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Advance Placement World History Chapter 24 1750-1870 New British Empire

MULTIPLE CHOICE 1. The Mamluks were a. Descendents of Mongols enslaved in the Ottoman Empire. b. the ruling family of Arabia. c. slave-soldiers of Egypt. d. a religious faction in Turkey e. pro-western reformers in the Balkans. 2. Who became the leader of Egypt after the failure of the French, Mamluk, and Ottoman governments? a. Gamal Nasser b. Mohandas K. Gandhi c. Muhammad Ali Jinnah d. Muhammad Ali e. Anwar Sadat 3. Muhammad Ali accomplished many aspects of modernization. Which was NOT one of his projects? a. Establishing schools for military training. b. Emphasis of European skills and sciences. c. starting a gazette reporting on official affairs d. Building factories and railroads that achieved long-lasting success. e. Achieving rule of Egypt for himself and his descendents until the 1950's. 4. Which of the following was not among the earliest reforms of the Ottoman Empire? a. Implementation of laws to protect women and children from abuse and abandonment b. Standardization of taxation c. Controlling the provincial governors d. Standardization of land tenure e. Creation of European-style military units 5. The most persistent opponents of early Ottoman reforms were the a. hereditary elites. b. Janissaries. c. religious leaders. d. peasants and agriculturalists. e. Jesuits. 6. Serbia became independent of the Ottoman Empire in 1805 a. because the Ottoman Empire was busy suppressing the Greek uprising. b. but it was reabsorbed two decades later. c. after Russian threats prevented the Ottomans from disarming Serbians following a Janissary revolt. d. because Mohammad Ali recalled the Janissaries to Egypt. e. by assassinating Archduke Franz Ferdinand. 7. The ulama opposed Selim III's reforms because a. they did not want to lose their military power. b. Selim had recognized Napoleon as emperor. c. of the power Selim had granted to the Janissaries. d. they feared the secularization of law and taxation. e. Selim wanted to eliminate Islam.

Advance Placement World History Chapter 24 1750-1870 New British Empire


8. The war for Greek independence resulted in the a. defeat of the Greek revolutionaries and the execution of all traitors. b. execution of the sultan. c. defeat of the Ottomans by the combined Russian, British, and French fleets. d. collapse of the Egyptian monarchy. e. complete destruction of the Ottoman Empire. 9. After the war for Greek independence, Mahmud II a. created a new artillery unit and bombarded the Janissaries. b. eliminated the power of the religious elite. c. restructured the bureaucracy, education, and laws. d. made alliances with western Europe. e. attacked Persia. 10. The Tanzimat proclamations a. called for public trials and equal protection under the law. b. punished Janissaries and other secret military societies. c. called for the destruction of the university system. d. ensured that Muslims, Christians, and Jews would have their own separate codes of law. e. called for a redistribution of wealth in an effort to create a more egalitarian society. 11. The shari'a retained legal control over which area? a. military law. b. alcohol and tobacco prohibitions. c. family law. d. religious interpretations. e. canon law 12. The preferred language of the reformed educational system in the Ottoman Empire was a. Turkish. b. French. c. Russian. d. German. e. Arabic. 13. The Janissary corps was officially disbanded when a. the Battle of Navarino saw them fail to protect the Ottoman Empire's navy. b. they were systematically defeated in the battle for Greek independence and committed suicide rather than face dishonor. c. the French army of Napoleon defeated them in Constantinople. d. the Russians defeated them in the Crimean War. e. the sultan secretly trained a new artillery unit, which bombarded the Janissaries and wiped them out. 14. Examples of westernization are seen in all of the following examples except: a. styles of military uniform b. formation of a civil service brigade. c. secularization of the legal codes d. allowing women in universities. e. expansion of civil courts with equal access for all men. 15. Ottoman reforms

Advance Placement World History Chapter 24 1750-1870 New British Empire


a. b. c. d. e. decreased the influence of women in society. provided new universities for female students. made women equal to men under the law. provided women with greater job opportunities. did not change women's position in society.

16. Women's property rights in the Ottoman Empire a. were upheld as a matter of Islamic law. b. required a woman to sell her personal property upon marriage and give the money to her husband. c. encouraged women to retain family property for her sons. d. were abrogated under secular reforms that removed decision making from religious courts e. were significantly influenced by women's rights in western traditions. 17. The root cause of the Crimean War was a. Russia's desire to expand south for naval access to the Mediterranean Sea. b. Russia's desire to spread Orthodox Christianity throughout the Ottoman Empire. c. Ottoman domination of Serbia. d. Russia's desire to control Constantinople (Istanbul). e. Russia's siding with Greece during the 1829 independence movement. 18. Russian allies in the Crimean War against the Ottoman Empire included a. England. b. France. c. Italy. d. South Africa. e. none of these. 19. The significance of the Crimean War was that it a. marked the transition to modern warfare with the use of breech-loading rifles. b. was the first war that utilized battalions of African soldiers in Europe. c. marked the end of the "age of innocence." d. was the most destructive war in human history. e. marked a brief return to chivalry. 20. The fez became a part of Turkish military dress because a. they wanted a compromise between a hat and a turban. b. the fez was brimless and could be used during Islamic prayer services. c. the European style of leather-billed hats was thought to be ugly. d. it was better suited to new artillery weapons. e. it was distinctly different from the uniform of the Janissaries. 21. Although the Ottoman Empire emulated European modernization and stimulated commerce and urbanization, it was unable to solve which major problem? a. Extraterritoriality, or foreign sovereignty within Ottoman states b. The imperial government's chronic shortage of money c. Resistance from Christian sectors, which brought European sanctions d. Overextension of the empire e. The banking crisis of the 1850s 22. The Ottoman Empire was significantly weakened financially by: a. The Crimean War b. dependence on foreign loans

Advance Placement World History Chapter 24 1750-1870 New British Empire


c. lack of infrastructure to support western-style reforms. d. pegging the value of their currency to the fluctuating British pound e. too small of a professional class to administer the new economy. 23. Significant decline in Ottoman trade happened when a. Egyptian cotton exports benefitted the hereditary governors of Egypt. b. The Ottoman empire overspent on the Suez Canal project. c. Islamic clerics refused to legalize coffee and alcohol trade. d. British opium trade superseded Turkish opium and hashish. e. they signed a trade monopoly on certain products with Russia. 24. A significant impediment to Russian economic modernization was: a. restrictions on work times imposed by the Orthodox Church b. relative nonexistence of the middle classes. c. the perpetuation of serfdom d. complete lack of an educational system e. demonization of the reform efforts of Peter the Great still lingered in the nobility. 25. Which of the following was NOT a factor hindering reforms in Russia? a. lack of urbanization b. predominance of agriculture. c. poor transportation opportunities. d. diversity of languages proscribing unification. e. religious prohibitions 26. The construction of a railroad in Russia a. was halted by the intervention of the Austro-Hungarian Empire. b. relied on foreign experts. c. created a link between the Pacific Ocean and the Atlantic Ocean. d. allowed new territories to be opened in the Asian steppes. e. was never completed because of financial problems. 27. The Russian government viewed industrialization a. as a necessary evil. b. as the wave of the future. c. as a sign of the decline of respect for religious authority. d. as a potential environmental disaster waiting to happen. e. with limited interest, preferring to import industrial goods. 28. What was the major reason the Russian state resisted industrialization? a. A deep suspicion of western ideas, especially liberalism and socialism b. It was trying to initiate a communist revolution first. c. Long-term disputes with Germany led to reluctance to use German advisers. d. Serfs could not learn how to run machines. e. Local landowners feared losing their labor force if peasants left the fields to go to factories. 29. Pan-Slavism was the doctrine a. of diminishing economic returns. b. of freedom for all serfs. c. that Slavic peoples were inherently superior. d. that advocated the unity of all Slavic peoples through military means. e. that advocated the unity of all Slavic peoples through peaceful means.

Advance Placement World History Chapter 24 1750-1870 New British Empire


30. The process of modernization in Russia in the nineteenth century was accomplished more smoothly than in the Ottoman Empire because a. it had longer been an issue, starting with Peter the Great. b. the Russian court emulated European fashion and languages. c. Alexander's reforms included bringing in Western advisers. d. European monarchs accepted Russian tsars more readily than they accepted reforming rulers in Ottoman territories. e. All of these 31. Russian imperial expansion in the 19th century was focused on which direction? a. the Pacific ocean b. the Baltic coast c. the southern borders d. Poland and Romania e. Prussia. 32. When Tsar Alexander I died in 1825, reformers in the military provoked a. a confrontation with Japan that resulted in the Russo-Japanese War. b. a border war with China. c. a failed uprising called the "Decembrist Revolt." d. the secretary of the defense into resigning. e. widespread rebellion among the nobility. 33. Intellectuals pressing for reform in Russia wanted all of the following except a. a constitution. b. freedom of the press. c. liberation of the serfs. d. reorganization of the imperial bureaucracy. e. college education for women. 34. The main force opposing westernization in Russia was a. Slavophiles b. Decembrists c. student clubs d. Orthodox church advocates e. the nobility 35. Population pressures in China during the late Qing Empire were caused by: a. doubling of the population in the space of 250 years. b. a permanent floating population of unemployed and homeless people c. imperial expansion of open lands for farming and transportation d. farmers, merchants and laborers searching for less crowded conditions. e. all of these 36. When Britain was unable to obtain enough tea to meet its demand and China did not import enough British goods, the British responded by a. starting the illicit trade of opium. b. supporting the Bannerman to overthrow the Qing. c. instigating the White Lotus rebellion. d. bombing Saipei. e. trying to destroy China's production of silk. 37. When the Qing banned the importation of opium, the British a. stopped growing it. b. made it illegal in England as well.

Advance Placement World History Chapter 24 1750-1870 New British Empire


c. began growing cacao. d. sent naval and marine forces to China. e. sold their opium in the New World. 38. The Opium War exposed the fact that the Qing land forces, the Bannermen, were a. overpowering. b. well trained but poorly led. c. obsolete. d. able to use martial arts to defeat the British navy. e. traitors. 39. The British military advantage in the Opium War was provided by a. poison gas attacks. b. new gunboats. c. tank divisions. d. the machine gun. e. large numbers of troops. 40. Which of the following was not a result of the Treaty of Nanking? a. Hong Kong became a British colony. b. China was able to retain its protective tariffs to protect fledgling industries. c. The British opened five Chinese "treaty ports." d. The Qing paid 21 million ounces of silver to England. e. British residents were granted extraterritoriality. 41. "Most-favored-nation status" meant that a. any beneficial opportunities extended by China to another nation had to be offered to Britain as well. b. the British gained a monopoly on trade with China. c. China would allow missionaries from Britain only. d. China and Britain obtained bilateral rights to attend each other's universities. e. Britain was attempting to promote competition among Asian nations to see who would compete for British trade. 42. The stresses that led to the Taiping Rebellion in the Guangxi region were initially a result of a. severe loss of rural population. b. the presence of many Europeans in the region. c. social unhappiness and foreign intrusion. d. large numbers of Qing troops in the area. e. the government prohibition against opium. 43. The founder of the Taiping (Great Peace) Movement, Hong Xiquan, a. was assassinated by members of the armed forces. b. was inspired by Christianity. c. led a revolution that transformed Asia forever. d. overthrew the Qing dynasty and became the first peasant emperor. e. advocated nonviolence. 44. Women in the Taiping Rebellion were a. relegated to the home. b. ordered to follow traditional foot-binding. c. allowed to work alongside men at the occupation of their choice. d. organized into military brigades. e. expected to stay in school.

Advance Placement World History Chapter 24 1750-1870 New British Empire


45. The Taiping Rebellion a. was known as the "bloodless" civil war. b. succeeded in its goal to Christianize China. c. was a gambit designed to lure French and British forces to their destruction. d. was the world's bloodiest civil war. e. never actually took place.