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Chng 3.

Trng thi ng sut


I. Khi nim v trng thi ng sut
Trng thi ng sut ti mt im ca vt th n hi chu
lc l tp hp tt c cc ng
sut tc dng trn tt c cc
mt v cng b i qua im
, c trng bi tenx i
xng cp 2 c 6 thnh phn
ng sut c lp (hnh 3.1):

yx

zx

xy
y
zy

xz

yz
z

(3.1)

nh biu th trn cc mt ca
phn t to Cdxdydz.
Qua 1 im ta lun tm
Hnh 3.1
ba mt vung gc vi nhau c
ng sut tip bng 0, cc mt l mt chnh, php tuyn mt
chnh gi l phng chnh, ng sut php trn cc mt chnh gi
l ng sut chnh 1, 2 v 3:
1 > 2 > 3
(3.2)
Cn c vo cc ng sut chnh ta hn loi trng thi ng sut
nh sau: Trng thi ng sut khi (hnh 3.2a), trng thi ng
sut phng (hnh 3.2b), trng thi ng sut n (hnh 3.2c).

Hnh 3.2
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II. Trng thi ng sut phng


1. ng sut trn mt nghing bt k
Tch mt phn t khi vt th n hi chu lc. Gi thit
mt vung gc vi trc z l mt chnh (z = zx = zy = 0), nhng
mt cn li c c ng sut php v ng sut tip (hnh 3.3).

Hnh 3.3

Xt s cn bng ca phn t hnh lng tr y l tam gic,


mt bn nghing. Phng trnh tng mmen cc lc vi O:

= xy dydz

dx
dy
yx dzdx
= 0 xy
2
2

= yx

(3.3)

l lut i ng ca ng sut tip, pht biu nh sau:


Nu trn mt ct no c ng sut tip th trn mt ct vung

gc vi n cng phi c ng sut tip c cng tr s nhng i


chiu.
Lp cc phng trnh hnh chiu sau:

u = dzds ( dzds cos )cos + (


u

xy

dzdscos )sin

( y dzdssin )sin + ( yx dzdssin ) cos = 0

v =

uv

dzds ( x dzds cos )sin ( xy dzdscos ) cos +


+ ( y dzds sin ) cos + ( yx dzds sin )sin = 0

Sau khi rt gn, s dng nh lut i ng ng sut tip ta


c gi tr ca u v uv:
+ y x y
u = x
+
cos 2 xy sin 2
(3.4)
2
2
y
sin 2 + xy cos 2
uv = x
(3.5)
2
R rng l khi = 0 (hoc /2) th u v uv c gi tr bng x,
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xy (hoc y, yx).
2. ng sut chnh v phng chnh
Mt chnh c xc nh thng qua gc nghing 0, sao cho
ng sut tip trn bng 0:

x y
2

sin 2 0 + xy cos 2 0 = 0 tg2 0 =

xy
x y

xy
tg

tg2 0 = tg
t
x y

+ k.
(3.6)
2
2
Ta thy 0 c hai nghim l 1 v 2 (ng vi k = 0 v k = 1)
lch nhau 900 ta lun c hai phng chnh vung gc vi nhau.
Thay 1 v 2 vo (3.4) ta s c cc ng sut chnh cn tm, l
nhng ng sut php cc tr, v du/d = - 2uv = 0:
0 =

x + y

y
2
max =
x
+ xy
2
2
min

ng sut tip cc tr xc nh bng duv/d = 0:

(3.7)

y
duv
cos 2 2xy sin 2 = 0
=2 x
d
2

tg2 =

x y
2xy

So snh vi (3.7), ta c:
1

= cot g2 0 = 0 + k.
tg2 =
tg2 0
4 (3.8)
Kt lun: nhng mt c ng sut tip cc tr to vi mt chnh
mt gc 450. Thay (3.8) vo (3.5) vi cos2 =
2
1
x y ) + 4 2xy
(
2
min
Tnh theo ng sut chnh ta c:

max =

1
1 + tg 2 2

, ta c:
(3.9)

20

max =
min

max min
2

(3.10)

III. Vng trn Mo (Mohr) ng sut


1. C s ca phng php v cch v vng trn MO ng sut
Xt mt phn t vi cc ng sut x, y, xy cho nh hnh
3.4a. Lp h to O (hnh 3.4b) theo t l nht nh. Trn trc
honh t cc on OE = y v OF = z. T E dng on ED = xy
vung gc vi OE. V vng trn c tm C l trung im ca on
+ z

EF OC = y
v bn knh CD (CD = R =
2

y z
2

+ yz ), gi l
2

vng trn Mo ng sut (Mohr).

yx

y
xy

yx

uv

x
xy
xy

y
x

Hnh 3.4

xc nh cc ng sut u v uv trn mt xin c phng u


lm vi trc x mt gc cho trc (hnh 3.4a) hy ly trn vng
trn va v mt im P (thng gi l im cc) c honh y v
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tung xy (hnh 3.4b), ri t P v tia song song vi phng u cho


ct vng trn ti im M. To ca M chnh l cc ng sut u v
uv cn tm.
2. Xc nh ng sut chnh v phng chnh
Cc giao im A v B ca vng trn Mo vi trc honh O l
nhng im c honh ln nht v nh nht, tung bng 0:
2

x + y

y
2
max =
x
+ xy
(3.11)
2
2
min

Phng ca cc tia PA v PB l cc phng chnh cn tm


ca phn t (hnh 3.4a).
Theo hnh 3.4b d thy lun lun c:
max + min = 2OC = y + z = hng
(3.12)
Tng ng sut php trn hai mt vung gc vi nhau l hng s.
Gi 1 v 2 l gc ca phng chnh th nht v phng
chnh th hai i vi trc x. Theo hnh 3.4b, c:
FP

FP

xy
xy
tg1 = FA = ; tg2 = FB =
y
max
y
min

Trong trng hp ko (nn)


ng tm ng sut tip ln nht:
1
max = min = z
(3.14)
2
l hai mt vung gc vi nhau,
ln lt lm vi trc z mt gc 45o
v 135o.
3. Hai trng hp c bit

(3.13)

Hnh 3.5

Trng thi ng sut phng c bit, v d x = , y = 0 (hnh


3.5).
Trng thi trt
thun tu: phn t m
trn cc mt ch c
ng sut tip (hnh
xy
3.6a).
Lc ny vng
trn Mo c tm trng
Hnh 3.6

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vi gc to (hnh 3.6b). Cc ng sut chnh khc du nhau v


c gi tr bng gi tr ca ng sut tip: 1=3=xy
(3.15)

IV. Lin h gia ng sut - bin dng


1. Bin dng di (nh lut Hc tng qut)
Trc ht hy tm bin dng di tng i 1 theo phng I
ca phn t.
Bin dng do 1 sinh ra: 11 =

1
E

2
E

= 3
E

Bin dng do 2 sinh ra: 12 =


Bin dng do 3 sinh ra: 13

Bin dng di (tng i) theo


phng I do cc ba ng sut 1, 2
v 3 sinh ra: 1 = 11 + 12 + 13.
Lm tng t ta c bin dng
Hnh 3.7
(tng i) theo phng II v
phng III ca phn t:
1
1
x = x ( y + z )
1 = 1 ( 2 + 3 )
E
E
1
1
y = y ( z + x )
2 = 2 ( 3 + 1 )
E
E
hoc
(3.16)
1
1
z = z ( x + y )
3 = 3 ( 1 + 2 )
E
E

Cc h thc bc nht (3.16) trn y gia bin dng di v


ng sut php l ni dung ca nh
ij
lut Hc tng qut i vi vt rn n
hi tuyn tnh.
2. Bin dng gc (nh lut Hc v
trt)

Xt bin dng ca phn t. Di


tc dng ca ng sut tip phn t b
bin i hnh dng v tr thnh hnh

ij

ij ij

ij
ij
Hnh3.8
23

bnh hnh (hnh 3-8). Theo nh lut Hc, gia ng sut tip
v gc trt c lin h sau: ij = Gij ( i, j = 1, 2, 3) (3.18)
trong G l h s t l gi l mun n hi khi trt [lc/chiu
di2], l hng s vt liu, c xc nh t th nghim. Mun
G lin h vi E v nh sau:

G=

E
2(1 + )

(3.19)

3. Bin dng th tch t i (nh lut Hc khi)

Gi dx, dy v dz l cc cnh ca phn t v V0 l th tch


ban u ca phn t, ta c: V0 = dxdydz
Sau khi bin dng, chiu di cc cnh thay i s l (dx +
dx), (dy + dy) v (dz + dz). Th tch sau khi bin dng:
V1 = V0 + V = (dx + dx).(dy + dy).(dz + dz)=

= dxdydz 1 +

dx dy dz
= dxdydz (1 + x ) 1 + y
1 +
1+
dx
dy
dz

) (1 + )
z

V bin dng l b nn c th b qua cc i lng v cng


b bc 2 tr ln. Cui cng ta c: V1 = V0(1 + x + Y + z)
Gi l bin dng th tch tng i ca phn t, ta c:

V1 V0
= x + Y + z
V0

Thay x, Y v z t (3.16) vo cng thc trn ta c:


= x + Y + z =

1 2
x + y + z
E

t tng ng sut php l: = ( x + y + z )

1 2

(3.20)

Cng thc trn biu din lin h bc nht gia bin dng th
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tch tng i v tng cc ng sut php, gi l nh lut Hc


khi.

V. V d p dng
V d 3.1. ng sut ton phn trn mt ct m-n i qua mt
im ca mt vt th trong trng thi ng sut phng P = 3000
N/cm2 c phng to thnh mt gc 600 vi mt ct. Trn mt
vung gc vi mt ct ny ch c ng sut tip (hnh 3.9).
Tnh ng sut php v ng sut tip trn mt ct to thnh
gc 450 vi mt ct m-n. Tnh

m
ng sut php ln nht ti
v
p
im .
600

Gii

Ta thit lp h trc xy trn


mt ct m-n v h trc uv
trn mt ct nghing nh
hnh 3.9. Khi cc thnh
phn ng sut trn cc mt
ca phn t trng thi ng
sut phng:

450
y

u
n
Hnh 3.9

x = p sin 600 = 3.0,86 = 2,6kN / cm 2


xy = pcos600 = 5.0,5 = 1,5kN / cm 2
y = 0
p dng cng thc tnh ng sut trn mt ct nghing vi = 1350, ta c:
+ y x y
u = x
+
cos 2 xy sin 2  2,8kN / cm2
2
2

uv =

x y
2

sin2 + xycos2 1,3 kN/cm2

ng sut php ln nht ti im l:


25

max =

x + y
2

y
2
+ x
+ xy 3,28 kN/cm2
2

V d 3.2. Ti mt im trn mt mt vt th chu lc ngi ta


o c bin dng t i theo cc phng
om, on, ou nh sau: m = 2,81.10-4 ;
n = -2,81.10-4 ; u = 1,625.10-4
Xc nh phng chnh v ng sut
chnh ti im y. Cho bit = 0,3; E =
2.104 kN/cm2.

Gii

450

450

T nh lut Hc ta rt ra c ng
Hnh 3.10
sut php phng m, n:
1
1
m = ( m n ) =
0,3n ) = 2,81.104
4 ( m
E
2.10
1
1
n = ( n m ) =
0,3m ) = 2,81.104
4 ( n
E
2.10
2
m = 4,32 kN/cm ; n = 4,32 kN/cm2

Bin dng theo phng u:


1
u = u ( m + n u ) =
E
1
0,3 ( 4,32 4,32 u ) = 1,625.104
=
4 u
2.10
m = 2,5 kN/cm2

ng sut tip mn tnh t cng thc:


+ n m n
cos 2 mn sin 2
u = m
+
2
2
4,32 4,32 4,32 + 4,32
2,5 =
+
cos 2.450 mn sin 2.450

2
2
mn = 2,5 kN/cm2

Gi tr ng sut chnh ti im cho trc:

m + n 1
2
2

=
( m n ) + 4mn
max = 5kN / cm 2
2
2

2
4,32 4,32 1
2
2
min = 5kN / cm

=
( 4,32 4,32 ) + 4.2,5
2
2

max =
min

26

1 = 15
2mn
2.2,5
1
tg2

=

Phng chnh:

0
m n 4,32 + 4,32
3
2 = 105
0

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