioned to provide an airtight fit with the enclosing ductwork. All joints between filter segments and enclosing ductwork shall have gaskets or seals to provide a positive seal against air leakage. A manometer shall be installed across each filter bed having a required efficiency of 75 percent or more, including hoods requiring HEPA filters. TABLE 2 Filter efficiencies for central ventilation and air conditioning systems in general hospitals Area designation Minimum number Of filter beds Filter Bed No. 1a Orthopedic operating room; bone marrow transplant; organ transplant. Protective environment room General procedure operating rooms; delivery rooms; nurseries; intensive care units; all other areas for inpatient care, treatment and diagnosis, and those areas providing direct service or clean supplies such as sterile and clean processing. Laboratories; sterile storage Administrative; bulk storage; soiled Holding areas; food preparation areas; Laundries Filter efficiencies, % Filter Bed No. 2a Filter Bed No. 3b 1.1.27.3

3 2

25 25

90 99.97

99.97c

2 1

25 80

90 -

25

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Table 2 Notes: a Based on ASHRAE Standard 52-1. b Based on DOP test. c HEPA filters at air outlets. Note: Additional roughing or prefilters should be considered to reduce maintenance required for main filters. 1.1.27.4 Fresh air intakes shall be located at least 7.62 meters (25 feet) from exhaust outlets of ventilating systems, combustion equipment stacks, medical-surgical vacuum systems, plumbing vents, or areas that may collect vehicular exhaust or other noxious fumes. Prevailing winds and proximity to other structures may require greater distances. Each space routinely used for administering inhalation anesthetic and inhalation analgesia shall be served by a scavenging system to vent waste gases. Gases from the scavenging system shall be exhausted directly to the outside. Refer to Guidelines for additional requirements. Ducts that penetrate construction intended to protect against X-ray, magnetic, RFI or other radiation shall not impair the effectiveness of the protection. Laboratory hoods shall meet the following general standards: Have an average face-velocity of at least 0.38 meters per second (75 feet per minute) and a maximum of 0.76 meters per second (150 feet per minute). Be connected to an exhaust system to the outside that is the building exhaust system. separate from

1.1.27.5

1.1.27.6

1.1.27.7

1.1.27.8

Have an exhaust fan located at the discharge end of the system. Have an exhaust duct system of noncombustible corrosion-resistant material as needed to meet the planned usage of the hood.

Laboratory hoods shall meet the following special standards: Fume hoods, and their associated equipment in the air stream, intended for use with other strong oxidants, shall be constructed of stainless steel or other material consistent with special exposures, and be provided with a water wash and drain system to permit periodic flushing of duct and hood. In new construction and major renovation work, each biological safety cabinet (BSC) used to process infectious or radioactive materials shall have a minimum face velocity of 0.45 0.56 meters per second (90-110 feet per minute) with suitable static-pressure-operated dampers and alarms to alert staff of fan shutdown. Biological safety cabinets for infectious materials also have filters with a 99.97 percent efficiency in the exhaust stream, and be designed and equipped to permit the safe removal, disposal and replacement of contaminated filters. Filters shall be as close to the hood as practical to minimize dust contamination. Note:
Requirements for fume hoods and biological safety cabinets vary according to the procedures conducted within the hood or cabinet. Each facility shall fully investigate the applicable requirements prior to using the hood or cabinet.

1.1.27.9

Exhaust hoods handling grease-laden vapors in food preparation centers shall comply with NFPA 96. All hoods over cooking ranges shall be equipped with grease filters, fire extinguishing systems, and heat-actuated fan controls. Cleanout openings shall be provided every 6.10 meters (20 feet) in the horizontal exhaust duct systems serving these hoods. Note: There should be no 239

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horizontal runs of ducts serving range hoods, since this makes it difficult to degrease the ductwork from the roof down, and may cause leakage of caustic degreasing solutions into the facility. where necessary horizontal runs should be kept to an absolute minimum.

1.1.27.10

The ventilation system for anesthesia storage rooms shall conform to the requirements of NFPA 99. The space that houses ethylene oxide (EtO) sterilizers should be designed to: Provide a dedicated point source local exhaust system with adequate capture velocity (i.e., with a minimum capture velocity of 1.02 meters per second [200 feet per minute]) to allow for t