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Chng 6.

Un phng thanh thng

Chng 6. Un phng
I. Khi nim v un phng
Mt phng cha cc lc v mmen c gi l mt phng ti trng (hnh 6.1). ng ti trng l giao tuyn gia mt phng ti trng v MCN ca thanh. Mt phng qun tnh chnh trung tm to nn bi trc ca thanh v mt trc qun tnh chnh trung tm ca MCN. Mt thanh ch yu chu un gi l dm. Trc ca dm sau khi b un cong vn nm Hnh 6.1 trong mt mt phng qun tnh chnh trung tm th s un c gi l un phng. Un phng chia ra lm hai loi: un thun tu v un ngang phng. Un thun tu phng: Trn MCN ca dm ch c mt thnh phn mmen un Mx (My) nm trong mt phng qun tnh chnh trung tm. Un ngang phng: Trn MCN ca n c hai thnh phn ni lc l lc ct Qy v mmen un Mx (hoc Qx v My).

II. dm chu un phng thun tu


1. ng sut trn MCN ca dm chu un thun tu b) Th nghim Quan st mt on dm chu un phng thun tu c MCN hnh ch nht trc v sau khi bin dng (hnh 6.2).

Trc khi bin dng

Sau khi bin dng

Hnh 6.2
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Chng 6. Un phng thanh thng

T cc th nghim dm chu un phng thun tu mt s gi thit: Gi thit v MCN phng: MCN ca thanh trc v sau bin dng vn phng v vung gc vi trc ca thanh. Gi thit v cc th dc: trong sut qu trnh bin dng cc th dc lun song song vi nhau v song song vi trc thanh. Th khng b dn, khng b co gi l th trung ho. Cc th trung ho to thnh mt trung ho (lp trung ho). Giao tuyn ca mt trung ho vi MCN gi l ng trung Hnh 6.3 ho.
b) ng sut trn MCN

Xt mt MCN no v chn h trc to nh hnh 6.1 vi trc Ox l trc ng trung ho. Trn MCN ch c ng sut php, khng c ng sut tip v ng sut tip lm MCN s b vnh i gc s y khng cn vung na. Theo nh lut Hc: z = E z (a) z Th trung ho khng b bin dng: Hnh 6.4
O1O2 = z O1O2 = .

Xt mt th mn (hnh 6.4): Trc khi bin dng ta c: mn = z = . Sau khi bin dng, ta c: mn = ( + y) ( + y) y = dn di t i ca th mn bng: z = (b) y = E z Thay (b) vo (a), ta c: (c) Ti mt MCN bn knh c tr s xc nh, E l mt hng s. Vy quy lut phn b ng sut php trn MCN l phng nh trn hnh 6.5a. Giao tuyn ca mt phng ng sut vi MCN chnh l trc trung ho (ng trung
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Chng 6. Un phng thanh thng

ho). R rng ng sut php trn cc ng thng song song vi trc trung ho c tr s nh nhau. Do ta c th v biu phn b ng sut php nh trn hnh 6.5b.
_

y
+

Hnh 6.5 Ta c quan h gia mmen un Mx v ng sut php z:


M x = z ydF =
F

E 2 E = y dF Jx F

1 Mx = EJ x

(6.1)

So snh (c) v (6.2) ta suy ra cng thc ng sut php trn MCN: M z = x y (6.2) Jx

2. V tr trc trung ho
Un phng thun tu trn mi MCN thnh phn lc dc Nz = 0. Ta c:

N z = zdF = 0 N z = E ydF = 0 F F
ng thc trn c tho mn, khi: ydF = Sx = 0
F

(6.3) (6.4)

trong Sx l mmen tnh ca MCN i vi trc trung ho. Vy trc trung ho l mt trc trung tm. 3. ng sut ko v nn ln nht z c tr s tuyt i ln nht ti cc im mp trn hay mp di.
z
k max

Nu trc trung ho l i xng, v d MCN l hnh ch nht, hnh trn, ch I, ...

= z

z max . Tng qut ta vit:

max

Mx Jx ; Wx = Wx y max

(6.5)

MCN m ng trung ho khng chia u chiu cao (hnh 6.6) k n z max z max . K hiu khong cch t im xa nht ti trc trung ho l
k k n = y max (y max ) ng sut ko (nn) ln nht: zmax

Mx
k J x y max

Mx Wxk

(6.6)
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Chng 6. Un phng thanh thng


n zmin =

Mx
n J x y max

Mx Wxn
Jx m3 y max

(6.7)

trong , i lng: Wx =

( )

l mmen

chng un ca MCN i vi trc trung ho. V d, MCN hnh ch nht


Jx 2bh 3 bh 2 Wx = = = , h 2 12h 6

Jx d 3 = 0,1d 3 ; Hnh trn: Wx = d / 2 32

Hnh 6.6

Hnh vnh khn: Wx =

D3 d 1 4 0,1D3 1 4 ; = 32 D

iu kin dm c bn u: z max = z max Nu dm lm bng vt liu do th MCN phi i xng qua ng trung ho, nu dm lm bng vt liu gin th MCN phi tho mn iu kin:
yk max yn max

[] = n []
k

Biu thc trn cho thy: cng MCN c din tch F, nu mun chng un ln th cng tit kim vt liu ngi ta a vo t s khng th nguyn = Wx 3 , c gi l mmen chng un ring ca mt ct.
F

cng ln th mc tit kim vt liu cng tt. MCN hp l khi dm chu un l tnh cht lm tit kim nguyn vt liu. Vic ch to cc thp cn nh hnh c MCN hnh ch I, hnh ch C da trn tnh cht hp l ny. 4. iu kin bn
k n = ch Dm lm t vt liu do v ch theo (6.5), ta c:

max

Mx [] Wx

(6.13)

k n ch Dm lm t vt liu gin, v ch phi vit 2 iu kin bn:

k z max =

Mx [ ]k Wxk

(6.14);

n z min = z

n max

Mx [ ]n Wxn

(6.15)

Tm v tr MCN c ng sut php ln nht. Nu dm c MCN khng thay i v vt liu ca dm l do th ly MCN c mmen un ln nht. Trng hp dm c MCN thay i ta phi ly MCN c ng sut php ln nht. Trng hp dm lm bng vt liu gin ta phi tm MCN tho mn cc biu thc (6.14), (6.15) (ko - nn).
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Chng 6. Un phng thanh thng

III. Un ngang phng


Un ngang phng, trn MCN ca thanh c ng sut php do mmen un v ng sut tip do lc ngang gy ra. Hnh 6.7 m t hin tng un ngang (trc b un cong), lm cho cc MCN ban u khng cn phng na sau khi b un ngang.

Hnh 6.7
1. ng sut php Trong un phng, lc ct ng sut tip. Cc ng sut tip phn b theo chiu cao mt ct khng u. Do nh hng , cc bin dng gc cng c tr s thay i theo chiu cao ca MCN lm cho mt ct sau khi b un khng cn phng na m hi b vnh theo ch S (hnh 6.8). Nu lc ct bng hng s th MCN u vnh nh nhau s vnh khng nh hng n dn hoc co cng thc tnh ng sut php (6.2) vn cn ng trong trng hp un ngang phng: z =

Mx y . Jx

Hnh 6.8 2. ng sut tip ng sut tip trn MCN: zx v zy (hnh 6.9a). Theo nh lut i ng ng sut tip (mt ngoi dm khng chu ngoi lc theo phng z) zx =0, c ngha ti im xt c = zy. T l thuyt n hi gi thit: Tt c cc ng sut tip trn MCN u // vi lc ct. ng sut tip phn b u theo chiu rng ca MCN. Tch t dm mt on c chiu di dz (hnh 6.9), sau bng mt ct ABCD song song v cch mt phng Oxz mt khong y chia on thanh ny thnh hai phn v xt phn khng cha gc O (ABCDEFGH).

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Chng 6. Un phng thanh thng

Qy x

tp zx

zy
y a)

b)

c)

Hnh 6.9
Gi z va z l ng sut php trn cc mt ct 11 v 22, b(y) = AB v
1 2

Fc l din tch ca mt ct ABEF, bc chiu rng ca phn din tch ti im cch trc trung ho y. C th thy:
z1 = Mx M + dM x y; z2 = z y Jx Jx
z1

(a)

Xt s cn bng phn t phn di, ta c:

F =
z Fc

dF z2 dF + yz .b c .dz = 0
Fc

(b)

Thay (a) vo (b) v ch rng


zy = yz

trong Sc x ( y ) l mmen tnh ca din tch Fc i vi trc trung ho x.Vi mt ct l di ch nht hp: (6.17) - to trng tm phn tit din b ct i vi trc trung ho. Cng thc (6.16) c gi l cng thc Juravxky (1855). Cng thc ny cho thy: tr s ng sut tip ng vi "lp th dc" bt k cch trc trung ho x mt khong y, t l thun vi lc ct Qy v mmen tnh Sx(y) ca phn MCN gii hn bi "lp th" , nhng t l nghch vi mmen qun tnh Jx ca MCN v chiu rng b(y) ca "lp th" c xt.

dM x = Qy , ta c: dz c Q y .y Qy Qy .S x = dF zy = ydF = c c J b J x bc J b x x Fc Fc

(6.16)

Sc x = Fc

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Chng 6. Un phng thanh thng

3. ng sut tip ca mt s mt ct n gin a) MCN hnh ch nht (hnh 6.10): Ta c: 3Q y 4y 2 b h2 bh 3 c c 2 Sx = y ; J x = ; b = b zy = 1 2bh h 2 4 12 Biu phn b ng sut tip trn MCN (hnh 6.10): 3Q y 3Q y = max ti cc im trn trc trung ho: max = 2bh 2F

(6.18)

Hnh 6.10

Hnh 6.11

b) MCN hnh trn 3 2 4Q y R 4 c 2 2 2 Jx = ; b = 2 R 2 y 2 ;Sc = R y R 2 y2 ) ( ) zy = x 4 ( 4 3 3R Biu phn b ng sut tip trn MCN cho trn hnh 6.11:
max = 4Q y 3R 2 = 4 Qy 3 F
2 Qy Sx dy / 2

(6.19)
J x .d

c) MCN ch I (thp cn): zy =


c ( Sx = Sx d.y.

Q y Sx max = zy J x .d

y vi Sx l mmen tnh mt na ch I) 2
2 dh Q y Sx t 22 1 = J x .d

Ti im A:

Ti im :

2 dh Q y Sx t 22 2 = J x .b

Do d<b nn 1 > 2 nn khi kim tra bn ch ch n max v 1. zy


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Chng 6. Un phng thanh thng

4. iu kin bn i vi dm chu un ngang phng, vic tm v tr im nguy him v vit iu kin bn c phc tp hn. Da vo biu phn b ng sut php v tip, dc theo chiu cao ta thy trn hnh 6.13.

Hnh 6.13

cc im ngoi mp xa trc trung ho nht - im A (C): iu kin i vi vt do: max z =


k Vt liu gin: max z =

Mx [ ] Wx

(6.20) (6.21)

im trn trc trung ho - im O (hnh 6.13): max max [ ] (6.22) Nhng im c c ng sut php v ng sut tip - im B a v ng sut tng ng t. Vy iu kin c vit l: max t [] (6.23) V d theo thuyt bn ng sut tip ln nht, ng sut tnh ton tng (6.24) ng ti im B, c dng: td(B) = z(B) + 4zy(B) 5. Chn kch thc MCN, xc nh ti trng cho php Khi chn kch thc ca MCN hoc xc nh ti trng cho php, u tin ta xut pht t iu kin c bn (6.20), (6.21). Sau , nu cn thit ta mi kim tra iu kin bn v trt v iu kin bn khi c c ng sut php z v ng sut tip (v d, mt ct ch I). Ti ch tip gip gia lng v ng sut z v u kh ln v ngi ta cng ch quan tm khi trn mt ct gi tr mmen un, lc ct u rt ln.
2 2

Mx Mx [ ]k ; max n [ ]n z = k Wx Wxn

6. V d p dng V d 6.1: Mt dm bng vt liu c ng sut php cho php khi ko []k = 3,5kN / cm 2 v nn []n = 11kN / cm 2 , chu lc nh trn hnh 6.14a. Kim tra bn ca dm. Bi gii: Trnh t cc bc thc hin - V biu mmen un, cho tr s maxMx = 4,5kN.m
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Chng 6. Un phng thanh thng


16

Hnh 6.14 - Tm cc c trng cn thit ca MCN (hnh 6.14c), ta c cc tr s: n J x = 370cm 4 ; y k max = 2, 67cm; y max = 7,33cm
k n - Tnh cc gi tr max z ; max z :

max k z = A =

Mx k Mx n ymax = 3, 25kN / cm2 [ ]k ; max n ymax = 8,92kN / cm2 []n z = B = Jx Jx Vy dm bn.

V d 6.2: Cho dm chu lc nh trn hnh 6.15. Chn ng knh ca dm cho hai trng hp: dm c MCN khng i, dm c ba bc nh hnh 6.15. Bit l=80 cm, 2 2 P=5kN, [ ] = 16kN / cm , [ ] = 8kN / cm . Bi gii - Dm c MCN khng i. Theo iu kin bn c bn (6.13), ta c:
0,1d3 M x max / [ ]

trong :

M x max = 5.80 / 4 = 102 kN.cm

- Dm ba bc (hnh 6.16). Tr s d1, d2 c xc nh theo cng thc (6.20). i vi on gia: max M x = 102 kNcm i vi on hai u:
M x = 30.P / 2 = 30.5 / 2 = 75kNcm

d 3 102 / ( 0,1.16 ) = 4cm

Hnh 6.15

T iu kin bn c bn (6.13), ta c:
102 75 d1 = 4cm; 0,1.d3 d2 = 3,6cm 0,1d 2 16 16
3 1

Vi kch thc chn dm lm vic bn.

Hnh 6.16
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Chng 6. Un phng thanh thng

IV. Chuyn v ca dm chu un


Khi dm chu un phng trc ca dm b un cong gi l ng n hi (hnh 6.17). Chuyn v ng ca MCN ti K gi l Hnh 6.17 vng y(z) ca dm. Gc lp bi tip tuyn vi ng n hi ti im K v trc ca dm trc khi bin dng gi l gc xoay (z).

1. Phng trnh vi phn gn ng ca ng n hi


T (6.1) ta c bn knh cong ca ng n hi c xc nh bi cng thc: 1 Mx = (a) EJ x Mt khc ta c:
1 y = 1 + y 2

Hnh 6.18

3/ 2

(b) (6.28)

Mx y z = ( ) T (a) v (b) suy ra: EJ x

Du - do m men un ( y2 0 do bin dng l v cng b) v li (lm) ca dm l tri du nhau (hnh 6.18).

2. Tnh vng, gc xoay bng phng php tch phn khng nh hn

Mun tnh gc xoay v vng ti mt ct bt k ca dm, ta ln lt tch phn phng trnh (6.28) hai ln: M y ( z ) = ( z ) = x dz + C1 (6.29) EJ x
M y ( z ) = x dz dz + C1z + C2 EJ x

(6.30)

Cc hng s tch phn C1 v C2 xc nh t cc iu kin bin ti cc mt ct t lin kt v iu kin lin tc ca vng v gc xoay ti v tr tip gip gia cc on dm.
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Chng 6. Un phng thanh thng

V d 6.3: Xt dm cng-xn chu mmen un M0 ti u t do (hnh 6.19), bit cng ca dm EJx = const. Tnh vng v gc xoay ti im A. Bi gii: Xt mt ct 1-1, ta c: Mx = M0 Thay vo (6.28) v tch phn ln lt hai Hnh 6.19 ln ta c: M M M y = 0 ; y = 0 z + C1 ; y = 0 .z 2 + C1z + C 2 EJ x EJ x EJ x

M0l M0l 2 y ( l ) = 0 ; C2 = C 1 = iu kin bin: z = l : EJ 2EJ x = y l 0 x ( ) M 0l 2 M0l Vy vng, gc xoay ti A l: y ( l ) = 2EJ ; A = y ( l ) = EJ x x Du - chng t im A chuyn v ln trn, ngc chiu dng ca trc y. Gc xoay ti A quay ngc chiu kim ng h. V d 6.4: Cng vi dm nh trn nhng chu lc tp trung P (hnh 6.20). Tnh vng, gc xoay ti A? Bi gii: Ti mt ct 1-1, ta c: Mx = -P.z (du - do Mx lm cng th trn) P.z = y Thay vo (6.28), ta c: EJ x Tch phn lin tip 2 ln: Hnh 6.20 P.z 2 P.z 3 y = + C1 ; y = + C1z + C2 2EJ x 6EJ x
Pl 2 C 1 = 2EJ x y ( l ) = 0 l z : = iu kin bin: 3 3 3 y ( l ) = 0 C = Pl + Pl = Pl 2 6EJ x 2EJ x 3EJ x

Pl 3 Vy vng ti A l: y ( 0 ) = C 2 = 3EJ x
Pl 2 Gc xoay ti A l: ( 0 ) = y ( 0 ) = C1 = 2EJ x

yA > 0 chng t im A chuyn v xung di. Cn A < 0 chng t gc xoay ti A quay cung chiu kim ng h.
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Chng 6. Un phng thanh thng

Phng php hm gin on cho php biu din mmen un thnh biu thc duy nht trn ton chiu di ca dm, v ch c 2 hng s tch phn xc nh t iu kin bin vic tnh ton vng gc xoay ti mt ct bt k trn ton dm c n gin ho rt nhiu c th p dng tin hc ho. Hm gin on c nh ngha nh sau: n n ( x a ) khi x a x a = vi x R, n N, n 0, a = const R. khi x < a 0 C ngha l hm gin on ch c gi tr khc 0 khi i s l khng m. Khi cc du ngoc nhn c th coi nh du ngoc trn thng thng. Cn khi i s m th hm gin on bng 0. T nh ngha hm gin on ta c tnh cht sau:
d xa dx
n

3. Phng php hm gin on

= n. x a

n 1

x a dx =

xa

n +1

n +1

+C

S dng hm gin on ta c th biu din mmen un ca dm i vi cc loi ti trng khc nhau: a) M men tp trung 0 M x = M 0 . z a Du - v m men un lm cng th trn. b) Lc tp trung 1 M x = P. z a c) Lc phn b u n ht chiu di dm:
Mx = q. z a 2
2

d) Lc phn b u trn mt on ca dm
2 2 p dng nguyn l cng tc tc dng ta s vit c biu thc mmen un cho dm vi tc dng ng thi ca nhiu ti trng khc nhau. Thay biu thc ca Mx vo (6.28) vo tch phn ln lt hai ln ging nh phng php tch phn khng nh hn ta s thu c vng, gc xoay ti mt ct bt k. Hai hng s tch phn c xc nh t cc iu kin lin kt ca dm.
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Mx =

q. z a

q. z b

Chng 6. Un phng thanh thng

V d 6.5: T hnh (6.19) ta c (chn gc to ti A): M x = M 0 . z 0


y = M0. z 0 EJ x
0

; y =

M0 . z 0 EJ x

+ C1 ; y =

M0 . z 0 2EJ x

+ C1z + C2

M 0l M 0l 2 M 0l 2 M 0l 2 y (l ) = 0 ; C2 = C1 = = iu kin bin: z = l : EJ 2EJ EJ 2EJ x y 0 = l ( ) x x x

M 0l M0l 2 ; A = y ( 0 ) = EJ Vy vng, gc xoay ti A l: y A = y ( 0 ) = 2EJ x x

Kt qu ging nh phng php tch phn khng nh hn. 1 V d 6.6: T hnh 6.20: M x = P. z 0 (chn gc to ti A)
y = P. z 0 EJ x
1

; y =

P. z 0 2EJ x

+ C1 ; y =

P. z 0 6EJ x

+ C1z + C2

y (l ) = 0 Pl 2 Pl 3 Pl 3 Pl 3 C1 = ; C2 = + = iu kin bin: z = l : 2EJ 6EJ 2EJ 3EJ x y = 0 l ( ) x x x

Pl 2 Pl 3 Vy vng, gc xoay ti A l: y A = y ( 0 ) = 3EJ ; A = y ( 0 ) = 2EJ x x Kt qu ging nh phng php tch phn khng nh hn. V d 6.7: Tnh vng, gc xoay ti im gia ca dm. T hnh 6.21, ta c:
Mx = q.a q 1 z0 z0 2 2
2

EJ = const

q.a q 1 2 z0 + z0 Hnh 6.21 2 2 q.a q 2 3 EJ x .y = z 0 + z 0 + C1 4 6 q.a q 3 4 EJ x .y = z0 + z 0 + C1.z + C 2 12 24 3 qa z = 0 : y 0 = 0 ( ) C1 = 24 iu kin bin: z = a : y ( a ) = 0 C = 0 2 EJ x .y =

5qa 4 a a = y y = y = C =0 C ; Vy vng v gc xoay tai C: 2 384EJ 2 x


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Chng 6. Un phng thanh thng

4. Phng php ti trng gi to (phng php ton) Lin h vi phn gia ni lc v ngoi lc nh sau:

d 2 M x (z) dQ y (z) = = q(z) dz 2 dz


Cn i vi phng trnh ng n hi, ta c phng trnh vi phn: Mx Mx d2 y d 2 y dy = = = dz 2 EJ x dz 2 dz EJ x Ta c s tng ng nhau, do vy nu to ra mt ti trng gi to M q gt = x , bng phng php mt ct xc nh c Qgt v Mgt trn dm EJ x gi to. Gi tr chnh l vng v gc xoay trn dm thc tng ng. iu kin lin kt ca dm gi to v dm thc phi c mi tng quan sao cho gi tr Qgt v Mgt trn dm gi to phi ng bng gi tr vng v gc xoay trn dm thc tng ng (bng 6.1). Bng 6.1

Trnh t gii bi ton bng phng php ti trng gi to :

- V biu mmen un Mx cho trn dm thc. - V dm gi to vi cc lin kt ph hp vi iu kin vng, gc xoay tng ng trn dm thc
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Chng 6. Un phng thanh thng

- t biu Mx ln dm gi to, nhng ch l tung bng Mx/EJx, chiu mi tn ca ti trng gi to hng v pha th cng ca dm Mx thc (do tho mn q gt = EJ ) x - Xc nh Qgt v Mgt vng v gc xoay ca dm thc. tin li trong qu trnh tnh ton sau ny, chng ta xc nh trc din tch v honh trng tm ca mt s biu (bng 6.2). Bng 6.2 Hnh Din tch zc

F=

2 f .l 3
2 f .l 3

1 l 2
3 l 8

F=

f .l F = n +1
V d 6.8: Xc nh vng v gc xoay ti u B ca dm chu lc nh hnh 6.23. Gii Biu momen un M phn b bc nht nh 6.23. Chn dm gi to thch ng. Ti trng gi to c chiu hng ln. Ta c: Pl l Pl 2 y . = B = B = Q gt = EJ 2 2EJ

l n+2

Pl l 2 Pl 3 y B = M gt = . . l = EJ 2 2 2EJ

Hnh 6.22

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Chng 6. Un phng thanh thng

5. iu kin cng ca dm chu un phng Khi ch to cc b phn ca cng trnh (cu, dm chu lc ca cc to nh, ) cn kim tra xem bin dng ln nht ca kt cu khng c vt qu gi tr cho php c quy nh bi yu cu ca thit k. Bin dng ln nht l: y max max [f ] ; [ ] l l trong ymax; max l vng v gc xoay ln nht ca dm; l l chiu di ca dm. [f] l gi tr cho php ca vng trn mt n v di. [] l gi tr cho php ca gc xoay trn mt n v di.

V. BI TON SIU TNH

Cng nh trong cc bi ton v ko, nn v xon, y ta cng gp nhng bi ton siu tnh v un cn phi thit lp thm phng trnh bin dng V d, cho dm chu lc nh hnh 6.23. Siu tnh bc 1. Da vo iu kin vng ti B ca dm bng 0 lp phng trnh bin dng: yB = 0 vng B do phn lc RB v do ti trng phn b q. Da vo phng php ton ta chn dm gi to v ti trng phn b gi to nh hnh 6.23. Mmen gi to ti B do ti trng qgt gy nn l :

Tr s ca mmen gi to chnh l vng ti B. Vi iu kin vng bng khng ta c phng ql 4 R B l 3 =0 trnh: 8EJ 3EJ
H nh 6.23

Khi c RB ta d dng v c biu ni lc ca dm


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