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Q. State four attributes of s telephone system.

Each call is a separate entity having attributes a) Origin b) Destination c) Lengthy, and d) The time at which call finishes Q. What are the tests carried out in connecting a call? To connect a call, it is necessary to carry out tests: I) Link is available. II) If the party is busy (7 is busy, lost call).

Q. Explain sequence of step to simulate each event in telephone system.


The simulation proceeds by executing a cycle of steps to simulate event: i) ii) iii)
iv)

Scan the events to determine which is the next potential event(1053) The clock is updated, and the second step is to select the activity that is to cause the event(activity disconnect a call) Third step is to test whether the potential event can be executed. The fourth step is to change the records to reflect the effect of the event (0 to 2&5). Fifth step is the execution cycle, to gather some statistics for simulation output.

v)

Q. Discuss Verification and Validation of Simulation Models. Verification:

Verification is concerned with determining whether the conceptual simulation model has been correctly translated into a computer program. Verification is concerned with building model right. It is utilized in the comparison of the conceptual model to the computer representation that implements that conception. It asks the questions:

i) Is the model implemented correctly in the computer? ii) Are the input parameters and logical structure of the model correctly represented?

Validation: Validation is the process of determining whether a simulation model is an accurate representation of the system, for the particular objective of the study. Validation is concerned with building the right model. It is utilized to determine that a model is an accurate representation of the real system. Validation is achieved through calibration of the model, an iterative process of comparing the model to actual system behavior and using the discrepancies between the two, and the insights gained, to improve the model.

Q. Define Calibration of a model.


Validation and verification, although conceptually distinct, usually are conducted simultaneously. Validation is achieved through calibration. Calibration is the iterative process of comparing the model to the real system, making adjustments to the model, comparing the revised model to reality, making additional adjustments, comparing again and so on.