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Artificial Lift Electric Submersible Pump


ESP Pump for a glance Shaft & Stages Housing, Head & Trim Coating O-Ring Tandem Build Radial Bearing Configuration Bearing Material

Pump Construction Pump Series & Nomenclature Housing Size Mixing FL & Compression Stages Type Bolt-on Intake Pump Obsolescence Plan


The pump section in an ESP is a device that converts motor shaft brake horse power (bhp) to Hydraulic energy that lifts the fluid to surface and provides wellhead pressure. The pump mainly consists of impellers and diffusers driven by a common shaft, in a multistage configuration. Impellers are driven by the shaft and transfer energy to the well fluid (work done on fluid by centrifugal action). Diffusers basically redirect fluid from the output of one impeller into the input of the next one. In other words, work done by rotating impellers increase the fluid velocity (Kinetic) and diffusers convert some of the fluid velocity to higher pressure (potential) and direct the flow back to the eye of the next impeller, and so on.


Pump material are selected to suit well and production conditions such as: Corrosion (CO2, H2S, acids, Chloride ions, Oxygen, etc.) Erosion and erosion-corrosion Thermal expansion (differential) Requirement for higher strength shafts Abrasives entering ESP systems Special pump and stage coatings Elastomers


Standard: Monel (up to 67% Ni, remainder: Cu, Fe) & Non-annealed monel Standard offering for all pumps

High Strength (HS): Inconel 625 (predominantly Ni, with Chromium as 2nd element) & Inconel 718 Ideal for extreme conditions: high temperature, H2S, abrasive applications.


The centrifugal pump is formed of stages and each stage has the impeller and the diffuser


Housing is casing for diffuser, impeller, shaft and parts so then it is called as PUMP


Housing is casing for diffuser, impeller, shaft and parts so then it is called as PUMP Material: Carbon Steel (CS), 1026 carbon steel, for Low Corrosion environment Redalloy (RLOY), 9Cr-1Mo, for corrosive environment due to high partial pressure of CO2 or H2S or abnormal PH condition Special, 13% Cr & 25% Cr, for extremely cases of CO2


Trim refers to the bolts and washers that connect pumps together. Generally trim material corresponds to the type of material the pump housing uses.

*avoid using steel trim with Redalloy material, which may result in galvanic cells

It is a special treatment which makes the stages to prevent wear and make them more resistant.

Pump Internal Coatings

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Pump External Coatings

Types of Coatings Monel Stainless steel Inconel Epoxy Sealer

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O-Ring Material Options

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Pump Tandem Build Options

There are 4 types of pumps for ESP applications which are categorized based on those type of heads & bases used.
Single Pump Lower Tandem Pump Center Tandem Pump Upper Tandem Pump

Single Pump (S)

Single Pump has both an intake at its bottom & discharge head intrinsic to it.

As its name, theres no other pump can be attached to it.

Lower Tandem Pump (LT)

A LT pump has an intake section but no discharge section. The lower tandem has either 1. Another pump above it, or 2. A bolt-on discharge to complete the assembly (being S Pump by adding a discharge head at the top).

Center Tandem Pump (CT)

A CT pump has no intake section, no discharge section.

The Center Tandem can be used 1. As a part of larger group of pump 2. As a single pump (add bolt-on discharge & intake). Most flexible pump (more sections could be added to full fill stages requirement, max 5 sections).

Upper Tandem Pump (UT)

An UT pump has a discharge head, but no intake section.

The Upper Tandem can be placed on top of other pump or on top of the intake section. UT Pump can be convert to single pump by adding intake section.

Combination in Tandem Pump



Pump Bearing Configuration

Bearing is a structural part of a pump that supports another part and can reduce the friction of motion between fixed and moving pump parts.
Head and Base Bearing

Stage Bearing
Bush Bearing ing Support

Bearing Housing

Bending moment curve

How to Select Bearings

No sand production
Standard pump is OK

trace to 10-ppm


10+ ppm


100+ ppm


Zirconia Compliant Bearing System Used in ARZ and ES Pumps

Bearing configuration
Abbreviation Name Description

Normal ES Full ARZ SLB Special EXS ES-Plus Other

Enhanced Stabilization Abrasion Resistant Zirconia Self Lubricating Bearings Extra Enhanced Stabilization Enhanced Stablilization Plus Special

The pump uses one standard radial bushing in the head and one in the base.
The pump uses one Zirconia compliant bearing in the head and one in the base to stabilize the shaft radially. The pump uses Zirconia compliant bearings in the head and base and spaced regularly throughout the length of the pump.

Graphalloy Bearings for special low-lubricity applications, such as pumping LNG/LPG or Poseidon.
AR head and base with AR bearings spaced at special intervals. AR head and base with AR bearings spaced at special intervals. Custom bearing configurations are available for special applications.


Bearing Materials
(Abbr) N/A (Z) (T) Name Ni-Resist Zirconia Tungsten Carbide Hardness, kg/mm2 1000 1250 1650 Description Standard bearing bushing and sleeve in head and base Standard Zirconia ceramic compliant bearing Semi-metallic bearing for special applications Super-hard ceramic bearing material

(S) Silicon Carbide 2600 Hardness of sand is around 800 kg/mm2

Bearing selection is generally a compromise between the hardness and brittleness! Designation (example): ZS (Zirconia bushing and Silicon Carbide sleeve) Combinations available: ZZ, ZS, SS,TT, ZT, ST

Pump construction

Pump construction

Floater construction Compression construction

2 Basic Centrifugal Pump Construction

Compression Ring

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Floater Pump
1. Each impeller is free to move up and down (float) the shaft depending on the balance of forces (thrust) acting on it. 2. The shaft is held in position by a shaft stop near the top of the pump (keeps it from dropping off) 3. Mostly used in smaller and medium sized pumps where thrust forces can typically be handled by thrust washers. 4. Shaft thrust is Supported by the protector thrust bearing 5. Do not require any shimming

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Why Floater Pump ??

1. Since each stage handles its own thrust, a very large number of stages can be put in a pump without having to worry about protector bearing capacity. 2. Floaters are also very good with mild abrasives since they prevent material from getting into the radial bearing area.

3. Floaters are much more easy in manufacturing since tolerance stackup is not a concern.
4. Easier 28 Initials 3/21/2013 field assembly -no shimming required

Compression Pump
1. In the compression construction, the impellers and shaft are assembled (along with diffusers) to form one impeller/shaft subassembly.

2. The shaft and impeller become essentially one part and move together both rotationally and axially. 3. Thrust forces acting on each impeller are not handled by each impeller, and by design are to be transmitted down through the shaft to the protector thrust bearing 4. Require some shimming to ensure proper transmission of shaft and stage thrust to protector thrust bearing 29 Initials 3/21/2013

Why Compression Pump ??

1. Some stages generate too much thrust to be handled by a thrust washer in the stage. 2. Operating in poor lubrication conditions, such as in high GLR applications (high fraction of free gas passing through the pump).Some fluids (e.g., liquid propane) do not have enough lubricity to properly lubricate a thrust washer. 3. If abrasives or corrosives are present, it may be beneficial to handle the thrust in an area lubricated by motor oil rather than well fluid. 4. Occasionally in very gassy wells, the flow volume changes so drastically within the pump that parts of a floater pump could be in very severe thrust while others are not so a compression pump could be one alternative. 5. Operating below the minimum recommended operating flow rate, which allows the pump to extend its expected average run time. Since all the thrust is handled in the protector, as long as the protector has a great enough capacity, the pump operating range can be extended over a much wider area without any increased wear or reduced life.

Note that operating outside the ROR normally drastically reduces pump efficiency.
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Compression Ring VS. Compression

1. They are different only in the manufacturing process that results in the compression design, and have the same guidelines and are treated the same from an application point of view. 2. Standard compression : The impellers are compressed before the diffusers Compression ring : The diffusers compressed before the impellers
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Pump Nomenclature
PUMP: DN3100 CR-CT 81 STG 400/400 110 CS VTHD, .87 HS MON, M-TRM, HSN, ES
Series Bearing Configuration & Head & Number & Type of Tandem Build Option Base Material of Thread Pump Flange Housing FL--C--CR S 538 UTCTLT--S 400/456 RLOY G 540 538/540 H 562 Material of Material of Shaft Trims
MON S Stell HS MON M -- Monel INCONEL Material of Thrust Bearing ARZ SLB EXS

Special Pump Modification

Ext Head Ext Shaft FS : Factory Shims SS H&B : Redalloy Head and Base - Redalloy Head and Base (NOT 316 Stainless Steel) for corrosive fluid applications where the housing is not submerged e.g. HPS. H2S RESTNT: H2S Resistant - Standard material is CS with HSN o-rings and ARZ-SS bearing configuration. In addition, the shaft and bearing configuration has been changed to eliminate all metal-to-metal snap rings from the pump.

Housing Size
Housing sizing is how we can chose the correct combination of housing. The housing size depends on the pump series and each type of pump has one series of housing with different reference number for each housing. We can find the different housing sizes in One Cat. When the housing is larger than we require we use the compression tube to fill the space.

Housing Size
Reference number

Series of the housing

Max. amount of stages per housing

Tandem Housing Use and Rules

If all the required stages cannot be fit into a single housing, then MULTIPLE HOUSING (also known as TANDEM PUMPS) is used. Rules: 1. Use a single housing when possible . 2. Identical or very similar lengths of housings is preferable. 3. In long pumps , Shaft and housing material thermal expansion should be compatible. 4. Use same metallurgy (RLOY or CS). 5. Pumps installed in tandem should be of the same series. 6. Ensure that installers of tandem pumps have the latest shimming procedures and adhere to them.

Tandem Pumps Rules

Use a single housing when possible . Never use tandem pumps of different series. Tandem pumps should use the same stage type. It is better to have identical or very similar lengths of housings, but this is not a requirement. Torque increases lower in the pump, so pay particular attention to shaft strength requirements in the lower pump section.

Tandem Pumps Rules

NEVER use Redalloy housings and monel shafts together in tandem pumps. For new (unused) compression pumps, the bottom pump and all higher pumps will have different shimming procedures. Very long tandem assemblies (4+ sections) may have special shimming procedures. Tandem pumps should use the same metallurgy (Redalloy or CS) and build (CR vs. FL) except for emergencies.

It is possible to install FL and CR pumps in tandem?

Yes, we can but only if we take into account the following things: It is not required to do field spacing (shimming) between the top pump (FL-CT) and the second pump (CR-CT). Other than this connection, the field shimming procedures should be applied for all other connections as if all pumps were compression type.

Pump Stages
The centrifugal pump is formed of stages and each stage has the impeller and the diffuser Diffuser
Flujo Flujo


Each impeller takes the fluid and imparts kinetic energy, the diffuser transforms kinetic energy into potential energy

The impeller is attached to the shaft and rotates with it. The diffuser is stationary within the pump housing.

Pump Stages
There are three types of drivers that determine the amount of flow available for a specific design. The difference between these three types of designs is shown by the angles of the blades of the impeller and the size and shape of the internal passages of the fluid.

Pump Stages
Radial Flow

Mixed Flow

Axial Flow

Radial Flow
In the RADIAL FLOW, the fluid is forced to change direction abruptly and following acute angles. The degree of directional change is close to 180 . It is this change of direction which develops the height or "head" of the stage. The blade angles near 90 with the axis.

The driving stages with radial flow type can handle about 10% of free gas.

Mixed Flow
The mixed flow STAGES have smoother directional changes and the fluid can travel through the impellers and less restriction. Because of this the stages are adequate to handle increased volumes of fluid, but did not develop high altitude.

On the other hand the stages with flow type impellers handle more than 20% s of free gas

Axial Flow
These stages can handle high volumes of fluid but develop very small lift height. Artificial lift utilizes the helico-axial multiphase stage which can handle high percentages of free gas.

BODH (Bolt-on Discharge Head)

The BODH is the piece that joins the pump with the tubing

Different BODH for each pumps series

BODH (Bolt-on Discharge Head)

Size of the pump Diameter of the tubing Type of thread

Type : Standard (contains the standard bearing) Used with center and upper tandem pump sections. Commonly referred to as the 70 type (refers only to bearing) AR (abrasive resistant) Intake - The preferred bolt on intake Example, ARZ, ARZ-SS, and ARZ-ZS More reliable against abrasive wear and lateral vibration. Important due to the proximity to the protector seal.

Series 338/375 387 400S 540S 562S 675/540

Diameter 0.68 0.87 0.87 1.18 1.18 1.18




Recent new stage developments have brought to AL portfolio new stages which provide superior efficiency, better lift characteristics, advanced abrasive handling options and substantially reduced cost when compared to older legacy stages.
STANDARD PUMP Previous Pump D3050N(387) D3400N(387) S8900N DN3000 DN3100 S5000N SN8500 GN7000 HN15000 DN440 D475N DF1100 (Floater) DC1100 (Compression) D725N
New Pump D2400N, D3500N D2400N, D3500N S8000N D2400N, D3500N D3500N S6000N S8000N G6200N, GN10000, S8000N H15500N D460N D460N D1150N D1150N D800N Obsolete Assembly Jan-10 Jan-10 Jan-10 Mar-11 Mar-11 Mar-11 Mar-11 Mar-11 Mar-11 Mar-11 Mar-11 Dec-11 Jan-11 Dec-11 Cost Reduction 7.5 to 22% 7.5% 25% 7.5 to 22% 9 to 26% 16.9% 25.3%