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Sistim listrik pesawat terbang

Sistim listrik pesawat terbang terdiri dari ; 1. listrik arus searah (direct current = DC ) 2. Listrik arus bolak-balik satu fasa atau 3 fasa (alternating current = AC) 3. Motor dan Generator 4. komponen-komponen kelistrikan pesawat terbang 5. Sistim pendistribusian daya listrik Sistim arus searah pada pesawat terbang dibutuhkan untuk pengisian battery karena sistim teknologi penyimpanan listrik masih tetap menggunakan sistim arus searah Arus bolak balik satu fasa dan 3 fasa : Kebanyakan sistim listrik pesawat terbang dewasa ini menggunakan sumber daya listrik arus bolak-balik, sekalipun penyediaan listrik arus searah juga tetap digunakan, utamanya sebagai cadangan dalam kondisi darurat, karena juga sebagaimana telah diterangkan diatas, teknologi penyimpanan listrik masih berbasis pada sistim arus searah dari battery. Tenaga listrik arus bolak-balik jauh lebih banyak dan luwes dalam penggunaannya karena antara lain ; Tegangan listrik arus bolak-balik dengan mudah dapat diubah besarnya dengan menggunakan transformator. Hal ini memungkinkan mengirimkan daya listrik tegangan tinggi dengan arus rendah dan dengan demikian mengurangi bentuk dan berat yang dibutuhkan Arus bolak balik dapat dihasilkan menjadi sistim 3 fasa, yang memungkinkan penggunaan motor yang kecil tapi berdaya besar. Mesin-mesin arus bolak-balik seperti alternator dan motor tidak lagi membutuhkan komutator atau sikat-sikat sehingga memudahkan dalam sistim pemeliharaannya.

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Peralatan-peralatan pesawat terbang yang menggunakan daya listrik antara lain ; instrument, lampu-lampu neon, peralatan radio, motor-motor listrik, peralatan navigasi dan pilot otomatis. Frequency atau getaran ; adalah period dari satu siklus ayunan mulai dari nol ke maksimum atau minimum dan kembali ketitik nol dalam satu detik. Getaran sumber arus bolak-balik pada pesawat terbang umumnya sebesar 400 hertz atau 400 ayunan per detik ( cycle/second). Getaran sebesar ini memberikan efek yang baik bagi bekerjanya suatu rangkaian kelistrikan dan elektronika pesawat terbang, karena mendekati sifat-sifatarus rata.

gambar gelombang DC satu lingkaran

gambar gelombang DC 4 lingkaran/loop

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gambar gelombang AC satu dan 3 fasa. Motor dan generator Motor dan generator arus searah/DC terdiri dari ; - Medan magnit; yang dihasilkan oleh magnit tetap atau kumparan gelombang elektromagnit - Jangkar atau rotor; terdiri dari lingkaran kawat/loop yang berputar

- 4 - Commutator; suatu cincin-cincin geser/penyapu yang menghubungkankeujung-ujung kumparan. Bentuk ini biasanya sebuah cincin/ring yang terba-

gi dua bagian yang Setiap bagian terhubung ke jangkar/armature. Motor arus searah/DC motor terdiri dari ; - series wound motor atau motor deret dimana kumparan medan terhubung deret dengan jangkar/armature. Biasa disebut motor series.

motor jenis deret ini mempunyai putaran start yang kuat tetapi tidak boleh dioperasikan dalam waktu yang lama karena membutuhkan arus yang besar. Umumnya digunakan untuk penggerak seperti motor starter, penggerak hidraulik , menaikan dan menurunkan roda pendarat, flap dan lain-lain.

Motor Shunt; motor dengan gulungan medan yang dihubungkan jajar/parallel dengan armature/rotor/jangkar.

tenaga putaran awal rendah dan tahan terhadap kelebihan putaran. Motor jenis ini umumnya disebut motor dengan putaran constant dan banyak digunakan sebagai motor untuk kipas listrik, pompa sentrifugal dan inverter putar. Motor Compound Motor compound mempunyai kumparan medan yang terhubung deret/series dan jajar/parallel dengan jangkar/armature/rotor.Mempunyai putaran awal yang kuat dan tahan terhadap putaran tinggi serta digunakan untuk banyak tujuan termasuk penggerak pompa hidraulik.

- 6 Motor dan Generator arus bolak-balik Terdiri dari bagian-bagian ; - Medan magnit; boleh magnit permanent atau kumparan medan elektromagnet

- jangkar/rotor atau armature berupa kumparan yang berputar - Slip ring/cincin geser atau sikat-sikat yang terhubung dengan ujung-ujung kumparan. Pada jenis motor dan generator arus bolak-balik yang modern, yang biasa disebut Permanent Magnet generator ( PMG ) yang terdiri dari ; - Permanent magnet generator - Generator exciter - Main generator/generator utama Generator arus bolak-balik/AC generator - Alternator - Auxiliary Power Unit - Ram Air Turbine umumnya keluarannya/outputnya 3 fasa 115 volt AC Starter generator; kombinasi antara generator dan stsrter dalam satu wadah. Digunakan umumnya pada pesawat-pesawat jet kecil sebagai pembangkit tenaga arus searah. Gulungan medan deretnya menghasilkan putaran yang kuat untuk memutar engine.Sedangkan bila berfungsi sebagai generator mampu membangkitkan tegangan arus searah/DC sebesar 28,5 volt dengan arus sampai 300 ampere.

-7Komponen-komponen

Voltage Regulator atau pengatur tegangan ; berfungsi untuk mempertahankan agar mendapatkan tegangan yang konstan dari generator dengan mengontrol kekuatan medan magnetnya.Hal ini dikarenakan karena

output dari generator tergantung pada ; - kecepatan putar rotor/jangkar - jumlah konduktor yang tersambung dengan jangkar - kekuatan dari medan magnet. Komponen utama dari Voltage regulator adalah Rheostat/ tahanan geser yang digunakan untuk mengatur kuat arus pada kumparan medan. Constant Speed Drive ( CSD) ; suatu pemindah otomatis yang menghasilkan putaran yang constant walaupun putaran mesin penggeraknya berubah-ubah. Alat ini digunakan pada semua Generator AC. Getaran output dari generator akan constant sebesar 400 HZ Sebuah CSD akan tidak terhubung baik manual atau otomatis karena : - kehilangan oli - Kelebihan temperature - kerusakan pada sistem generator Reverse Current Cutout Relay Adalah suatu sistem pencegahan otomatis yang memutuskan hubungan generator dari battery bila tegangan generator lebih rendah dari dari tegangan battery, karena bila tidak, maka battery akan membuang muatannya ke generator dan akan membakar gulungan jangkar.

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Inverter Suatu alat untuk merubah arus searah/DC menjadi arus bolak-balik/AC dengan getaran dan tegangan yang diperlukan; sebesar 26 Volt AC 400 HZ atau 115 volt AC 400 HZ Pada pesawat yang besar-besar inverter digunakan hanya bila semua generator tidak berfungsi dan sumber daya hanya dimungkinkan dari battery. Pada pesawat yang kecil, inverter digunakan Setiap saat. Transformator Rectifier unit ( TRU); hamper seperti inverter, hanya merubah arus bolak-balik/AC menjadi arus searah/DC.Menggunakan transformator penurun tegangan /Step Down Transformator dengan penyearah gelombang penuh,outputnya 28 volt DC.

- 9 Bus Tied Switch ; suatu sakelar yang digunakan memutuskan hubungan antara dua bus yang tersambung pada saat darurat/emergency. Fungsi utamanya adalah untuk mengisolasi dan pencegahan.

Protective devices/ alat-alat pencegah ; - Circuit Breaker/ pemutus rangkaian ; suatu alat yang dapat memutuskan dan dapat dihubungkan kembali setelah kesalahan diperbaiki. - Fuses/ sekering ; memutuskan arus dan tidak dapat terhubung kembali kecuali diganti setelah kesalahan diperbaiki.

- 10 - Master Switch ; memutuskan semua hubungan ke sistem penyaluran daya dan dapat diatur ulang bila kesalahan telah diperbaiki. - Ammeter : suatu alat penunjuk dari sistim daya dari beban. Biasanya terdapat garis merah untuk menentukan bila sistem kelebihan beban.

- Bus Bar ; suatu penghantar dari tembaga yang dirancang untuk menampung semua beban listrik dan mendistribusikan kebeban-beban yang membutuhkan daya.

- 11 - hampir semua pesawat yang berstruktur logam, kutub positive dari generator atau battery dihubungkan ke bus bar, dan kutub negative dihubungkan ke struktur logam sebagai bumi/ground/pertanahan. - Pada pesawat dengan motor yang lebihdari satu, Setiap alternator/Generator AC mempunyai Bus pendistribusian masing-masing.

- Setiap Bus mempunyai fungsi pendistribusian kekelompok beban tertentu. - Bus Bar sering dikategorikan seperti ; AC atau DC, Kiri atau kanan, perlu atau tidak perlu. - Sumber daya harus mampu memberi daya kepada beban-beban sendiri-sendiri atau gabungan dan dalam waktu yang diinginkan seperti ; beban yang terhubung ke suatu sistem dan sistem berfungsi secara normal. Beban yang perlu, setelah terjadi kesalahan/kerusakan terhadap penggerak utama,converter daya atau alat penyimpan daya (battery) Beban-beban yang perlu setelah terjadi kesalahan pada satu engine atau keduanya. Beban yang perlu dimana diperlukan sumber tenaga alternative, setelah terjadinya ketidak fungsian dari salah satu sistim penyedia daya, sistim didtribusi atau sistim penggunaan lainnya. Dasar pendistribusian tenaga listrik

Split Bus electrical system ;terdiri dari 2 unit lengkap pembangkit tenaga yang diisolasi, tiap sistem terdiri dari generator AC, transformer rectifier dan distribution bus.

- 12 bila terjadi kerusakan pada generator, generator yang beroperasi dihubungkan sedemikian rupa untuk memberikan daya kepada beban yang perlu, atau generator APU dapat digunakan untuk memberikan daya ke beban-beban dari generator yang rusak. Alat ini terdapat pada pesawat-pesawat jenis Boeing 737, 757, 767, MD-80, Airbus A300, A310. Parallel Electrical System ; semua generator AC dihubungkan ke satu distribution bus. Selama generator dihubungkan parallel ke common bus, semua tegangan generator, getarannya dan fasenya harus dalam batas-batas yang sesesuai mungkin agar bekerjanya tepat.

Split parallel Electrical system ; Sistem ini hampir sama dengan parallel electrical system, kecuali split system breaker antara bus- bus. System ini memiliki keluwesan dalam pendistribusian daya dan tetap mengisolasi antara system bila diperlukan. Sistem seperti ini terdapat pada pesawat Boeing 747-400

- 13 Urutan penggunaan sesuai keperluannya adalah sebagai berikut : Non Critical System ; disuplai oleh generator Least critical System ; disuplai oleh generator Most critical system /essential ; disupali oleh generator atau battery.

Sistem pendidtribusian daya pada pesawat ringan dengan satu mesin :

Pada pesawat ringan dengan 2 mesin

- 14 daya pada pesawat turbo propeller dengan 2 mesin

- 15 distribusi daya pada pesawat besar dengan 2 mesin :

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LIGHTS
GENERAL, Most light assemblies are readily replaceable with standard tools. However, certain precautions should be taken in the selection of lamps used as replacements. Lamps of different voltages ratings may have the same physical characteristics; therefore, size and shape of lamp should not be used as only criteria for selecting replacement lamps. Always verify that identification number on replacement lamp is correct for the application.

Primary lighting power used is 115 volts AC. Step-down transformers and transformer rectifier units supply the various levels of AC and DC voltages required by specific lighting groups. Lighting controls are conveniently located through out the aircraft and vary in complexity from simple toggle switches to logic circuitry. Aircraft lighting consists of: Exterior Lighting (Exterior lights illuminate the aircraft and landing area during flight operations. They illuminate the runway and taxi areas during ground operations. Interior Lighting (Flight Compartment Lighting, Passenger Compartment Lighting also Cargo and Service Compartment Lighting), and Emergency Lighting (Each interior and exterior emergency light gives lighting to the escape paths. There are lights for the aisles and exits and their associated areas. Exterior Lighting The exterior lights are the lights installed on the outer side of the aircraft for the purpose: Make the airplane more easily seen. Supply lighting to the areas around the aircraft. Supply lighting to the external surfaces of the aircraft Exterior lights are controlled by switches on the control panel in the cockpit. Landing lights supply lighting to the runway, runway lights supply lighting to the area in front of and to the side of the airplane, taxi light supplies lighting to the area in the direction the nose wheels are pointed, position (anti-collision) lights make the aircraft more easily seen are installed on each wingtip and fuselage. Landing and runway lights, - are adjusted to give good lighting when landing or turning on the runway. Power is supplied from the 115 volt AC buses through step-down transformers provide an output of 28 volts AC for the operation of the lights. A retractable landing light is attached on outboard flap track fairing. Runway lights are adjacent to landing lights; power is supplied from the 28 volt AC buses. Taxi light, - is installed on a bracket on the inner cylinder of the nose gear shock strut. The nose gear taxi light turns with the nose gear wheels so they are always aligned together

Exterior Lighting

Run away lights

Landing lights

Electrical transmission and distribution system

Flight compartment lighting includes general and special types of area lighting. The intensity of the lighting can be changed for the best visual condition. The lamps operate on 5 volts, the 28 volts AC transfer buses supply electrical power to the lighting controls to a step-down autotransformer. If there is a electrical power failure, AC standby bus supplies electrical power to the lamps in some flight control instruments. The panel light control adjusts the lighting intensity can be to increase or decrease the brightness

Passenger compartments, - lighting provides illumination of the entire passenger cabin. It also provides area lighting for entryway; attendants work areas, lavatories, and galleys. Passenger information signs, reading, and attendant call lights are also installed. Passenger compartment lighting comes from these sources: Ceiling Lights Night Lights Sidewall Lights.

Passenger cabin illumination is provided by fluorescent lights installed in the ceiling and sidewall panels throughout the passenger cabin. Reading lights are installed in the passenger service units Switches are located adjacent to the respective reading light on PSUs. Lavatories are illuminated with dome lights in the ceiling. Controls for the lighting are on panels in the passenger compartment, for lavatory lighting controls are within each unit.

The emergency lights automatically supply lighting and identify the exits, if the airplane has an electrical power failure. In this condition, the emergency lighting replaces the usual lighting. Electrical power is supplied to the emergency lighting system by 6 volt battery operated power supplies, independently from airplane generator and battery busses. The interior emergency lights supply lighting to the passenger compartment and the flight compartment. Aisle lights supply lighting to the aisle from the ceiling. Exit signs show the passengers where the doors and escape hatches are. Floor proximity emergency lights identify the aisle and the exits of the passenger compartment.

Exterior emergency lights are 6-volt incandescent lights installed on the outer side of the airplane. These lights are pointed to supply lighting to the paths of deployed emergency evacuation slides.

ELECTRICAL SYSTEMS
GENERAL - The term electrical system as used in aircraft means those parts of the aircraft that generate, distribute, and use electrical energy, including their support and attachments. The electrical power system consists of AC Electrical Power and DC Electrical Power. AC Electrical Power, - generators supply are the primary sources of power for the main AC buses and the whole electrical power system. Generators are driven by the engines and one generator is driven by the auxiliary power unit (APU). External power, provided via the external power receptacle of the aircraft. Transformers provide power to AC buses by reducing AC power. A static inverter converts DC battery power to AC power. Each engine is equipped with a CSD driven generator. The CSD provides a constant drive speed to the generator regardless of the actual engine RPM. The CSD operation is similar to an automobile automatic transmission. Each generator supplies three phase, 115 volt, and 400 cycle alternating current to a maximum load of 40 KVA or 111 Ampere draw. DC Electrical Power, - A battery provides 28-volt DC power to start the APU. Transformerrectifier (T-R) units provide DC power by converting AC power. Most land-based power systems use alternating current (AC) rather than direct current (DC), principally because transformers can be used only with AC. An AC distribution system usually contains one or more generators (technically known as ALTERNATORS in an aircraft system); a wiring system of FEEDERS, which carry the generated power to a distribution center; and the DISTRIBUTION CENTER, which distributes the power to wiring systems called PRIMARY MAINS and SECONDARY MAINS. Engine-driven generators are driven by constant speed drives to obtain a generator speed constant of 6000 rpm. Electrical transmission and distribution system power the entire electrical power power provides power to airplane distribution. A battery is used as a standby Transformer - Rectifier (T-R) Units The the The APU APU APU AC external power, when provided to the external power receptacle, can system only the ground. External when switch is set directly to power

CS GEN D 2

AP U

GE N

When on the APU to power and #2 systems. When inbackup power to electrical if

generator is directly driven by itself. generator is identical to the engine generators. the ground, may be used both the #1 Electrical flight, the APU generator can provide either the #1 or #2 system, necessary.

CS D

GEN 1

power

supply.

ELECTRICAL POWER SYSTEM SCHEMATIC

EXTERNAL AC BUS
CSD
GEN 1

APU

GEN
GEN 2

CSD

GENERATOR BUS 1

GENERATOR BUS 2

115VAC GND SERVICE BUS

115VAC MAIN BUS 1

115VAC TRANSFER BUS 1

115VAC TRANSFER BUS 2

115VAC MAIN BUS 2

TR 1

TR 2

TR 3

DC BUS 1
AC STANDBY BUS

DC BUS 2

DC STANDBY BUS

BATTERY BUS

INV
APU START
BATT CHGR

HOT BATTERY BUS

BATT

The aircraft battery is located in the Electronics Compartment. The battery is a 28 volt nickelcadmium battery. The battery can supply DC power to certain busses when necessary. Charging of the battery is automatic. We will describe the indicators and gauges on this panel. The DC meters and switches are shown on the left. The AC meters and switches are shown on the right.

0 - 50 + 50 380 400 CPS FREQ

DC AMPS

420

110 20 0
DC VOLTS 10

120 AC VOLTS 13 30

40

TR 1 BAT BAT BUS STBY PWR

TR 2

GEN 1 GRD PWR STBY PWR GALLEY OFF

APU GEN

GEN 2

TR 3

INV

TEST

TEST RESID VOLTS

OFF BAT ON

ON

AC

AC GENERATION Generator, - used to produce an alternating current re called AC generators or alternator. The elementary AC generator consists of a conductor or loop of wire in a magnetic field that is produced by an electromagnet. The two ends of the loop are connected to slip rings, and they are in contact with two brushes. When the loop rotates it cuts magnetic lines of force, first in one direction and then the other. Rotating loop (A and B) placed between two magnetic poles North (N) and South (S), the ends loop are connected to two metal strip rings (collector rings) C1 and C2. Current is taken from the collector rings by brushes. As the coil rotates in a counter-clockwise direction, the coil sides will cut the magnetic lines of force in opposite directions. The direction of the induced voltages depends on the direction of movement of the coil.

There are two alternations in a complete cycle, the positive alternation and the negative. The number of times each cycle occurs in a period of time is called the frequency, the frequency of an electric current or voltage indicates the number of times a cycle recurs in 1 second. In a generator, the voltage and current pass through a complete cycle of values each time a coil or conductors passes under a north and south poles of the magnet. The frequency then, is equal to the number of cycles in one revolution multiplied by the number of revolutions per second.

Simple Generator

DC GENERATION A basic DC generator has four basic parts: (1) A magnetic field; (2) A single conductor, or loop; (3) A commutators; and (4) Brushes.

The magnetic field may be supplied by either a permanent magnet or an electromagnet. For now, we will use a permanent magnet to describe a basic DC generator.

Basic Operation of a DC Generator A single conductor, shaped in the form of a loop, is positioned between the magnetic poles. As long as the loop is stationary, the magnetic field has no effect (no relative motion). If we rotate the loop, the loop cuts through the magnetic field, and an EMF (voltage) is induced into the loop. When we have relative motion between a magnetic field and a conductor in that magnetic field, and the direction of rotation is such that the conductor cuts the lines of flux, an EMF is induced into the conductor. The magnitude of the induced EMF depends on the field strength and the rate at which the flux lines are cut, as given in equation.

The stronger the field or the more flux lines cut for a given period of time, the larger the induced EMF. By replacing slip rings of basic AC generator with two half-cylinders, called a commutators; a basic DC generator is obtained. The two segments are insulated from each other; the two stationary brushes are placed on opposite sides of the commutators and are so mounted that each brush contacts each segment of the commutators as the latter revolves simultaneously with the loop. The rotating parts of a DC generator (coil and commutators) are called an armature. The generation of an EMF by the loop rotating in the magnetic field is the same for both AC and DC generators, but the action of the commutators produces a DC voltage. EMERGENCY GENERATION A generator converts mechanical energy into electrical energy. Generators that produce AC are called AC generators or alternators. The few requirements that remain for direct current (dc) are normally supplied by a system of rectifiers. A rectifier converts AC power to DC power. The storage battery was the only source of emergency electrical power. Also, the aircraft storage battery with its highly corrosive electrolyte damages precision equipment and precious metals used in today's aircraft for these reasons, there are new methods of providing emergency electrical power. Emergency generators, - these generators provide emergency electrical power in the event of main electrical power failure. In

some aircraft, a power package positioned out- side the aircraft provides emergency electrical power. When required, the pilot operates a lever that causes the package to stick out into the airflow. The ram-air effect of the airflow provides the turning power for a turbine. The turbine, in turn, rotates the generator's armature that produces the electrical power. VOLTAGE REGULATION The problem of voltage regulation in an AC system does not differ basically from that in a DC system the purpose of a voltage regulator is to maintain the output voltage of a generator at a desired value, maintain a balance of circulating current throughout the system and eliminate sudden changes in voltage (anti-hunting) when a load is applied to the system. There is one important difference between the regulators system of DC generators and alternators operated in a parallel configuration. The main reason for this change in voltage is the change in the voltage drop across the armature winding caused by a change in load current. AC generator voltage regulator, - this regulator consists of six basic circuits that together regulate the output voltage of an AC generator from no-load to full-load.

Voltage Regulator Block Diagram

Sensing circuit, - senses output voltage of the AC generator. As the generator is loaded or unloaded, the output voltage changes, and the sensing circuit provides a signal of these voltage changes. This signal is proportional to output voltage and is sent to the comparison circuit. Reference circuit, - maintains a constant output for reference. This reference is the desired voltage output of the AC generator. Comparison circuit, - electrically compares the reference voltage to the sensed voltage and provides an error signal. This error signal represents an increase or decrease in output voltage. The signal is sent to the amplification circuit. Amplification circuit, - which can be a magnetic amplifier or transistor amplifier, takes the signal from the comparison circuit and amplifies the milliamp input to an amp output, which is then sent to the signal output, or field, circuit. Signal output circuit, - which controls field excitation of the AC generator, increases or decreases field excitation to either raise or lower the AC output voltage. Feedback circuit, - takes some of the output of the signal output circuit and feeds it back to the amplification circuit. It does this to prevent overshooting or undershooting of the desired voltage by slowing down the circuit response. Sensing circuit senses the decrease in output voltage as compared to the reference and lowers its input to the comparison circuit. Since the reference circuit is always a constant, the comparison circuit will develop an error signal due to the difference between the sensed voltage and the reference voltage.

The error signal developed will be of a positive value with the magnitude of the signal dependent on the difference between the sensed voltage and the reference voltage. This output from the comparison circuit will then be amplified by the amplifier circuit and sent to the signal output circuit. The signal output circuit then increases field excitation to the AC generator. This increase in field excitation causes generated voltage to increase to the desired output. If the load on the generator were decreased, the voltage output of the machine would rise. The actions of the voltage regulator would then be the opposite of that for a lowering output voltage. In this case, the comparison circuit will develop a negative error signal whose magnitude is again dependent on the difference between the sensed voltage and the reference voltage. As a result, the signal output circuit will decrease field excitation to the AC generator, causing the generated voltage to decrease to the desired output. POWER DISTRIBUTION Delivery of power to building premises on poles or placed underground, from the power plant or substation through feeders and mains. Most AC power distribution system is 115/200-volt, 3-phase, and 400-Hz power. The ac power distribution system consists of the power source, equipment to distribute the power, and the equipment which uses the power. The power source can be the ship from generator or the external power generator. Power is normally distributed through the ship service distribution switchboards and power panels. Some large ships also use load centers that function as remote switchboards. Power is used by any equipment that requires electrical power for its operation (lights, motors, etc). If power from the ship service distribution system is interrupted, the emergency power distribution system is activated. The emergency system supplies an immediate and automatic source of electrical power to selected loads that are vital to the safety. Bus transfer equipment is installed on switchboards, at load centers, on power panels, and on loads that are fed by normal and alternate and/or emergency feeders. INVERTER The INVERTER, often referred to as a NOT gate, is a logic device that has an output opposite of the input. It is sometimes called a NEGATOR. When an inverter is used alone, it is represented by the symbol (view A). It will more often be seen in conjunction with the symbol for an amplifier (view B). Symbols for inverters used in combination with other devices will be shown. If we apply P to the input of the inverter then the output will be the opposite of the input. The output, in this case, is P. At times T0 through T2, P is LOW. Consequently, the output (P) is HIGH. At T2, P goes HIGH and as a result P goes LOW. P remains LOW as long as P is HIGH and vice versa. The Boolean expression for the output of this gate is f = P. You will recall that P is the complement of P. below. P 0 f 1 The Truth Table for an inverter is shown

The inverter is a general purpose, direct current (DC) to alternating current (AC), static inverter which provides a 115-volt alternating current power source for use there systems if required. The basic functional entities of the inverter are the input filter, inverter drive, silicone controlled rectifier (SCR) inverter, and the ferro resonant transformer and filter. The input filter attenuates noise such that the inverter does not introduce noise back onto the input dc line. The inverter driver operates the SCR inverter which in turn, operates in a square wave mode to drive the Ferro resonant output transformer. The Ferro resonant transformer and filter provide a 115- volt, with voltage regulation, current limiting, and harmonic suppression located inside the inverter and the cables from external equipment must be routed to their respective terminal boards through openings in the rear panel of the inverter.

TRANSFORMER Most basic form a transformer consists of: A primary coil or winding. A secondary coil or winding. A core that supports the coils or windings. The primary winding is connected to an ac voltage source. The magnetic field (flux) builds up (expands) and collapses (contracts) about the primary winding. The expanding and contracting magnetic field around the primary winding cuts the secondary winding and induces an alternating voltage into the winding. This voltage causes alternating current to flow through the load. The voltage may be stepped up or down depending on the design of the primary and secondary windings. THE COMPONENTS OF A TRANSFORMER, - Two coils of wire (called windings) are wound on some type of core material. In some cases the coils of wire are wound on a cylindrical or rectangular cardboard form. In effect, the core material is air and the transformer is called an AIRCORE TRANSFORMER. Transformers used at low frequencies, such as 60 hertz and 400 hertz, require a core of low-reluctance magnetic material, usually iron. This type of transformer is called an IRON-CORE TRANSFORMER. Most power transformers are of the iron-core type.

The principle parts of a transformer and their functions are: The CORE, which provides a path for the magnetic lines of flux. The PRIMARY WINDING, which receives energy from the ac source.

The SECONDARY WINDING, which receives energy from the primary winding and delivers it to the load. The ENCLOSURE, which protects the above components from dirt, moisture, and mechanical damage.

CORE CHARACTERISTICS, - The composition of a transformer core depends on such factors as voltage, current, and frequency. Size limitations and construction costs are also factors to be considered. Commonly used core materials are air, soft iron, and steel. Each of these materials is suitable for particular applications and unsuitable for others. Generally, air-core transformers are used when the voltage source has a high frequency (above 20 kHz). Iron-core transformers are usually used when the source frequency is low (below 20 kHz). A soft-iron-core transformer is very useful where the transformer must be physically small, yet efficient. The iron-core transformer provides better power transfer than does the air-core transformer. A transformer whose core is constructed of laminated sheets of steel dissipates heat readily; thus it provides for the efficient transfer of power. These steel laminations are insulated with a non-conducting material, such as varnish, and then formed into a core. It takes about 50 such laminations to make a core an inch thick. The purpose of the laminations is to reduce certain losses which will be discussed later in this chapter. An important point to remember is that the most efficient transformer core is one that offers the best path for the most lines of flux with the least loss in magnetic and electrical energy. Hollow-Core Transformers, - There are two main shapes of cores used in laminated-steel-core transformers. One is the HOLLOW-CORE, so named because the core is shaped with a hollow square through the center. The most popular and efficient transformer core is the SHELL CORE each layer of the core consists of E- and I-shaped sections of metal. These sections are butted together to form the laminations. The laminations are insulated from each other and then pressed together to form the core. TRANSFORMER WINDINGS, - As stated above, the transformer consists of two coils called WINDINGS which are wrapped around a core. The transformer operates when a source of ac voltage is connected to one of the windings and a load device is connected to the other. The winding that is connected to the source is called the PRIMARY WINDING. The winding that is connected to the load is called the SECONDARY WINDING.

In the transformer shown in the cutaway view, the primary consists of many turns of relatively small wire. The wire is coated with varnish so that each turn of the winding is insulated from every other turn. In a transformer designed for high-voltage applications, sheets of insulating material, such as paper, are placed between the layers of windings to

provide additional insulation. When the primary winding is completely wound, it is wrapped in insulating paper or cloth. The secondary winding is then wound on top of the primary winding. After the secondary winding is complete, it too is covered with insulating paper. Next, the E and I sections of the iron core are inserted into and around the windings as shown. The leads from the windings are normally brought out through a hole in the enclosure of the transformer. Sometimes, terminals may be provided on the enclosure for connections to the windings. The figure shows four leads, two from the primary and two from the secondary. These leads are to be connected to the source and load, respectively. SCHEMATIC SYMBOLS FOR TRANSFORMERS, - Typical schematic symbols for transformers an air-core transformer is shown in figure (A). Parts (B) and (C) show iron-core transformers. The bars between the coils are used to indicate an iron core. Frequently, additional connections are made to the transformer windings at points other than the ends of the windings. These additional connections are called TAPS. When a tap is connected to the center of the winding, it is called a CENTER TAP.

0 + 50 400

380

DC AMPS 420

120 110

Block diagram of a basic power supply RECTIFIER

Most power supplies are made up of four basic sections: a TRANSFORMER, a RECTIFIER, a FILTER, and a REGULATOR. The first section is the TRANSFORMER; - the transformer serves two primary purposes: (1) To step up or step down the input line voltage to the desired level and (2) To couple this voltage to the rectifier section. The RECTIFIER section converts the ac signal to a pulsating dc voltage. However, you will see later in this chapter that the pulsating dc voltage is not desirable. For this reason, a FILTER section is used to convert the pulsating dc voltage to filtered DC voltage. The final section, the REGULATOR, does just what the name implies. It maintains the output of the power supply at a constant level in spite of large changes in load current or in input line voltage. Depending upon the design of the equipment, the output of the regulator will maintain a constant dc voltage within certain limits. The filter section contains a network of resistors, capacitors, or inductors that controls the rise and fall time of the varying signal so that the signal remains at a more constant dc level. You will see this more clearly in the discussion of the actual filter circuits. The transformer has several purposes: In addition to coupling the input ac signal to the power supply, it also isolates the electronic power supply from the external power source and either steps up or steps down the ac voltage to the desired level. Additionally, most input transformers have separate step-down windings to supply filament voltages to both power supply tubes and the tubes in the external equipment (load). RECTIFIERS, - that rectification is theDC changing of an ac voltage to a pulsating dc voltage. VOLTS 0 30 Now let's discuss the process of rectification. Since a diode vacuum tube will pass current in only one direction, it is ideally suited for converting alternating current to direct current. If an ac voltage is applied to a diode, the diode will conduct ONLY DURING THE POSITIVE ALTERNATION OF VOLTAGE when the plate of the diode is made positive with respect to the cathode. During the positive alternation of the source voltage, the sine wave applied to the tube makes the plate positive with respect to the cathode. At this time the diode conducts and plate current flows from the negative supply lead, through the milliammeter, through the tube, and to the positive supply lead. This is indicated by the shaded area of the output waveform. This current exists during the entire period of time that the plate is positive with respect to the cathode. During the negative alternation of plate voltage (dotted polarity signs), the plate is driven negative and the tube cannot conduct. When conditions prevent the tube from conducting, the tube is said to be in CUTOFF. This is indicated dotted waveform. The tube will be in cutoff and no will flow for the entire negative alternation.

by the current

Simple diode rectifier

For each 360-degree cycle of input voltage, the tube conducts for 180 degrees and is in cutoff for 180 degrees. The circuit current therefore has the appearance of a series of positive pulses, as shown by the shaded areas. Notice that although the current is in the form of pulses, the current always flows through the circuit in THE SAME DIRECTION. Current that

flows in pulses in the same direction is called PULSATING DC. The diode has thus RECTIFIED the input voltage. Although the principle of rectification applies to all rectifier circuits, some rectifiers are more efficient than others. For this reason, we will explain the three rectifier circuits most commonly used in electronics today-the half-wave, full-wave, and bridge.

Circuit Protective and Control Devices

TR 1

APU GEN

It is very important to protect aircraft components, injury personnel, and that with properly controls electrical circuit under proper control. Most serious trouble in a circuit is a direct short, term direct short describes a situation in which some point in the circuit, where full system voltage is present, come direct contact with the ground or return side of the circuit. According to Ohms Law, if the resistance in a circuit is small, the current will greatest. When a direct short occurs, there will be an extremely heavy current flowing through the wires or cables. To protect aircraft electrical systems from damage and failure cause by excessive current, several kinds of protective devices are installed; Fuses, Circuit Breakers, Thermal Protectors are used for this purpose.

Circuit Breaker

Fuse, - a fuse is a strip of metal that will melt when current in excess of its carefully determined capacity flow through it. The fuse is installed in the circuit so that all the current in the circuit passes through it. Most of fuses, the strip metal is made of an alloy of tin and bismuth, other fuses are made of copper and are called current limiters. Fuse melts and breaks the circuit when the current exceeds the rated capacity of the fuse. When fuse is replaced the applicable manufacturers instructions should be consulted to be sure a fuse of the correct type and capacity installed. Two type fuse holders are installed in aircraft; Plug-in holders are used for small type and low capacity fuses, and Clip type holders are used for heavy high capacity fuses.

Circuit Breakers, - is designed to break the circuit and stop the current flow when the current exceeds a predetermined value. Circuit breakers differs from a fuse in that it trips to break the circuit and it may be reset, while fuse melts and must be replaced. There several types of circuit breakers in general use in the aircraft systems; Magnetic type and Thermal overload switch or Breaker. This consists of a bimetallic strip which it becomes overheated from excessive current, bends away from a catch on the switch lever and permits the switch to trip open. Most circuit breakers must be reset by hand and when overload condition still exists, the circuit breakers will trip again to prevent damage to the circuit. Thermal Protectors, - or switch is used to protect a motor, it designed to open the circuit automatically whenever the temperature of the motor become excessively high. It has two positions, open and closed. If a malfunction in motor causes it to overheat, the thermal switch

will break the circuit intermittently. Thermal switch contains a bimetallic disks, or strip, which bends and breaks the circuit when it is heated (one metal expands than the other subjected to the same temperature). When the strip or disk cools, the metals contract and the strip return to its original position and close the circuit. Control Devices, - the units in the electrical circuits in an aircraft are not all intended to operate continuously or automatically. Most of them are meant to operate at certain time, certain conditions, to perform very definite functions. There must be controlling their operation, either a switch or a relay may be included in the circuit for this purpose. SWITCHES, - switch is used to start, to stop, or to change the direction of the current flow in the circuit. Switch must be able to carry the normal current of the circuit and must be insulated heavy enough for the voltage of the circuit.

Single-Pole Single-Throw Knife and Toggle switches

Single-Pole Single-Throw Knife and Toggle switches

Knife switches are seldom used on aircraft, Toggle switches operate much the same as Knife switches but they moving parts are enclosed. A pole of switch is its moveable blade or contactor, number of poles is equal to the number of circuits or paths for current flow that can be completed through the switch at any one time. Throw of switch indicates the number of circuits or paths for current that it is possible to complete through the switch with each pole or contactor.

Example on figure it is possible to complete only one circuit through a switch, the switch is a Single-Pole Single-Throw (SPST) switch. A single-pole switch through

Single-Pole Double-Throw Knife and Toggle switches which two circuits can be completed (not at the same time) is a Single-Pole Double-Throw (SPDT) switch. A switch with two contactors or poles, each of which completes only one circuit, is a DoublePole Single-Throw (DPST) that can complete two circuits, one circuit at the time through each pole.

Double-Pole Single-Throw Knife and Toggle switches

- 38 Schematic representation for typical switches A toggle that is spring-loaded to the OFF position and must be held in the ON position to complete the circuits is a momentary contact two-position switch. One that will come to rest at either of two positions, opening the circuit in one position and closing it in another, is a two-position switch. A switch that stays open, except when it is held in the closed position, is a normally open switch (identified as NO). One that stays closed, except when it is held in the open position, is a normally close switch (identified as NC). Both kinds are spring-loaded position to their normal position and will return to that position as soon as they are released.

Push Button switch, have one stationary contact and one moveable contact. The moveable contact is attached to the push button. The push button is either an insulator itself or is insulated from the contact. This switch is spring-loaded and designed for momentary contact. Micro-switches will open or close a circuit with a very small movement of the tripping device. Micro-switches are usually push-button switches; they are used primarily as limit switches to provide automatic control of landing gears, actuator motors. When the operating plunger is pressed in, the spring and the moveable contact are pushed, opening the contacts and the circuit.

Cross section of a Micro-switch

Rotary-selector switch, - take the place of several switches when the knob of the switch is rotated, the switch opens one circuit and closes another. -39Ignition switches and voltmeter selector switches are typical of this kind of switch. Relays, - Relays are electrically operated control switches, and are classified according to their use as POWER RELAYS or CONTROL RELAYS. Power relays are called CONTACTORS; control relays are usually known simply as relays. Relays or relay switches are used for control of circuits carrying heavy currents. A relay is connected in the circuit between the unit controlled and the nearest source of power (or power bus bar) so that the cables carrying heavy current will be as short as possible. Rotary Selector Switch In general, a relay consists of a magnetic core and its associated coil, contacts, springs, armature, and the mounting. Relay switch consists of a coil or solenoid an iron core, and both fixed and moveable contacts. A small wire connects one of the coil terminals (which are insulated from the housing) to the source of power through a control switch usually located in the cockpit. The other coil terminal is usually grounded to the housing. When the control switch is closed, an electromagnetic field is set up around the coil.

Fixed-Core Relay

Moveable-Core Relay