Chapter 1 1.1 Chapter 2 2.1 2.2 2.3 Chapter 3 3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4 3.5 3.6 3.7 Chapter 4 4.1 Chapter 5 5.1 5.2 5.3 5.4 5.5 5.6 5.7 Chapter 6 6.1 6.2 6.3 6.4 6.5 Introduction Introduction General Aspects of CivilFEM Integration of CivilFEM in Ansys Active Units System Active Codes Materials Introduction General Properties Specific Material Properties Specific Code Properties FLAC3D Material Properties Active Properties Material Properties Dependence Element Types Element Types Supported by CivilFEM CivilFEM Entities General Criteria Cross Sections Axis Orientation in Beam Sections Shell Vertex Member properties Beam and Shell Properties Solid Sections CivilFEM Combinations CivilFEM Combinations Results Combination in Ansys and in CivilFEM Basic Terminology Types of Combination Rules Data Groups
6.6 6.7 6.8 6.9 6.10 Chapter 7 7.1 7.2 Chapter 8 8.1 8.2 8.3 Chapter 10-A
Envelopes Concomitance at Load and Model Level Comment about Beam188 and Beam189 elements Start states combinations with prestressing tendons Calculation of all possible load cases Predesigned Structures Introduction Frames Miscellaneous utilities Structures cost and weight Influence lines Solid to shell Steel Structures according to Eurocode 3
10-A.1 Scope 10-A.2 Checking Types 10-A.3 Valid Element Types 10-A.4 Valid Cross-Section Types 10-A.5 Reference Axis 10-A.6 Data and Results used by CivilFEM 10-A.7 Checking Process Chapter 10-B Steel Structures according to EA (MV-103)
10-B.1 Scope 10-B.2 Calculation Basis 10-B.3 Compression Check 10-B.4 Tension Check 10-B.5 Bending Check Chapter 10-C Steel Structures according to British Standard 5950 (1985)
10-C.1 Scope 10-C.2 Checking Types 10-C.3 Valid Element Types 10-C.4 Valid Cross-Section Types 10-C.5 Reference Axis 10-C.6 Data and Results used by CivilFEM 10-C.7 Checking Process Chapter 10-D Steel Structures according to British Standard 5950 (2001)
10-D.1 Scope 10-D.2 Checking Types 10-D.3 Valid Element Types 10-D.4 Valid Cross-Section Types 10-D.5 Reference Axis 10-D.6 Data and Results used by CivilFEM 10-D.7 Checking Process Chapter 10-E Steel Structures according to AISC LRFD 2nd edition
10-E.1 Scope 10-E.2 Checking Types 10-E.3 Valid Element Types 10-E.4 Valid Cross-Section Types 10-E.5 Data and Results used by CivilFEM 10-E.6 Checking Process Chapter 10-F Steel Structures according to GB50017
10-F.1 Scope 10-F.2 Checking Types 10-F.3 Valid Element Types 10-F.4 Valid Cross-Section Types 10-F.5 Calculation Basis 10-F.6 Checking Process Chapter 10-G Steel Structures according to AISC ASD/LRFD 13th edition
10-G.1 Scope 10-G.2 Checking Types 10-G.3 Valid Element Types 10-G.4 Valid Cross-Section Types 10-G.5 Calculation Basis 10-G.6 Checking Process Chapter 10-H Steel Structures according to CTE DB SE-A
10-H.1 Scope 10-H.2 Checking Types 10-H.3 Valid Element Types 10-H.4 Valid Cross-Section Types 10-H.5 Calculation Basis 10-H.6 Checking Process
Chapter 10-I 10-I.1 10-I.2 10-I.3 10-I.4 10-I.5 10-I.6 Chapter 10-J
Steel Structures according to AISC ASD 9th Edition Scope Checking Types Valid Element Types Valid Cross-Section Types Calculation Basis Checking Process Steel Structures according to ANSI/AISC N690-1994
10-J.1 Scope 10-J.2 Checking Types 10-J.3 Valid Element Types 10-J.4 Valid Cross-Section Types 10-J.5 Calculation Basis 10-J.6 Checking Process Chapter 10-K Steel Structures according to ASME BPVC III subsection NF
10-K.1 Scope 10-K.2 Checking Types 10-K.3 Valid Element Types 10-K.4 Valid Cross-Section Types 10-K.5 Calculation Basis 10-K.6 Checking Process Chapter 10-L Steel Structures according to ANSI/AISC N690-06
10-L.1 Scope 10-L.2 Checking Types 10-L.3 Valid Element Types 10-L.4 Valid Cross-Section Types 10-L.5 Calculation Basis 10-L.6 Checking Process Chapter 11-A Reinforced Concrete Beams (Part I)
11-A.1 Introduction 11-A.2 Predesign of rectangular sections 11-A.3 3D Interaction Diagram 11-A.4 Axial Load and Biaxial Bending Checking 11-A.5 Axial Load and Biaxial Bending Design 11-A.6 Calculation Codes 11-A.7 Previous Considerations to Shear and Torsion Calculation
11-A.8 Shear and Torsion according to Eurocode 2 (ENV 1992-11:1991) 11-A.9 Shear and Torsion according to Eurocode 2 (EN 1992-11:2004/AC:2008) and ITER Design Code 11-A.10 Shear and Torsion according to ACI-318 Chapter 11-B Reinforced Concrete Beams (Part II)
11-B.1 Introduction 11-B.2 Shear and Torsion according to EHE-98 11-B.3 Shear and Torsion according to EHE-08 11-B.4 Shear and Torsion according to BS8110 11-B.5 Shear and Torsion according to AS3600 11-B.6 Shear and Torsion according to GB50010 11-B.7 Shear and Torsion according to NBR6118 11-B.8 Shear and Torsion according to AASHTO Standard Specifications for Highway Bridges 11-B.9 Shear and Torsion according to Code of Rules SP 52-101-03 (Russian Code C 52-101-03) 11-B.10 Shear and Torsion according to IS456 Chapter 11-C Reinforced Concrete Beams (Part III)
11-C.1 Introduction 11-C.2 Shear and Torsion according to ACI-359 11-C.3 Cracking analysis 11-C.4 Cracking checking according Eurocode 2 (ENV 1992-11:1991) 11-C.5 Cracking checking according Eurocode 2 (EN 1992-11:2004/AC:2008) and ITER Design Code 11-C.6 Cracking checking according to ACI-318 11-C.7 Cracking checking according to EHE (EHE-98 and EHE-08) Chapter 12 12.1 12.2 Chapter 13 13.1 13.2 13.3 13.4 Prestressed concrete beams Shear and Torsion according to ACI-318 Shear and Torsion according to EHE-08 Concrete Shells Designing of Concrete Shells under Bending Moment and Torsion Wood-Armer Method Designing under Bending Moment and In Plane Loading CEB-FIP Method Design according to the Orthogonal Directions method Design according to the Most Unfavorable Direction method
13.5 13.6 13.7 13.8 13.9 13.10 13.11 13.12 Chapter 14 14.1 14.2 14.3 14.4 14.5 14.6 14.7 14.8 14.9 14.10 14.11 14.12 14.13 14.14 14.15 14.16 Chapter 15 15.1 15.2 Chapter 16
Shear checking and design according to Eurocode 2 (ENV 1992-1-1:1991) Shear checking and design according to Eurocode 2 (EN 1992-1-1:2004/AC:2008) and ITER Design Code Shear checking and design according to EHE-98 Shear checking and design according to EHE-08 Shear checking and design according to ACI 318 Shear checking and design according to ACI 349 Checking and design according to ACI 359-04 (reinforced concrete) Checking and design according to ACI 359-04 (prestressed concrete) Seismic Design Introduction Spectrum Calculation according to Eurocode 8 (ENV-1998-11:1994) Spectrum Calculation according to Eurocode 8 (EN-19981:2004) Spectrum Calculation according to NCSE-94 Spectrum Calculation according to NCSE-02 Spectrum Calculation according to GB50011 Spectrum Calculation according to IT3274 Spectrum Calculation according to AASHTO LRFD Bridge Design Specifications Spectrum Calculation according to EAK 2000 Spectrum Calculation according to CALTRANS Seismic Design Criteria Spectrum Calculation according to Uniform Building Code (1007) Spectrum Calculation according to PS 92 Spectrum Calculation according to the Indian Standard 1893 Modal analysis of the structure Modes Combination Push Over Analysis Exporting utilities Export and graphical representation of arrays in Microsoft Excel Export arrays to HTML Integration with FLAC3D
Integration with FLAC3D Decomposition of a tetrahedral mesh into hexahedral elements Geotechnical Module and Foundations Module (part I)
17-A.1 Introduction 17-A.2 Definition of fictitious layered soils 17-A.3 Ballast Module 17-A.4 Retaining Walls 1 1/2D 17-A.5 Slope Stability 17-A.6 Mohr-Coulomb plasticity model 17-A.7 Cam-clay plasticity model 17-A.8 Hoek and Browns Failure Criteria 17-A.9 Seepage 17-A.10 Earth Pressures 17-A.11 Terrain Initial Stress Chapter 17-B Geotechnical Module and Foundations Module (part II)
17-B.1 Pile Wailing 17-B.2 Micropiles Chapter 17-C Geotechnical Module and Foundations Module (part III)
17-C.1 Tunnels Chapter 18 18.1 18.2 18.3 18.4 18.5 Chapter 19 19.1 19.2 19.3 19.4 19.5 19.6 19.7 19.8 19.9 Bridge and Civil non-Linearities Module (Part I) Introduction Types of elements for the non linear analysis CivilFEM Evolutive Analysis on Beams Creep and Shrinkage Non linear beams Bridge and Civil non-Linearities Module (Part II) Introduction Element Type Execution Process Transverse cross sections Bridge layout definition Solid modelling and finite element model generation Load definition structure Loads Construction process
Advanced Prestressed Concrete Module Introduction Support beam Tendons editor Prestressing losses 2D Interaction Diagram Axial Load and Biaxial Bending Checking Cracking Checking Free tendons (independent from support beam)
Chapter 1 Introduction
1.1 Introduction
1.1
Introduction
Welcome to the CivilFEM Theory Manual. This manual presents the theoretical descriptions of all the calculation procedures used by the program and describes the relationship existing between the input data and the results given by CivilFEM. This manual is essential for understanding how the program works as well as for interpreting the calculation results correctly.
1.1.1
The purpose of the CivilFEM Theory Manual is to provide information about the theoretical basis of the algorithms used in the program. The previous knowledge of the underlying theory will allow you to use the program in a more efficient and confident way, making a better use of its capacities and being conscious of its limits. Reading the whole manual should not be necessary; you will only have to look up those paragraphs referring to the calculation algorithms that you are focusing on. This manual does not contain, all the theory background regarding the calculation procedures carried out in code checking. In case you need a deep knowledge of the theory concerning any of the calculation procedures used, we encourage you to jave a look at the bibliography to which the different paragraphs refer. Should you require any further specific bibliography, please feel free to contact your CivilFEM distributor.
1.1.2
Notation
The CivilFEM Theory Manual employs the same notation criteria used in the Ansys Theory Manual.
1-1
2.1
CivilFEM is a set of preprocessing, solution and post processing tools that is integrated within ANSYS and makes it easier for the user to deal with civil engineering problems. CivilFEM commands are implemented in ANSYS as external commands by means of routines written and compiled into dynamic link libraries (DLL), that are accessible through an explicit declaration in the ans_ext.tbl ANSYS file. All the CivilFEM tools are integrated in the ANSYS GUI with their corresponding menus and commands. Users can therefore access them in the same way as the ANSYS commands are used. The integration of CivilFEM into ANSYS allows users to take advantage of all the advanced capabilities of ANSYS while using CivilFEM commands: APDL Programming, File *.log, interactive Help... The data flow between ANSYS and CivilFEM is schematized in the following figure.
2-1
2.2
CivilFEM allows performing calculations in any consistent units system. However, the user must determine which units system is going to be used (see ~UNITS command), since many aspects concerning checking according to codes depend on the active units system used (specific values of certain units dependent parameters or calculation formulae using non-solid units) The active units system must be defined at the beginning of the session and should not be changed afterwards. By default, the active units system is the International System of Units (N, m, s).
2-3
2.3
Active Codes
When executing CivilFEM commands which depend on a code, the program checks which one is the active code and accomplishes calculations accordingly. CivilFEM allows having four active codes simultaneously: one for calculations concerning reinforced concrete structures, another for calculations concerning prestressed concrete structures, another for calculations concerning steel structures and another for seismic calculations (see ~CODESEL command).
Table 2.3-1 Codes or standards for Steel Structures supported by CivilFEM Eurocode 3 (EN 1993-1-1:2005) Eurocode 3 (ENV 1993-1-1:1992) EA-95 British Standard 5950 (1985) British Standard 5950 (2001) AISC LRFD 2nd edition AISC LRFD 13th edition AISC ASD 13th edition AISC ASD 9th edition (1989) (CivilFEM NPP required) Chinese code GB50011 Cdigo Tcnico de Edificacin CTE DB SE-A (2006) ASME BPVC Sect.III Div.1 SubSect NF (1989) (CivilFEM NPP required) ANSI/AISC N690-1994 (CivilFEM NPP required) ANSI/AISC N690-06 LRFD provisions (CivilFEM NPP required) ANSI/AISC N690-06 ASD provisions (CivilFEM NPP required)
Table 2.3-2 Codes or standards for Reinforced Concrete Structures supported by CivilFEM Eurocode 2 (EN 1992-1-1:2004/AC:2008) Eurocode 2 (ENV 1992-1-1:1991)
2-5
ACI 318 EHE 1998 EHE 2008 CEB-FIP British Standard 8110 Australian Standard 3600 Chinese code GB50010 Brazilian code NBR6118 AASHTO Standard Specifications for Highway Bridges Indian Standard 456 Russian code SP 52-101-03 (C 52-101-03)
ACI 349-01 (CivilFEM NPP required) ACI 359-04 (CivilFEM NPP required) ITER Structural Design Code for Buildings (CivilFEM NPP required)
Table 2.3-3 Codes or standards for Prestressed Concrete Structures supported by CivilFEM Eurocode 2 (EN 1992-1-1:2004/AC:2008) Eurocode 2 (ENV 1992-1-1:1991) ACI 318 EHE 1998 EHE 2008 ACI 359-04 (CivilFEM NPP required) ITER Structural Design Code for Buildings (CivilFEM NPP required)
Table 2.3-4 Codes or standards for Seismic Analysis supported by CivilFEM Eurocode 8 (EN 1998-1-1: 2004) Eurocode 8 (EN 1998-1-1: 1994)
NCSE-94 NCSE-02 Chinese seismic code GB50011 Italian 3274 seismic code AASHTO LRFD Bridge Design Specifications Greek code EAK 2000 California Seismic Design Criteria 1997 Uniform Building Code PS92 French seismic code Indian Standard 1893
By default the active codes are for each calculation type are the following: Structural steel: Reinforced concrete: Seismic calculations: Eurocode 3 (EN 1993-1-1:2005) Eurocode 2 (EN 1992-1-1:2004/AC:2008) Eurocode 8 (EN 1998-1-1: 2004)
2-7
Chapter 3 Materials
Specific Code Properties ......................................................................... 31 3.4.1 3.4.2 3.4.3 3.4.4 3.4.5 3.4.6 3.4.7 3.4.8 3.4.9 3.4.10 3.4.11 3.4.12 3.4.13 3.4.14 3.4.15 3.4.16 3.4.17 3.4.18 3.4.19 Eurocode 3 (Structural Steel).................................................. 31 Spanish EA code (Structural Steel) ........................................ 31 LRFD (Structural Steel)........................................................... 32 BS5950-1985 (Structural Steel) .............................................. 32 BS5950-2000 (Structural Steel) .............................................. 32 GB50017 (Structural Steel) ..................................................... 33 Eurocode 2 (Concrete)............................................................ 33 Eurocode 2 (Reinforcement Steel) .......................................... 38 Eurocode 2 (Prestressing steel) .............................................. 41 ACI (Concrete) ........................................................................ 44 ACI (Reinforcement steel)....................................................... 47 ACI (Prestressing steel) .......................................................... 49 CEB-FIP (Concrete) ................................................................ 51 CEB-FIP (reinforcement steel) ................................................ 56 EHE (Concrete) ...................................................................... 58 EHE (Reinforcement Steel)..................................................... 63 EHE (Prestressing steel)......................................................... 66 BS8110 (Concrete) ................................................................. 70 BS8110 (Reinforcement steel) ................................................ 74
3.4.20 3.4.21 3.4.22 3.4.23 3.4.24 3.4.25 3.4.26 3.4.27 3.4.28 3.4.29 3.5
GB50010 (Concrete) ............................................................... 76 GB50010 (Reinforcement steel) ............................................. 80 AS3600 ................................................................................... 83 NBR6118 (Concrete) .............................................................. 83 NBR6118 (Reinforcement Steel) ............................................ 85 Indian Standard 456 (Concrete) .............................................. 88 Indian Standard 456 (Reinforcement Steel) ............................ 90 Russian Code SP-52-101 (C Russian Code SP-52-101 (C 52-101) (Concrete) ................ 92 52-101) (Reinforcement Steel)96
FLAC3D Properties.................................................................................. 99 3.5.1 3.5.2 FLAC3D material properties for soil and rock elements .......... 99 FLAC3D material properties for structural elements ............. 104
3.6 3.7
Active Properties.................................................................................... 109 Material Properties Dependence ........................................................... 111 3.7.1 3.7.2 3.7.3 3.7.4 3.7.5 3.7.6 3.7.7 External Data ........................................................................ 111 General Properties ................................................................ 111 Structural Steel Specific Properties ...................................... 112 Concrete Specific Properties ................................................ 112 Soil Specific Properties ......................................................... 112 Rock Specific Properties ....................................................... 113 Specific Code Properties ...................................................... 115
3.1 Introduction
3.1
Introduction
Material properties considered by CivilFEM include ANSYS standard properties, as well as other properties necessary for CivilFEM specific calculations, such as properties related to codes: characteristic strengths, yield strengths, reduction coefficients, etc. When defining a material within CivilFEM, ANSYS standard properties are automatically defined, assigning to ANSYS materials the same numbering as CivilFEM materials. Thus, it is not recommended to directly modify ANSYS' material properties, to avoid unexpected behaviors between ANSYS and CivilFEM databases. CivilFEM materials have four different kinds of properties: General properties : Common properties for all kinds of materials Material properties : Reserved for steels, concretes, etc. Code properties Active properties : Related to Eurocode 2, Eurocode 3, ACI, CEB-FIP, etc. : Obtained for the actual active time
FLAC3D properties : Properties to be applied when exporting the model to FLAC3D General properties are common to all CivilFEM kinds of materials and contain data identifying the materials (number, reference, type), mechanical properties being transferred to ANSYS materials, as well as costs and the activation times of each material. Specific material properties are always available for a particular material, regardles of the code under which the material was defined. Specific code properties contain exclusive material data for each code. Active material properties depend on the age of the material, and are calculated for the active time (see section 3.6 for more information). FLAC3D properties are divided in two groups: Terrain properties: Structural properties: Soils (type 5) Rocks (type 6) Structural steel (type 1) Concrete (type 2) Reinforcing steel (type 3) Prestressing steel (type 4) These properties will be used to define the constitutive models and the structural element properties in the exporting process to FLAC3D. CivilFEM material definition (see ~CFMP command) is achieved by selecting one of the materials included in its libraries. The following types of materials can be defined in the current version: Structural steels
3-1
Chapter 3 Materials
Once the material is defined, the material is labeled with a reference which relates it to the chosen library material. The user can modify all those properties that are not associated to the library. In order to modify the data associated to a library reference, one should make the material lose that reference and become User Def. The following labels characterize the type of datum regarding the possibility of changes made by the user: LIBR: LOCK: MODF: Data associated to a library reference. In ordert to modify a property with this label, the material should first become User Def. Blocked data. The will in no way be allowed to modify them. Data may be modified by the user.
On the other hand, there are several dependencies in the materials data which are automatically updated. Therefore, the user must take into account these dependencies when modifying those related properties (see chapter 3.7 for further details).
3-2
3.2
General Properties
General properties are those properties common to all kinds of materials (concrete, structural steel and reinforcing steel). These properties have the labels and values described hereafter: Umat
(MODF)
Material number defined by the user. Reference. User material name. Material type defined by the user. 0 = Generic Material. 1 = Structural steel 2 = Concrete 3 = Reinforcing steel 4 = Prestressing steel 5 = Soils 6 = Rocks
Ref8
(LOCK)
Name
(MODF)
Type
(LOCK)
TAct
(MODF)
Material activation time Material deactivation time Modulus of elasticity of the material. If Type=0 User Defined (generic material). If Type =1 or 2 Its value depends on the active code. It equals ExLn (this label is defined later on). If Type =5 or 6 Its value depends on the material. It is equal to ExCal. Otherwise Automatically defined from the material's library.
TDeact
(MODF)
Ex
(LOCK) (MODF) (LIBR)
NUxy
(LIBR)
Poisson's modulus. Depends on the active code and the material type (0 Nuxy < 0.5). Eurocode 3 NUxy = 0.3 EA NUxy = 0.3 LRFD NUxy = 0.3 BS 5950 (Structural steel) (Structural steel) Art 3.2.5 (Structural steel) Art 3.1.9 (Structural steel)
3-3
Chapter 3 Materials
NUxy = 0.3 GB50017 NUxy = 0.3 Eurocode 2 NUxy = 0.2 Eurocode 2 NUxy = 0.3 Eurocode 2 NUxy = 0.3 ACI NUxy = 0.2 ACI NUxy = 0.3 ACI NUxy = 0.3 CEB-FIP NUxy = 0.2 CEB-FIP NUxy = 0.3 EHE NUxy = 0.2 EHE NUxy = 0.3 EHE NUxy = 0.3 BS 8110 NUxy = 0.2 BS 8110 NUxy = 0.3 GB50010 NUxy = 0.2 GB50010 NUxy = 0.3
Art 3.1.2 (Structural steel) (Concrete) Art 3.1.2.5.3 (Reinforcing steel) Art 3.1.2 (Prestressing steel) (Concrete) Art 116R-45 (Reinforcing steel) Art 116R-45 (Prestressing steel) (Concrete) Art 2.1.4.3 (Reinforcing steel) Art 2.1.4.3 (Concrete) Art 39.9 (Reinforcing steel) Art 39.9 (Prestessing steel) (Concrete) Art 2.4.2.4 (Reinforcing steel) (Concrete) (Reinforcing steel)
If Type = 5 or 6 then its value depends on NuxyCal one. Gxy Shear modulus. It is calculated using the following formula:
3-4
(MODF)
Gxy
ALP
(MODF)
Ex 2 1 NUxy
Coefficient of linear thermal expansion. Its initial value depends on the active code: Eurocode 3 ALP = 1.2E-5 (C-1) EA ALP = 1.2E-5 (C ) LRFD ALP = 1.2E-5 (C ) BS 5950 ALP = 1.2E-5 (C ) GB50017 ALP = 1.2E-5 (C-1) Eurocode 2 ALP = 1.0E-5 (C-1) Eurocode 2 ALP = 1.0E-5 (C-1) Eurocode 2 ALP = 1.0E-5 (C-1) ACI ALP = 1.0E-5 (C-1) ACI ALP = 1.0E-5 (C )) ACI ALP = 1.0E-5 (C )) CEB-FIP ALP = 1.0E-5 (C ) CEB-FIP ALP = 1.0E-5 (C ) EHE ALP = 1.0E-5 (C ) EHE ALP = 1.0E-5 (C-1) EHE
-1 -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 -1
(Structural steel) Art 3.2.5 (Structural steel) Art 3.1.10 (Structural steel) (Structural steel) Art 3.1.2 (Structural steel) Art 3.4.3 (Concrete) Art 3.1.2.5.4 (Reinforcing steel) Art 3.2.3 (Prestressing steel) Art 3.2.3 (Concrete) (Reinforcing steel) (Prestressing steel) (Concrete) Art 2.1.8.3 (Reinforcing steel) Art 2.2.5.4 (Concrete) Art 39.10 (Reinforcing steel) Art 39.10 (Prestressing steel)
3-5
Chapter 3 Materials
ALP = 1.0E-5 (C-1) BS 8110 ALP = 1.0E-5 (C ) BS 8110 ALP = 1.0E-5 (C ) GB50010 ALP = 1.0E-5 (C ) GB50010 ALP = 1.0E-5 (C ) SOILS ALP = 1.0E-5 (C-1) ROCKS ALP = 1.0E-5 (C-1) RHO
(MODF)
-1 -1 -1 -1
(Concrete) Part 2: 7.5 (Reinforcing steel) (Concrete) Part 2: 7.5 (Reinforcing steel)
Density value of the material. RHO = GAM/g If Type= 0, 1, 2, 3 If Type =5 or 6 RHO is free RHO = RHOcal GAM = RHO*g If Type= 0, 1, 2, 3 If Type =5 or 6 GAM is free GAM = GAMcal
GAM
(MODF)
DAMP
(MODF)
Damping of the material. For transient analyses: K matrix multiplier ( ) for damping. For spectral analyses: critical damping ratio. Cost per volume unit. Vcost = Mcost*RHO = Wcost*GAM Cost per mass unit. Mcost = Vcost/RHO = Wcost*g Cost per weight unit. Wcost = Vcost/GAM = Mcost/g
VCost
(MODF)
MCost
(MODF)
WCost
(MODF)
3-6
3.3
3.3.1
Command ~CFMP, defines all material properties for structural steel, including those properties that are necessary to carry out an ANSYS analysis. Specific structural steel material properties supported by CivilFEM are described hereafter: 3.3.1.1 NThk
(LIBR)
Thickness table and dependent properties Refers to the range number for the different material's thickness. NThk Thickness table. Thik 0 0. The initial value 6
Thik
(NThk) (LIBR)
ExLn
(LIBR)
Modulus of elasticity for linear analysis. ExLn depends on the active code: Eurocode 3 ExLn = 21E4 MPa EA ExLn = 2.1E6 kp/cm2 LRFD ExLn = 29000 ksi BS 5950 ExLn = 205 kN/mm2 GB50017 ExLn = 206 kN/mm2 Art 3.4.3 Art 3.1.2 Art. 3.1.9 Art. 3.2.5
3.3.1.2 KPLA
(MODF)
Plastic behavior in ANSYS Refers to the type of behavior. 0 1 2 4 5 6 Elastic (default value) Bilinear Kinematic Bilinear Isotropic Multilinear Kinematic Hardening Multilinear Isotropic Drucker-Prager
PLRAT
3-7
Chapter 3 Materials
(MODF)
PLRAT PLThk
0 0
PLThk
(MODF)
3.3.1.3 TSASSD
Stress strain diagram for structural analysis Type of stress-strain diagram. Each different type of stress-strain diagrams available depends on the code for which the material was defined. Apart from available diagrams supported by the codes, it is possible to define new ones by selecting the User defined option. Number of diagram points. Strain values corresponding to a point of the diagram. Stress values corresponding to a point of the diagram. Stress-strain diagrams conforming to Eurocode 3 User defined Elastic Bilinear
The available stress-strain diagrams for Eurocode 3 are: TSASSD= 0 TSASSD= 1 TSASSD= 2
Definition of the elastic diagram (TSASSD = 1): The sign criterion for the definition of stress-strain diagram points is the following one: +Tension, -Compression A total of 2 points (NPSASSD = 2) has been selected for the definition of the stressstrain diagram. Strain values are the following: SAEPS (1) = SAEPS (2) = SASGM (1) = SASGM (2) = -1.0E-2 1.0E-2 SAEPS(1)*ExLn SAEPS(2)*ExLn
Definition of the bilinear diagram (TSASSD = 2): The sign criterion for the definition of stress-strain diagram points is the following one: +Tension, -Compression
3-8
A total of 4 points (NPSASSD = 4) has been selected for the definition of the stressstrain diagram. Strain values have been taken conforming to article Art. 5.2.1.4 and are the following: SAEPS (1) = SAEPS (2) = SAEPS (3) = SAEPS (4) = -1.0E-2 -fy / ExLn fy / ExLn 1.0E-2
Stress values have also been taken conforming to article Art. 5.2.1.4 and are the following: SASGM (1) = SASGM (2) = SASGM (3) = SASGM (4) = 3.3.1.3.2 -fy+(SAEPS (1) - SAEPS (2)) / PLRAT*ExLn -fy fy fy + (SAEPS (4) - SAEPS (3)) / PLRAT*ExLn
The different stress-strain diagrams according to EA code are: TSASSD= 0 User defined TSASSD= 1 Elastic TSASSD= 2 Bilinear Definition of the elastic diagram (TSASSD = 1): The sign criterion for the definition of stress-strain diagram points is the following one: +Tension, -Compression A total of 2 points (NPSASSD = 2) has been selected for the definition of the stressstrain diagram. Strain values are the following: SAEPS (1) = SAEPS (2) = SASGM (1) = SASGM (2) = -1.0E-2 1.0E-2 SAEPS(1)*ExLn SAEPS(2)*ExLn
Definition of the bilinear diagram (TSASSD = 2): The sign criterion for the definition of stress-strain diagram points is the following one: +Tension, -Compression
3-9
Chapter 3 Materials
A total of 4 points (NPSASSD = 4) has been selected for the definition of the stressstrain diagram. Strain values are the following: SAEPS (1) = SAEPS (2) = SAEPS (3) = SAEPS (4) = SASGM (1) = SASGM (2) = SASGM (3) = SASGM (4) = 3.3.1.3.3 -1.0E-2 -SIGe / ExLn SIGe / ExLn 1.0E-2 - SIGe +(SAEPS (1) - SAEPS (2)) / PLRAT*ExLn - SIGe SIGe SIGe + (SAEPS (4) - SAEPS (3)) / PLRAT*ExLn
The available stress-strain diagrams for LRFD are: TSASSD= 0 TSASSD= 1 TSASSD= 2
Definition of the elastic diagram (TSASSD = 1): The sign criterion for the definition of stress-strain diagram points is the following one: +Tension, -Compression A total of 2 points (NPSASSD = 2) has been selected for the definition of the stressstrain diagram. Strain values are the following: SAEPS (1) = SAEPS (2) = SASGM (1) = SASGM (2) = -1.0E-2 1.0E-2 SAEPS(1)*ExLn SAEPS(2)*ExLn
Definition of the bilinear diagram (TSASSD = 2): The sign criterion for the definition of stress-strain diagram points is the following one: +Tension, -Compression A total of 4 points (NPSASSD = 4) has been selected for the definition of the stressstrain diagram. Strain values are the following: SAEPS (1) = -1.0E-2
3-10
SAEPS (2) = SAEPS (3) = SAEPS (4) = SASGM (1) = SASGM (2) = SASGM (3) = SASGM (4) = 3.3.1.3.4
-fy / ExLn fy / ExLn 1.0E-2 -fy+(SAEPS (1) - SAEPS (2)) / PLRAT*ExLn -fy fy fy + (SAEPS (4) - SAEPS (3)) / PLRAT*ExLn
The available stress-strain diagrams for BS 5950 are: TSASSD= 0 TSASSD= 1 TSASSD= 2
Definition of the elastic diagram (TSASSD = 1): The sign criterion for the definition of stress-strain diagram points is the following one: +Tension, -Compression A total of 2 points (NPSASSD = 2) has been selected for the definition of the stressstrain diagram. Strain values are the following: SAEPS (1) = SAEPS (2) = SASGM (1) = SASGM (2) = -1.0E-2 1.0E-2 SAEPS(1)*ExLn SAEPS(2)*ExLn
Definition of the bilinear diagram (TSASSD = 2): The sign criterion for the definition of stress-strain diagram points is the following one: +Tension, -Compression A total of 4 points (NPSASSD = 4) has been selected for the definition of the stressstrain diagram. Strain values are the following: SAEPS (1) = SAEPS (2) = SAEPS (3) = -1.0E-2 -fy / ExLn fy / ExLn
3-11
Chapter 3 Materials
SAEPS (4) = SASGM (1) = SASGM (2) = SASGM (3) = SASGM (4) = 3.3.1.3.5
1.0E-2 -fy+(SAEPS (1) - SAEPS (2)) / PLRAT*ExLn -fy Fy fy + (SAEPS (4) - SAEPS (3)) / PLRAT*ExLn
The available stress-strain diagrams for GB50017 are: TSASSD= 0 TSASSD= 1 TSASSD= 2
Definition of the elastic diagram (TSASSD = 1): The sign criterion for the definition of stress-strain diagram points is the following one: +Tension, -Compression A total of 2 points (NPSASSD = 2) has been selected for the definition of the stressstrain diagram. Strain values are the following: SAEPS (1) = SAEPS (2) = SASGM (1) = SASGM (2) = -1.0E-2 1.0E-2 SAEPS(1)*ExLn SAEPS(2)*ExLn
Definition of the bilinear diagram (TSASSD = 2): The sign criterion for the definition of stress-strain diagram points is the following one: +Tension, -Compression A total of 4 points (NPSASSD = 4) has been selected for the definition of the stressstrain diagram. Strain values are the following: SAEPS (1) = SAEPS (2) = SAEPS (3) = SAEPS (4) = -1.0E-2 -fy / ExLn fy / ExLn 1.0E-2
3-12
SASGM (1) = SASGM (2) = SASGM (3) = SASGM (4) = 3.3.1.4 SDEPS SDSGM TSDSSD
-fy+(SAEPS (1) - SAEPS (2)) / PLRAT*ExLn -fy Fy fy + (SAEPS (4) - SAEPS (3)) / PLRAT*ExLn
Stress-strain diagram for section analysis Strain values corresponding to a point of the diagram. Stress values corresponding to a point of the diagram. Type of stress-strain diagram. The different type of stress-strain diagrams available depend on the code for which the material was defined. Apart from available diagrams supported by codes, it is possible to define new ones by selecting the User defined option. Number of diagram points. Stress-strain diagrams conforming to Eurocode 3 TSDSSD= 0 TSDSSD= 1 User defined Bilinear
NPSDSSD 3.3.1.4.1
Definition of the bilinear diagram (TSDSSD = 1): The sign criterion for the definition of stress-strain diagram points is the following one: +Tension, -Compression A total of 4 points (NPSDSSD = 4) has been selected for the definition of the stressstrain diagram. Strain values have been taken conforming to article Art. 5.2.1.4 and are the following: SDEPS (1) = SDEPS (2) = SDEPS (3) = SDEPS (4) = SDSGM (1) = SDSGM (2) = SDSGM (3) = SDSGM (4) = -1.0E-2 -fy / ExLn / GAMM0 fy / ExLn / GAMM0 1.0E-2 (-fy+(SDEPS (1) - SDEPS (2)) / PLRAT*ExLn) / GAMM0 -fy / GAMM0 fy / GAMM0 (fy + (SDEPS (4) - SDEPS (3)) / PLRAT*ExLn) / GAMM0
3-13
Chapter 3 Materials
3.3.1.4.2
Stress-strain diagrams conforming to the spanish EA code TSDSSD= 0 TSDSSD= 1 User defined Bilinear
Definition of the bilinear diagram (TSDSSD = 1) The sign criterion for the definition of stress-strain diagram points is the following one: +Tension, -Compression A total of 4 points (NPSDSSD = 4) has been chosen for the definition of the stressstrain diagram. Strain values are the following: SDEPS (1) = SDEPS (2) = SDEPS (3) = SDEPS (4) = SDSGM (1) = SDSGM (2) = SDSGM (3) = SDSGM (4) = 3.3.1.4.3 -1.0E-2 -SIGe / ExLn / GAMa SIGe / ExLn / GAMa 1.0E-2 (- SIGe +(SDEPS (1) - SDEPS (2)) / PLRAT*ExLn) / GAMa - SIGe / GAMa SIGe / GAMa (SIGe + (SDEPS (4) - SDEPS (3)) / PLRAT*ExLn) / GAMa
Stress-strain diagrams conforming to the LRFD code TSDSSD= 0 TSDSSD= 1 User defined Bilinear
Definition of the bilinear diagram (TSDSSD = 1) The sign criterion for the definition of stress-strain diagram points is the following one: +Tension, -Compression A total of 4 points (NPSDSSD = 4) has been selected for the definition of the stressstrain diagram. Strain values are the following: SDEPS (1) = SDEPS (2) = SDEPS (3) = SDEPS (4) = -1.0E-2 -fy / ExLn fy / ExLn 1.0E-2
3-14
Stress values are the following: SDSGM (1) = SDSGM (2) = SDSGM (3) = SDSGM (4) = 3.3.1.4.4 (-fy+(SDEPS (1) - SDEPS (2)) / PLRAT*ExLn) -fy fy (fy + (SDEPS (4) - SDEPS (3)) / PLRAT*ExLn)
Stress-strain diagrams conforming to the BS5950 code TSDSSD= 0 TSDSSD= 1 User defined Bilinear
Definition of the bilinear diagram (TSDSSD = 1) The sign criterion for the definition of stress-strain diagram points is the following one: +Tension, -Compression A total of 4 points (NPSDSSD = 4) has been selected for the definition of the stressstrain diagram. Strain values are the following: SDEPS (1) = SDEPS (2) = SDEPS (3) = SDEPS (4) = SDSGM (1) = SDSGM (2) = SDSGM (3) = SDSGM (4) = 3.3.1.4.5 -1.0E-2 -ROy / ExLn ROy / ExLn 1.0E-2 (-fy+(SDEPS (1) - SDEPS (2)) / PLRAT*ExLn) -ROy ROy (fy + (SDEPS (4) - SDEPS (3)) / PLRAT*ExLn)
Stress-strain diagrams conforming to the GB50017 code TSDSSD= 0 TSDSSD= 1 User defined Bilinear
Definition of the bilinear diagram (TSDSSD = 1) The sign criterion for the definition of stress-strain diagram points is the following one: +Tension, -Compression
3-15
Chapter 3 Materials
A total of 4 points (NPSDSSD = 4) has been selected for the definition of the stressstrain diagram. Strain values are the following: SDEPS (1) = SDEPS (2) = SDEPS (3) = SDEPS (4) = SDSGM (1) = SDSGM (2) = SDSGM (3) = SDSGM (4) = 3.3.1.5 EPSmax
(MODF)
-1.0E-2 -f / ExLn f / ExLn 1.0E-2 -f+(SDEPS (1) - SDEPS (2)) / PLRAT*ExLn) -f f f + (SDEPS (4) - SDEPS (3)) / PLRAT*ExLn)
Strain limits for steel-concrete composite sections design Maximum permisible strain in tension at any point of the section (Point A in the pivot diagram). Sign criterion: + Tension, - Compression EPSmax = 0.010 (default value) If EPSmax = 0 then there is no limit
EPSmin
(MODF)
Maximum permisible strain in compression at any point of the section (Point B in the pivot diagram). Sign criterion: + Tension, - Compression EPSmin = -0.010 (default value) If EPSmin = 0 then there is no limit
3.3.2
Concrete
Command ~CFMP, defines all concrete material properties including those properties required for an ANSYS analysis.
Note: CivilFEM does not contain the material data conforming to the Australian Standard AS3600. If this code is activated, the selected material (concrete or reinforcement steel) will be filled out with the same parameters as the ACI-318 code requires.
Specific concrete material properties supported by CivilFEM are described hereafter: 3.3.2.1 NAge
(MODF)
Time dependent properties Number of material age points defined. This value must be between 0 and 50. A different stress-strain diagram is defined for each of the age points defined. Age tables, in days (Age 0).
Age(NAge)
3-16
(MODF)
MatAge
(LOCK)
Material age. It will be calculated using the following formula: MatAge = ActTime - TmAct
The initial values of Nage and Age depend on the active code under which the material is defined. Eurocode 2: NAge = 20 Age = ACI-318: NAge = 20 Age = EHE: NAge = 20 Age = CEB-FIP: NAge = 20 Age = BS8110 NAge = 20 Age = 1, 3, 7, 10, 14, 21, 28, 40, 60, 75, 90, 120, 200, 365, 600, 1000, 1800, 3000, 6000, 10000 days 1, 3, 7, 10, 14, 21, 28, 40, 60, 75, 90, 120, 200, 365, 600, 1000, 1800, 3000, 6000, 10000 days 1, 3, 7, 10, 14, 21, 28, 40, 60, 75, 90, 120, 200, 365, 600, 1000, 1800, 3000, 6000, 10000 days 1, 3, 7, 10, 14, 21, 28, 40, 60, 75, 90, 120, 200, 365, 600, 1000, 1800, 3000, 6000, 10000 days 1, 3, 7, 10, 14, 21, 28, 40, 60, 75, 90, 120, 200, 365, 600, 1000, 1800, 3000, 6000, 10000 days
GB50010: NAge = 20 Age = 1, 3, 7, 10, 14, 21, 28, 40, 60, 75, 90, 120, 200, 365, 600, 1000, 1800, 3000, 6000, 10000 days
3-17
Chapter 3 Materials
NBR6118: NAge = 20 Age = IS456: NAge = 20 Age = SP52101: NAge = 20 Age = 1, 3, 7, 10, 14, 21, 28, 40, 60, 75, 90, 120, 200, 365, 600, 1000, 1800, 3000, 6000, 10000 days Linear structural analysis properties Type of elastic modulus used. The different types, admited by CivilFEM are the following: 1: Tangent modulus of elasticity 2: Initial modulus of elasticity 3: Secant modulus of elasticity 4: Design modulus of elasticity 5: Reduced modulus of elasticity ExLn
(LIBR)
1, 3, 7, 10, 14, 21, 28, 40, 60, 75, 90, 120, 200, 365, 600, 1000, 1800, 3000, 6000, 10000 days
1, 3, 7, 10, 14, 21, 28, 40, 60, 75, 90, 120, 200, 365, 600, 1000, 1800, 3000, 6000, 10000 days
3.3.2.2 TpEx
(MODF)
Modulus of elasticity for linear analysis. The different options for the elastic modulus will vary depending on the active code. These are the types of modulus available for each one of the codes: Eurocode 2 TpEx = 1 TpEx = 3 TpEx = 4 ACI TpEx = 1 CEB-FIP TpEx = 1 TpEx = 3 TpEx = 5 EHE TpEx = 1 TpEx = 2 ExLn = Eci ExLn = E0 ExLn = Eci ExLn = Eci ExLn = Ec (by default) ExLn = Ec (by default) ExLn = Ec ExLn = Ecm (by default) ExLn = Ecd
3-18
TpEx = 3 BS8110 TpEx = 1 GB50010 TpEx = 1 NBR6118 TpEx = 1 TpEx = 3 IS456 TpEx = 1 SP52101 TpEx = 2 3.3.2.3 EPSmin
(LIBR)
ExLn = Ej (by default) ExLn = Ec (by default) ExLn = Ec (by default) ExLn = Ei ExLn = Ecs (by default) ExLn = Ec (by default) ExLn = Eb (by default)
Strain limits for section's design Maximum admissible strain in compression at any point of the section (Point B of the pivots diagram). Sign criterion: + Tension, - Compression Eurocode 2 EPSmin = -0.0035 If concrete has fck > 50 MPa, the concrete strain limit is: EPSmin = -(2.6+35[(90-fck)/100]4) 10-3 (with fck in MPa). ACI EPSmin = -0.0030 CEB-FIP For this code, the maximum admissible strains depend on the selected stress-strain diagram. The initial values taken as the Maximum admissible strain in compression at any point of the section are the following: If TSDSSD = 0 then EPSmin = -0.0035 If TSDSSD = 1 then EPSmin = -EPScuB If TSDSSD = 2 then EPSmin = -EPScuU EHE EPSmin = -0.0035 If concrete has fck > 50 MPa, the concrete strain limit is: EPSmin = -(2.6+14.4[(100-fck)/100]4) 10-3 (with fck in MPa). BS8110
3-19
Chapter 3 Materials
EPSmin = -0.0035 GB50010 EPSmin = - EPScu NBR6118 EPSmin = -0.0035 IS456 EPSmin = -0.0035 SP52101 EPSmin = EPSb2 EPSint
(LIBR)
Maximum permisible strain in compression at interior points of the section (Point C of the pivot diagram). Sign criterion:+ Tension, - Compression Eurocode 2 EPSint = -0.0020 If concrete has fck > 50 MPa, the concrete strain limit is: EPSint = -(2.0+0.085(fck-50)0.53) 10-3 (with fck in MPa). ACI EPSint = 0 (there is no limit). CEB-FIP For this code, the maximum admissible strains depend on the selected stress-strain diagram. The initial values taken as the Maximum admissible strain in compression at any point of the section are the following: If TSDSSD = 0 then EPSmin = -0.0020 If TSDSSD = 1 then EPSmin = -EPScuC If TSDSSD = 2 then EPSmin = 0 (there is no limit). EHE EPSint = -0.0020 If concrete has fck > 50 MPa, the concrete strain limit will then be: EPSint = -(2.0+0.085(fck-50)0.5) 10-3 (with fck in MPa). BS8110 EPSint = 0 (there is no limit). GB50010 EPSint = EPS0 NBR6118 EPSint = -0.0020
3-20
This value referes to the vertical distance in the section between the most compressed fiber and Point C of the pivot diagram. PCLevel = 3/7
3.3.2.4 NApt
(MODF)
Shrinkage and creep Number of load application ages defined. Load application age tables, in days (Apt Creep method 0 1 No creep. Step by step. No shrinkage. By temperatures. 0).
Apt(NApt)
(MODF)
KCREEP
(MODF)
KSHRINK
(MODF)
Shrinkage method. 0 1
AGECOEFF
(MODF)
EPSSHRNK(NAge)
(MODF)
Shrinkage strain Calculation method selected for the definition of shrinkage strains and creep coefficients curves. 0 1 2 3 4 User defined Eurocode 2 Model (default value) CEB Model ACI Model EHE Model
KCRCOD
(MODF)
Relative humidity (%). Default value = 60%. Fictitious thickness in milimeters. Default value = 600mm.
H
(MODF)
3-21
Chapter 3 Materials
CEB: RH
(MODF)
Relative humidity (%). Default value = 60%. Fictitious thickness in milimeters. Default value = 600mm.
H
(MODF)
EHE: RH
(MODF)
Relative humidity (%). Default value = 60%. Fictitious thickness in milimeters. Default value = 600mm.
H
(MODF)
ACI: PSI
(MODF)
Creep factor. Default value = 0.60. Creep age (days). Default value = 10 days. Ultimate (in time) creep coefficient. Default value = 2.35. Shrinkage factor. Default value = 1.0. Shrinkage age. Default value = 55 days. Ultimate (in time) shrinkage strain. Def. value = -78010-6.
D
(MODF)
NUU
(MODF)
ALPHA
(MODF)
F
(MODF)
EPSSLU
(MODF)
3.3.3
Reinforcement Steel
The ~CFMP command defines all reinforcement steel material properties including those properties that are necessary to carry out an ANSYS analysis. Specific reinforcement steel material properties supported by CivilFEM are described hereafter: 3.3.3.1 EPSmax
(MODF)
Strain limits used for concrete sections checking and design Refers to the maximum admissible strain in tension at any point of the section (Point A in the pivot diagram). Sign criterion: + Tension, - Compression The initial value depends on the active code: Eurocode 2 EPSmax = 0.010 (Art. 4.3.1.2 and Art. 4.2.2.3.2) ACI EPSmax = 0 (there is no limit). CEB-FIP
3-22
EPSmax = 0.010 EHE EPSmax = 0.010 BS8110 EPSmax = 0 GB50010 EPSmax = 0.010 NBR6118 EPSmax = 0.010 IS456 EPSmax = 0 SP52101 EPSmax = 0.025
3.3.4
Prestessing Steel
The ~CFMP command defines all the prestressing steel material properties, including those properties that are necessary to carry out an ANSYS analysis. Specific prestessing steel material properties supported by CivilFEM are described hereafter: 3.3.4.1 MU
(MODF)
Data for calculating prestressing losses Friction coefficient between the tendons and their casing (by default MU=0.20) Unintentional angular displacement per unit lenght (by default K= 0.01m-1) Anchorage slip (by default a= 0.006m) Concrete skrinkage strain (by default = 0.0004) Concrete creep strain (by default = 2.00)
K
(MODF)
A
(MODF)
EPSsr
(MODF)
PHI
(MODF)
3.3.4.2 EPSmax
(MODF)
Strain limits used for concrete sections checking and design Indicates the maximum admissible strain in tension at any point of the section (Point A of the pivot diagram). Sign criterion: + Tension, - Compression EPSmax 0, if EPSmax=0, there is no limit The initial value depends on the active code: Eurocode 2
3-23
Chapter 3 Materials
3.3.5
Soils
The ~CFMP command defines all soil material properties including the properties necessary to carry out an ANSYS analysis. Specific soil material properties supported by CivilFEM are described hereafter: TpEx
(MODF)
Type of elasticity modulus used in structural analysis: 1: Use static elasticity modulus (default) 2: Use dynamic modulus Elasticity modulus used in structural analysis: Type of Poisson coefficient used in structural analysis: 1: Use static Poissons ratio 2: Use dynamic Poissons ratio Poisson coefficient used in structural analysis: Type of density used in structural analysis: 1: Use bulk density (default) 2: Use submerged density Density used in structural analysis: Behavior type: 0: Elastic 1: Drucker-Prager 2: Mohr-Coulomb for plane strain models
ExCal
(LOCK)
TpNUxy
(MODF)
NUxycal
(LOCK)
TpRHO
(MODF)
RHOcal
(LOCK)
KPLA
(MDF)
ExSt
(MODF)
Static elasticity modulus Static Poisson modulus P waves velocity S waves velocity Dynamic elasticity modulus
NUxySt
(MODF)
Vp
(MODF)
Vs
(MODF)
Exd
(MODF)
3-24
NUxyd
(MODF)
Dynamic Poisson modulus Dry specific weight Solid specific weight: GAMs = GAMd/(1-n) Saturated specific weight: GAMsat = (GAMs + GAMw*e) / (1+e) = GAMs*(1-n)+ GAMw*n Submerged specific weight: GAMsub = GAMsat - GAMw Apparent specific weight: GAMap = GAMd*(1+W) Water specific weight Dry density RHOd = GAMd/g Solid density RHOs = GAMs/g Saturated density RHOsat = GAMsat/g Submerged density RHOsub = GAMsub/g Apparent density RHOap = GAMap/g Relative density (by default 0.5) Porosity (1 > n 0) Void ratio e = n/(1-n) Moisture content. Saturation degree Sw = W*GAMs / (e*GAMw) = W*GAMd / (n*GAMw) Diameter that allows more than 10% of material to pass through (In millimeters). Diameter that allows more than 30% of material to pass through (In millimeters).
GAMd
(MODF)
GAMs
(LOCK)
GAMsat
(LOCK)
GAMsub
(LOCK)
GAMap
(LOCK)
GAMw
(MODF)
RHOd
(MODF)
RHOs
(LOCK)
RHOsat
(LOCK)
RHOsub
(LOCK)
RHOap
(LOCK)
RHOrel
(MODF)
n
(MODF)
e
(LOCK)
W
(MODF)
Sw
(LOCK)
D10
(MODF)
D30
(MODF)
3-25
Chapter 3 Materials
D60
(MODF)
Diameter that allows more than 60% of material to pass through (In millimeters). Curvature coefficient Ccurv = D302/(D60*D10) Uniformity coefficient Cunif = D60/D10 Standard penetration test. SPT 0 Cone penetration test. CPT 0 Resistance to simple compression. qu 0 Oedometric modulus. Em 0 Maximum admissible load. Liquid limit percentage Plastic limit percentage Plasticity index [%]: Ip = wl - wp Angle of effective internal friction for Mohr-Coulomb (in degrees). 90 > PHIMCeff 0 Effective Cohesion. ceff 0 Angle of effective internal friction for Drucker-Prager. 90 > PHIDPeff 0 Effective Cohesion for Drucker-Prager. cDPeff 0 Angle of dilation. 90 > DELeff 0 Earth pressure coefficient at rest. K0 0 Active earth pressure coefficient. Ka 0 Passive earth pressure coefficient. Kp 0 Cohesion complementary component of active earth pressure. Kac 0 Cohesion complementary component of passive earth pressure.
Ccurv
(LOCK)
Cunif
(LOCK)
SPT
(MODF)
CPT
(MODF)
qu
(MODF)
Em
(MODF)
qa
(MODF)
wl
(MODF)
wp
(MODF)
Ip
(LOCK)
PHIMCeff
(MODF)
cMCeff
(MODF)
PHIDPeff
(MODF)
cDPeff
(MODF)
DELeff
(MODF)
K0
(MODF)
Ka
(MODF)
Kp
(MODF)
Kac
(MODF)
Kpc
(MODF)
3-26
Kpc 0 RuSI
(MODF)
Susceptibility to pore pressure: 0: Not susceptible 1: Susceptible Coefficient for pore pressure after consolidation. X Permeability. Kx 0 Y Permeability. Ky 0 Z Permeability. Kz 0 Consolidation coefficient. cv 0 Skempton law's coefficient. A 0 Skempton law's coefficient. 1 B 0 Skempton law's coefficient.
Ru
(MODF)
kx
(MODF)
ky
(MODF)
kz
(MODF)
cv
(MODF)
A
(MODF)
B
(MODF)
BET
(MODF)
3.3.6
Rocks
The ~CFMP command defines all rock material properties including those properties that are necessary to carry out an ANSYS analysis. Specific rock material properties supported by CivilFEM are described hereafter: RType
(MODF)
Type Subtype Class Name Type of elasticity modulus used in structural analysis: 1: Use static elasticity modulus (default) 2: Use dynamic modulus Elasticity modulus used in structural analysis Type of Poissons ratio coefficient used in structural analysis: 1: Use static Poissons ratio 2: Use dynamic Poissons ratio
RSubType
(MODF)
RClass
(MODF)
RockName
(MODF)
TpEx
(MODF)
Excal
(LOCK)
TpNUxy
(MODF)
3-27
Chapter 3 Materials
NUxycal
(LOCK)
Poissons ratio used in structural analysis Type of density used in structural analysis: 1: Use bulk density (default) 2: Use submerged density Density used in structural analysis Behavior type: 0: Elastic 1: Drucker-Prager 2: Mohr-Coulomb for plane strain models
TpRHO
(MODF)
RHOcal
(LOCK)
KPLA
(MODF)
ExSt
(MODF)
Static elasticity modulus Static Poisson modulus P waves velocity S waves velocity Dynamic elasticity modulus Dynamic Poisson modulus Resistance to simple compression. qu 0 Dry specific weight Solid specific weight GAMs = GAMd/(1-n) Saturated specific weight GAMsat = (GAMs + GAMw*e) / (1+e) Submerged specific weight GAMsub = GAMsat - GAMw Apparent specific weight GAMap = GAMd*(1+W) Water specific weight Dry density RHOd = GAMd/g Solid density
NUxySt
(MODF)
Vp
(MODF)
Vs
(MODF)
Exd
(MODF)
NUxyd
(MODF)
qu
(MODF)
GAMd
(MODF)
GAMs
(LOCK)
GAMsat
(LOCK)
GAMsub
(LOCK)
GAMap
(LOCK)
GAMw
(MODF)
RHOd
(LOCK)
RHOs
3-28
(LOCK)
RHOs = GAMs/g Saturated density RHOsat = GAMsat/g Submerged density RHOsub = GAMsub/g Apparent density RHOap = GAMap/g Relative density (by default 0.5) Porosity (1 > n 0) Void ratio e = n/(1-n) Moisture content. Saturation degree Sw = W*GAMs / (e*GAMw) = W*GAMd / (n*GAMw) Angle of internal friction angle. 90 > PHIeff 0 Effective cohesion. ceff 0 Angle of internal friction angle for Drucker-Prager. 90 > PHIDPeff 0 Effective cohesion. cDPeff 0 Angle of dilation (degrees). 90 > DELeff 0 Earth pressure coefficient at rest. K0 0 Susceptibility to pore pressure: 0: Not susceptible 1: Susceptible Coefficient for pore pressure after consolidation. Permeability. Kx 0 Permeability. Ky 0 Permeability. Kz 0
RHOsat
(LOCK)
RHOsub
(LOCK)
RHOap
(LOCK)
RHOrel
(MODF)
n
(MODF)
e
(LOCK)
W
(MODF)
Sw
(LOCK)
PHIeff
(MODF)
ceff
(MODF)
PHIDPeff
(MODF)
cDPeff
(MODF)
DELeff
(MODF)
K0
(MODF)
RuSI
(MODF)
Ru
(MODF)
kx
(MODF)
ky
(MODF)
kz
(MODF)
3-29
Chapter 3 Materials
GSI
(MODF)
Geological strength index. 100 GSI 0 Hoek & Brown coefficient m Hoek & Brown coefficient s Hoek & Brown residual coefficient m Hoek & Brown residual coefficient s Hoek & Brown coefficient n. 0.5 n < 0.65 Hoek & Brown coefficient m for unfractured rock. m0 0 Hoek & Brown coefficient s for unfractured rock. s0 1 Fragility / ductility limit coefficient. Factor for dilatancy calculation. By default HB_md=1 Factor for dilatancy calculation. By default HB_bd=0
HB_m
(MODF)
HB_s
(MODF)
HB_mr
(MODF)
HB_sr
(MODF)
HB_n
(MODF)
HB_m0
(MODF)
HB_s0
(MODF)
HB_ALF
(MODF)
HB_md
(MODF)
HB_bd
(MODF)
3-30
3.4
There are some properties in CivilFEM that are code dependent. This code dependent properties are described hereafter for each one of the materials supported by CivilFEM.
3.4.1
For this type of materials (Type = 1) the following properties are considered: 3.4.1.1 GAMM0
(MODF)
Partial safety factors Partial safety factor for calculating the resistance of class 1, 2 or 3 sections (GAMM0 1) M0=1.1 (Default value) Partial safety factor for calculating the resistance of class 4 sections and sections subjected to buckling (GAMM1 1) M1=1.1 (Default value) Partial safety factor for calculating the resistance of net sections (GAMM2 1) M2=1.25 (Default value) Mechanical properties Yield strength of the material (fy Ultimate strength (fu 0). 0).
GAMM1
(MODF)
GAMM2
(MODF)
3.4.1.2 fy (Thk)
(LIBR)
fu (Thk)
(LIBR)
3.4.2
For this type of materials (Type = 1) the following properties are considered: 3.4.2.1 GAMa
(MODF)
value)
3.4.2.2 SIGe(Thk)
(LIBR)
SIGr(Thk)
(LIBR)
SIGu(Thk)
(LOCK)
3-31
Chapter 3 Materials
3.4.3
For this type of materials (Type = 1) the following properties are considered: 3.4.3.1 fy (Thk)
(LIBR)
Mechanical properties Yield strength of the material (fy Ultimate strength (fu 0). 0).
fu (Thk)
(LIBR)
3.4.4
For this type of materials (Type = 1) the following properties are considered: 3.4.4.1 Ys (Thk)
(LIBR)
Us (Thk)
(LIBR)
Ultimate strength Art. 5.1.1 (Us 0). Design resistance. BS 5950 Art 3.1.1 ROy = 1.0Ys 0.84Us Effective area/Net area ratio Art. 3.3.3 BS 5950 Ke = 1.2 grade 40 or 43 Ke = 1.1 grade 50 or WR50 Ke = 1.0 grade 55 Ke = 0.75Us/Ys 1.2 in any other case
ROy (Thk)
(LIBR)
Ke (Thk)
(LIBR)
3.4.5
For this type of materials (Type = 1) the following properties are considered: 3.4.5.1 Ys (Thk)
(LIBR)
Us (Thk)
(LIBR)
Ultimate strength Art. 3.1.1 (Us 0). Design resistance. BS 5950 Art 3.1.1 ROy = 1.0Ys 0.84Us Effective area/Net area ratio Art. 3.4.3 BS 5950 Ke = 1.2 grade 40 or 43
ROy (Thk)
(LIBR)
Ke (Thk)
(LIBR)
3-32
3.4.6
For this type of materials (Type = 1) the following properties are considered: 3.4.6.1 f (Thk)
(LIBR)
Mechanical properties Tensile, compressive or bending strength. Compressive strength when the ending section is under compressive load. Shear strength.
fce (Thk)
(LIBR)
fv (Thk)
(LIBR)
3.4.7
Eurocode 2 (Concrete)
For this type of materials (Type = 2) the following properties are considered: 3.4.7.1 CeTp
(MODF)
Type of cement Refers to the different types of cement used: S: N: R: Slow hardening cements Slow hardening cements (Default value) Rapid hardening cements
Partial safety factors Partial safety factor for concrete (GAMc 1) ( c=1.5 default value).
ALP
(MODF)
Additional reduction factor for sustained compression (0 ALP 1). The default values are ALP = 0.85 for Eurocode 2 1991. ALP = 1.00 for Eurocode 2 2008.
3.4.7.3 fck
(LIBR)
3-33
Chapter 3 Materials
fcm
(MODF)
Mean 28-day compressive strength (+ Compression) fcm fcm = fck + 8 N/mm2, in which fcm, and fck are in MPa.
fcd
(LOCK)
Design 28-day compressive strength (+Compression) fcd = fck/GAMc Mean tensile strength (+ Tension) fctm = 0.3*(fck2/3); fck 50 MPa fctm = 2.12*ln(1+(fcm/10)); fck > 50 MPa (fctm, fcm and fctk in MPa)
fctm
(MODF)
fctk_005
(MODF)
Lower characteristic tensile strength (percentile-5%) (+Tension) fctk_005 = 0.7*(fctm) Upper characteristic tensile strength (percentile-95%) (+Tension) fctk_095 = 1.3*(fctm) Strain value of the peak compressive strength (- Compression). The default value is: EPSc1 = -0.0022 for Eurocode 2 1991 and fck EPSc1 = 0.7*fcm0.31 < 2.8 for Eurocode 2 2008 50MPa
fctk_095
(MODF)
EPSc1
(LIBR)
EPScu
(LIBR)
Ultimate strain in compression (-Compression). Coefficient which depends on the type of cement. S: N: R: RS: s = 0.38 s = 0.25 s = 0.25 s = 0.20
s
(MODF)
3.4.7.4 BETcc
(LOCK)
Time dependent mechanical properties Coefficient which depends on the concrete age. BETcc = exp {s*[1-(28/Age)1/2]} (Age is expressed in days) fcm_t = BETcc*fcm fck_t = fcm_t - 8 (fck_t and fcm in MPa)
Ecm(Age)
(MODF)
Secant modulus of elasticity. Ecm = 9500*[(fck_t+8)1/3] (fck_t and Ecm in MPa) Tangent modulus of elasticity, Ec = 1.05*Ecm Design modulus of elasticity, Ecd = Ecm/GAMc
Ec(t)
(MODF)
Ecd(t)
3-34
(LOCK)
3.4.7.5
The different types of stress-strain concrete diagrams available according to Eurocode 2 are: TSASSD= 0 TSASSD= 1 TSASSD= 2 3.4.7.5.1 User defined Elastic Short-term loads
The sign criterion for the definition of stress-strain diagram points is the following one: +Tension, -Compression A total of 2 points (NPSASSD = 2) has been selected for the definition of the stressstrain diagram. Strain values are the following: SAEPS (1) SAEPS (2) = = -10-2 10-2
For these points, stress values are the following: SASGM (i) = SAEPS (i) * Ex 3.4.7.5.2 Definition of the stress-strain diagram for short term loads (TSASSD = 2):
The sign criterion for the definition of stress-strain diagram points is the following one: +Tension, -Compression A total of 20 points (NPSDSSD = 20) has been chosen for the definition of the stressstrain diagram. The strain values are the following: SAEPS (1) SAEPS (2) SAEPS (3) SAEPS (4) SAEPS (5) SAEPS (6) SAEPS (7) SAEPS (8) SAEPS (9) SAEPS (10) = = = = = = = = = = 1.000*(EPScu-EPSc1)+EPSc1 0.793*(EPScu-EPSc1)+EPSc1 0.617*(EPScu-EPSc1)+EPSc1 0.468*(EPScu-EPSc1)+EPSc1 0.342*(EPScu-EPSc1)+EPSc1 0.234*(EPScu-EPSc1)+EPSc1 0.143*(EPScu-EPSc1)+EPSc1 0.066*(EPScu-EPSc1)+EPSc1 1.000*EPSc1 0.964*EPSc1
3-35
Chapter 3 Materials
SAEPS (11) SAEPS (12) SAEPS (13) SAEPS (14) SAEPS (15) SAEPS (16) SAEPS (17) SAEPS (18) SAEPS (19) SAEPS (20)
= = = = = = = = = =
0.922*EPSc1 0.873*EPSc1 0.816*EPSc1 0.749*EPSc1 0.669*EPSc1 0.575*EPSc1 0.465*EPSc1 0.335*EPSc1 1.181*EPSc1 0.000
For these points, stress values are the following: SASGM(i) = -[(k*Eta(i) -Eta(i) 2)/((1+(k-2)*Eta(i))]*fcm_t Where: K= 1.10*Ecm*EPSc1/(-fcm_t) for Eurocode 2 1991 1.05*Ecm*EPSc1/(-fcm_t) for Eurocode 2 2008 Eta(i) = SAEPS(i) / EPSc1 3.4.7.6 Stress-strain diagrams for section analysis
The different types of stress-strain diagrams available for concrete, according to Eurocode 2 are the following: TSDSSD= 0 TSDSSD= 1 TSDSSD= 2 User defined Parabolic-rectangular Bilinear
3-36
3.4.7.6.1
Number of diagram points The sign criterion for the definition of points of the stress-strain diagram is the following: +Tension, -Compression Strain values for this diagram are the following: SDEPS (1) SDEPS (2) SDEPS (3) SDEPS (4) SDEPS (5) SDEPS (6) SDEPS (7) SDEPS (8) SDEPS (9) SDEPS (10) SDEPS (11) SDEPS (12) where:
cu2 cu2 c2
= =
cu2 c2 c2 c2 c2 c2 c2 c2 c2 c2 c2
= 0.9 * = 0.8 * = 0.7 * = 0.6 * = 0.5 * = 0.4 * = 0.3 * = 0.2 * = 0.1 * = 0.0
= -0.0035 if fck
50 MPa
= -0.0020 if fck
cu2
(fck in MPa) The corresponding stress values are the following: For the first 11 points: SDSGM(i) = 1000*SDEPS(i) *(250*SDEPS(i) +1)*ALP*fcd_t for Eurocode 2 1991 SDSGM(i) = -[1-(1-SDEPS(i) / n = 2.0 for fck For point 12: SDSGM(i) = -ALP*fcd_t
n c2) ]*ALP*fcd_t
50 MPa
3-37
Chapter 3 Materials
3.4.7.6.2
Number of diagram points The sign criterion for the definition of points of the stress-strain diagram is the following: +Tension, -Compression A total of 3 points (NPSDSSD = 3) has been chosen for the definition of the stressstrain diagram. Strain values have been taken conforming to article Art. 4.2.1.3.3 (b) of Eurocode 2 and are the following: SDEPS (1) = SDEPS (2) = Where
cu3 cu3 c3 c3 c3 cu3 c3
= -0.001*(2.6+35*[(90-fck)/100]4) for fck > 50 MPa 50 MPa and Eurocode 2 1991 50 MPa and Eurocode 2 2008
Stress points are the following: SDSGM (1) = -ALP*fcd_t SDSGM (2) = -ALP*fcd_t SDSGM (3) = 0.000
3.4.8
3.4.8.1 GAMs
(MODF)
For this type of materials (Type = 3) the following properties are defined: = 1.15 (default value)
3.4.8.2 fyk
(LIBR)
Mechanical properties Characteristic yield stress- Indicates the characteristic value of the applied load over the area of the transverse section. Design yield stress. fyd = fyk/GAMs Characteristic tensile stress. Refers to the characteristic value of the maximum axial load in tension over the area of the transverse section. Characteristic elongation at maximum load. EPSuk 0
fyd
(LIBR)
ftk
(LIBR)
EPSuk
3-38
(LIBR)
3.4.8.3 Duct
(LIBR)
Ductility Ductility- The default value depends on ftk, fyk and EPSuk If EPSuk > 0.050 and ftk/fyk > 1.08 If EPSuk > 0.025 and ftk/fyk > 1.05 Any other case Duct = HIGH Duct = NORMAL Duct = NONE
3.4.8.4
Stress-strain diagrams for structural analysis TSASSD= 0 TSASSD= 1 TSASSD= 2 User defined Elastic Bilinear
3.4.8.4.1
Number of diagram points: The sign criterion for the definition of points of the stress-strain diagram is the following: +Tension, -Compression Strain points are the following: SAEPS (1) SAEPS (2) = -1.0E-2 = 1.0E-2
Stress points are the following: SASGM (1) = SAEPS(1)*Ex SASGM (2) = SAEPS(2)*Ex 3.4.8.4.2 Definition of the bilinear diagram (TSDSSD = 2): NPSASSD = 4 The sign criterion for the definition of points of the stress-strain diagram is the following: +Tension, -Compression Strain points are the following: SAEPS (1) SAEPS (2) SAEPS (3) SAEPS (4) = -EPSuk = -fyk/Ex = fyk/Ex = EPSuk Number of diagram points:
3-39
Chapter 3 Materials
Stress points are the following: SASGM (1) = -ftk SASGM (2) = -fyk SASGM (3) = fyk SASGM (4) = ftk 3.4.8.5 Stress-strain diagrams for section analysis TSDSSD= 0 TSDSSD= 1 TSDSSD= 2 3.4.8.5.1 User defined Bilinear with horizontal top branch Bilinear with inclined top branch
Definition of the bilinear diagram with horizontal top branch stressstrain (TSDSSD = 1): NPSDSSD = 4
Number of diagram points The sign criterion for the definition of points of the stress-strain diagram is the following: +Tension, -Compression Strain points are the following: SDEPS (1) SDEPS (2) SDEPS (3) SDEPS (4) SDSGM (1) SDSGM (2) SDSGM (3) SDSGM (4) 3.4.8.5.2 = -EPSuk = -fyd/Ex = fyd/Ex = EPSuk = -fyd = -fyd = fyd = fyd Definition of the bilinear diagram with inclined top branch stressstrain (TSDSSD = 2): NPSDSSD = 4
3-40
The sign criterion for the definition of points of the stress-strain diagram is the following: +Tension, -Compression Strain points are the following: SDEPS (1) = -EPSuk SDEPS (2) = -fyd/Ex SDEPS (3) = fyd/Ex SDEPS (4) = EPSuk The corresponding stress points are the following: SDSGM (1) = -ftk/GAMs SDSGM (2) = -fyd SDSGM (3) = fyd SDSGM (4) = ftk/GAMs
3.4.9
For this type of materials (Type = 4) the following properties are defined: 3.4.9.1 GAMs
(MODF)
3.4.9.2 fpk
(LIBR)
Mechanical properties Characteristic tensile strength. fpk 0 0.1% Proof-stress. fp01 0 Characteristic elongation at maximum load. EPSuk 0.035) Relaxation Relaxation for 1000hours and 60%fmax. Relaxation for 1000hours and 70%fmax. Relaxation for 1000hours and 80%fmax. Ratio between long-term relaxation losses and 1000 hours relaxation losses. 0 (by default =
fp01
(LIBR)
EPSuk
(LIBR)
3.4.9.3 Ro_60
(MODF)
Ro_70
(MODF)
Ro_80
(MODF)
LtRat
(MODF)
3-41
Chapter 3 Materials
3.4.9.4
Stress-strain diagrams for structural analysis TSASSD= 0: User defined TSASSD= 1: Elastic TSASSD= 2: Bilinear
3.4.9.4.1
Number of diagram points The sign criterion for the definition of points of the stress-strain diagram is the following: +Tension, -Compression Strain points are the following: SAEPS (1) SAEPS (2) = -10-2 = 10-2
The corresponding stress points are the following: SASGM (1) = SAEPS (1)Ex SASGM (2) = SAEPS (2)Ex 3.4.9.4.2 Definition of the Bilinear diagram (TSDSSD = 2): NPSASSD = 3 The sign criterion for the definition of points of the stress-strain diagram is the following: +Tension, -Compression Strain points are the following: SAEPS (1) SAEPS (2) SAEPS (3) = 0.0 = 0.9fpk/Ex = EPSuk
The corresponding stress points are the following: SASGM (1) = 0.0 SASGM (2) = 0.9fpk SASGM (3) = fpk
3-42
3.4.9.5
Stress-strain diagrams for section analysis TSDSSD= 0: User-defined TSDSSD= 1: Bilinear with horizontal top branch TSDSSD= 2: Bilinear with inclined top branch
3.4.9.5.1
Definition of the bilinear diagram with horizontal top branch stressstrain (TSDSSD = 1): NPSDSSD = 3
Number of diagram points: The sign criterion for the definition of points of the stress-strain diagram is the following: +Tension, -Compression Strain points are the following: SDEPS (1) SDEPS (2) SDEPS (3) SDSGM (1) SDSGM (2) SDSGM (3) 3.4.9.5.2 = 0.0 = 0.9fpk/(Ex.GAMs) = EPSuk = 0.0 = 0.9fpk/GAMs = 0.9fpk/GAMs Definition of the bilinear diagram with inclined top branch stressstrain (TSDSSD = 2): NPSDSSD = 3 The sign criterion for the definition of points of the stress-strain diagram is the following: +Tension, -Compression Strain points are the following: SDEPS (1) = 0.0 SDEPS (2) = 0.9fpk/(Ex.GAMs) SDEPS (3) = EPSuk The corresponding stress points are the following: SDSGM (1) = 0.0 SDSGM (3) = 0.9fpk/GAMs SDSGM (4) = fpk/GAMs
3-43
Chapter 3 Materials
3.4.10
ACI (Concrete)
For this type of materials (Type = 2) the following properties are defined: 3.4.10.1 CuTp
(MODF)
Type of cement and curing Type of curing (ACI-219R-4 Art. 2.2.1) MOIST: moist cured (default value) STEAM: steam cured Type of cement (ACI-219R-4 Art. 2.2.1) I: cement type I (default value) III: cement type III
CeTp
(MODF)
3.4.10.2 fc
(LIBR)
Mechanical properties Specified compressive strength (Art. 5.1 of the ACI-318) (+ Compression) Constant which depends on the type of cement and curing (table 2.2.1 of the ACI-209R-4). Cutp = Moist Cutp = Moist CeTp = I a = 4.00 a = 4.00 CeTp = III a = 4.00
a
(MODF)
Cutp = Steam CeTp = III a = 4.00 Constant which depends on the type of cement and curing (table 2.2.1 of the ACI-209R-4). Cutp = Moist Cutp = Moist CeTp = I BET = 0.85 BET = 0.95 CeTp = III BET = 0.92
Time dependent mechanical properties Concrete compressive strength (ACI-209R-4 Art. 2.2.1) (+ Compression) fc_t = Age / (a+BET*Age)*fc Modulus of rupture (ACI-318 Art. 9.5.2.3) fr
fr (Age)
(LIBR)
7.5
fc _ t
Ec(Age)
(LIBR)
Modulus of elasticity (Art. 8.5.1 of the ACI-318) Ec = RHO1.5*fc_t1/2 (with RHO in lb/ft3) Factor that allows transforming the parabolic stress distribution of the beam compressive zone to a rectangular one (Art. 10.2.7.3 of the ACI318). This factor 1 varies depending on the concrete characteristic
BET1
(LIBR)
3-44
strength. The different values this factor may have are described bellow: fc 8000 psi fc fc 4000 psi 4000 psi 8000 psi 1= 0.85 1= 0.85 - 0.05*(fc-4000)/1000 1= 0.65
Note: All these formulae are valid for a fc of 28 days. EPS0(Age) Strain of the maximum compressive stress for parabolic stress-strain (LIBR) diagram (ACI 318-95 article Art. 10.2.7 Figure 6-8) (+Compression) EPS0 = 2* (0.85*fc_t)/Ec 3.4.10.4 Stress-strain diagrams for structural analysis
The different types of stress-strain diagrams available for concrete, according to the ACI code are the following: TSASSD= 0: TSASSD= 1: TSASSD= 2: 3.4.10.4.1 User defined Elastic PCA Parabolic
The sign criterion for the definition of stress-strain diagram points is the following one: A total of 2 points (NPSASSD = 2) has been chosen for the definition of the stressstrain diagram. Strain values are the following: SAEPS (1) SAEPS (2) = = -1.0E-2 1.0E-2
For these points, stress values are the following: SASGM (i) = SAEPS (i) * Ex 3.4.10.4.2 Definition of the PCA parabolic stress-strain diagram (TSASSD = 2): NPSASSD = 12 The sign criterion for the definition of points of the stress-strain diagram is the following: +Tension, -Compression Strain points have been taken according to notes expressed in ACI-318 article Art. 10.2.6 and are the following: SAEPS (1) SAEPS (2) SAEPS (3) SAEPS (4) = -0.0030 = -EPS0 = -9/10*EPS0 = -8/10*EPS0
3-45
Chapter 3 Materials
SAEPS (5) SAEPS (6) SAEPS (7) SAEPS (8) SAEPS (9) SAEPS (10) SAEPS (11) SAEPS (12)
Stress points are the following: If 0 > SAEPS(i) > (-EPS0) SASGM(i) = SASGM(i) = 0.85*fc_t*[2*(SAEPS(i) /-EPS0)-(SAEPS(i) /-EPS0)2] 0.85*fc_t If (-EPS0) > SAEPS(i)
3.4.10.5
The different types of stress-strain diagrams available for concrete, according to the ACI code are the following: TSDSSD= 0: TSDSSD= 1: TSDSSD= 2: 3.4.10.5.1 Number of diagram points NPSDSSD = 12 The sign criterion for the definition of points of the stress-strain diagram is the following: +Tension, -Compression Strain points have been taken according to notes expressed in ACI-318 article Art. 10.2.6 and are the following: SDEPS (1) SDEPS (2) SDEPS (3) SDEPS (4) SDEPS (5) SDEPS (6) SDEPS (7) = -0.0030 = -EPS0 = -9/10*EPS0 = -8/10*EPS0 = -7/10*EPS0 = -6/10*EPS0 = -5/10*EPS0 User defined PCA Parabolic Rectangular
3-46
SDEPS (8) SDEPS (9) SDEPS (10) SDEPS (11) SDEPS (12)
The corresponding stress points are the following: If 0 > SDEPS(i) > (-EPS0) SDSGM (i) = 0.85*fc_t*[2*(SDEPS(i) /-EPS0)-(SDEPS(i) /-EPS0)2] If (-EPS0) > SDEPS SDSGM (i) = 0.85*fc_t 3.4.10.5.2 Definition of the rectangular diagram (TSDSSD = 2): NPSDSSD = 0 For rectangular diagrams, it does not make sense to consider any specific point in this diagram because stresses do not depend on strains, but on the distance between the outer most compressed fiber and the neutral axis. Number of diagrams points
3.4.11
For this type of materials (Type = 3) the following properties are considered: 3.4.11.1 fy
(LIBR)
3.4.11.2
The different types of stress-strain diagrams available for reinforcement steel, according to the ACI code are the following: TSASSD= 0 TSASSD= 1 TSASSD= 2 3.4.11.2.1 Number of diagram points: NPSASSD = 2 User defined Elastic Bilinear
3-47
Chapter 3 Materials
The sign criterion for the definition of points of the stress-strain diagram is the following: +Tension, -Compression Strain values for the stress-strain diagram have been taken as: SAEPS (1) SAEPS (2) = -1.0E-2 = 1.0E+2
The corresponding stress values are: SASGM (1) = SAEPS(1)*Ex SASGM (2) = SAEPS(2)*Ex 3.4.11.2.2 Definition of the bilinear diagram (TSASSD = 2): NPSASSD = 4 The sign criterion for the definition of points of the stress-strain diagram is the following: +Tension, -Compression Strain values for the stress-strain diagram have been taken as: SAEPS (1) SAEPS (2) SAEPS (3) SAEPS (4) = -0.01 = -fy/Ex = fy/Ex = 0.01 Number of diagram points:
The corresponding stress values are: SASGM (1) = -fy SASGM (2) = -fy SASGM (3) = fy SASGM (4) = fy 3.4.11.3 Stress-strain diagram for section analysis
The different types of stress-strain diagrams available for reinforcement steel, according to the ACI code are the following: TSDSSD= 0 TSDSSD= 1 3.4.11.3.1 Number of diagrams points NPSDSSD = 4 User defined Bilinear
3-48
The sign criterion for the definition of points of the stress-strain diagram is the following: +Tension, -Compression Strain values for the stress-strain diagram have been taken as: SDEPS (1) = -0.01 SDEPS (2) = -fy/Ex SDEPS (3) = fy/Ex SDEPS (4) = 0.01 The corresponding stress values are: SDSGM (1) = -fy SDSGM (2) = -fy SDSGM (3) = fy SDSGM (4) = Fy
3.4.12
For this type of materials (Type = 4) the following properties are considered: 3.4.12.1 StTp
(MODF)
fpu fpy
(LIBR) (LIBR)
3.4.12.2 Rlcf1
(MODF)
Relaxation Coefficient 1 for the relaxation calculation Coefficient 1 for the relaxation calculation
Rlcf2
(MODF)
3.4.12.3
The different types of stress-strain diagrams available for prestressing steel, according to the ACI code are the following: TSASSD= 0 TSASSD= 1 User defined Elastic
3-49
Chapter 3 Materials
TSASSD= 2 3.4.12.3.1
Bilinear
Number of diagram points The sign criterion for the definition of points of the stress-strain diagram is the following: +Tension, -Compression Strain values for the stress-strain diagram have been taken as: SAEPS (1) SAEPS (2) = -10-2 = 10-2
The corresponding stress values are: SASGM (1) = SAEPS (1)Ex SASGM (2) = SAEPS (2)Ex 3.4.12.3.2 Definition of the bilinear diagram (TSASSD = 2): NPSASSD = 3 The sign criterion for the definition of points of the stress-strain diagram is the following: +Tension, -Compression Strain values for the stress-strain diagram have been taken as: SAEPS (1) SAEPS (2) SAEPS (3) = 0.0 = fpy/Ex = 0.035
The corresponding stress values are: SASGM (1) = 0.0 SASGM (2) = fpy SASGM (3) = fpu 3.4.12.4 Stress-strain diagram for section analysis
The different types of stress-strain diagrams available for prestressing steel, according to the ACI code are the following: TSDSSD= 0 TSDSSD= 1 User defined Bilinear
3-50
3.4.12.4.1
Number of diagrams points The sign criterion for the definition of points of the stress-strain diagram is the following: +Tension, -Compression Strain values for the stress-strain diagram have been taken as: SDEPS (1) = 0.0 SDEPS (2) = fpy/Ex SDEPS (3) = 0.035 The corresponding stress values are: SDSGM (1) = 0.0 SDSGM (2) = fpy SDSGM (3) = fpu
3.4.13
CEB-FIP (Concrete)
For this type of materials (Type = 2) the following properties are defined: 3.4.13.1 CeTp
(MODF)
Type of cement Type of cement (appendix d.4.2.1) S: N: R: Slow hardening cements Normal hardening cements (default value) Rapid hardening cements
Safety factors Partial safety factor for concrete (Art. 1.6.4.4) (GAMc c=1.5 (default value) Mechanical properties Characteristic compressive strength (+ Compression) fck 0 1)
3.4.13.3 fck
(LIBR)
fcd
(LOCK)
Design compressive strength at 28 days (Art. 1.4.1 b) (+ Compression) fcd = fck/GAMc Mean compressive strength (Art. 2.1.3.2) (+ Compression fcm fcm = fck + 8 N/mm2, in which fcm, and fck are in N/mm2. 0)
fcm
(MODF)
3-51
Chapter 3 Materials
fctk_min
(MODF)
Lower characteristic tensile strength (Art. 2.1.3.3.1 (2.1-2)) (+ Tension) fctk_min = 0.95*[(fck/10)2/3] (fctk_min and fck in N/mm2) Upper characteristic tensile strength (Art. 2.1.3.3.1 (2.1-3)) (+ Tension) fctk_max = 1.85*[(fck/10)2/3] (fctk_max and fck in N/mm2) Mean tensile strength (Art. 2.1.3.3.1 (2.1-4)) (+ Tension) fctm = 1.40*[(fck/10)2/3] (fctm and fck in N/mm2) Coefficient which depends on the type of cement and is used to calculate the characteristic concrete resistance at a specific age (Art. 2.1.6.1) Cetp= S: Cetp= N: Cetp= R: Cetp= RS: s = 0.38 s = 0.25 s = 0.25 s = 0.20
fctk_max
(MODF)
fctm
(MODF)
s
(MODF)
3.4.13.4 BETcc(Age)
(LOCK)
Time dependent mechanical properties Coefficient which depends on concrete age (Art. 2.1.6.1 (2.1-54)) BETcc = exp {s*[1-(28/Age)1/2]} (Age is expressed in days.) Mean t day compressive strength (Art. 2.1.6.1 (2.1-53)) (+Compression) fcm_t = BETcc*fcm Characteristic t-day compressive strength (Art. 2.1.3.2) (+Compression) fck_t = fcm_t - 8 (in MPa) Design t-day compressive strength (Art. 1.4.1 b) (+Compression) fcd_t = fck_t/GAMc Uniform strength for uncracked regions (Art. 6.2.2.2) fcd1 = 0.85*(1-fck_t/250)*fcd_t (fcd1, fck_t and fcd_t in N/mm2) Uniform strength for cracked regions (Art. 6.2.2.2) fcd2 = 0.60*(1-fck_t/250)*fcd_t (fcd2, fck_t and fcd_t in N/mm 2) Strength ratio. This coefficient refers to the ratio of tension over compression resistance. Its value is taken from article (Art. 2.1.3.4) K = fctm / fcm Tangent modulus of elasticity (Art. 2.1.4.2) Eci = (BETcc)1/2 *2.15E4*{[(fcm_t)/10]1/3} (in N/mm2) Reduced modulus of elasticity (article 2.1.4.2) Ec = 0.85*Eci Secant modulus of elasticity (Art. 2.1.4.4.1) Ec1 = (BETcc)1/2 *fcm_t/(-EPSc1) Strain of the maximum compressive stress (Art. 2.1.4.4.1) (-Compression) EPSC1 = -0.0022
fcm_t(Age)
(MODF)
fck_t(Age)
(MODF)
fcd_t(Age)
(LOCK)
fcd1(Age)
(LOCK)
fcd2(Age)
(LOCK)
k
(MODF)
Eci(Age)
(MODF)
Ec(Age)
(MODF)
Ec1(Age)
(MODF)
EPSc1
(LIBR)
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(- Compression)
EPScuB
(LOCK)
Maximum strain in bending for a parabolic rectangular diagram (Art. 6.2.2.2 (6.2-2)). This strain varies with the concrete characteristic strength, following the criteria specified bellow: (+ Compression) If fck 50 (in MPa) EPScuB = 0.0035 EPScuB = 0.0035*(50/fck) (in N/mm2)
Maximum strain in compression for a parabolic rectangular diagram (Art. 6.2.2.2 (6.2-6)) (+ Compression) EPScuC = 0.0035 Maximum strain for a uniform stress diagram (Art. 6.2.2.2 (6.2-6)) (+Compression) EPScuU = 0.004 - 0.002*(fck/100) (in N/mm2)
EPScuU
(LOCK)
3.4.13.5
The different types of stress-strain diagrams available for concrete, according to CEB-FIP code are the following: TSASSD= 0: User defined TSASSD= 1: Elastic TSASSD= 2: Instantaneous loading 3.4.13.5.1 Definition of the elastic stress-strain diagram (TSASSD = 1): +Tension, -Compression A total of 2 points (NPSASSD = 2) has been chosen for the definition of the stressstrain diagram. Strain values are the following: SAEPS (1) SAEPS (2) = = -10-2 10-2
The sign criterion for the definition of stress-strain diagram points is the following one:
For these points, stress values are the following: SASGM (i) = SAEPS (i) * Ex 3.4.13.5.2 Definition of the Instantaneous loading stress-strain diagram (TSASSD = 2): NPSASSD = 20 The sign criterion for the definition of points of the stress-strain diagram is the following:
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Chapter 3 Materials
+Tension, -Compression Strain point values have been taken conforming to article Art. 2.1.4.4.1 and are the following: SAEPS (1) SAEPS (2) SAEPS (3) SAEPS (4) SAEPS (5) SAEPS (6) SAEPS (7) SAEPS (8) SAEPS (9) SAEPS (10) SAEPS (11) SAEPS (12) SAEPS (13) SAEPS (14) SAEPS (15) SAEPS (16) SAEPS (17) SAEPS (18) SAEPS (19) SAEPS (20) = 1.000*(EPSc_lim-EPSc1) + EPSc1 = 0.793*(EPSc_lim-EPSc1) + EPSc1 = 0.617*(EPSc_lim-EPSc1) + EPSc1 = 0.468*(EPSc_lim-EPSc1) + EPSc1 = 0.342*(EPSc_lim-EPSc1) + EPSc1 = 0.234*(EPSc_lim-EPSc1) + EPSc1 = 0.143*(EPSc_lim-EPSc1) + EPSc1 = 0.066*(EPSc_lim-EPSc1) + EPSc1 = 1.000*EPSc1 = 0.964*EPSc1 = 0.922*EPSc1 = 0.873*EPSc1 = 0.816*EPSc1 = 0.749*EPSc1 = 0.669*EPSc1 = 0.575*EPSc1 = 0.465*EPSc1 = 0.335*EPSc1 = 0.181*EPSc1 = 0.000
The corresponding stress values are: SASGM (i) = [((Eci/Ec1*SAEPS(i) /EPSc1)-(SAEPS(i) /EPSc1)2)/ /(1+(Eci/Ec1-2)*SAEPS(i) /EPSc1)]*fcm_t 3.4.13.6 Stress-strain diagrams for section analysis
The different types of stress-strain diagrams available for concrete, according to CEB-FIP code are the following: TSDSSD= 0 TSDSSD= 1 TSDSSD= 2 User defined Parabolic rectangular Uniform stress
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3.4.13.6.1
Number of diagram points The sign criterion for the definition of points of the stress-strain diagram is the following: +Tension, -Compression Strain point values have been taken conforming to article Art. 6.2.2.2 and are the following: SDEPS (1) SDEPS (2) SDEPS (3) SDEPS (4) SDEPS (5) SDEPS (6) SDEPS (7) SDEPS (8) SDEPS (9) SDEPS (10) SDEPS (11) SDEPS (12) = -EPScuB = EPSc1 = 9/10*EPSc1 = 8/10*EPSc1 = 7/10*EPSc1 = 6/10*EPSc1 = 5/10*EPSc1 = 4/10*EPSc1 = 3/10*EPSc1 = 2/10*EPSc1 = 1/10*EPSc1 = 0.000
The corresponding stress point values are the following: If SDEPS(i) > EPSc1 SDSGM (i) = -0.85*fcd_t*[2*(SDEPS(i) /-EPSc1)+(SDEPS(i) /-EPSc1)2] If SDEPS(i) < EPSc1 SDSGM(i) = -0.85*fcd_t 3.4.13.6.2 Definition of uniform stress stress-strain diagrams (TSDSSD = 2): NPSDSSD = 3 Number of diagram points:
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Chapter 3 Materials
The sign criterion for the definition of points of the stress-strain diagram is the following: +Tension, -Compression Strain point values have been taken conforming to article Art. 6.2.2.2 and are the following: SDEPS (1) = -EPSc1 SDEPS (2) = -EPSc1/1000 SDEPS (2) = 0.000 The corresponding stress point values are the following: SDSGM (1) = -fcd2 SDSGM (2) = -fcd2 SDSGM (3) = 0.00
3.4.14
For this type of material (Type = 3) the following properties are defined: 3.4.14.1 GAMs
(MODF)
= 1.15
3.4.14.2 fyk
(LIBR)
fyd
(LOCK)
Design yield stress (Art. 1.4.1 b) fyd = fyk/GAMs Characteristic tensile strength (Art. 2.2.4.1) ftk 0 0
ftk
(LIBR)
EPSuk
(LIBR)
Characteristic elongation at maximum load (Art. 2.2.4.1) EPSuk Steel ductility (Art. 2.2.4.4) If ftk/fyk If ftk/fyk If ftk/fyk 1.15 and EPSuk 1.08 and EPSuk 1.05 and EPSuk 0.060 0.050 0.025 Duct = S Duct = A Duct = B Duct = NONE
Duct
(LIBR)
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3.4.14.3
The different types of stress-strain diagrams available for reinforcement steel, according to CEB-FIP code are the following: TSASSD= 0 TSASSD= 1 TSASSD= 2 3.4.14.3.1 Number of diagram points: NPSASSD = 2 The sign criterion for the definition of points of the stress-strain diagram is the following: +Tension, -Compression Strain point values have been taken conforming to article Art. 2.2.4.3 and are the following: SAEPS (1) SAEPS (2) SASGM (1) SASGM (2) 3.4.14.3.2 = -1.0E-2 = 1.0E2 = SAEPS(1)*Ex = SAEPS(2)*Ex Definition of the bilinear diagram (TSASSD = 2): NPSASSD = 4 The sign criterion for the definition of points of the stress-strain diagram is the following: +Tension, -Compression Strain point values have been taken conforming to article Art. 2.2.4.3 and are the following: SAEPS (1) SAEPS (2) SAEPS (3) SAEPS (4) SASGM (1) SASGM (2) SASGM (3) SASGM (4) = -EPSuk = -fyk/Ex = fyk/Ex = EPSuk = -fyk = -fyk = fyk = fyk User defined Elastic Bilinear
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Chapter 3 Materials
3.4.14.4
The different types of stress-strain diagrams available for reinforcement steel, according to CEB-FIP code are the following: TSDSSD= 0 TSDSSD= 1 3.4.14.4.1 Number of diagram points NPSDSSD = 4 The sign criterion for the definition of points of the stress-strain diagram is the following: +Tension, -Compression Strain point values have been taken conforming to article Art. 2.2.4.3 and are the following: SDEPS (1) = -0.01 SDEPS (2) = -fyd/Ex SDEPS (3) = fyd/Ex SDEPS (4) = 0.01 The corresponding stress points are: SDSGM (1) = -fyd SDSGM (2) = -fyd SDSGM (3) = fyd SDSGM (4) = fyd User defined Bilinear
3.4.15
EHE (Concrete)
For this type of materials (Type = 2) the following properties according to EHE are described hereafter: 3.4.15.1 CeTp
(MODF)
Type of cement Type of cement. The different types of cement are described in article Art. 30.4 and are the following: N: R: Normal hardening cements (default value) Rapid hardening cements
3.4.15.2 GAMc
(MODF)
Safety factors Partial concrete safety factor (Art. 15.3) GAMc =1.5 (default value)
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3.4.15.3 fck
(LIBR)
Mechanical properties Characteristic 28-day concrete compressive strength (+ Compression fck (+ Compression fcm fcm = fck + 8 (N/mm ).
2
0) 0)
fcm
(MODF)
fcd
(LOCK)
Design 28-day concrete compressive strength (Art. 39.4) (+ Compression) fcd = fck/GAMc Mean tensile strength (Art. 39.1) (+ Tension) fctm = 0.3*(fck2/3) (N/mm2) Lower characteristic tensile strength (percentile-5%) (Art. 39.1) (+ Tension) fctk_005 = 0.21*(fck2/3) (N/mm2) Upper characteristic tensile strength (percentile-95%) (Art. 39.1) (+ Tension) fctk_095 = 0.39*( fck2/3) (N/mm2) Strain of maximum compressive stress (Art. 21.3.3 which) (+ Compression) EPSc1 = 0.0022 (default value) Maximum strain in compression (Art. 21.3.3 Table 21.3.3) (+Compression EPSclim 0): According to CEB-FIP, Art. 2.1.4.4.1:
c,lim 1 2 1 Eci 1 2 Ec1 2 1 1 1 Eci 1 4 2 Ec1 2 1/ 2
fctm
(MODF)
fctk_005
(MODF)
fctk_095
(MODF)
EPSc1
(LIBR)
EPSclim
(LIBR)
Eci
(LIBR)
Tangent modulus of elasticity (Art. 21.3.3 Table 21.3.3) (Eci According to the Art. 2.1.4.4.1 of the CEB-FIP code Eci=2.15*((fcm/10)1/3) (in MPa)
0)
K
(MODF)
Coefficient which depends on the type of cement used. The value of this factor can be found in the commentary of article Art. 30.4 which states the following: 0 K 1 CeTp = N K = 0.43 CeTp = R K = 0.30
3.4.15.4
(LOCK)
Time dependent mechanical properties BETc = exp {K*[1-(28/Age)1/2]} (Age is expressed in days) (+ Compression)
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Chapter 3 Materials
fcm_j(Age) Mean compressive strength (Art. 39.6) (+ Compression) (MODF) fcm_j = fck_j + 8 (N/mm2) fcd_j(Age)
(LOCK)
(+ Compression)
BETt(Age)
(LOCK)
Coefficient which depends on concrete age. This coefficient has been taken from article (Art. 30.4) BETt = exp {0.10*[1-(28/Age)]} (Age is expressed in days)
(+ Tension)
fctm_j = fctm*BETt
E0j (Age)
(MODF)
Tangent modulus of elasticity (Art. 39.6) E0j = (BETc)1/2 *10000*(fcm_j1/3) (N/mm2) Secant modulus of elasticity (Art. 39.6) Ej = (BETc)1/2 *8500*(fcm_j1/3) (N/mm2) Stress-strain diagrams for structural analysis
Ej (Age)
(MODF)
3.4.15.5
The different types of stress-strain diagrams available for concrete, according to EHE code are the following: TSASSD= 0: TSASSD= 1: TSASSD= 2: 3.4.15.5.1 User defined Elastic Instantaneous loading
The sign criterion for the definition of stress-strain diagram points is the following one: +Tension, -Compression A total of 2 points (NPSASSD = 2) has been chosen for the definition of the stressstrain diagram. Strain values are the following: SAEPS (1) SAEPS (2) = = -10-2 10-2
For these points, stress values are the following: SASGM (i) = SAEPS (i) * Ex 3.4.15.5.2 Definition of the instantaneous loading stress-strain diagram (TSASSD = 2): NPSASSD = 20 The sign criterion for the definition of points of the stress-strain diagram is the
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following: +Tension, -Compression Strain point values have been taken conforming to article Art. 21.3.3 and are the following: SAEPS (1) SAEPS (2) SAEPS (3) SAEPS (4) SAEPS (5) SAEPS (6) SAEPS (7) SAEPS (8) SAEPS (9) SAEPS (10) SAEPS (11) SAEPS (12) SAEPS (13) SAEPS (14) SAEPS (15) SAEPS (16) SAEPS (17) SAEPS (18) SAEPS (19) SAEPS (20) = -EPSclim = -0.793*(EPSclim-EPSc1)-EPSc1 = -0.617*(EPSclim-EPSc1)-EPSc1 = -0.468*(EPSclim-EPSc1)-EPSc1 = -0.342*(EPSclim-EPSc1)-EPSc1 = -0.234*(EPSclim-EPSc1)-EPSc1 = -0.143*(EPSclim-EPSc1)-EPSc1 = -0.066*(EPSclim-EPSc1)-EPSc1 = -EPSc1 = -0.964*EPSc1 = -0.922*EPSc1 = -0.873*EPSc1 = -0.816*EPSc1 = -0.749*EPSc1 = -0.669*EPSc1 = -0.575*EPSc1 = -0.465*EPSc1 = -0.335*EPSc1 = -0.181*EPSc1 = 0.000
The corresponding stress points are the following: SASGM(i)= -[(k*Eta(i)-Eta(i)^2)/(1+(k-2)*Eta)]*fcm_j Where: K = Eci*EPSc1/(fcm_j(28)) Eta(i) = -SAEPS(i)/EPSc1 3.4.15.6 Stress-strain diagram for section analysis
The different types of stress-strain diagrams available for concrete, according to the EHE code are the following: TSDSSD= 0 TSDSSD= 1 TSDSSD= 2 User defined Parabolic rectangular Bilinear
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Chapter 3 Materials
TSDSSD= 3
Rectangular
3.4.15.6.1
Number of diagram points The sign criterion for the definition of points of the stress-strain diagram is the following: +Tension, -Compression Strain point values have been taken conforming to article Art. 39.5 a) and are the following: SDEPS (1) SDEPS (2) SDEPS (3) SDEPS (4) SDEPS (5) SDEPS (6) SDEPS (7) SDEPS (8) SDEPS (9) SDEPS (10) SDEPS (11) SDEPS (12) EHE-98 For the first 11 points: SDSGM (i) = 1000*SDEPS(i) *[250*SDEPS(i) +1]*0.85*fcd_j For point 12: SDSGM (i) = 0.85*fcd_j EHE-08 For the first 11 points: SDSGM (i) = fcd_j*[1-(1-SDEPS(i) / EPSint)n] n = 2; fck For point 12: SDSGM (i) = fcd_j 50 MPa n =1.4 + 9.6 * [(100-fck)/100]4; fck > 50 MPa = -EPSmin = -EPSint = -9/10* EPSint = -8/10* EPSint = -7/10* EPSint = -6/10* EPSint = -5/10* EPSint = -4/10* EPSint = -3/10* EPSint = -2/10* EPSint = -1/10* EPSint = 0.000
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3.4.15.6.2
Number of diagram points The sign criterion for the definition of points of the stress-strain diagram is the following: +Tension, -Compression Strain point values have been taken conforming to article Art. 39.5 a) and are the following: SDEPS (1) SDEPS (2) SDEPS (3) EHE-98 SDSGM (1) SDSGM (2) SDSGM (3) EHE-08 SDSGM (1) SDSGM (2) SDSGM (3) 3.4.15.6.3 = -fcd_j = -fcd_j = 0.00 Definition of the rectangular stress-strain diagram (TSDSSD = 3): NPSDSSD = 0 For rectangular diagrams, it does not make sense to consider any specific point in this diagram because stresses do not depend on strains but on the distance between the outer most compressed fiber and the neutral axis. = -0.85*fcd_j = -0.85*fcd_j = 0.00 = - EPSmin = - EPSint = 0.000
3.4.16
For this type of materials (Type = 3) the following properties, according to EHE are described hereafter: 3.4.16.1 GAMs
(MODF)
= 1.15
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Chapter 3 Materials
3.4.16.2 fyk
(LIBR)
Mechanical properties Characteristic yield stress (Art. 31.1 & Art. 38.2) of the EHE code. Design tensile strength Art. 38.3 (+ Tension) fyd = fyk/GAMs Design compressive strength. This value has been taken from article (Art. 40.2) (+ Compression) fycd = Min (fyd, 400 Mpa) Characteristic tensile strength. This value has been taken from article (Art. 38.2) (+ Tension) fmax = 1.05*fyk Characteristic elongation at maximum load (Art. 38.2) (EPSuk 0)
fyd
(LOCK)
fycd
(LOCK)
fmax
(MODF)
EPSmax
(MODF)
3.4.16.3
The different types of stress-strain diagrams available for reinforcement steel, according to EHE code are the following: TSASSD= 0 TSASSD= 1 TSASSD= 2 3.4.16.3.1 Number of diagram points NPSASSD = 4 The sign criterion for the definition of points of the stress-strain diagram is the following: +Tension, -Compression Strain point values are the following: SAEPS (1) SAEPS (2) = -0.010 = 0.010 User defined Elastic Bilinear
The corresponding stress values are: SASGM (1) = SAEPS(1)*Ex SASGM (2) = SAEPS(2)*Ex 3.4.16.3.2 Definition of the bilinear diagram (TSASSD = 2): NPSASSD = 4 Number of diagram points
3-64
The sign criterion for the definition of points of the stress-strain diagram is the following: +Tension, -Compression Strain point values have been taken conforming to article Art. 21.3.3 and are the following: SAEPS (1) SAEPS (2) SAEPS (3) SAEPS (4) = -EPSmax = -fyk/Ex = fyk/Ex = EPSmax
The corresponding stress values are: SASGM (1) = -fmax SASGM (2) = -fyk SASGM (3) = fyk SASGM (4) = fmax 3.4.16.4 Stress-strain diagrams for section analysis
The different types of stress-strain diagrams available for reinforcement steel, according to EHE code are the following: TSDSSD= 0: TSDSSD= 1: TSDSSD= 2: 3.4.16.4.1 User defined Bilinear with horizontal top branch Bilinear with inclined top branch
Definition of the bilinear with horizontal top branch stress-strain diagram (TSDSSD = 1): NPSDSSD = 4
Number of diagram points The sign criterion for the definition of points of the stress-strain diagram is the following: +Tension, -Compression Strain point values have been taken conforming to article Art. 38.4 and are the following: SDEPS (1) = -0.010 SDEPS (2) = -fyd/Ex SDEPS (3) = fyd/Ex SDEPS (4) = 0.010 The corresponding stress values are: SDSGM (1) = -fyd SDSGM (2) = -fyd
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Chapter 3 Materials
SDSGM (3) = fyd SDSGM (4) = fyd 3.4.16.4.2 Definition of the bilinear with sloping top branch stress-strain diagram (TSDSSD = 2): NPSDSSD = 4 The sign criterion for the definition of points of the stress-strain diagram is the following: +Tension, -Compression Strain point values have been taken conforming to article Art. 38.4 and are the following: SDEPS (1) = -0.010 SDEPS (2) = -fyd/Ex SDEPS (3) = fyd/Ex SDEPS (4) = 0.010 The corresponding stress values are: SDSGM (1) = -fyd-(0.0035-fyd/Ex)*(fmax-fyk)/(EPSmax-fyk/Ex) SDSGM (2) = -fyd SDSGM (3) = fyd SDSGM (4) = fyd+(0.010-fyd/Ex)*(fmax-fyk)/(EPSmax-fyk/Ex)
3.4.17
For this type of materials (Type = 4) the following properties, according to EHE are described hereafter: 3.4.17.1 GAMs
(MODF)
3.4.17.2 fmax
(LIBR)
Mechanical properties Characteristic tensile strength (Art.32.2) fmax Characterisitc yield stress (Art. 38.6). fpk 0 0
fpk
(LIBR)
fyd
(LOCK)
Design tensile strength (Art. 38.6) (+Tension) fpd = fpk/GAMs Total elongation due to the maximum load (Art. 38.2) (EPSuk 0)
EPSmax
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(MODF)
3.4.17.3 AgeR1
(MODF)
Relaxation Relaxation age 1 (hours). Relaxation age 2 (hours). Relaxation for AgeR1 and 60%fmax Relaxation for AgeR1 and 70%fmax Relaxation for AgeR1 and 80%fmax Relaxation for AgeR2 and 60%fmax Relaxation for AgeR2 and 70%fmax Relaxation for AgeR2 and 80%fmax
AgeR1
(MODF)
Ro1_60
(MODF)
Ro1_70
(MODF)
Ro1_80
(MODF)
Ro2_60
(MODF)
Ro2_70
(MODF)
Ro2_80
(MODF)
3.4.17.4
The different types of stress-strain diagrams available for prestressing steel, according to EHE code are the following: TSASSD= 0 TSASSD= 1 TSASSD= 2 TSASSD= 3 3.4.17.4.1 Number of diagram points NPSASSD = 4 The sign criterion for the definition of points of the stress-strain diagram is the following: +Tension, -Compression Strain point values are the following: SAEPS (1) SAEPS (2) = -1.0E-2 = 1.0E+2 User-defined Elastic Bilinear Characteristic diagram
The corresponding stress values are: SASGM (1) = SAEPS(1)*Ex SASGM (2) = SAEPS(2)*Ex
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Chapter 3 Materials
3.4.17.4.2
Number of diagram points The sign criterion for the definition of points of the stress-strain diagram is the following: +Tension, -Compression Strain point values are the following: SAEPS (1) SAEPS (2) SAEPS (3) SAEPS (4) = -0.823(Fmax/fpk-0.7)5+Fmax/Ex) = -fpk/Ex = fpk/Ex = 0.823(Fmax/fpk-0.7)5+Fmax/Ex)
The corresponding stress values are: SASGM (1) = -fpk+(SAEPS(1)-SAEPS(2))/PLRATEx SASGM (2) = -fpk SASGM (3) = fpk SASGM (4) = fpk+(SAEPS(1)-SAEPS(2))/PLRATEx 3.4.17.4.3 Definition of the characteristic diagram (TSASSD = 3): NPSASSD = 20 The sign criterion for the definition of points of the stress-strain diagram is the following: +Tension, -Compression Strain point values have been taken conforming to article Art. 38.5 and are the following: SAEPS (1) = 0.0 SAEPS (2) = 0.7*fpk/Ex For the points 3 to 20: SAEPS (i) = 0.823*(SASGM(i) / fpk-0.7)^5+ SASGM(i) / Ex The corresponding stress points are the following: SASGM (1) SASGM (2) SASGM (3) SASGM (4) SASGM (5) SASGM (6) SASGM (7) = = = = = = = 0.0 0.7*fpk 0.10*(Fmax-0.7*fpk)+0.7*fpk 0.20*(Fmax-0.7*fpk)+0.7*fpk 0.25*(Fmax-0.7*fpk)+0.7*fpk 0.30*(Fmax-0.7*fpk)+0.7*fpk 0.35*(Fmax-0.7*fpk)+0.7*fpk Number of diagram points
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= =
0.40*(Fmax-0.7*fpk)+0.7*fpk 0.45*(Fmax-0.7*fpk)+0.7*fpk 0.50*(Fmax-0.7*fpk)+0.7*fpk 0.55*(Fmax-0.7*fpk)+0.7*fpk 0.60*(Fmax-0.7*fpk)+0.7*fpk 0.65*(Fmax-0.7*fpk)+0.7*fpk 0.70*(Fmax-0.7*fpk)+0.7*fpk 0.75*(Fmax-0.7*fpk)+0.7*fpk 0.80*(Fmax-0.7*fpk)+0.7*fpk 0.85*(Fmax-0.7*fpk)+0.7*fpk 0.90*(Fmax-0.7*fpk)+0.7*fpk 0.95*(Fmax-0.7*fpk)+0.7*fpk 1.00*(Fmax-0.7*fpk)+0.7*fpk
SASGM (10) = SASGM (11) = SASGM (12) = SASGM (13) = SASGM (14) = SASGM (15) = SASGM (16) = SASGM (17) = SASGM (18) = SASGM (19) = SASGM (20) = 3.4.17.5
The different types of stress-strain diagrams available for prestressing steel, according to EHE code are the following: TSDSSD= 0 TSDSSD= 1 3.4.17.5.1 User-defined Design diagram
Numner of diagram points The sign criterion for the definition of points of the stress-strain diagram is the following: +Tension, -Compression Strain point values have been taken conforming to article Art. 38.6 and are the following: SDEPS (1) = 0.0 SDEPS (2) = 0.7*fpk/Ex/GAMs For the points 3 to 20: SDEPS(i) = 0.823*(SASGM(i) / fpk*GAMs-0.7)^5+ SASGM(i) / Ex The corresponding stress points are the following: SDSGM (1) SDSGM (2) SDSGM (3) SDSGM (4) = = = = 0.0 0.7*fpk/GAMs 0.10*(Fmax-0.7*fpk/GAMs)+0.7*fpk/GAMs 0.20*(Fmax-0.7*fpk/GAMs)+0.7*fpk/GAMs
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Chapter 3 Materials
SDSGM (5) SDSGM (6) SDSGM (7) SDSGM (8) SDSGM (9)
= = = = =
0.25*(Fmax-0.7*fpk/GAMs)+0.7*fpk/GAMs 0.30*(Fmax-0.7*fpk/GAMs)+0.7*fpk/GAMs 0.35*(Fmax-0.7*fpk/GAMs)+0.7*fpk/GAMs 0.40*(Fmax-0.7*fpk/GAMs)+0.7*fpk/GAMs 0.45*(Fmax-0.7*fpk/GAMs)+0.7*fpk/GAMs 0.50*(Fmax-0.7*fpk/GAMs)+0.7*fpk/GAMs 0.55*(Fmax-0.7*fpk/GAMs)+0.7*fpk/GAMs 0.60*(Fmax-0.7*fpk/GAMs)+0.7*fpk/GAMs 0.65*(Fmax-0.7*fpk/GAMs)+0.7*fpk/GAMs 0.70*(Fmax-0.7*fpk/GAMs)+0.7*fpk/GAMs 0.75*(Fmax-0.7*fpk/GAMs)+0.7*fpk/GAMs 0.80*(Fmax-0.7*fpk/GAMs)+0.7*fpk/GAMs 0.85*(Fmax-0.7*fpk/GAMs)+0.7*fpk/GAMs 0.90*(Fmax-0.7*fpk/GAMs)+0.7*fpk/GAMs 0.95*(Fmax-0.7*fpk/GAMs)+0.7*fpk/GAMs 1.00*(Fmax-0.7*fpk/GAMs)+0.7*fpk/GAMs
SDSGM (10) = SDSGM (11) = SDSGM (12) = SDSGM (13) = SDSGM (14) = SDSGM (15) = SDSGM (16) = SDSGM (17) = SDSGM (18) = SDSGM (19) = SDSGM (20) =
3.4.18
BS8110 (Concrete)
For this type of materials (Type = 2) the following properties are defined: 3.4.18.1 CeTp
(MODF)
Type of cement and curing Type of cement S: N: R: Slow hardening cements Normal hardening cements (default value) Rapid hardening cements
Safety factors Safety factor for concrete. Table 2.2. BS 8110: Part 1: 1997 GAMc 1 Mechanical properties Specified concrete compressive strength at 28 days (+ Compression) Art 2421. BS 8110: Part 1: 1997 . fcu 0 Strain in concrete at maximum stress. BS8110: Part 2: Figure 2.1
3.4.18.3 fcu
(LIBR)
EPSc1
(LIBR)
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(- Compression). EPScu
(LIBR)
EPSc1 0
Ultimate strain in compression. (- Compression). EPScu 0 Coefficient which depends on the type of cement concerned. Taken from CEB-FIP code, article 2.1.6.1 Cetp= S: Cetp= N: Cetp= R: Cetp= RS: s = 0.38 s = 0.25 s = 0.25 s = 0.20
s
(LIBR)
3.4.18.4
(LIBR)
Time dependent mechanical properties BETcc = exp {s*[1-(28/Age)1/2]} (Age is expressed in days.) Characteristic t-day compressive strength BS 8110: Part2 Table 7.1 (+ Compression). fcu_t 0 fcu_t=BETcc*fcu Constant that is closely related to the modulus of elasticity of the aggregate. BS 8110: Part 2: Art 7.2 Ko 0 Modulus of elasticity at 28 days. BS 8110: Part 2: Art 7.2 Ec28 0 Ec_t 0 Ec28=Ko+0.2*fcu*1000 Ec_t=Ec28*(0.4+0.6*fcu_t/fcu) Modulus of elasticity. BS 8110: Part 2: Art 7.2
Ko
(LIBR)
Ec28
(LIBR)
Ec_t (Age)
(LIBR)
3.4.18.5
The different types of stress-strain diagrams available for concrete, according to the BS8110 code are the following: TSASSD= 0: TSASSD= 1: TSASSD= 2: User defined Elastic Structural analysis
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Chapter 3 Materials
3.4.18.5.1
The sign criterion for the definition of stress-strain diagram points is the following one: A total of 2 points (NPSASSD = 2) has been chosen for the definition of the stressstrain diagram. Strain values are the following: SAEPS (1) SAEPS (2) = = -10-2 10-2
For these points, stress values are the following: SASGM (i) = SAEPS (i) * Ex 3.4.18.5.2 Definition of the Structural analysis stress-strain diagram (TSASSD = 2): NPSASSD = 20 The sign criterion for the definition of points of the stress-strain diagram is the following: +Tension, -Compression Strain points have been taken according to notes expressed in BS8110 Part 2 Fig,2.1 and are the following: SAEPS (1) SAEPS (2) SAEPS (3) SAEPS (4) SAEPS (5) SAEPS (6) SAEPS (7) SAEPS (8) SAEPS (9) SAEPS (10) SAEPS (11) SAEPS (12) SAEPS (13) SAEPS (14) SAEPS (15) SAEPS (16) SAEPS (17) = 1.000*(EPScu-EPSc1)+EPSc1 = 0.793*(EPScu-EPSc1)+EPSc1 = 0.617*(EPScu-EPSc1)+EPSc1 = 0.468*(EPScu-EPSc1)+EPSc1 = 0.342*(EPScu-EPSc1)+EPSc1 = 0.234*(EPScu-EPSc1)+EPSc1 = 0.143*(EPScu-EPSc1)+EPSc1 = 0.066*(EPScu-EPSc1)+EPSc1 = 1.000*EPSc1 = 0.964*EPSc1 = 0.922*EPSc1 = 0.873*EPSc1 = 0.816*EPSc1 = 0.749*EPSc1 = 0.669*EPSc1 = 0.575*EPSc1 = 0.465*EPSc1
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The corresponding stress points are the following: SASGM(i)= -[(k*Eta(i)-Eta(i)^2)/(1+(k-2)*Eta)]*0.8*fcu_t Where: K = 1.4*Ec_t*EPSc1/(-fcu_t) Eta(i) = -SAEPS(i)/EPSc1 3.4.18.6 Stress-strain diagrams for section analysis
The different types of stress-strain diagrams available for concrete, according to the ACI code are the following: TSDSSD= 0: TSDSSD= 1: TSDSSD= 2: 3.4.18.6.1 User defined Parabolic rectangular Rectangular
Number of diagram points The sign criterion for the definition of points of the stress-strain diagram is the following: +Tension, -Compression Strain points have been taken according to notes expressed in BS 8110: Part 1. Figure 2.1 and are the following: SDEPS (1) SDEPS (2) SDEPS (3) SDEPS (4) SDEPS (5) SDEPS (6) SDEPS (7) SDEPS (8) SDEPS (9) SDEPS (10) SDEPS (11) SDEPS (12) = -0.0035 = -2.4E-4*(fcu_t/GAMc)^(1/2) = -0.9*2.4E-4*(fcu_t/GAMc)^(1/2) = -0.8*2.4E-4*(fcu_t/GAMc)^(1/2) = -0.7*2.4E-4*(fcu_t/GAMc)^(1/2) = -0.6*2.4E-4*(fcu_t/GAMc)^(1/2) = -0.5*2.4E-4*(fcu_t/GAMc)^(1/2) = -0.4*2.4E-4*(fcu_t/GAMc)^(1/2) = -0.3*2.4E-4*(fcu_t/GAMc)^(1/2) = -0.2*2.4E-4*(fcu_t/GAMc)^(1/2) = -0.1*2.4E-4*(fcu_t/GAMc)^(1/2) = 0.000
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Chapter 3 Materials
The corresponding stress points are the following: For points 2 to 12: SDSGM(i)=(-0.67E8/2.4/2.4)*SDEPS(i) ^2+(0.67E4/1.2)*(fcu_t/GAMc)^(1/2)*SDEPS(i) For point 1: SDSGM(i) = 0.67*fcu_t / GAMc 3.4.18.6.2 Definition of the rectangular diagram (TSDSSD = 2): NPSDSSD = 0 For rectangular diagrams, it does not make sense to consider any specific point in this diagram because stresses do not depend on strains but on the distance between the outer most compressed fiber and the neutral axis. Number of diagrams points
3.4.19
For this type of materials (Type = 3) the following properties are considered: 3.4.19.1 GAMs
(LIBR)
Safety factor Safety factor for steel. BS 8110: Part 1: Table 2.2 GAMs 1 Mechanical properties Yield strength. BS 8110: Part 1: Table 3.1 fy 0
3.4.19.2 fy
(LIBR)
Rm
(LIBR)
Characteristic tensile strength. BS 4449: Table 7 (+ Tension) (+ Tension) Rm 0 A5 0 Elongation at fracture. BS 4449: Table 7
A5
(LIBR)
3.4.19.3
The different types of stress-strain diagrams available for reinforcement steel, according to BS8110 code are the following: TSASSD= 0 TSASSD= 1 TSASSD= 2 3.4.19.3.1 Number of diagram points NPSASSD = 2 User defined Elastic Bilinear
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The sign criterion for the definition of points of the stress-strain diagram is the following: +Tension, -Compression Strain values for the stress-strain diagram have been taken as: SAEPS (1) SAEPS (2) = -1.0E-2 = 1.0E+2
The corresponding stress values are: SASGM (1) = SAEPS(1)*ExLn SASGM (2) = SAEPS(2)*ExLn 3.4.19.3.2 Definition of the bilinear diagram (TSASSD = 2): NPSASSD = 4 The sign criterion for the definition of points of the stress-strain diagram is the following: +Tension, -Compression Strain values for the stress-strain diagram have been taken as: SAEPS (1) SAEPS (2) SAEPS (3) SAEPS (4) = -0.01 = -fy/Ex = fy/Ex = 0.01 Number of diagram points
The corresponding stress values are: SASGM (1) = -fy SASGM (2) = -fy SASGM (3) = fy SASGM (4) = fy 3.4.19.4 Stress-strain diagram for section analysis
The different types of stress-strain diagrams available for reinforcement steel, according to BS8110 code are the following: TSDSSD= 0 TSDSSD= 1 3.4.19.4.1 User defined Bilinear
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Chapter 3 Materials
The sign criterion for the definition of points of the stress-strain diagram is the following: +Tension, -Compression Strain values for the stress-strain diagram have been taken as: SDEPS (1) = -0.01 SDEPS (2) = -fy/GAMs/Ex SDEPS (3) = fy/ GAMs/Ex SDEPS (4) = 0.01 The corresponding stress values are: SDSGM (1) = -fy/GAMs SDSGM (2) = -fy/GAMs SDSGM (3) = fy/GAMs SDSGM (4) = fy/GAMs
3.4.20
GB50010 (Concrete)
For this type of materials (Type = 2) the following properties are defined: 3.4.20.1 CeTp
(MODF)
Type of cement and curing Type of cement SL: N: R: Slow hardening cements Normal hardening cements (default value) Rapid hardening cements
3.4.20.3 fcuk
(LIBR)
Mechanical properties Specified concrete compressive strength at 28 days Art 4.1.1 (+Compression). fcu 0 Prism strength and cube strength ratio. 0.76 0.82 For concrete C50 For concrete C80 ALPC1=0.76 + 0.06*(fcuk - 50.0)/30.0
ALPC1
(MODF)
3-76
Brittle reduction coefficient. 1.0 0.87 For concrete C40 For concrete C80 ALPC2=1 - 0.13*(fcuk - 40.0)/40.0 (- Compression) 0.87 ALPc2 1
DELTA
(MODF)
FCK
(LOCK)
Standard axial compressive strength. fck=0.88*ALPc1*ALPc2*fcuk Design value for axial compressive strength (Art. 4.1.3) (+Compression fck0). FC FC 0 = FCK / GAMc ftk =0.88*0.395*(fcuk**0.55)*(1-1.645*delta)**0.45*ALPc2 Design value for tensile strength (Art. 2.1.3) (+Compression ft>0): fcd = ftk/GAMc Coefficient which depends on the type of cement (0<s<1): CeTp=SL : CeTp=N : CeTp=R : CeTp=RS: s= 0.38 s= 0.25 s= 0.25 s= 0.20 n=2-(fcuk-50)/60 [MPa] Compressive strain at Fc Art. 7.1.2-4: EPS0 = 0.002+0.5*(fcuk-50)*10E-5 [MPa] Limit compressive strain in concrete in Art. 7.1.2-5: EPScu = 0.0033-(fcuk-50)*10E-5 [MPa] Time dependent mechanical properties
FC
(MODF)
FTK
(MODF)
FT
(MODF)
S
(MODF)
n
(MODF)
EPS0
(LIBR)
EPSCu
(LIBR)
3.4.20.4
BETcc(Age) Coefficient which depends on concrete age. The age index must be (LOCK) specified in IDX1.
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Chapter 3 Materials
Standard t day compressive strength. The age index must be specified in IDX1. fck_t=BETcc*fck Design t day compressive strength. The age index must be specified in IDX1. fc_t=fck_t/GAMc Modulus of elasticity. The age index must be specified in IDX1. Ec=1.D5/(2.2D0+34.7D0/Fcuk/BETcc) [MPa]
Fc_t(Age)
(MODF)
Ec_t(Age)
(MODF)
3.4.20.5
The different types of stress-strain diagrams available for concrete, according to GB50010 code are the following: TSASSD= 0 TSASSD= 1 TSASSD= 2 3.4.20.5.1 User defined Elastic Structural analysis
The sign criterion for the definition of stress-strain diagram points is the following one: A total of 2 points (NPSASSD = 2) has been chosen for the definition of the stressstrain diagram. Strain values are the following: SAEPS (1) SAEPS (2) = = -10-2 10-2
For these points, stress values are the following: SASGM (i) = SAEPS (i) * Ex 3.4.20.5.2 Definition of the Structural analysis stress-strain diagram (TSASSD = 2): NPSASSD = 20 The sign criterion for the definition of points of the stress-strain diagram is the following: +Tension, -Compression Strain points have been taken according to notes expressed in GB50010 and are the following: SAEPS (1) = 1.000D0*(EPSu-EPSc)+EPSc
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SAEPS (2) SAEPS (3) SAEPS (4) SAEPS (5) SAEPS (6) SAEPS (7) SAEPS (8) SAEPS (9) SAEPS (10) SAEPS (11) SAEPS (12) SAEPS (13) SAEPS (14) SAEPS (15) SAEPS (16) SAEPS (17) SAEPS (18) SAEPS (19) SAEPS (20)
= 0.793D0*(EPSu-EPSc)+EPSc = 0.617D0*(EPSu-EPSc)+EPSc = 0.468D0*(EPSu-EPSc)+EPSc = 0.342D0*(EPSu-EPSc)+EPSc = 0.234D0*(EPSu-EPSc)+EPSc = 0.143D0*(EPSu-EPSc)+EPSc = 0.066D0*(EPSu-EPSc)+EPSc = 1.000D0*EPSc = 0.964D0*EPSc = 0.922D0*EPSc = 0.873D0*EPSc = 0.816D0*EPSc = 0.749D0*EPSc = 0.669D0*EPSc = 0.575D0*EPSc = 0.465D0*EPSc = 0.335D0*EPSc = 0.181D0*EPSc = 0.000D0
The corresponding stress points are the following: If SASGM(i) EPSc SASGM(i)= [ALPa*GBx+(3D0-2D0*ALPa)*GBx**2D0+(ALPa-D0)*GBx**3D0]*fck_t(i) Otherwise: SASGM(i)= [GBx/(ALPd*(GBx-1.D0)**2D0+GBx)]*fck_t(i) Where: GBx=SAEPS(i)/EPSc ALPa=2.4D0-0.0125D0*fck_t(i) 3.4.20.6 Stress-strain diagrams for section analysis
The different types of stress-strain diagrams available for concrete, according to GB50010 code are the following: TSDSSD= 0: TSDSSD= 1: User defined Parabolic rectangular
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Chapter 3 Materials
3.4.20.6.1
Number of diagram points The sign criterion for the definition of points of the stress-strain diagram is the following: +Tension, -Compression Strain points have been taken according to notes expressed in GB50010 and are the following: SDEPS (1) SDEPS (2) SDEPS (3) SDEPS (4) SDEPS (5) SDEPS (6) SDEPS (7) SDEPS (8) SDEPS (9) SDEPS (10) SDEPS (11) SDEPS (12) = -EPScu = -1.0D0*EPS0 = -0.9D0*EPS0 = -0.8D0*EPS0 = -0.7D0*EPS0 = -0.6D0*EPS0 = -0.5D0*EPS0 = -0.4D0*EPS0 = -0.3D0*EPS0 = -0.2D0*EPS0 = -0.1D0*EPS0 = 0.0D0
The corresponding stress points are the following: For points 3 to 12: SDSGM(i) =1.D0-(1.D0+ SDEPS(i)/EPS0)**n)*fc_t(i) For point 1: SDSGM(1) = -fc_t For point 2: SDSGM(2) = -fc_t
3.4.21
For this type of materials (Type = 3) the following properties are considered: 3.4.21.1 GAMs
(MODF)
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3.4.21.2 fyk
(LIBR)
Mechanical properties Yield strength; fyk 0 Characteristic tensile strength. (+ Tension) fy = fyk/GAMs
fy
(MODF)
3.4.21.3
The different types of stress-strain diagrams available for reinforcement steel, according to GB50010 code are the following: TSASSD= 0 TSASSD= 1 TSASSD= 2 3.4.21.3.1 Number of diagram points NPSASSD = 2 The sign criterion for the definition of points of the stress-strain diagram is the following: +Tension, -Compression Strain values for the stress-strain diagram have been taken as: SAEPS (1) SAEPS (2) = -1.0E-2 = 1.0E-2 User defined Elastic Bilinear
The corresponding stress values are: SASGM (1) = SAEPS(1)*Ex SASGM (2) = SAEPS(2)*Ex Number of diagram points: NPSASSD = 4
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Chapter 3 Materials
The sign criterion for the definition of points of the stress-strain diagram is the following: +Tension, -Compression Strain values for the stress-strain diagram have been taken as: SAEPS (1) SAEPS (2) SAEPS (3) SAEPS (4) = -0.01 = -fyk/Ex = fyk/Ex = 0.01
The corresponding stress values are: SASGM (1) = -fyk SASGM (2) = -fyk SASGM (3) = fyk SASGM (4) = fyk 3.4.21.4 Stress-strain diagram for section analysis
The different types of stress-strain diagrams available for reinforcement steel, according to GB50010 code are the following: TSDSSD= 0: User defined TSDSSD= 1: Bilinear 3.4.21.4.1 Definition of the bilinear diagram (TSDSSD = 1): NPSDSSD = 4 The sign criterion for the definition of points of the stress-strain diagram is the following: +Tension, -Compression Strain values for the stress-strain diagram have been taken as: SDEPS (1) = -0.01 SDEPS (2) = -fy SDEPS (3) = fy SDEPS (4) = 0.01 The corresponding stress values are: SDSGM (1) = -fy SDSGM (2) = -fy SDSGM (3) = fy SDSGM (4) = fy Number of diagrams points
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3.4.22
AS3600
CivilFEM does not contain the material data conforming to Australian Standard AS3600. If this code is activated, the selected material (concrete or reinforcement steel) will be filled out with the same parameters as the ACI-318 code requires.
3.4.23
NBR6118 (Concrete)
For this type of materials (Type = 2) the following properties are considered: 3.4.23.1 CeTp
(MODF)
Type of cement Refers to the different types of cement used. These types are described in the Appendix A article A.2.4 and are the following: CPI: Normal hardening cements (Default value). CPII: Normal hardening composite cements. CPIII: Slow hardening blast furnace cements. CPIV: Slow hardening puzzolanic cements. CPV: Rapid hardening high strength cements.
3.4.23.2 GAMc
(MODF)
Partial safety factors Partial safety factor for concrete (Art. 12.4.1 GAMc
c=1.5
1)
(Default value)
3.4.23.3 fck
(LIBR)
Mechanical properties Concrete characteristic 28-day compressive strength (Art. 8.2.4) (+Compression fck 0) Mean 28-day compressive strength (Art. 6.4.3) (+ Compression) fcm 0 fcm = fck + 1.65*Sd Design 28-day compressive strength (Art. 12.3.3) (+Compression) fcd = fck/GAMc Mean tensile strength (Art. 8.2.5) (+ Tension) fctm = 0.3*(fck2/3) (fctm and fctk in MPa) Lower characteristic tensile strength (Art. 8.2.5) (+Tension) fctk_inf = 0.21*(fck2/3) (fctk and fctk_inf in MPa) Upper characteristic tensile strength (Art. 8.2.5) (+Tension) fctk_inf = 0.39*(fck2/3) (fctk and fctk_sup in MPa) Standard deviation (Art. 6.4.3) (Sd > 0) Sd = 4 MPa (default value)
fcm
(MODF)
fcd
(LOCK)
fctm
(MODF)
fctk_inf
(MODF)
fctk_sup
(MODF)
Sd
(MODF)
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Chapter 3 Materials
s
(MODF)
Coefficient which depends on the type of cement. (Art. 12.3.3) CPI: s = 0.25
CPII: s = 0.25 CPIII: s = 0.38 CPIV: s = 0.38 CPV: s = 0.20 3.4.23.4 BETcc
(LOCK)
Time dependent mechanical properties Coefficient which depends on concrete age. (Art. 12. 3. 3) BETcc = exp {s*[1-(28/Age)1/2]} (Age is expressed in days) fcm_t = fck_t+1.65*Sd fck_t = fck * BET1 If Age < 28 days fcd_t = fck_t/GAMc If Age 28 days fcd_t = fck/GAMc Eci = 5600 * fck_t Secant modulus of elasticity (Art. 8.2.8). Ecm = 0.85 * Eci Stress-strain diagrams for structural analysis Initual modulus of elasticity (Art. 8.2.8).
Eci(Age)
(MODF)
Ecm(Age)
(MODF)
3.4.23.5
The different type of stress-strain concrete diagrams available according to NBR6118 are: TSASSD= 0: User defined TSASSD= 1: Elastic 3.4.23.5.1 Definition of the elastic stress-strain diagram (TSASSD = 1): The sign criterion for the definition of stress-strain diagram points is the following one: +Tension, -Compression A total of 2 points (NPSASSD = 2) has been chosen for the definition of the stressstrain diagram. Strain values are the following: SAEPS (1) SAEPS (2) = = -10-2 10-2
3-84
For these points, stress values are the following: SASGM (i) = SAEPS (i) * Ex 3.4.23.6 Stress-strain diagrams for section analysis
The different types of stress-strain diagrams available for concrete, according to NBR6118 are the following: TSDSSD= 0: TSDSSD= 1: 3.4.23.6.1 User defined Parabolic-rectangular
Number of diagram points The sign criterion for the definition of points of the stress-strain diagram is the following: +Tension, -Compression Strain values for this diagram are the following: SDEPS (1) SDEPS (2) SDEPS (3) SDEPS (4) SDEPS (5) SDEPS (6) SDEPS (7) SDEPS (8) SDEPS (9) SDEPS (10) SDEPS (11) SDEPS (12) = -0.0035 = -0.0020 = 0.9*(-0.0020) = 0.8*(-0.0020) = 0.7*(-0.0020) = 0.6*(-0.0020) = 0.5*(-0.0020) = 0.4*(-0.0020) = 0.3*(-0.0020) = 0.2*(-0.0020) = 0.1*(-0.0020) = 0.000
The corresponding stress values are the following: For the first 11 points: SDSGM(i) = 1000*SDEPS(i) *(250*SDEPS(i) +1)*0.85*fcd_t For point 12: SDSGM(i) = -0.85*fcd_t
3.4.24
For this type of materials (Type = 3) the following properties are defined:
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Chapter 3 Materials
3.4.24.1 GAMs
(MODF)
3.4.24.2 fyk
(LIBR)
Mechanical properties Characteristic yield stress (Art. 8.3.6) Refers to the characteristic value of the applied load over the area of the transverse section. Design yield stress (Art. 8.3.6) fyd = fyk/GAMs Characteristic tensile stress (Art. 8.3.6) Refers to the characteristic value of the maximum axial load in tension over the area of the transverse section. Characteristic elongation at maximum load (Art. 8.3.6) EPSuk 0
fyd
(LIBR)
ftk
(LIBR)
EPSuk
(LIBR)
3.4.24.3
The different types of stress-strain diagrams available for reinforcement steel, according to NBR6118 are the following: TSASSD= 0 TSASSD= 1 TSASSD= 2 3.4.24.3.1 Number of diagram points NPSASSD = 2 The sign criterion for the definition of points of the stress-strain diagram is the following: +Tension, -Compression Strain points have been taken as follows: SAEPS (1) SAEPS (2) = -10-2 = 10-2 User defined Elastic Bilinear
Stress points have been taken as follows: SASGM (1) = SAEPS(1)*Ex SASGM (2) = SAEPS(2)*Ex 3.4.24.3.2 Definition of the Bilinear diagram (TSASSD = 2): NPSASSD = 4 Number of diagram points
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The sign criterion for the definition of points of the stress-strain diagram is the following: +Tension, -Compression Strain points have been taken as the follows: SAEPS (1) SAEPS (2) SAEPS (3) SAEPS (4) = -0.01 = -fyk/Ex = fyk/Ex = 0.01
Stress points have been taken as follows: SASGM (1) = -fyk+(SAEPS(1)-SAEPS(2))/PLRAT*Ex SASGM (2) = -fyk SASGM (3) = fyk SASGM (4) = fyk+(SAEPS(4)-SAEPS(3))/PLRAT*Ex 3.4.24.4 Stress-strain diagrams for section analysis
The different types of stress-strain diagrams available for reinforcement steel, according to NBR6118 are the following: TSDSSD= 0 TSDSSD= 1 3.4.24.4.1 User defined Design diagram
Number of diagram points The sign criterion for the definition of points of the stress-strain diagram is the following: +Tension, -Compression Strain points have been taken as follows: SDEPS (1) SDEPS (2) SDEPS (3) SDEPS (4) SDSGM (1) SDSGM (2) SDSGM (3) SDSGM (4) = -0.01 = -fyd/Ex = fyd/Ex = 0.01 = -fyd = -fyd = fyd = fyd
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Chapter 3 Materials
3.4.25
For this type of materials (Type = 2) the following properties are considered: 3.4.25.1 CeTp
(MODF)
Type of cement Refers to the different types of cement used. These types can be chosen among those considered in the CEB-FIP code: SL: Slow hardening cements N: R: Slow hardening cements (Default value) Rapid hardening cements
Partial safety factors Partial safety factor for concrete (Art. 36.4.2.1 GAMc value) Mechanical properties Concrete characteristic 28-day compressive strength (Art. 6.1) (+Compression fck 0) Design 28-day compressive strength (Art. 36.3.1) (+Compression) fcd = fck/GAMc Characteristic tensile strength (Art. 6.2.2) (+Tension) fctk = 0.7*(fck)^1/2 (fctk and fck in N/mm2) 28 days elasticity modulus (Art. 6.2.3.1) Ec = 5000*fck (Ec and fck in N/mm2) Coefficient which depends on the type of cement. (chosen among those considered in the CEB-FIP code) SL: N: R: RS: s = 0.38 s = 0.25 s = 0.25 s = 0.20 1)
c=1
(Default
3.4.25.3 fck
(LIBR)
fcd
(LOCK)
fct
(MODF)
Ec
(MODF)
s
(MODF)
3.4.25.4 BETcc
(LOCK)
Time dependent mechanical properties Coefficient which depends on concrete age. BETcc = exp {s*[1-(28/Age)1/2]} (Age is expressed in days) fcm_t = BETcc*fcm
3-88
fcd_t(Age) Design t-day compressive strength (Art. 4.2.1.3.3 (4) & (11)) (LOCK) (+Compression) fcd_t = fck_t/GAMc Ec_t(t)
(MODF)
Modulus of elasticity Ec_t = 5000*fctk_t (Ec_t and fck_t in N/mm2) Stress-strain diagrams for structural analysis
3.4.25.5
The different types of stress-strain concrete diagrams available according to IS456 are: TSASSD= 0 TSASSD= 1 3.4.25.5.1 User defined Elastic
The sign criterion for the definition of stress-strain diagram points is the following one: +Tension, -Compression A total of 2 points (NPSASSD = 2) has been chosen for the definition of the stressstrain diagram. Strain values are the following: SAEPS (1) SAEPS (2) = = -10-2 10-2
For these points, stress values are the following: SASGM (i) = SAEPS (i) * Ex 3.4.25.6 Stress-strain diagrams for section analysis
The different types of stress-strain diagrams available for concrete, according to Eurocode 2 are the following: TSDSSD= 0 TSDSSD= 1 User defined Parabolic-rectangular
3-89
Chapter 3 Materials
3.4.25.6.1
Number of diagram points The sign criterion for the definition of points of the stress-strain diagram is the following: +Tension, -Compression Strain values for this diagram are the following: SDEPS (1) SDEPS (2) SDEPS (3) SDEPS (4) SDEPS (5) SDEPS (6) SDEPS (7) SDEPS (8) SDEPS (9) SDEPS (10) SDEPS (11) SDEPS (12) = -0.0035 = -0.0020 = 0.9*(-0.0020) = 0.8*(-0.0020) = 0.7*(-0.0020) = 0.6*(-0.0020) = 0.5*(-0.0020) = 0.4*(-0.0020) = 0.3*(-0.0020) = 0.2*(-0.0020) = 0.1*(-0.0020) = 0.000
The corresponding stress values are the following: For the first 11 points: SDSGM(i) = 1000*SDEPS(i) *(250*SDEPS(i) +1)*0.67*fcd_t For point 12: SDSGM(i) = -0.67*fcd_t
3.4.26
3.4.26.1 GAMs
(MODF)
For this type of materials (Type = 3) the following properties are defined: = 1.0 (default
3.4.26.2 fy
(LIBR)
fyd
3-90
(LIBR)
ft
(LIBR)
Characteristic tensile stress. Refers to the characteristic value of the maximum axial load in tension over the area of the transverse section. Characteristic elongation at maximum load EPSuk 0
EPSuk
(LIBR)
3.4.26.3
The different types of stress-strain diagrams available for reinforcement steel, according to IS456 are the following: TSASSD= 0: User defined TSASSD= 1: Elastic TSASSD= 2: Bilinear 3.4.26.3.1 Definition of the Elastic diagram (TSASSD = 1): NPSASSD = 2 The sign criterion for the definition of points of the stress-strain diagram is the following: +Tension, -Compression Strain points are the following: SAEPS (1) SAEPS (2) = -10-2 = 10-2
Stress points are the following: SASGM (1) = SAEPS(1)*Ex SASGM (2) = SAEPS(1)*Ex 3.4.26.3.2 Definition of the Bilinear diagram (TSASSD = 2): NPSASSD = 4 The sign criterion for the definition of points of the stress-strain diagram is the following: +Tension, -Compression Strain points are the following: SAEPS (1) SAEPS (2) SAEPS (3) SAEPS (4) = -0.01 = -fy/Ex = fy/Ex = 0.01
3-91
Chapter 3 Materials
Stress points are the following: SASGM (1) = -fy+(SAEPS(1)-SAEPS(2))/PLRAT*Ex SASGM (2) = -fy SASGM (3) = fy SASGM (4) = -fy+(SAEPS(4)-SAEPS(3))/PLRAT*Ex 3.4.26.4 Stress-strain diagrams for section analysis
The different types of stress-strain diagrams available for reinforcement steel, according to IS456 are the following: TSDSSD= 0 TSDSSD= 1 3.4.26.4.1 Number of diagram points NPSDSSD = 4 The sign criterion for the definition of points of the stress-strain diagram is the following: +Tension, -Compression Strain points have been taken according to article Art. 4.2.2.3.2 and are the following: SDEPS (1) SDEPS (2) SDEPS (3) SDEPS (4) SDSGM (1) SDSGM (2) SDSGM (3) SDSGM (4) = -0.01 = -fyd/Ex = fyd/Ex = 0.01 = -fyd = -fyd = fyd = fyd User defined Bilinear
3.4.27
52-101) (Concrete)
For this type of materials (Type = 2) the following properties are considered: 3.4.27.1 CeTp
(MODF)
Type of cement Refers to the different types of cement that can be used. Chosen among those considered in the CEB-FIP code: SL: Slow hardening cements N: Slow hardening cements (Default value)
3-92
R:
Partial safety factors Partial safety factor for compressed concrete (Art. 2.1.2.2. GAMb b=1.5 (Default value) Partial safety factor for tensioned concrete (Art. 2.1.2.2. GAMbt bt=1.3 (Default value) Mechanical properties Concrete characteristic 28-day compressive strength (Art. 2.1.2.1) (+Compression Rbn 0) Design 28-day compressive strength (Art. 2.1.2.2) (+Compression) Rb = Rbn/GAMb Concrete characteristic 28 days tensile strength (Art. 2.1.2.1) (+Tension) Design 28 days tensile strength (Art. 2.1.2.2) (+Tension) Rbt = Rbtn/GAMb Strain value at the end of the second segment of the strain-stress curve (Art. 21.2.5) (- Compression) EPSc1 = -0.0022 (Default value) Ultimate strain in compression (Art. 2.1.2.11) (-Compression) EPSb2 = -0.0035 (Default value) Coefficient which depends on the type of cement. Chosen among those considered in the CEB-FIP code. SL: N: R: RS: s = 0.38 s = 0.25 s = 0.25 s = 0.20 1) 1)
GAMbt
(MODF)
3.4.27.3 Rbn
(LIBR)
Rb
(LOCK)
Rbtn
(MODF)
Rbt
(MODF)
EPSb0
(LIBR)
EPSb2
(LIBR)
s
(MODF)
3.4.27.4 BETcc
(LOCK)
Time dependent mechanical properties Coefficient which depends on concrete age. BETcc = exp {s*[1-(28/Age)1/2]} (Age is expressed in days) Rbn_t = BETcc*Rbn Design t-day compressive strength (Art. 4.2.1.3.3 (4) & (11)) (+Compression) Rb_t = Rbn_t/GAMb Initial modulus of elasticity (Table 2.1-4)
Rb_t(Age)
(LOCK)
Eb(Age)
(MODF)
3-93
Chapter 3 Materials
3.4.27.5
The different type of stress-strain concrete diagrams available according to SP 52101 are: TSASSD= 0: User defined TSASSD= 1: Elastic TSASSD= 2: Bilinear TSASSD= 3: Trilinear 3.4.27.5.1 Definition of the elastic stress-strain diagram (TSASSD = 1):
The sign criterion for the definition of stress-strain diagram points is the following one: +Tension, -Compression A total of 2 points (NPSASSD = 2) has been chosen for the definition of the stressstrain diagram. Strain values are the following: SAEPS (1) SAEPS (2) = = -10-2 10-2
For these points, stress values are the following: SASGM (i) = SAEPS (i) * Ex 3.4.27.5.2 Definition of the bilinear stress-strain diagram (TSASSD = 2):
The sign criterion for the definition of stress-strain diagram points is the following one: +Tension, -Compression A total of 3 points (NPSASSD = 4) has been chosen for the definition of the stressstrain diagram. Strain values have been taken conforming to article Art. 2.1.2.12 and are the following: SAEPS (1) SAEPS (2) SAEPS (3) SASGM (1) SASGM (2) SASGM (3) 3.4.27.5.3 = = = EPSb2 0.0015/GAMb 0.000
For these points, stress values are the following: = -Rb_t = -Rb_t = 0.000 Definition of the trilinear stress-strain diagram (TSASSD = 3):
The sign criterion for the definition of stress-strain diagram points is the following one:
3-94
+Tension, -Compression A total of 4 points (NPSASSD = 4) has been chosen for the definition of the stressstrain diagram. Strain values have been taken conforming to article Art. 2.1.2.11 and are the following: SAEPS (1) SAEPS (2) SAEPS (3) SAEPS (4) SASGM (1) SASGM (2) SASGM (3) SASGM (4) 3.4.27.6 = EPSb2 = EPSb0 = 0.6*Rd/Eb = 0.000 = -Rb_t = -Rb_t = -0.6*Rb_t = 0.000 Stress-strain diagrams for section analysis
The different types of stress-strain diagrams available for concrete, according to SP 52-101 are the following: TSDSSD= 0 TSDSSD= 1 TSDSSD= 2 3.4.27.6.1 Number of diagram points NPSDSSD = 3 The sign criterion for the definition of points of the stress-strain diagram is the following (according to Art. 2.1.2.12): +Tension, -Compression Strain values for this diagram are the following: SDEPS (1) SDEPS (2) SDEPS (3) SDSGM (1) SDSGM (2) SDSGM (3) = = = EPSb2 0.0015/GAMb 0.000 User defined Bilinear Trilinear
The corresponding stress values are the following: = -Rb_t = -Rb_t = 0.000
3-95
Chapter 3 Materials
3.4.27.6.2
Number of diagram points The sign criterion for the definition of points of the stress-strain diagram is the following: +Tension, -Compression A total of 4 points (NPSDSSD = 4) has been chosen for the definition of the stressstrain diagram. Strain values have been taken conforming to article Art. 2.1.2.11 and are the following: SDEPS (1) SDEPS (2) SDEPS (3) SDEPS (4) SDSGM (1) SDSGM (2) SDSGM (3) SDSGM (4) = EPSb2 = EPSb0 = 0.6*Rd/Eb = 0.000 = -Rb_t = -Rb_t = -0.6*Rb_t = 0.000
3.4.28
52-101)
For this type of materials (Type = 3) the following properties are defined: 3.4.28.1 GAMs
(MODF)
Steel partial safety factor (Art. 2.3.3.2) (GAMs value) (Art. 2.2.2.2) Mechanical properties
0)
= 1.00 (default
3.4.28.2 Rsn
(LIBR)
Characteristic yield stress (Art. 2.2.2.2) Refers to the characteristic value of the applied load over the area of the transverse section. Design yield stress (Art. 2.2.2.2) Rs = Rsn/GAMs Characteristic tensile stress in the stirrups (Art. 2.2.2.3) Rs = 0.8*Rs 500 MPa 0
Rs
(LIBR)
Rsw
(LIBR)
EPSs2
(LIBR)
3-96
3.4.28.3
The different types of stress-strain diagrams available for reinforcement steel, according to SP 52-101 are the following: TSASSD= 0 TSASSD= 1 TSASSD= 2 3.4.28.3.1 Number of diagram points NPSASSD = 2 The sign criterion for the definition of points of the stress-strain diagram is the following: +Tension, -Compression Strain points are the following: SAEPS (1) SAEPS (2) = -1.0E-2 = 1.0E-2 User defined Elastic Bilinear
Stress points are the following: SASGM (1) = SAEPS(1)*Ex SASGM (2) = SAEPS(2)*Ex 3.4.28.3.2 Definition of the Bilinear diagram (TSASSD = 2): NPSASSD = 3 The sign criterion for the definition of points of the stress-strain diagram is the following: +Tension, -Compression Strain points have been taken conforming to article Art. 2.2.2.7 and are the following: SAEPS (1) SAEPS (2) SAEPS (3) SAEPS (4) = -EPSs2 = -Rs/Ex = Rs/Ex = EPSs2 Number of diagram points
Stress points have been taken conforming to article Art. 2.2.2.7 and are the following: SASGM (1) = -Rs SASGM (2) = -Rs SASGM (3) = Rs SASGM (4) = Rs
3-97
Chapter 3 Materials
3.4.28.4
The different types of stress-strain diagrams available for reinforcement steel, according to SP 52-101 are the following: TSDSSD= 0 TSDSSD= 1 3.4.28.4.1 Number of diagram points NPSDSSD = 4 The sign criterion for the definition of points of the stress-strain diagram is the following: +Tension, -Compression Strain points have been taken according to article Art. 2.2.2.7 and are the following: SDEPS (1) SDEPS (2) SDEPS (3) SDEPS (4) SDSGM (1) SDSGM (2) SDSGM (3) SDSGM (4) = -EPSs2 = -Rs/Ex = Rs/Ex = EPSs2 = -Rs = -Rs = Rs = Rs User defined Bilinear
3.4.29
This design code specifies the use of the materials defined in Eurocode 2. Therefore, everytime the ITER design code is selected, the material properties will be those defined in Eurocode 2, 2008 revision.
3-98
3.5
FLAC3D Properties
The ~CFMP command defines the material properties that are necessary to carry out an analysis with FLAC3D, both for structural and soil and rock elements. These properties have the labels and values described hereafter:
3.5.1
3.5.1.1 CMOD
3.5.1.2 bu sh
Elastic isotropic model parameters Elastic bulk modulus, K K=E/3/(1-2*Un) Elastic shear modulus, G G=E/2/(1+Nu)
Elastic orthotropic model parameters Dip direction of plane defined by axes 1'-2' Dip angle of plane defined by axes 1'-2' Young's modulus in direction 1' Young's modulus in direction 2' Young's modulus in direction 3' Shear modulus in planes parallel to axes 1'-2'
3-99
Chapter 3 Materials
Shear modulus in planes parallel to axes 1'-3' Shear modulus in planes parallel to axes 2'-3' Poissons ratio characterizing lateral contraction in direction 1' when tension is applied in direction 2' Poissons ratio characterizing lateral contraction in direction 1' when tension is applied in direction 3' Poissons ratio characterizing lateral contraction in direction 2' when tension is applied in direction 3' x-component of unit normal to plane defined by axes 1'-2' y-component of unit normal to plane defined by axes 1'-2' z-component of unit normal to plane defined by axes 1'-2' Rotation angle between the 1' axis and the dip-direction vector, positive clockwise defined, starting at the dip-direction vector Elastic transversely isotropic model parameters Dip direction of the plane of isotropy Dip angle of the plane of isotropy Young's modulus in the plane of isotropy Young's modulus normal to the plane of isotropy Shear modulus for any plane normal to the plane of isotropy Poissons ratio characterizing lateral contraction in the plane of isotropy when tension is applied in the plane Poissons ratio characterizing lateral contraction in the plane of isotropy when tension is applied normal to the plane Drucker-Prager model parameters Elastic bulk modulus, K Material parameter, phi Material parameter, qpsi Material parameter, phi Elastic shear modulus, G Tension limit, SIGt Mohr-Coulomb model parameters Elastic bulk modulus, K Cohesion, c Dilatancy angle, psi
3100
Fric Sh ten 3.5.1.7 bu C Di Fric Jc Jdd Jdil Jdip Jf Jnx Jny Jnz Jt Sh ten 3.5.1.8 bu C Ct Di Dt Fric Ft Sh Ten tt 3.5.1.9 Bij
Internal angle of friction, phi Elastic shear modulus, G Tension limit, SIGt Ubiquitous-joint model parameters Elastic bulk modulus, K Cohesion of matrix, c Dilation angle of matrix, psi Internal angle of friction, phi Joint cohesion, cj Dip direction of weakness plane Joint dilation angle, psij Dip angle of weakness plane Joint friction angle, phij x-component of unit normal to weakness plane y-component of unit normal to weakness plane z-component of unit normal to weakness plane Joint tension limit, SIGtj Elastic shear modulus, G Tension limit of matrix, SIGt Strain-hardening/softening model parameters Elastic bulk modulus, K Cohesion, c Number of the table relating cohesion to plastic shear strain Dilation angle, psi Number of the table relating dilation angle to plastic shear strain Angle of internal friction, phi Number of the table relating friction angle to plastic shear strain Elastic shear modulus, G Tension limit, SIGt Number of the table relating tension limit to plastic tensile strain Bilinear strain-hard/soft ubiquitous-joint model parameters =0 for joint linear model (default)
3-101
Chapter 3 Materials
=1 for joint bilinear model Bim bu C2 Cj Cj2 C Co2 Ct D2 Di2 Di Dj Dj2 Dt F2 Fj Fj2 Fr2 Fric Ft Jc2 Jc Jdd Jdil =0 for matrix linear model (default) =1 for matrix bilinear model Elastic bulk modulus, K Number of the table relating matrix cohesion c2 to matrix plastic shear strain Number of the table relating joint cohesion cj1 to joint plastic shear strain Number of the table relating joint cohesion cj2 to joint plastic shear strain Matrix cohesion, c1 Matrix cohesion, c2 Number of the table relating matrix cohesion c1 to matrix plastic shear strain Number of the table relating matrix dilation psi2 to matrix plastic shear strain Matrix dilation angle, psi2 Matrix dilation angle, psi1 Number of the table relating joint dilation psij1 to joint plastic shear strain Number of the table relating joint dilation psij2 to joint plastic shear strain Number of the table relating matrix dilation angle psi1 to matrix plastic shear strain Number of the table relating matrix friction angle phi2 to matrix plastic shear strain Number of the table relating joint friction angle phij1 to joint plastic shear strain Number of the table relating joint friction angle phij2 to joint plastic shear strain Matrix friction angle, phi2 Matrix friction angle, phi1 Number of the table relating matrix friction phi1 to matrix plastic shear strain Joint cohesion,cj2 Joint cohesion,cj1 Dip direction of weakness plane Joint dilation angle, psij1
3102
Dip angle of weakness plane Joint dilation angle, psij2 Joint friction angle, phij1 Joint friction angle, phij2 x-component of unit normal to weakness plane y-component of unit normal to weakness plane z-component of unit normal to weakness plane Joint tension limit, SIGtj Elastic shear modulus, G Matrix tension limit, SIGt Number of the table relating joint tension limit SIGtj to joint plastic tensile strain Number of the table relating matrix tension limit SIGtj to joint plastic tensile strain Double-yield model parameters Elastic bulk modulus, K Current intersection of the volumetric yield surface (cap) with the pressure axis (mean stress), pc Cohesion, c Number of the table relating cap pressure to plastic volume strain Number of the table relating cohesion to plastic shear strain Dilation angle, psi Number of the table relating dilation angle to plastic shear strain Cumulative plastic volumetric strain Angle of internal friction, phi Number of the table relating friction angle to plastic shear strain Multiplier on current plastic cap modulus to provide the elastic bulk and shear moduli, R Maximum elastic shear modulus, G Tension limit, SIGt Number of the table relating tensile limit to plastic tensile strain Modified Cam-Clay model parameters Maximum elastic bulk modulus, kmax Initial specific volume, v0
3-103
Chapter 3 Materials
Slope of the elastic swelling line, kappa Slope of the normal consolidation line, lambda Frictional constant, M Preconsolidation pressure, pc0 Reference pressure, p1 Specific volume at reference pressure, p1, on the normal consolidation line, vlambda Poisson's ratio, nu Elastic shear modulus, G
3.5.2
3.5.2.1 TSEL
3.5.2.2 density emod Nu pmoment thexp 3.5.2.3 density Emod Gr_coh Gr_fric Gr_k
BEAM element parameters: Mass density, ro Youngs modulus, E Poissons ratio, nu Plastic moment capacity, Mp Thermal expansion coefficient, alphat CABLE element parameters: Mass density, ro Young's modulus, E Grout cohesive strength (force) per unit of length, cg Grout friction angle, phig () Grout stiffness per unit length, kg
3104
Gr_per Slide Slide_to Thexp Ycomp ytens 3.5.2.4 Density Emod Nu Pmoment Thexp Cs_scoh Cs_sfric Cs_sk Cs_ncoh Cs_nfric Cs_ngap Cs_nk Slide Slide_to 3.5.2.5 Tbeh
Grout exposed perimeter, pg Large-strain sliding flag (default: OFF) Large-strain sliding tolerance Thermal expansion coefficient, alphat Compressive yield strength (force), Fc Tensile yield strength (force), Ft PILE element parameters: Mass density, ro Youngs modulus, E Poissons ratio, nu Plastic moment capacity, Mp Thermal expansion coefficient, alphat Shear coupling spring cohesion per unit length, cs Shear coupling spring friction angle, Phis () Shear coupling spring stiffness per unit length, ks Normal coupling spring cohesion per unit length, cn Normal coupling spring friction angle, phin () Normal coupling spring gap-use flag, g (default: OFF) Normal coupling stiffness per unit length, kn Large-strain sliding flag (default: OFF) Large-strain sliding tolerance SHELL element parameters: Type of constitutive behavior 1 2 Isotropic (default option) Orthotropic CST CSTH DKT DKT_CST DKT_CSTH
Ele
Density Emod
3-105
Chapter 3 Materials
Poisson's ratio, nu (Isotropic) Orthotropic material property, e11 Orthotropic material property, e12 Orthotropic material property, e22 Orthotropic material property, e33 Thermal expansion coefficient, alphat GEOG element parameters: Type of constitutive behavior 1 2 Isotropic (default option) Orthotropic CST CSTH DKT DKT_CST DKT_CSTH
Ele
Density Emod Un E11 E12 E22 E33 Thexp Cs_scoh Cs_sfric Cs_sk Slide Slide_to 3.5.2.7 Tbeh
Mass density, ro Youngs modulus, E (Isotropic) Poissons ratio, un (Isotropic) Orthotropic material property e11 Orthotropic material property e12 Orthotropic material property e22 Orthotropic material property e33 Thermal expansion coefficient, alphat Coupling spring cohesion (stress units), c Coupling spring friction angle, phi () Coupling spring stiffness per unit area, k Large-strain sliding flag (default: OFF) Large-strain sliding tolerance LINER element parameters: Type of constitutive behavior 1 2 Isotropic (default option) Orthotropic
3106
Ele
Density Emod Nu E11 E12 E22 E33 Thexp Cs_ncut Cs_nk Cs_scoh Cs_scohr Cs_sfric Cs_sk Slide Slide_to
Mass density, ro Young's modulus, E (Isotropic) Poisson's ratio, nu (Isotropic) Orthotropic material property e11 Orthotropic material property e12 Orthotropic material property e22 Orthotropic material property e33 Thermal expansion coefficient, alphat Normal coupling spring tensile strength (stress units), ft Normal coupling spring stiffness per unit area, kn Shear coupling spring cohesion (stress units), c Shear coupling spring residual cohesion (stress units), cr Shear coupling spring friction angle, phi () Shear coupling spring stiffness per unit area, ks Large-strain sliding flag (default: OFF) Large-strain sliding tolerance
3-107
3.6
Active Properties
CivilFEM material properties are time dependent. This dependence is controlled by making use of a global variable called active time (see ~ACTTIME command). This time is common to all materials and its value is fixed by the user at every moment. CivilFEM active time may coincide or not with ANSYS time (ANSYS TIME command). On the other hand, each definition of a CivilFEM material contains the materials activation time that controls the time at which the materials start to exist. Once both the active and the activation times are established, those materials whose activation time is not greater than the active time will be active. Those elements whose material is inactive, do not exist to any effect (either in CivilFEM or in ANSYS). The age of each material is calculated at every moment using the active time (ActTime) and activation instant values: MatAge (Imat) = ActTime TmAct (Imat) MatAge: TmAct: Imat: Material Age Materials activation time Material taken into account
This MatAge allows to calculate any property of the material at any time just by means of an interpolation of the corresponding time dependent vectors. Each property has its own interpolation procedure. When the user modifies the value of Actime, all the mechanical properties (observed by ANSYS and CivilFEM) of the affected materials and cross-sections being automatically changed.
3-109
3.7
In order to proceed properly to the definition and modification of the material properties, the dependences among them should be kept in mind, mainly, the modifying priority order adopted by the program regarding the automatic modification of related properties. In case two or more related parameters have the same modifying priority order, the user can choose which one is to be modified, since the program takes care of changing the values of the rest of related parameters automatically. Related data having the same modifying priority order are called coupled data (this fact is represented by a double arrow in the charts that are shown later on). In the following tables, all the material properties that are subjected to modifications as well as the order of priority among them are included. The column on the left contains those material properties having higher hierarchy (order of priority). When the user modifies these values, all their dependent parameters (those being on the second column of the tables) will be modified and recalculated automatically by the program. It can be easily observed that parameters' dependence is nested. Therefore, a specific material property may have a higher hierarchy with regard to other parameters and a lower one regarding others. Tables are divided according to property types: external data, general properties (concerning all materials), specific material properties (steel, concrete, reinforcement steel and prestressing steel) and code properties (properties depending on active code and material).
3.7.1
External Data
ActTime MatAge
3.7.2
TAct Ex
General Properties
MatAge Gxy If material is reinforcement steel Structural and section stress-strain diagrams change. NUxy RHO RHO VCos Gxy GAM (coupled data) Ec (If ACI-318 code is active) Mcos Wcos (coupled data)
3-111
Chapter 3 Materials
3.7.3
ExLn
3.7.4
(1) Age_Del and Age_Mov are similar to this parameter, that is to say, they are related to the same data and having equal hierarchy order.
3.7.5
TpEx ExCal TpNuxy
NuxyCal
3-112
RHOCal RHO ExCal NuxyCal ExCal NuxyCal GAMs GAMsat GAMap RHOd SW
GAMs GAMsat
RHOsub RHOap N
GAMap SW
D10
CCurv CUnif
D60
CCurv CUnif
wl wp
Ip Ip
3.7.6
3-113
Chapter 3 Materials
TpEx ExCal TpNuxy NuxyCal TpRHO RHOCal ExSt NuxySt ExD NuxyD GAMd
ExCal Ex NuxyCal Nuxy RHOCal RHO ExCal NuxyCal ExCal NuxyCal GAMs GAMsat GAMap RHOd SW
GAMs GAMsat
RHOsub RHOap N
GAMap SW
GSI
HB_m0 HB_s0
HB_m HB_s0
3-114
3.7.7
3.7.7.1
fy
3.7.7.2
GAMa
3.7.7.3
Fy
3.7.7.4
Ys
3.7.7.5
Cetp GAMc
3-115
Chapter 3 Materials
BETcc fcm_t
fck_t
fcd_t Ecm
fcd_t Ecm
ExLn (si TpEx = 1) ExLn (si TpEx = 4) Stress-strain diagrams Stress-strain diagrams Stress-strain diagrams Stress-strain diagrams Stress-strain diagrams
3.7.7.6
GAMs
3.7.7.7
GAMs fpk fp01k EPSuk
3-116
3.7.7.8
Cutp Cetp
3.7.7.9
fy
3.7.7.10
fpu fpy StTp
3.7.7.11
Cetp GAMc
3-117
Chapter 3 Materials
EPScuB EPScuU
fcm
fctm s BETcc
fcm_t
fck_t
fcd_t
fcd2 Eci
Ec Ec1
EPSc1
EPSc_lim EPScuB
EPScuC
EPSmin
3-118
EPScuU TSDSSD
3.7.7.12
Specific Code Properties (CEB-FIP Reinforcing Steel) Specific Code Properties (CEB-FIP Reinforcing Steel)
GAMs fyk fyd fyd Duct Stress-strain diagrams fyd ftk EPSuk Stress-strain diagrams Duct Duct Stress-strain diagrams
3.7.7.13
Cetp GAMc
3-119
Chapter 3 Materials
E0_j Ej fck_j fcm_j fcd_j BETt fcm_j fctm_j EPSclim Stress-strain diagrams fcd_j E0_j Ej EPSc1 Stress-strain diagrams ExLn (si TpEx = 2) ExLn (si TpEx = 3) EPSclim Stress-strain diagrams EPSclim Stress-strain diagrams
3.7.7.14
GAMs fyk
3.7.7.15
GAMs fpk
3.7.7.16
Cetp GAMc fcu
3-120
Ec28 Ec_t EPSc1 EPScu s BETcc fcu_t Ko Ec28 Ec_t Stress-strain diagrams Stress-strain diagrams BETcc fcu_t Ec_t Ec28 Ec_t ExLn (if TpEx = 1)
3.7.7.17
GAMs fy
3.7.7.18
Cetp GAMc
3-121
Chapter 3 Materials
ftk s BETcc (Nage) fck_t (Nage) fc_t (Nage) Ec_t (Nage) EPS0 (Nage) EPScu (Nage)
ft BETcc(Nage) fcu_t(NAge) Ec_t(NAge) fc_t(NAge) Stress-strain diagrams Stress-strain diagrams ExLn EPSint Stress-strain diagrams EPSmin Stress-strain diagrams
3.7.7.19
GAMs Fyk
3.7.7.20
Eci GAMc
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Ex fcd_j
3.7.7.21
Cetp GAMc
3.7.7.22
GAMs
3.7.7.23
Cetp GAMb
3-123
Chapter 3 Materials
GAMbt
Rbt
Rbtn Rbn
s BETcc Rbn_t
Rb_t Eb EPSb0
TSASSD
TSDSSD
Stress-strain diagrams
3.7.7.24
GAMs Rsn Rs
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4.1
4.1.1
A model built within CivilFEM + ANSYS can employ any of the element types of ANSYS library. However, CivilFEM only carries out calculations on certain element types (being the list of available elements dependent on the kind of calculation), ignoring the rest, which will then be used just by ANSYS. For instance, a model can, have both beam and gap elements, but CivilFEM will only be able to define the sections on beam elements and then will only be able to carry out the checking according to codes on beam elements. Gap elements will be ignored by CivilFEM but will be nonetheless considered by ANSYS for calculating forces and moments of the structure.
4.1.2
All the tools developed for beam elements area available for working with the following ANSYS elements: LINK1, BEAM3, BEAM4, LINK8, LINK10, PIPE16, PIPE20, BEAM23, BEAM24, BEAM44, BEAM54, BEAM188 and BEAM189.
Note: BEAM23 elements require KEYOPT(6) parameter (which controls the section type) to be fixed at 4, so that the sets of real constants generated by CivilFEM are valid for this element type.
4.1.3
Shells Reinforcement
The calculation of shell reinforcement in CivilFEM can be done using the following ANSYS elements: SHELL43, SHELL63, SHELL93, SHELL181 and SHELL281.
4.1.4
BEAM SHELL SOLID AXSHL CROSS VERTX
Combinations
1, 3, 4, 8, 10, 16, 20, 23, 24, 44, 54, 188, 189 43, 63, 93, 181, 281 2, 25, 42, 45, 64, 65, 73, 82, 83, 95, 145, 146 51, 61 1, 3, 4, 8, 10, 16, 20, 23, 24, 44, 54, 188, 189 43, 63, 93, 181, 281
4-1
4.1.5
FLAC3D Integration
The following elements should be used whenever you create the model using ANSYS+CivilFEM in order to allow exporting and solving it with FLAC3D: - Elements to model the soil SOLID45 - Structural elements LINK8 BEAM4, BEAM44 SHELL43, SHELL63
Shells modeled in ANSYS should be 3-node shells (triangular option) in order to be exported to FLAC3D. The SOLID45 element can be used in any of its degenerated shapes
4.1.6
The following plane elements are available for the slope stability analyses: MESH 200: KEYOPT (1)= 4, 5, 6, 7 Elements must lay on the X-Y plane or at least be parallel to it. PLANE 2,35,146: Triangular PLANE of 6 nodes. PLANE 13,42,55,67,162,182: Rectangular PLANE of 4 nodes. PLANE 53,77,82,121,145,183: Rectangular PLANE of 8 nodes. The available elements when using the Hoek & Brown failure criteria are the following: PLANE SOLID PLANE82, PLANE42 SOLID45, SOLID92, SOLID95
For calculation and design of retaining walls the available elements are: LINK BEAM LINK1, LINK8, LINK10 BEAM3, BEAM54, BEAM4, BEAM44
Concerning the ballast module calculation, the available types of elements are: MESH SHELL SURF MESH200 (KEYOPT (1) = 4, 5, 6, 7) SHELL41, SHELL63, SHELL99 SURF154
Loads concerning earth pressure in CivilFEM can be generated using the following element types: PLANE PLANE2, PLANE42, PLANE82, PLANE145, PLANE146
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SOLID45, SOLID46, SOLID64, SOLID65, SOLID73, SOLID95, SOLID147 BEAM3, BEAM23, BEAM54, BEAM4, BEAM24, BEAM44, BEAM188, BEAM189 SHELL43, SHELL63, SHELL93, SHELL181, SHELL281 SURF153, SURF154
Mohr-Coulomb material model can be used on the following element types: PLANE SOLID PLANE42, PLANE82 SOLID45, SOLID65, SOLID92, SOLID95
Cam-Clay material model can be used on the following element types: PLANE SOLID PLANE182, PLANE183 SOLID185, SOLID186, SOLID187
4.1.7
For bridge analysis: The following elements are valid for bridge and load generation: SOLID SHELL BEAM SURF SOLID45, SOLID95 SHELL43, SHELL63, SHELL181 BEAM44 SURF154
For Civil Nonlinearities: This module needs that the elements used in the model support different sections at each end, as well as the possibility to modify its added mass. Therefore, elements that support this characteristic are: BEAM BEAM44, BEAM54 With the purpose of using this module in bar element structures, the module works as well with the following type of elements: LINK LINK1, LINK8, LINK10 In this case the user will need to introduce these elements without mass, accumulating the mass at the nodes of the structure. Elements that support creep and shrinkage are detailed in the Bridges and Civil Nonlinearities module manual.
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4.1.8
The list of elements is limited by the elements over which the prestressing actions can be transferred. They are the following: SOLID SHELL BEAM SOLID45, SOLID64, SOLID65, SOLID95, SOLID147, SOLID148, SOLID185, SOLID186, SOLID187 SHELL43, SHELL63, SHELL93, SHELL181 BEAM3, BEAM4, BEAM44, BEAM54, BEAM188, BEAM189
4-4
Axis Orientation in Beam Sections........................................................... 19 Shell Vertex ............................................................................................. 21 Member properties................................................................................... 23 5.5.1 5.5.2 5.5.3 5.5.4 5.5.5 5.5.6 5.5.7 Eurocode No. 3 ....................................................................... 23 EA ........................................................................................... 23 LRFD ...................................................................................... 24 British Standard 5950-1985 .................................................... 24 British Standard 5950-2001 .................................................... 25 Chinese concrete code GB50010 ........................................... 25 Member behaviour .................................................................. 26
5.6
Beam and Shell Properties ...................................................................... 27 5.6.1 5.6.2 5.6.3 5.6.4 Beams..................................................................................... 27 Shells ...................................................................................... 27 Properties ............................................................................... 27 Real constants and beam and shell properties in CivilFEM .... 28
ANSYS Sections and CivilFEM Beam and Shell Properties ... 32 Changing the node location in beam elements from CivilFEM 34
5.1
General Criteria
Three fundamental types of entities can be checked or designed: beams, shells (concrete) and solid sections. The properties if these entities are grouped in the following concepts: Beam and Shell properties: associated to beam and shell elements. It is the parallel concept to real constants and sections of ANSYS. It contains all the element properties necessary for the calculation of the model and later postprocess with CivilFEM. Solid sections: associated to elements of a 3D model of finite elements. It contains all the properties necessary for the cross sections postprocess with CivilFEM. It allows to extend the checking capacities to two-dimensional and three-dimensional solid models. Therefore, beam and shell properties associated to beam elements will hold the following: Dorsal cross-section (I) Frontal cross-section (J) Member properties Other parameters (offsets, etc.)
If beam and shell properties are associated to shell elements, the information contained will be: Shell vertex in I node Shell vertex in J node Shell vertex in K node Shell vertex in L node Member properties Other parameters (EFS, etc.)
With respect to solid sections captured from a finite element model, they will hold the following: Cross section Member properties
The previous concepts are briefly explained hereafter: A.1 Cross section: This concept refers to a unique cross section, as commonly understood in engineering. A.2 Shell Vertex: refers to the data of a shell vertex. It is a concept parallel to the cross section and it is used to represent properties of a particular vertex of the shell element.
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B. Member properties: These properties include parameters related to codes and not related to the cross section. It refers to the member itself without including the ends. A detailed description of each one of these concepts and the different groups of properties necessary for the definition of sections in CivilFEM is carried out in the following sections.
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5.2
Cross Sections
Cross sections in CivilFEM, as it has been previously stated, refer to a unique cross section. It does not coincide with the concept of Group of Real Constants of ANSYS which includes the data for both sections (I, J) of a beam element. Each beam element will have associated two cross sections that will correspond to both ends.
5.2.1
General Properties
General properties are those properties common to all cross sections. These properties have the following labels and values: Rf16 Identification of cross section (maximum of 16 characters). In hot rolled steel shapes, it contains the library reference and in the rest of sections, a label dependent on STP: STP=0: Rf16= Generic STP=1: Rf16= Structural Steel STP=2: Rf16= Reinforced Concrete STP=3: Rf16= Concrete + Steel Name Stp Name assigned to the cross section (maximum of 32 characters). Type of transversal cross section: 0 1 2 3 Shp 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Csys Generic Structural Steel Reinforced Concrete Concrete + Steel Generic Double T Channel Pipe Angular Square/Rectangular Box Circular Simple T
Section Typology
Number of the sections coordinate system. Once the section is defined the number of the local system is stored but the data referring to new coordinated are not updated. X, Y, Z origin location of the sections coordinate system according to the
Coor
5-3
global coordinate system. Angl Mcos Scos Lcos Perm Tcos THXY, THYZ, THZX rotation angles in degrees of the sections coordinate system according to the global coordinate system. Cost of materials per length unit. Additional cost per surface unit. Additional cost per length unit Perimeter of the section. Total cost per length unit. The stored value is the summation of (MCOS+SCOS*PERM+LCOS).
5.2.2
Dimensions
They only make sense for sections defined by dimensions or from library. The meaning of each date depends on each section in particular. The labels referring to welded and hot rolled steel sections (see commands ~SSECDMS and ~SSECLIB) are: H Tw B Tf Hi A/r1 R2 D Total depth of the section Web thickness Total width of the section Flange thickness Web height between the inner faces of the flanges. Weld throat thickness/ Fillet radius on the union between flange and web Fillet radius on the edge of the flange Web free depth between welding chords
Each of the sections concrete has particular geometric properties. Now the geometric properties of a double T section are shown:
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where: Depth Tw BfTop TfTop BfBot TfBot Total depth Web thickness Width of top flange Thickness of top flange Width of bottom flange Thickness of bottom flange
The geometric properties of concrete cross sections that can be defined with CivilFEM may be seen in the ~CSECDMS command.
5.2.3
The cross sections in CivilFEM are made of points and tessella. Points support the geometric description of the cross section and the tessella support the geometric resistance. All resisting properties are exclusively calculated from the tessella structure of the section except for the sections from library, whose values are obtained directly from the hot rolled shapes manual. Points and tessella do not have user-numbering capabilities. CivilFEM numbers them internally and consecutively. The user may control the sections mesh density by applying the command ~TREFINE. This command doubles the number of divisions doubles and therefore the number of tessella gets multiplied by two and the number of surfaces by four, each time applied. The points that form the tessella structure are the union elements between them. Therefore, points are common between adjacent tessella when these are formed by the same material. Nevertheless, points doubled in the event that adjacent tessella present different material associated to the tessella. Labels and values corresponding to points are the following: Mat Mtp Point material number. Point material type: 0 1 2 3 4 Nod Generic Structural Steel Concrete Reinforced Steel Prestressing Steel
Number of node associated to the point. It will be 0 if there are no associated nodes.
The interpolation of geometry and stresses and the integration of forces in cross sections are made through the shape of the tessella in function of its number and
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number of points. There are seven types of tessellas whose features are described next: Type=1 Point Used for: - Representing reinforcements defined by bars (Fi>0). - Associate LINK and BEAM element ends (I or J). Type=2 Line with two points Use to: - Represent plates. - Associate SHELL elements faces. - Represent reinforcements distributed uniformly (Fi=0) by rights. Type=3 Line with three points Used to: - Associate SHELL elements faces with edge nodes. - Represent reinforcements distributed uniformly by curves (Fi=0) by curves. Type=4 Triangle with three points Used to: - Associate SOLID element faces. Type=5 Triangle with six points Used to: - Associate SOLID element faces with edge nodes. Type=6 Quad with four points. Used to: - Associate SOLID element faces. Type=7 Quad with eight points Used to: - Associate SOLID element faces with edge nodes.
The labels and values corresponding to the tessellas are the following:
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Mat Mtp
Number of tessella material. Tessella material type: 0 1 2 3 4 Generic Structural Steel Concrete Reinforcing Steel Prestressing Steel
Type of tessella as indicated in the previous table. Points that conform the tessella. Number of the element associated to the tessella. In case there is not an element associated, its value will be 0. Number of the sections face o node associated to the tessella. Its value will be 0 if the tessella is not associated to any face o node. Number of the flexure reinforcement group associated to the tessella. Its value will be 0 if the tessella is not associated to any reinforcement group. Number of plate associated to the tessella. Its value will be 0 if the tessella is not associated to any plate. Additional tessella geometric data. Possible values depend on the type of tessella. For tessella points (type 1): Corresponds to the tessella area. For linear tessella (types 2 and 3): Corresponds to the thickness of the tessella on its i and j ends.
Plt Geo
5.2.4
Plates
All steel sections (hot rolled or by dimensions) in CivilFEM are made of plate structure, whose properties are defined automatically by the program, with the exception of the sections defined by plates (see command ~SSECPLT) in which the user must define each plate property. The plate structure describes the section as a group of independent plates (webs or flanges) that allow to check elements conforming Eurocode No.3. For each one of the plates the following data is defined: Mat Mtp Number of the material associated to the plate. Plate material type: 0 1 Pty 0 Generic Structural Steel Not defined
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Flange Web Not defined Flange Web Free Fixed Free Fixed
Plate thickness Y coordinate of end point 1 Z coordinate of end point 1 Y coordinate of end point 2 Z coordinate of end point 2
5.2.5
Faces
Faces in CivilFEM support the definition of bending reinforcement. Each face consist on a succession of segments leaning on the section points. Faces can be defined in any point of the section, thus allowing the free localization of bending reinforcement groups. The numeration determines the side on which the reinforcement is positioned with the following approach:
Zsec
Ysec
Pt2
Properties referring to faces are: Npt Upt Number of points that belong to the face. Point numbers.
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To erase, define or modify the faces of a cross section, see ~SECMDF command.
5.2.6
Reinforcement Definition
CivilFEM supports the definition of bending, shear and torsion reinforcement (see ~RNFDEF and ~RNFMDF commands). Data corresponding to each of these three types of reinforcements are described next.
5.2.6.1
Bending Reinforcement
The bending reinforcement of the concrete sections is organized in groups, allowing a limitless number of reinforcement groups. The reinforcement groups can be located on any face defined in the section. The different possibilities that CivilFEM includes regarding the definition of bending reinforcement groups are the following ones: Ast Asl N-Fi NL-Fi S-Fi Total reinforcement group area Reinforcement group area per unit of length Number of bars in a group and its diameter Number of bars in a group per length unit and its diameter Space between bars and diameter of bars
When the bending reinforcement is introduced, by means of any of these five options, the rest of the data is calculated automatically. In the case of reinforcement defined by bars, that is to say, not distributed uniformly, if the number of bars is not an integer, CivilFEM will round this number to the closest natural number and will recalculate the corresponding new space among bars. It is allowed, also, the definition of a preliminary reinforcement amount and initial distribution (defined automatically by the program) using the RKEY parameter. There are different RKEYs for each one of concrete section types that can be defined in CivilFEM (see command ~CSECDMS). Data referring to this group are: Rkey Rmat Urf Mat Cls Initial reinforcement label (see ~CSECDMS command for the different RKEY values depending on the type of section). Material number of the reinforcement groups defined by initial reinforcement. (RKEY>0). User reinforcement group number. Material number associated to the reinforcement group (used when RKEY=0). Class of the reinforcement group. 0 Scalable reinforcement (the amount of the reinforcement could be increased or reduced by CivilFEM in the design process).
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1 Fi Ufc End
Fixed reinforcement (the reinforcement amount will not be modified by CivilFEM in the design process)
Reinforcement group bars diameter. Face number associated to the reinforcement group. Situation of the reinforcement group bars in the ends of the face: 0 Includes bars in both ends of the face.
2 L
n-1 n
The bar spacing is calculated with the following expression: S = L / (N -1) 1 Include bar only at end 1.
2 L
n-1 n
The bar spacing is calculated with the following expression: S = 2*L / (2*N -1) 2 Include bar only at end 2.
s/2
2 L
n-1 n
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S = 2*L / (2*N -1) 3 Do not include bars at both ends. This value should be used for circular sections to avoid bars superposition at both ends.
s/2
2 L
n-1 n
The bar spacing is calculated with the following expression: S = L/ N 4 Include bars at both ends with a distance equal to the mechanical cover (Mc).
Mc
2 L
n-1 n
The bar spacing is calculated with the following expression: S = (L-2*Mc)/(N-1) Mc Gc Ast Asl N Nl S Mechanical cover. Geometrical cover. Total reinforcement group area. Reinforcement group area per unit of length. Number of bars. Number of bars per unit of length. Distance between bars.
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5.2.6.2
Shear Reinforcement
Shear reinforcement definition of cross sections is made by the introduction of accurate parameters for the definition of reinforcements. The possibilities included by CivilFEM in which concerns to shear reinforcements are the following: Ass As-S N-S-Fi Area per unit length. Input of a stirrups total area and the distance between stirrups. Input of the longitudinal spacing of the stirrups and the diameters of bars. Material number of shear reinforcement. Angle of the shear Y stirrups with the longitudinal axis of the member (degrees). Angle of the shear Z stirrups with the longitudinal axis of the member (degrees). Area per unit of length for shear Y. Area per unit length for shear Z. Area of stirrups for shear Y Area of stirrups for shear Z Longitudinal spacing of the stirrups. Diameter of stirrups bars (in mm). Number of legs for shear Y. Number of legs for shear Z.
Data in this group are the following: MAT ALPY ALPZ ASSY ASSZ ASY ASZ S FI NY NZ
5.2.6.3
Torsion Reinforcement
The possibilities included by CivilFEM in which concerns to torsion reinforcements are the following: Transverse torsion reinforcement: AssT AsT-s s-FiT Asl N-FiL MAT ASST Introduction of the total transverse reinforcement area per unit of length. Introduction of the total area of the stirrup and distance between stirrups. Introduction of the diameter of the stirrup and distance between stirrups. Introduction of the total longitudinal torsion reinforcement area. Number of bars and diameter. Material number associated to torsional reinforcement Area per unit length of transversal reinforcement
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Stirrups area for torsion. Longitudinal spacing of the stirrups Diameter of stirrups bars. Total area of longitudinal reinforcement. Diameter of bars of longitudinal reinforcement. Number of longitudinal bars.
5.2.7
Mechanical Properties
CivilFEM uses mechanical properties of cross sections for the calculation of stresses inside the sections and for checking according to codes. All properties are referred to the axis parallel to the section axis that passes through the gravity centre of the respective section. There are eight possible versions of mechanical properties depending on the type of section and the material that is made of, as shown herein: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Generic Gross Section Steel Gross Section Net Steel Section (Not used) Concrete Gross Section Net Concrete Section Homogenized Concrete Section Equivalent Mixed Section
The different versions contain the tessella homogenized contribution with the following types of materials.
Structural Steel
Concrete
Reinforced Concrete
Others
Yes
Yes
Yes
Concrete Gross Section Net Concrete Section Transformed Concrete Section Equivalent Composite Section Yes
The properties of the net steel and concrete sections are the same as those of the gross section, except for the area (the area corresponding to the reinforcement in the
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case of the concrete and holes in the case of the steel is discounted according to the codes used). For the properties of the concrete transformed section, the same methodology as for the net section is carried out (subtracting the area of the reinforcement) but it is also considered the area of the reinforcement multiplied by the ratio among modules of elasticity (n) for the homogenization. For the properties of the concrete equivalent composite section, the same methodology as for the transformed section is carried out, considering the area of the different materials that form the section multiplied by the ratio among modules of elasticity (n) for the homogenization. In which concerns to homogenization properties the valid labels are: HMAT KHOM Material to which homogenize sections properties (by default to the lower material number of the section). Mechanical properties homogenization key: 0 1 A IXX IYY IZZ WY WZ WPY WPZ IY IZ YG ZG YMN YMX ZMN ZMX YS ZS YM ZM Not homogenize Homogenize using elasticity modulus. (Default option)
For each of the sections the following properties are defined: Area of the section Torsional inertia Y inertia moment Z inertia moment Y elastic modulus Z elastic modulus Y plastic modulus Z plastic modulus Radius of gyration in Y Radius of gyration in Z Y coordinate of GC Z coordinate of GC Minimum Y coordinate of section outline Maximum Y coordinate of section outline Minimum Z coordinate of section outline Maximum Z coordinate of section outline Distance from GC to Y top fiber (Y top) Distance from GC to Z top fiber (Z top) Distance from GC to centre of shear forces M in Y Distance from GC to centre of shear forces M in Z
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Modulus of torsional warping Inertia product Y Shear area Z Shear area Torsional modulus U flexural inertia V flexural inertia Radius of gyration in U Radius of gyration in V Angle gyrated to go from Y to U-axis or from Z to V-axis (degrees) Distance from U to extreme fiber (for L sections). Distance from U to extreme fiber (for L sections). Distance from V to extreme fiber (for L sections). Distance from V to extreme fibre (for L sections). Distance from V to extreme fibre (for L sections).
CivilFEM AXIS
PRINCIPAL AXIS
5-15
5.2.8
Structural Properties
They are the properties of cross sections used in structural analysis and are therefore, the ones that are transferred to ANSYS as real constants for the calculation of the model. They depend on the type of section used for its calculation (ASEC) chosen between the 8 different versions described in the previous section. (command ~SECMDF). The different structural properties are described in the following data: ASEC Type of section used for the structural properties calculation. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 YMN YMX ZMN ZMX TKY TKZ ARE IXX IYY IZZ YCG ZCG YMS ZMS YWS ZWS XWT Generic Gross Section. Steel Gross Section. Default value for steel sections. Net Steel Section. (Not used). Concrete Gross Section. Default value for concrete sections. Net Concrete Section. Transformed Concrete Section. Equivalent Composite Section. Default value for composite sections.
Minimum Y coordinate of section outline. Maximum Y coordinate of section outline. Minimum Z coordinate of section outline. Maximum Z coordinate of section outline. Y Width. Y Width. Area. Torsional inertia. Y inertia moment. Z inertia moment. Distance from GC to Y top fiber (Y top). Distance from GC to Z top fiber (Z top). Distance from GC to centre of shear forces M in Y. Distance from GC to centre of shear forces M in Z. Y Shear area. Z Shear area. Torsional modulus.
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The material associated to each element of the ANSYS model must be the same as the one in the section, if gross or net properties are taken, or the homogenisation material if chosen properties by structural calculation are homogenised (homogenised section of concrete and equivalent mixed section). Mechanical properties used for structural calculation when defining sections with CivilFEM correspond, by default, to gross sections (steel and concrete sections) and with the ones homogenised in mixed sections.
5.2.9
Code Properties
Code properties are cross section properties associated to codes. To modify code properties see ~SECMDF command. The properties are explained in detail in the Theory Manual, in each of the chapters of code checking for all the codes.
5.2.10
These data are only defined for hot rolled steel sections (defined through the hot rolled shape library) IDX1 IDX2 CivilFEM index of the group. Shape index.
5.2.11
For the reinforced concrete sections, apart from the data referring to cross sections previously explained, CivilFEM will calculate and store the following data: ROG ROM Geometric amount of flexure reinforcement. Mass amount of flexure reinforcement.
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5.3
CivilFEM uses two coordinate systems in beam sections, CivilFEM axis system (XCF, YCF, ZCF) and the section axes system (XS, YS, ZS). CivilFEM axis system coincides with the local coordinate system of Ansys element and follows the same criteria: 1. CivilFEM axis XCF follows the element axis from node I to node J. CivilFEM axis YCF can be defined in three different ways: a. Its orientation by default is parallel to the XY global plane. In case the element axis is parallel to the Z axis, CivilFEM axis YCF will be parallel to the Y global axis. b. In case the element is defined with three nodes I, J and K, the CivilFEM XY local plane will contain the node K. c. As an alternative to criterion b, the orientation of the CivilFEM Y CF axis may be defined with a real constant in which the angle of gyration of the axis with respect to its position by default previously indicated in point 1 is specified. 2. The CivilFEM local axis forms a right-handed axis system with XCF and YCF. As for the orientation of the cross sections of the shapes in the CivilFEM axis system, these sections are always placed in such a way that the centre of gravity of the section coincides with the origin of these axes and the shape of the web is parallel to the CivilFEM Y axis. Furthermore, the section axis system (XS, YS, ZS) is situated on a singular point of the geometry of the section, parallel to the CivilFEM axis. In this system the coordinates of the gravity centre, the points of the section and the coordinates of the plates structure in steel sections. The situation of this section axis system is conventional and depends on the section type to be considered. There is also, in steel sections and for each code, a coordinate system where the user indicates the results he wishes to obtain; these results are given in this system. These coordinates systems do not have to coincide with the ones above, and their situation is shown in this Manual, in the corresponding sections. The following graphics show the situation and the orientation, for the different sections, of both the CivilFEM axis system and the section axis system, denominated as follows: - XCF X axis of the CivilFEM axis system - YCF Y axis of the CivilFEM axis system - XS - YS X axis of the Section axis system Y axis of the Section axis system
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5-20
5.4
Shell Vertex
Shell vertices contain data and properties in one of the shell element nodes. For the definition and modification of the properties related to shell vertices see commands ~SHLRNF and ~SHLMDF The properties of this group are the following: STP Shell vertex type 0 1 THK MAT MTP Generic Reinforced Concrete
Thickness of shell vertex Material number of the shell vertex. Material type of the shell vertex: 0 1 Generic. Concrete.
In which concerns to the shell vertex reinforcement, data are the following: MAT MC ASSXT ASSXB ASSYT ASSYB KRNF Material of the shell vertex reinforcement. Mechanic cover of the reinforcement. Reinforcement area per unit of length at X Top. Reinforcement area per unit of length at X Bottom. Reinforcement area per unit of length at Y Top. Reinforcement area per unit of length at Y Bottom. Reinforcement situation: 0 1 ALP Enclosed by stirrups. Not enclosed by stirrups.
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5.5
Member properties
Member properties contain additional data for checking and dimensioning conforming to codes. These data envelopes properties not directly associated to the transverse cross section but to its functioning as member or group of elements in a model (see command ~MEMBPRO for their definition).
5.5.1
Eurocode No. 3
According to Eurocode No.3 member data necessary for elements checking are the following: L K KW C1 C2 C3 BETAMY BETAMZ BETAMLT PSIVEC LATBUCK CFBUCKXZ CHCKAXIS Length between lateral restraints. Lateral buckling k factor (Annex F.1.2). Lateral buckling kw factor (Annex F.1.2). Lateral buckling C1 factor (Annex F.1.2). Lateral buckling C2 factor (Annex F.1.2). Lateral buckling C3 factor (Annex F.1.2). Equivalent uniform moment factor (Art. 5.5.4). Equivalent uniform moment factor (Art. 5.5.4). Equivalent uniform moment factor (Art. 5.5.4). Reduction factor for vectorial effects (Art. 5.5.3). Member susceptible to lateral buckling? 0:Yes,1:No (Art. 5.5.4) Buckling factor in plane XZ (My in CivilFEM axis). CivilFEM axis that is Y axis of Eurocode No.3. 0 1 2 3 4 Not defined CivilFEM -Z CivilFEM +Y CivilFEM +Z CivilFEM -Y
5.5.2
EA
Member type M 1 Beam E 2 Column M B
According to EA, member data necessary for elements checking are the following:
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T Y P E L BETAXY BETAXZ Unbraced length of member. Buckling factor in plane XY (Mz). Buckling factor in plane XZ (My).
5.5.3
L KY KZ KTOR CB LB
LRFD
Length between restraints (B3). Buckling factor Y axis (B7). Buckling factor Z axis (B7). Length factor for torsional buckling (App.E3) Bending coefficient dependent on moment gradient (F1.2a). Laterally unbraced length (F1.2).
According to LRFD member data necessary for elements checking are the following:
5.5.4
According to British Standard 5950-1985 member data necessary for elements checking are the following: L KLtx KLty KCx KCy CteRob n m DL CHCKAXIS Length between restraints. Lateral torsional buckling factor K for X axis (Art.4.3.5 Table 9). Lateral torsional buckling factor K for Y axis (Art.4.3.5 Table 9). Coefficient for compression buckling X axis (Art.4.7.2 Table 24). Coefficient for compression buckling Y axis (Art.4.7.2 Table 24). Robertson constant (Appendix C.2). Slenderness correction factor (Art.4.3.7.6). Equivalent uniform moment factor (Art.4.3.7.6). Depth of flanges stiffeners (Appendix B.2.5). CivilFEM axis that is X axis of BS5950-1985. 0 1 2 3 4 Not defined CivilFEM -Z CivilFEM +Y CivilFEM +Z CivilFEM -Y
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5.5.5
According to British Standard 5950-2001 member data necessary for elements checking are the following: L KLtx KLty KCx KCy CteRob DL CHCKAXIS Length between restraints. Lateral torsional buckling factor K for X axis (Art.4.3.5 Table 13). Lateral torsional buckling factor K for Y axis (Art.4.3.5 Table 13). Coefficient for compression buckling X axis (Art.4.7.3 Table 22). Coefficient for compression buckling Y axis (Art.4.7.3 Table 22). Robertson constant (Appendix C.2). Depth of flanges stiffeners (Art. 4.3.6.7). CivilFEM axis that is X axis of BS5950-2001. 0 1 2 3 4 D/a mx my mlt Not defined CivilFEM -Z CivilFEM +Y CivilFEM +Z CivilFEM -Y
Intermediate stiffeners depth. Equivalent uniform moment factor for major axis flexural bending (Art.4.8.3.4 Table 26). Equivalent uniform moment factor for minor axis flexural bending (Art.4.8.3.4 Table 26). Equivalent uniform moment factor for lateral torsional buckling (Arts.4.3.6.6. and 4.8.3.4 Table 18).
5.5.6
According to the Chinese code GB50010, member data necessary for elements checking are the following: MEMBTYPE Member type 1 2 3 4 5 MEMBLOAD 1 2 Beam Column Bracing column for frame-wall structures Wall Link beam of walls FORCE. The effect of concentrated force exceeds 75% in independent beam FRAME. The member comes from frame structure
Load type:
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5.5.7
Member behaviour
To control the concrete member calculation process in a linear or non-linear process, the underneath parameter must be defined. It is important to emphasise that the members non-linear calculation option is only possible in case there is a disposability of a Bridge and civil non-Linearities module, whose calculation process is described in the documentation referring to the aforesaid modulus. KEYNL Member behaviour: 0 1 Linear. Value by default. In this case, member will be calculated according to the linear elastic process. Non-linear.
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5.6
The beam and shell properties contain all the properties of a beam or shell element type not determined by their type, material or location of nodes. Once the cross sections are defined (for beam elements) or the shell vertices (for shell elements), the definition of the beam and shell properties will allow to associate them to the ends of the elements together with the corresponding property at member level. This concept is the parallel one to the real constants and sections of ANSYS, since it includes the data of both sections of a beam element and of all vertices of a shell element. When defining a beam and shell property, the group of real constants or ANSYS sections, with the same number, are automatically defined in ANSYS, being fundamental to indicate during the definition of the property, the element type to which the beam and shell property will be associated for the correct definition of the real constants (see section 5.6.3).
5.6.1
Beams
For the beam element case, a beam and shell property will contain the following: BEAM AND SHELL PROPERTY = CROSS SECTION (I) + CROSS SECTION (J) + MEMBER PROPERTY + OFFSETS
5.6.2
Shells
For shells, a beam and shell property will contain the following: BEAM AND SHELL PROPERTY = SHELL VERTEX (I) +SHELL VERTEX (J) + SHELL VERTEX (K) + SHELL VERTEX (L) + MEMBER PROPERTY + EFS
5.6.3
RF16 NAME TYP
Properties
Beams and shells property reference (maximum 16 characters). Name assigned to beams and shells property (maximum 32 characters). Beam and shell property type:: 1 2 Beam Shell
Number of cross sections (if TYP=1) or shells vertex (if TYP=2) which compose the beam and shell property. Number of cross sections or shell vertex which conform the (I,J,K,L) vertex of beams and shells properties Cross sections OFFSET:
5-27
0 1 2 3 ROUT UMPR
Nodes at gravity center. Nodes at the sections coordinate system origin. Location of nodes defined by the user. Nodes at shear center.
Type of element for which real constants are defined in ANSYS. Member property number.
The definition of the beam and shell property may be seen in the ~BMSHPRO command.
5.6.4
The beam and shell properties in CivilFEM are linked to the real constant groups or sections of ANSYS, so that the number identifying the beam and shell property in CivilFEM corresponds to the same number of real constant group or section (for elements BEAM188 and BEAM189) of ANSYS. Ner of CivilFEM BEAM AND SHELL PROPERTY = Ner of ANSYS REAL CONSTANT Ner of CivilFEM BEAM AND SHELL PROPERTY = Ner of ANSYS SECTION The definition of a beam and shell property in CivilFEM implies the automatic definition of the group of real constants or section in the case of elements BEAM188 and BEAM189. For this definition to be carried out correctly, it is necessary to indicate the element type for which the beam and shell property is defined, so that CivilFEM can place the precise data in the different element positions. CivilFEM defines or renews the following real constants depending on the type of element used. Element Type LINK BEAM3 Real Constant 1 1 2 3 BEAM4 1 2 3 4 5 8 Property AREA AREA IZZ HEIGHT AREA IZZ IYY TKZ TKY IXX
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Element Type LINK8 LINK10 PIPE16 PIPE20 BEAM23 Pipe BEAM23 Others
Real Constant 1 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 3 4 5 6
Property AREA AREA ISTRN OD TKWALL OD TKWALL OD TKWALL HEIGHT A(-50) A(-30) A(0) A(30) A(50) Y1 Z1 TK1 Y2 Z2 TK2 Y20 Z20 TK20 TK(I) TK(J) TK(K) TK(L) AREA1 IZ1 IY1 TKZB1
BEAM24
1 2 3 4 5 8 ... 58 59 60
SHELL43
1 2 3 4
BEAM44
1 2 3 4
5-29
Element Type
Real Constant 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 14 15 17 18 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34
Property TKYB1 IX1 AREA2 IZ2 IY2 TKZB2 TKYB2 IX2 DY1 DZ1 DY2 DZ2 TKZT1 TKYT1 TKZT2 TKYT2 ARESZ1 ARESY1 ARESZ2 ARESY2 TFS1 TFS2 DSCZ1 DSCY1 DSCZ2 DSCY2 AREA1 IZ1 HYT1 HYB1 AREA2 IZ2 HYT2
BEAM54
1 2 3 4 5 6 7
5-30
Element Type
Real Constant 8 10 12 14 15
Property HYB2 DY1 DY2 AREAS1 AREAS2 TK(I) TK(J) TK(K) TK(L) EFS TK(I) TK(J) TK(K) TK(L)
SHELL63
1 2 3 4 5
SHELL93
1 2 3 4
The rest of real constants, corresponding to user's optional data that do not depend directly on the definition of the beam and shell property, are maintained unaltered, conserving them when redefining the properties or if when creating them, a group of real constants with the same identification number already existed. Besides the necessary data that ANSYS needs for solving the model, all the section's data needed for CivilFEM's postprocessor is stored in the database of CivilFEM. All these data can be listed or modified with the many commands that CivilFEM provides for this purpose (see commands ~SLDLST, ~SECMDF, ~SHLLST, ~CSLST). The modification of the cross section data, directly in the group of real constants or in the ANSYS sections will only be reflected in the calculation of the model carried out by ANSYS, but it won't reinstate the beam and shell data stored in CivilFEM's database. The relating cross section code data (see command ~SECMDF) and the data of the reinforcement in concrete sections (see commands ~RNFDEF and ~RNFMDF) are associated to the sections. Therefore, sections of the same type and with the same geometric properties but with different code properties or reinforcement will need to be defined as different sections. A redefinition of the section does not modify the values of the code data neither of previous reinforcement (whenever the redefined section be the same type and shape). The code properties depend on the active code and will therefore need to be defined for the same code for which the post process will be carried out. However, the definition of code properties when a particular code is active does not eliminate the definition of these properties under other codes, so that a group of code properties are available for each code, only using the data corresponding to the active code. All the section data is in user units.
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5.6.5
When defining in CivilFEM a beam and shell property for elements BEAM188 and BEAM189 it is necessary to distinguish among the different section types. Rectangular, circular, pipe and box sections are defined using the commands (SECNUM, SECTYPE, SECDATA, SECOFFSET) when matching the CivilFEM definition data of the beam and shell properties with those necessary to define the sections in ANSYS. The channel, double T, simple T and angular L type of sections are defined making use of the commands (SECNUM, SECTYPE, SECREAD, SECOFFSET). These are sections whose ANSYS section subtype is described in the SECTYPE command as MESH. The data of the ANSYS section are generated starting from the data introduced to define the CivilFEM beam and shell property, which implies that the nodes and cells of the corresponding ANSYS section are numbered automatically as indicated in the following figures:
U channel section
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Double T section
Angular L section
5-33
Simple T section For the Beam188 and Beam189 elements, the cross sections should be defined by dimensions or by library for the correct definition of the beam & shell property and the corresponding ANSYS section. The definition of cross sections by plates or the utility of exporting/importing cross sections are not valid for these element types. The cells and nodes distribution and numbering of the ANSYS section is independent of the distribution and numbering of the tesselas and points which define the cross sections in CivilFEM.
5.6.6
In CivilFEM it is possible to modify the position of each of the end nodes in a beam type element using the ~BMSHOFF command. By default, nodes are assumed to be located at the center of gravity of the section (KEYOFF = 0), but can also be located at the origin of the sections coordinate system (KEYOFF = 1), at the shear center (KEYOFF = 3) or at whatever location specified by the user (KEYOFF = 2).
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G ,I(J)
G
OSIY I(J) OSIZ
O
KEYOFF = 0
O, I(J)
KEYOFF = 1
O
KEYOFF = 2,3
5-35
5.7
Solid Sections
A solid section is a section associated to elements of 2D and 3D models of finite elements. It is used to extend the checking capabilities of the program to generic models in 2D/3D with elements LINK, BEAM, SHELL and SOLID. To define a solid section from a 2D or 3D model, it is necessary to select the plane of nodes that defines the section situation and the elements that provides their characteristics to the section. The definition of a solid section implies the automatic definition of the associated cross section. This cross section will be made by points, associated to the selected nodes of the model, and by tessellas, corresponding to the selected elements of the model that share those nodes. The tessellas will have the same properties assigned to their corresponding elements (material, type). This way the points and tessellas will be linked to the nodes and elements of the model. This union will be used for the calculation of stresses and the integration of forces and moments. For the definition of the solid section, in addition of selecting the plane of nodes, it is necessary to define a local cartesian coordinate system whose axes Y-Z define the plane of nodes. This coordinate system will be the coordinate system of the associated cross section once it is captured. The elements of one side of the nodes plane, which will provide their faces as tessellas, should be adequately selected. On the contrary there could be duplicated tessellas inside the cross section. The captured tessellas belongs to faces of solid elements or vertices of beam elements. It is important to take into account that there may be a discontinuity in results from taking the elements at one side or at the other side of the section. It is recommended to check the results obtained from considering the elements at each side of the section. A solid section will contain the following: SOLID SECTION = CROSS SECTION + MEMBER PROPERTY
5.7.1
2D Models
CivilFEM allows the definition of solid sections from a 2D model containing the following two-dimensional elements: LINK1, BEAM3, PLANE42, BEAM54, PLANE82, PLANE182, PLANE183. The 2D model, when cut, forms a line of nodes that, when captured, become sections formed by square tessella of 4 points or by punctual tessella (the lines become surface tessella and points punctual tessellas). In PLANE elements (42, 82, 182, 183) its possible to use KEYOPT (3) to define the desired width of the corresponding cross section. By default, the captured section will have a unitary width in CivilFEM if plane stress or plane strain were defined or the corresponding width if it is defined plane stress with thickness. Elements that generate punctual tessella (LINK and BEAM elements) should have the real constant AREA defined.
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5.7.2
3D Models
CivilFEM allows the definition of solid sections from a 3D model containing the following three-dimensional elements: BEAM4, LINK8, LINK10, PIPE16, PIPE20, BEAM23, BEAM24, SHELL41, SHELL43, BEAM44, SOLID45, SHELL63, SOLID64, SOLID65, SOLID72, SOLID73, SOLID92, SHELL93, SOLID95, SHELL143, LINK180, SOLID185, SOLID186, SOLID187. In 3D models, elements that generate punctual tessellas (BEAM, LINK) should have the real constant AREA defined and in shell elements real constants related to the thickness should be defined. If the real constants corresponding to the elements that need them (areas in BEAM and LINK elements and thickness in SHELL elements) are not defined, these elements are ignored when capturing the section. When the shell element is multilayer it takes as tessella thickness the one defined in the real constant for the first layer. In the following table the different types of elements associated to the different forms of tessella (different types of elements are substituted by different types of tessella when the section is captured) is detailed, as well as their use by the program to identify the diverse elements that form the captured section. For further details on the definition of solid sections, see command ~SLDSEC. Type=1 Point Used to: - Represent reinforcements defined by bars (Fi>0). - Associate LINK and BEAM (I, J) elements ends. Type=2 Line with two points Used to: - Represent plates. - Associate SHELL elements faces. - Represent reinforcements distributed uniformly by rights (Fi=0). Type=3 Line with three points Used to: - Associate SHELL elements faces with edge nodes. - Represent reinforcements distributed uniformly by curves (Fi=0). Type=4 Triangle with three points Used to: - Associate SOLID elements faces. Associated elements SOLID 45, 64, 65, 72, 73 and 185 Associated elements SHELL 93 Associated elements SHELL 41, 43, 63, 143 Associated elements LINK 1, 8, 10 and 180 BEAM 3, 4, 16, 20, 23, 24, 44 and 54
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Type=5
Triangle with six points Used to: - Associate SOLID element faces with edge nodes.
Associated elements
Type=6
Quad with four points Used to: - Associate SOLID elements faces.
Associated elements SOLID 45, 64, 65, 73 and 185 Associated elements SOLID 95 and 186
Type=7
Quad with eight points Used to: - Associate SOLID elements faces with edge nodes.
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Data Groups .............................................................................................. 9 6.5.1 6.5.2 6.5.3 6.5.4 6.5.5 6.5.6 6.5.7 6.5.8 Targets Group for Beam Elements Type .................................. 9 Targets Group for Shell Elements Type .................................. 12 Targets Group for Solid Elements Type .................................. 15 Targets Group for Axis Symmetric Shell Elements Type ........ 16 Targets Group for Displacements ........................................... 19 Targets Group for Nodal Reactions ........................................ 19 Targets Group for Cross Sections .......................................... 20 Targets Group for Shell Vertices ............................................. 23
Envelopes ................................................................................................ 27 Concomitance at Load and Model Level .................................................. 29 Comment about Beam188 and Beam189 elements ................................ 31 Start states combinations with prestressing tendons ............................... 33 Calculation of all possible load cases ...................................................... 35
6.1
CivilFEM Combinations
CivilFEM provides, by the combinations module, the possibility to operate with a set of results and combine them in such a way that the provided targets are achieved. Therefore, the results combination is based on the search of the combination among certain data set that, following certain rules, fulfills the given targets in each node of the structure. The combinations module allows the resolution of problems as the one in the following example:
Figure 6.1-1 A beam with two supports and divided in elements, as the figure shows, is submitted to the action of: A vertical force F that can be placed at any node (but only at one of them) and A uniform distributed load P that can act on any of the indicated elements (on one, several, all or on none of them). The aim is to search, at each node and element, for the load distribution that will produce the most unfavourable solicitation. This worst solicitation is defined by a certain criterion, for example the maximum bending moment MZ. That is, in this example, you have to find out, for each node, where the force F (at which node) and the distributed load (on which element or elements) should be placed in order to obtain the maximum bending moment MZ. Once this value has been calculated, the remaining forces and moments (FX, FY, FZ, MX and MY) that are obtained in the same node and with the same loads configuration are the concomitant values. Moreover, the vertical force F and the uniform distributed load P can be modified by variable factors that increase or decrease its effect in order to achieve the most unfavourable solicitation, as usually done in code checking. Other examples that show different problems types that can be accomplished by the combinations module may be found in the Examples Manual. Apart from the explained combination utilities in which CivilFEM will provide the combination to obtain the desired target, it is possible to obtain the results of all the load cases that can be generated from the defined combination rules (command ~LINCMB). This chapter is focused on the calculation of combinations searching for a target. Chapter 6.10 shows the differences between searching for a target and obtaining all the possible load cases.
6-1
6.2
ANSYS allows the results combinations fulfillment operating with different results sets (Load Case) in a explicit way, that is, the user must define which results sets should be operated and in which way must be combined in order to obtain the expected result. The way followed for obtaining the result must be the same for the whole model. Therefore, the user could do a combination of the following type:
LoadCase1 = 1.20 * LoadStep1 + 0.95 * LoadStep3
However, in CivilFEM, a combination rule can be defined in an implicit way, that is, it will be indicated with which results sets or start states can be done the combinations and according to which rules. But the combination will be done in such way that for each node of the model certain targets or criteria will be achieved. Therefore, it is possible to define a combination rule as: Combination1 = Add two load cases chosen between [ (1.20 or 0.95) * LoadStep1, (0.95 or 0.00) * LoadStep2, (0.95 or 0.75) * LoadStep3 ] Logically, the previously given definition for combination1 allows 12 possibilities:
Combination1 = 1.20 * LoadStep1 + 0.95 * LoadStep2 Combination1 = 1.20 * LoadStep1 + 0.95 * LoadStep3 Combination1 = 0.95 * LoadStep2 + 0.95 * LoadStep3 Combination1 = 0.95 * LoadStep1 + 0.95 * LoadStep2 Combination1 = 0.95 * LoadStep1 + 0.95 * LoadStep3 Combination1 = 0.00 * LoadStep2 + 0.95 * LoadStep3 Combination1 = 0.95 * LoadStep2 + 0.75 * LoadStep3 ... Combination1 = 0.00 * LoadStep2 + 0.75 * LoadStep3
Therefore, in addition to the implicit description about how to make different combinations, it will be necessary to specify the target or criterion for selecting them. This target will consist on the search of extreme values from certain results (moments and forces, stresses, etc.), in such way that the program may select from all the different ways of combining hypotheses, those that lead to obtain each one of the extreme values. The selection is done in an independent way in each one of the points of the structure, combining the results in a different way in order to achieve the fixed target. For example, if one of the requested extreme values is maximum SX, this value could be obtained at vertex J of a certain element as:
SXCombination1 = 1.20 * SXLoadStep1 + 0.95 *SX LoadStep2
6-3
In ANSYS calculated combinations the SX value at a certain point of the structure will be a unique datum. However, in CivilFEM, different targets may be defined for a same combination rule, so SX will have in such combination rule as many different values as extreme results or targets have been established. Each value corresponds to the SX value at that point when each of the requested extreme values is fulfilled. In addition to the result used for defining the target, CivilFEM provides the concomitant results for each point of the structure. When combinations are accomplished with ANSYS, each one of the Load Cases or combinations done are written in an independent file jobname.LCxx. However, all the combinations rule accomplished by CivilFEM combinations module will be written in an unique results file called jobname.CMB or jobname.CVMB depending on if the results comes from the ANSYS results file (jobname.RST) or from the CivilFEM results file (jobname.RCV). To read the results of a certain Data Set from RST file the SET command is used, and to read results of a Load Case calculated by ANSYS the LCASE command is used. To read results of a combination rule accomplished by CivilFEM you should use the ~CMB or ~CFSET command after have pointed to the combined results (see ~CMBDAT command).
6-4
6.3
Basic Terminology
CivilFEM combinations module works starting from two initial data sets defined by the user: 1. The targets are the results extreme values or the objectives that must be achieved in each point of the structure, for example: TARGET1 = Maximum Z bending moment (MZ+) TARGET2 = Minimum X stress (SX-) TARGET5 = Maximum Y shear in absolute value. (FY*) ... 2. The combination rules are the rules of the game, that is, the conditions with which the program must combine the different Load Cases in order to achieve the results extreme values or Targets. For example: Combination1 = Add two load cases chosen between [ (1.20 or 0.95) * LoadStep1, (0.95 or 0.00) * LoadStep2, (0.95 or 0.75) * LoadStep3] Combination2 = (1.00 or -1.00) * Combination1 ... Throughout the combination process the program can select how the combinations rules must be accomplished in order to achieve the Targets in each point of the structure in an independent way. Therefore, obtaining a result set that has been reached combining the start states in a different way for each point. All the basic results provided by ANSYS or by the CivilFEM postprocessor are classified in different groups for their study in the combinations module. The concomitance between results is established inside these groups, the rest of data that belong to the same group are obtained as concomitant results of a certain Target. For example, the BEAM data group includes forces, moments, stresses and strains in beam elements, that is: FX, FY, FZ, MX, MY, MZ, SDIR, SBYT, SBYB, SBZT, SBZB, EPELDIR, EPELBYT, EPELBYB, EPELBZT, EPELBZB. Therefore, if one of the Targets or requested objectives is the maximum MZ (MZ+) bending moment, the program will obtain the maximum MZ moment and, simultaneously, the concomitant values FX, FY, FZ, MX, MY, SDIR, SBYT, SBYB, SBZT, SBZB, EPELDIR, EPELBYT, EPELBYB, EPELBZT, EPELBZB, of the same group. A complete description of all the groups and their data can be found in the chapter 6.5. A target is defined by the datum it is referred to (for example MX) and by its TYPE (Minimum, Maximum or Maximum in absolute value) using the ~TRGDEF command. A combination rule is defined by the Start States that form it and by the way in which the Start States can be combined using the ~CMBDEF, ~STSTDEF and ~STSTCFT commands.
6-5
6.4
6.4.1
Addition
All the Start States are added by fixed coefficients. One coefficient that multiplies each Start State should be introduced. It is the classic addition, equivalent to the combinations with ANSYS.
6.4.2
All the Start States are added by variable coefficients. A maximum and a minimum combination coefficient are assigned to each Start State. It can be used in combinations according to codes, for example, C = fg G + fq Q.
6.4.3
Only one Start State is selected as maximum (one or none) among the defined. It is not necessary to define coefficients. It is indicated to the representation of mobile loads that can be placed in only one of the possible positions.
6.4.4
Any Start States subset can de added (one, none, many or all of them). Coefficients are not necessary. It is indicated to represent live loads that can occur simultaneously (overloads).
6.4.5
One of the Start Sates defined is selected. Coefficients are not necessary. It is indicated to select among different hypotheses. For example, different situations of load in a pile, different code hypotheses, etc.
6-7
6.4.6
All the Start States that form the combination are added but they are multiplied by a maximum coefficient equals to +1 or by a minimum coefficient equal to 1. It is indicated to actions that act indistinctly in two opposite directions (wind, earthquakes, etc.).
6.4.7
A fixed number of Start States selected among the defined are added. The number of Start States that is going to be added is necessary but not the coefficients. It is indicated to moveable loads that can act in more than one position.
6.4.8
A fixed number of Start States are added and each one of them can be multiplied by two coefficients. Two coefficients per Start State and the number of Start States to be added. This is the more general type and by degeneration it adapts to any of the previous types.
TYPE
Number of Start States to add ALL ALL 1 ALL 1 ALL NADD NADD
C1 C1 0 0 1 1 1 C1
This data should be introduced by the user by means of ~CMBDEF and ~STSTCFT commands.
6-8
6.5
Data Groups
The concomitance among data is established at group level. A data group is the results set obtained by ANSYS or CivilFEM at a point (node or vertex of an element for ANSYS or an element end for CivilFEM) of the model. The elements implemented for each one of the groups are: - Data relative to elements (obtained by ANSYS) 1. Beam elements group: Link1, Beam3, Beam4, Link8, Link10, Pipe16, Pipe20, Beam23, Beam24, Beam44, Beam54, Beam188, Beam189 2. Shell elements group: Shell43, Shell63 and Shell93 3. Solid elements group: Plane2, Plane25, Plane42, Solid45, Solid64, Solid65, Plane82, Plane83, Solid95, Plane145, Plane146 4. Axil symmetric shells group: Shell51, Shell61 - Data relative to nodes (obtained by ANSYS) 5. Displacements Group 6. Reactions Group - Data relative to ends (obtained by CivilFEM) 7 Cross section Group 8 Shell vertices Group The expected data groups and targets are the following:
6.5.1
Includes forces, moments, stresses, strains, stresses combination, strains combination at beam elements. Table 6.5-1 Beam Elements Type Item F F F M M M S Component Type X Y Z X Y Z DIR MIN MIN MIN MIN MIN MIN MIN FXFYFZMXMYMZSDIRLabel
6-9
Item S S S S EPEL EPEL EPEL EPEL EPEL COMBS COMBS COMBS COMBS COMBS COMBS COMBS COMBS COMBS
Component Type BYT BYB BZT BZB DIR BYT BYB BZT BZB YTZT YTZM YTZB YMZT YMZM YMZB YBZT YBZM YBZB MIN MIN MIN MIN MIN MIN MIN MIN MIN MIN MIN MIN MIN MIN MIN MIN MIN MIN MIN MIN MIN MIN MIN MIN MIN MIN MIN MAX MAX MAX MAX MAX MAX MAX MAX MAX MAX
Label SBYTSBYBSBZTSBZBEPELDIREPELBYTEPELBYBEPELBZTEPELBZBCMSYTZTCMSYTZMCMSYTZBCMSYMZTCMSYMZMCMSYMZBCMSYBZTCMSYBZMCMSYBZBCMEYTZTCMEYTZMCMEYTZBCMEYMZTCMEYMZMCMEYMZBCMEYBZTCMEYBZMCMEYBZBFX+ FY+ FZ+ MX+ MY+ MZ+ SDIR+ SBYT+ SBYB+ SBZT+
COMBEPEL YTZT COMBEPEL YTZM COMBEPEL YTZB COMBEPEL YMZT COMBEPEL YMZM COMBEPEL YMZB COMBEPEL YBZT COMBEPEL YBZM COMBEPEL YBZB F F F M M M S S S S
6-10
Item S EPEL EPEL EPEL EPEL EPEL COMBS COMBS COMBS COMBS COMBS COMBS COMBS COMBS COMBS
Component Type BZB DIR BYT BYB BZT BZB YTZT YTZM YTZB YMZT YMZM YMZB YBZT YBZM YBZB MAX MAX MAX MAX MAX MAX MAX MAX MAX MAX MAX MAX MAX MAX MAX MAX MAX MAX MAX MAX MAX MAX MAX MAX ABS ABS ABS ABS ABS ABS ABS ABS ABS ABS ABS ABS ABS
Label SBZB+ EPELDIR+ EPELBYT+ EPELBYB+ EPELBZT+ EPELBZB+ CMSYTZT+ CMSYTZM+ CMSYTZB+ CMSYMZT+ CMSYMZM+ CMSYMZB+ CMSYBZT+ CMSYBZM+ CMSYBZB+ CMEYTZT+ CMEYTZM+ CMEYTZB+ CMEYMZT+ CMEYMZM+ CMEYMZB+ CMEYBZT+ CMEYBZM+ CMEYBZB+ FX* FY* FZ* MX* MY* MZ* SDIR* SBYT* SBYB* SBZT* SBZB* EPELDIR* EPELBYT*
COMBEPEL YTZT COMBEPEL YTZM COMBEPEL YTZB COMBEPEL YMZT COMBEPEL YMZM COMBEPEL YMZB COMBEPEL YBZT COMBEPEL YBZM COMBEPEL YBZB F F F M M M S S S S S EPEL EPEL X Y Z X Y Z DIR BYT BYB BZT BZB DIR BYT
6-11
Item EPEL EPEL EPEL COMBS COMBS COMBS COMBS COMBS COMBS COMBS COMBS COMBS
Component Type BYB BZT BZB YTZT YTZM YTZB YMZT YMZM YMZB YBZT YBZM YBZB ABS ABS ABS ABS ABS ABS ABS ABS ABS ABS ABS ABS ABS ABS ABS ABS ABS ABS ABS ABS ABS
Label EPELBYB* EPELBZT* EPELBZB* CMSYTZT* CMSYTZM* CMSYTZB* CMSYMZT* CMSYMZM* CMSYMZB* CMSYBZT* CMSYBZM* CMSYBZB* CMEYTZT* CMEYTZM* CMEYTZB* CMEYMZT* CMEYMZM* CMEYMZB* CMEYBZT* CMEYBZM* CMEYBZB*
COMBEPEL YTZT COMBEPEL YTZM COMBEPEL YTZB COMBEPEL YMZT COMBEPEL YMZM COMBEPEL YMZB COMBEPEL YBZT COMBEPEL YBZM COMBEPEL YBZB
6.5.2
Includes forces, moments, stresses and strains at shell element type. Table 6.5-2 Shell Elements Type Item T T T M M M N N Component X Y XY X Y XY X Y Type MIN MIN MIN MIN MIN MIN MIN MIN Label TXTYTXYMXMYMXYNXNY-
6-12
Item S S S S S S S S S S S S
Type MIN MIN MIN MIN MIN MIN MIN MIN MIN MIN MIN MIN MIN MIN MIN MIN MIN MIN MIN MIN MIN MIN MIN MIN MAX MAX MAX MAX MAX MAX MAX MAX MAX MAX MAX MAX MAX
Label SXTSYTSZTSXYTSYZTSXZTSXBSYBSZBSXYBSYZBSXZBEPELXTEPELYTEPELZTEPELXYTEPELYZTEPELXZTEPELXBEPELYBEPELZBEPELXYBEPELYZBEPELXZBTX+ TY+ TXY+ MX+ MY+ MXY+ NX+ NY+ SXT+ SYT+ SZT+ SXYT+ SYZT+
EPEL XT EPEL YT EPEL ZT EPEL XYT EPEL YZT EPEL XZT EPEL XB EPEL YB EPEL ZB EPEL XYB EPEL YZB EPEL XZB T T T M M M N N S S S S S X Y XY X Y XY X Y XT YT ZT XYT YZT
6-13
Item S S S S S S S
Type MAX MAX MAX MAX MAX MAX MAX MAX MAX MAX MAX MAX MAX MAX MAX MAX MAX MAX MAX ABS ABS ABS ABS ABS ABS ABS ABS ABS ABS ABS ABS ABS ABS ABS ABS ABS ABS
Label SXZT+ SXB+ SYB+ SZB+ SXYB+ SYZB+ SXZB+ EPELXT+ EPELYT+ EPELZT+ EPELXYT+ EPELYZT+ EPELXZT+ EPELXB+ EPELYB+ EPELZB+ EPELXYB+ EPELYZB+ EPELXZB+ TX* TY* TXY* MX* MY* MXY* NX* NY* SXT* SYT* SZT* SXYT* SYZT* SXZT* SXB* SYB* SZB* SXYB*
EPEL XT EPEL YT EPEL ZT EPEL XYT EPEL YZT EPEL XZT EPEL XB EPEL YB EPEL ZB EPEL XYB EPEL YZB EPEL XZB T T T M M M N N S S S S S S S S S S
6-14
Item S S
Type ABS ABS ABS ABS ABS ABS ABS ABS ABS ABS ABS ABS ABS ABS
Label SYZB* SXZB* EPELXT* EPELYT* EPELZT* EPELXYT* EPELYZT* EPELXZT* EPELXB* EPELYB* EPELZB* EPELXYB* EPELYZB* EPELXZB*
EPEL XT EPEL YT EPEL ZT EPEL XYT EPEL YZT EPEL XZT EPEL XB EPEL YB EPEL ZB EPEL XYB EPEL YZB EPEL XZB
6.5.3
Includes 2D or 3D forces, stresses and strains at solid elements type. Table 6.5-3 Solid Elements Type Item S S S S S S Component X Y Z XY YZ XZ Type MIN MIN MIN MIN MIN MIN MIN MIN MIN MIN MIN MIN MAX MAX MAX Label SXSYSZSXYSYZSXZEPELXEPELYEPELZEPELXYEPELYZEPELXZSX+ SY+ SZ+
6-15
Item S S S
Component XY YZ XZ
Type MAX MAX MAX MAX MAX MAX MAX MAX MAX ABS ABS ABS ABS ABS ABS ABS ABS ABS ABS ABS ABS
Label SXY+ SYZ+ SXZ+ EPELX+ EPELY+ EPELZ+ EPELXY+ EPELYZ+ EPELXZ+ SX* SY* SZ* SXY* SYZ* SXZ* EPELX* EPELY* EPELZ* EPELXY* EPELYZ* EPELXZ*
6.5.4
Includes forces, moments, stresses and strains at axis symmetric shell elements. Table 6.5-4 Axis Symmetric Shell Elements Type Item F F F M S S S S
6-16
Component Type X Y Z Z MT THKT HT MHT MIN MIN MIN MIN MIN MIN MIN MIN FXFYFZMZ-
Label
SMTSTHKTSHTSMHT
Item S S S S S S S S
Component Type MM THKM HM MHM MB THKB HB MHB MIN MIN MIN MIN MIN MIN MIN MIN MIN MIN MIN MIN MIN MIN MIN MIN MIN MIN MIN MIN MAX MAX MAX MAX MAX MAX MAX MAX MAX MAX MAX MAX MAX MAX MAX MAX MAX
Label SMMSTHKMSHMSMHMSMBSTHKBSHBSMHBEPELMTEPELTHKTEPELHTEPELMHTEPELMMEPELTHKMEPELHMEPELMHMEPELMBEPELTHKBEPELHBEPELMHBFX+ FY+ FZ+ MZ+ SMT+ STHKT+ SHT+ SMHT+ SMM+ STHKM+ SHM+ SMHM+ SMB+ STHKB+ SHB+ SMHB+ EPELMT+
EPEL MT EPEL THKT EPEL HT EPEL MHT EPEL MM EPEL THKM EPEL HM EPEL MHM EPEL MB EPEL THKB EPEL HB EPEL MHB F F F M S S S S S S S S S S S S X Y Z Z MT THKT HT MHT MM THKM HM MHM MB THKB HB MHB
EPEL MT
6-17
Item
Component Type MAX MAX MAX MAX MAX MAX MAX MAX MAX MAX MAX ABS ABS ABS ABS ABS ABS ABS ABS ABS ABS ABS ABS ABS ABS ABS ABS ABS ABS ABS ABS ABS ABS ABS ABS ABS
Label EPELTHKT+ EPELHT+ EPELMHT+ EPELMM+ EPELTHKM+ EPELHM+ EPELMHM+ EPELMB+ EPELTHKB+ EPELHB+ EPELMHB+ FX* FY* FZ* MZ* SMT* STHKT* SHT* SMHT* SMM* STHKM* SHM* SMHM* SMB* STHKB* SHB* SMHB* EPELMT* EPELTHKT* EPELHT* EPELMHT* EPELMM* EPELTHKM* EPELHM* EPELMHM* EPELMB*
EPEL THKT EPEL HT EPEL MHT EPEL MM EPEL THKM EPEL HM EPEL MHM EPEL MB EPEL THKB EPEL HB EPEL MHB F F F M S S S S S S S S S S S S X Y Z Z MT THKT HT MHT MM THKM HM MHM MB THKB HB MHB
EPEL MT EPEL THKT EPEL HT EPEL MHT EPEL MM EPEL THKM EPEL HM EPEL MHM EPEL MB
6-18
Item
6.5.5
Includes displacements and rotations on the nodes. Table 6.5-5 Displacements Item Component Type U U U X Y Z MIN MIN MIN MIN MIN MIN MAX MAX MAX MAX MAX MAX ABS ABS ABS ABS ABS ABS Label UXUYUZROTXROTYROTZUX+ UY+ UZ+ ROTX+ ROTY+ ROTZ+ UX* UY* UZ* ROTX* ROTY* ROTZ*
6.5.6
Includes forces and moments as reactions on the nodes. Table 6.5-5 Reactions Item Component Type F F F X Y Z MIN MIN MIN Label FXFYFZ-
6-19
Item Component Type M M M F F F M M M F F F M M M X Y Z X Y Z X Y Z X Y Z X Y Z MIN MIN MIN MAX MAX MAX MAX MAX MAX ABS ABS ABS ABS ABS ABS
Label MXMYMZFX+ FY+ FZ+ MX+ MY+ MZ+ FX* FY* FZ* MX* MY* MZ*
6.5.7
They have forces, moments, stresses, strains in the points of the section calculated by CivilFEM and filed in the CivilFEM results file (.RCV). Given that the number of points in a section is variable and may grow indefinitely, the number of targets is limited to the 6 relative to forces and moments, 14 to stress and 14 to strains. In the last two cases, the target refers to a point and a component of the stress or strain in that point, defined by the user (see ~TRGUPT command). However, concomitance is established for all the data that compose the force and moment in the section and all the components of the stresses and strains of all the points in the section. The set point-stress or point-strain that the user can define is represented in the following table by PT1, PT2 PTn. Table 6.5-7 Cross sections
Item F F F M
6-20
Label
Item M M SS SS SS SS SS SS SS SS SS SS SS SS SS SS EP EP EP EP EP EP EP EP EP EP EP EP EP EP F F F M M M SS
Component Type Y Z PT1 PT2 PT3 PT4 PT5 PT6 PT7 PT8 PT9 PT10 PT11 PT12 PT13 PT14 PT1 PT2 PT3 PT4 PT5 PT6 PT7 PT8 PT9 PT10 PT11 PT12 PT13 PT14 X Y Z X Y Z PT1 MIN MIN MIN MIN MIN MIN MIN MIN MIN MIN MIN MIN MIN MIN MIN MIN MIN MIN MIN MIN MIN MIN MIN MIN MIN MIN MIN MIN MIN MIN MAX MAX MAX MAX MAX MAX MAX MYMZ-
Label
6-21
Item SS SS SS SS SS SS SS SS SS SS SS SS SS EP EP EP EP EP EP EP EP EP EP EP EP EP EP F F F M M M SS SS SS SS
6-22
Component Type PT2 PT3 PT4 PT5 PT6 PT7 PT8 PT9 PT10 PT11 PT12 PT13 PT14 PT1 PT2 PT3 PT4 PT5 PT6 PT7 PT8 PT9 PT10 PT11 PT12 PT13 PT14 X Y Z X Y Z PT1 PT2 PT3 PT4 MAX MAX MAX MAX MAX MAX MAX MAX MAX MAX MAX MAX MAX MAX MAX MAX MAX MAX MAX MAX MAX MAX MAX MAX MAX MAX MAX ABS ABS ABS ABS ABS ABS ABS ABS ABS ABS
Label SSPT2+ SSPT3+ SSPT4+ SSPT5+ SSPT6+ SSPT7+ SSPT8+ SSPT9+ SSPT10+ SSPT11+ SSP12+ SSPT13+ SSPT14+ EPT1+ EPT2+ EPT3+ EPT4+ EPPT5+ EPPT6+ EPPT7+ EPPT8+ EPPT9+ EPPT10+ EPPT11+ EPPT12+ EPPT13+ EPPT14+ FX* FY* FZ* MX* MY* MZ* SSPT1* SSPT2* SSPT3* SSPT4*
Item SS SS SS SS SS SS SS SS SS SS EP EP EP EP EP EP EP EP EP EP EP EP EP EP
Component Type PT5 PT6 PT7 PT8 PT9 PT10 PT11 PT12 PT13 PT14 PT1 PT2 PT3 PT4 PT5 PT6 PT7 PT8 PT9 PT10 PT11 PT12 PT13 PT14 ABS ABS ABS ABS ABS ABS ABS ABS ABS ABS ABS ABS ABS ABS ABS ABS ABS ABS ABS ABS ABS ABS ABS ABS
Label SSPT5* SSPT6* SSPT7* SSPT8* SSPT9* SSPT10* SSPT11* SSP12* SSPT13* SSPT14* EPT1* EPT2* EPT3* EPT4* EPPT5* EPPT6* EPPT7* EPPT8* EPPT9* EPPT10* EPPT11* EPPT12* EPPT13* EPPT14*
6.5.8
They include forces, moments, stresses and strains obtained by CivilFEM in the shell vertices and stored in the CivilFEM results file (.RCV). Table 6.5-8 Shell elements
Item T T
Component X Y
Label TXTY-
6-23
Item T M M M N N S S S S S S S S S S S S
Type MIN MIN MIN MIN MIN MIN MIN MIN MIN MIN MIN MIN MIN MIN MIN MIN MIN MIN MIN MIN MIN MIN MIN MIN MIN MIN MIN MIN MIN MIN MAX MAX MAX MAX MAX MAX MAX
EPEL XT EPEL YT EPEL ZT EPEL XYT EPEL YZT EPEL XZT EPEL XB EPEL YB EPEL ZB EPEL XYB EPEL YZB EPEL XZB T T T M M M N
6-24
X Y XY X Y XY X
Item N S S S S S S S S S S S S
Type MAX MAX MAX MAX MAX MAX MAX MAX MAX MAX MAX MAX MAX MAX MAX MAX MAX MAX MAX MAX MAX MAX MAX MAX MAX ABS ABS ABS ABS ABS ABS ABS ABS ABS ABS ABS ABS
Label NY+ SXT+ SYT+ SZT+ SXYT+ SYZT+ SXZT+ SXB+ SYB+ SZB+ SXYB+ SYZB+ SXZB+ EPELXT+ EPELYT+ EPELZT+ EPELXYT+ EPELYZT+ EPELXZT+ EPELXB+ EPELYB+ EPELZB+ EPELXYB+ EPELYZB+ EPELXZB+ TX* TY* TXY* MX* MY* MXY* NX* NY* SXT* SYT* SZT* SXYT*
EPEL XT EPEL YT EPEL ZT EPEL XYT EPEL YZT EPEL XZT EPEL XB EPEL YB EPEL ZB EPEL XYB EPEL YZB EPEL XZB T T T M M M N N S S S S X Y XY X Y XY X Y XT YT ZT XYT
6-25
Item S S S S S S S S
Type ABS ABS ABS ABS ABS ABS ABS ABS ABS ABS ABS ABS ABS ABS ABS ABS ABS ABS ABS ABS
Label SYZT* SXZT* SXB* SYB* SZB* SXYB* SYZB* SXZB* EPELXT* EPELYT* EPELZT* EPELXYT* EPELYZT* EPELXZT* EPELXB* EPELYB* EPELZB* EPELXYB* EPELYZB* EPELXZB*
EPEL XT EPEL YT EPEL ZT EPEL XYT EPEL YZT EPEL XZT EPEL XB EPEL YB EPEL ZB EPEL XYB EPEL YZB EPEL XZB
6-26
6.6 Envelopes
6.6
Envelopes
The data stored in the CivilFEM results file are stored in two different types of data blocks: blocks of stresses, forces, moments and strains and blocks of alternatives. Data blocks of stresses, forces, moments and strains are associated to an ANSYS DataSet and are obtained and stored in solution time. The content of these blocks is similar and its structure is always the same. Alternative blocks differ to each other on its content because its content varies depending on the process (checking, design, etc.) that has generated the alternative. These data are obtained in postprocessor time, taking as data the forces, moments, stresses and strains from the corresponding blocks. Each block of forces, moments, stresses and strains may generate one or more alternative blocks (checking according to different codes or changing some parameters). The utilities of the combination module are ONLY applied to the blocks of stresses, forces, moments and strains associated to an ANSYS DataSet. The utility ENVELOPE has been developed for alternative blocks. This utility is included in the generation and treatment of file *.RCV which allows the generation of other alternatives as envelope of others previously obtained. Envelopes have to be always homogeneous, that is to say, obtained by application of the same code and process to the same model. The resulting alternative will be homogeneous with the previous ones, with a similar identification and same reading, drawing and representation commands. There are 3 types of envelopes: Maximum values envelope Minimum values envelope Maximum absolute value envelope. It is understood by envelope of several alternatives taken as initial envelopes, the set of minimum, maximum or absolute maximum values (depending on type) of each data taken from all the initial alternatives.
6-27
6.7
The coefficients that multiply the Start States of a combination to achieve a certain Target at a determined node of the structure can be obtained. The ~CMBINQ command shows a list with the coefficients applied over each one of the Start States that forms the combination rule. If one of these Start States is a nested combination, the coefficients applied to its Start States can be also known. This command allows knowing the TARGET combined result as well as any concomitant values of the group to which the TARGET belongs. It allows building a load state that fulfils the request of the solicited combination rule. For doing that, the coefficients of each one of the start states that form the combination rule, to the requested Target, are calculated. At the same way are calculated the coefficients of all the combinations that are a start state of the requested combination. The concomitant loads in the model, for the combination rule selected are stored in ANSYS and CivilFEM databases. The results for this load step will be available until a new Data Set is specified by means of the ~CFSET or ~CMBDAT commands. The results coming from the ~CMBINQ command cannot be used for checking or dimensioning operations conforming to codes.
6-29
6.8
ANSYS starts from the nodal displacements, available in all types of beam elements, to plot the deformed shape of a beam structure using PLDISP or PLNSOL, U commands and it represents the linear structure with its deformed shape. If the option /ESHAPE,1 is activated (plot the section shape), ANSYS converts the linear elements into a rectangular section taking its characteristics from the real constants. This section remains undeformed thought out the element except with BEAM188 and BEAM189 elements for which ANSYS has additional information such as the section shape, cross section cells (subdivision) and output information at the section nodes. Due to this additional information, ANSYS can calculate and plot the element deformed shape as well as the deformed shape at section internal nodes for these two element types. ANSYS stores the information about nodal displacements and section strains in the results file (file.RST). When combination are performed in CivilFEM, a results file (file.CMB) is generated with the same format as ANSYS results file (file.RST) in such way that ANSYS can read it as it was a RST file, taking all the postprocessing needed information from this file, such as the deformed shape of the structure. As CivilFEM, after performing the combinations, establishes the concomitance at a group level (as we have seen before), when performing a combination under a target of displacements the program takes as concomitant data the remaining displacements and rotations but it does not occur with the section strains that remain blank. For this reason, if the commands PLDISP and PLNSOL,U are applied with the option /ESHAPE,1 on a structure with Beam188 and Beam189 elements, the program does not plot well the deformed shape for a combined result under a displacement target. Nevertheless it is possible to list the correct results. To be able to represent the correct results graphically, it is necessary to use the option /ESHAPE,0.
6-31
6.9
If the start states used for the combinations contain results which come from a prestressed concrete structure, it is advisable to see the corresponding chapter of the Advanced Prestressed Concrete Module documentation, in order to consider the observations gathered there.
6-33
6.10
In some cases it may be useful to obtain all the load cases that a certain combination rule will generate. To do this the process to follow is: Define combination rules. As seen in chapter 6.4. Perform combinations by using the ~LINCMB command. Review results. The load cases are obtained by linearly combine the initial load steps as defined in the combination rules, with the desired coefficients. These new load cases are stored in the RCV and RST files (no CMB or CVMB files are created), after the initial load cases. To postprocess these load cases it is necessary to read them first, just as any ordinary load case (~CFSET command). A list of all the newly generated load cases can be obtained with the ~LINLST command. This list will give information about the combination rule each load case comes from, the initial load cases and the coefficients used (only available if the RCV file has been created).
Note: It is important to have in mind that Load Combinations can result in a very high number of load cases. The calculation of all possible load cases is not recommended for loads generated by moving vehicles or arbitrary surface loads. For example, a combination of 18 different locations of a load, using a COMPATIBLE combination type, would lead into 218 = 262144 different load cases. Combinations with targets, as explained in the previous chapters, are more suitable if the defined load combinations may end up with many load cases. Specially in the case of moving vehicles or arbitrary surface loads.
6-35
7.1 Introduction
7.1 Introduction
CivilFEM includes the possibility of defining simple structures, from its geometry and the loads acting on it. From these data a predesign of the variable parameters for this structure will be done. These parameters, that will generally be shear and bending reinforcement, are put together with some geometric values for certain parts of the structure and sometimes with design recommendations. Also, the possibility to generate the finite elements model is also present. This way it is easy to do a more accurate checking of the predesign, perform transient analysis, include non linearities, create more complex structures from the initial one, etc.
7-1
7.2 Frames
7.2.1 Description
The aim of this utility is the direct calculation of a frame with a beam elements model, from the data provided by the user in an interactive way by means of graphical screens. Once the basic load hypotheses are defined, CivilFEM obtains the envelopes of each one of the predefined combinations block and carries out the calculation of the reinforcement, checking the shear in the critical sections, as well as the stress state.
7.2.2
Input data
The input data needed to generate and calculate the frame can be divided into four groups: geometrical data, soil and materials data, loads data and vehicles. 7.2.2.1 Geometrical data
The necessary data that must be defined for the frame, can be entered using the commands ~FRMDEF, ~FRMBS, ~FRMCR. The necessary data are the following ones: L H PTH LTH STH LF RF VU HU VD HD 7.2.2.2 Total distance between piers. Free height between slab and lintel. Pier thickness. Lintel thickness. Slab thickness. Left flange length. Right flange length. Vertical projection of the upper brackets. Horizontal projection of the upper brackets. Vertical projection of the lower brackets. Horizontal projection of the lower brackets. Materials and soil data
The needed data to define the properties of soil and materials are entered, in CivilFEMs database, through the commands ~FRMGT, ~FRMGEN. The needed data are:
7-2
7.2 Frames
Terrain height over the lintel. Terrain height over the slab. Terrain internal friction angle. Ballast module. Reinforcement material Id. Maximum cracking width. Loads data
The needed data to define the loads acting on the frame is entered, in CivilFEMs database, through the commands ~FRMLDS, ~FRMVHS, ~FRTRCK. The needed data are: SL CL LSL NAXL WAXL CX CZ Di Li Serviceability load over the frame (surface load). Terrain compactation load (surface load). Lateral surface load. Number of axles of the vehicle (2 or 3). Axle length. Distance between wheels. Footprint length. Footprint wodth. Distance between axles i and i+1. Load on axle i
7.2.3
7.2.3.1
Load hypothesis
Simple loads
The simple load hypothesis used to calculate the envelopes are the following:
Hypothesis 1:
Sw
Self Weight.
7-3
rew
At rest earth pressure + Earth weight. Active earth pressure + Earth weight. Surface load over left pier. Surface load over right pier. Compactator load. Surface load over lintel. Traffic / Centred vehicle. Traffic / Eccentric vehicle.
ew
Sllp Slrp
Ccomp
Scli
Trce Trec
7.2.3.1.1
This load hypothesis is made up by the self weight of the concrete frame, which is calculated multiplying its area by the specific weight of concrete.
Pp
7.2.3.1.2
This load hypothesis is made up by the earth weight and the lateral at rest earth pressure it produces on the frame. The earth weight is calculated as the height of the terrain above the considered point by its specific weight.
Pt
Hl
The at rest earth pressure on the piers is the terrain height above each point multiplied by the specific weight of the terrain and by an at rest pressure coefficient.
rpt
1 sin
Where: f(h)
7-4
7.2 Frames
1- sin
HL (HL+LTH/2) t (1-sin )
7.2.3.1.3
This load hypothesis is made up by the earth weight and the lateral active earth pressure it produces on the frame. The earth weight is calculated as explained for hypothesis 2. The active earth pressure on the piers is the terrain height above each point multiplied by the terrain specific weight and by the active earth pressure coefficient.
2 pt
atan
Where: f(h)
t
2
atan
7.2.3.1.4
7-5
This load hypothesis consists of the pressure acting on the left pier as the consequence of a surface load LSL on the terrain at the left of the frame.
7.2.3.1.5
This load hypothesis consists of the pressure acting on the right pier as the consequence of a surface load LSL on the terrain at the right of the frame.
LSL
LSL
LSL(1-sin )
LSL(1-sin )
Lateral pressure
7.2.3.1.6
This load hypothesis consists of filling up with soil each of the sides of the frame, with a height difference of 2 meters. A compactation load CL acts on the highest terrain.
CL(1-sin ) d = 2m
(H-d) t (1-sin )
7-6
7.2 Frames
7.2.3.1.7
SL
Serviceability load
7.2.3.1.8
A vehicle is considered in wich the number of axles (2 or 3), the distance and load on them may varie (parameters NAXL, WAXL, CX, CZ, D1, D2, L1, L2 and L3). For hypothesis 8 Centred vehicle, it is assumed that the vehicle is at the middle of the lintel. For hypothesis 9 Eccentric vehicle, it is assumed that the vehicle is above the piers, to obtain the maximum shear force. The load on each wheel is distributed on the lintel as it is shown in the following figure.
7-7
CZ CX 60 60
Note: The vehicle defined by default has 3 axles, with a distance between them of 1.5 meters and have a length of 2 meters, with a footprint of 0.20 x 0.60 m and a load of 20 tons per axle.
7.2.3.2
Combined hypothesis
The simple load states are combined to obtain the most defavorable load hypothesis. The simple load cases have been multiplied by safety factors for the Ultimate Limit State. The considered load hypothesis are: Ultimate limit state. Hypothesis 10: Hypothesis 11: Hypothesis 12: Hypothesis 13: Hypothesis 14: Hypothesis 15: Hypothesis 16: Hypothesis 17:
Sw 1.00
rew
Sw 1.35 Sw 1.35
Sw 1.35 Sw 1.35
ew ew
rew
1.00 Scli 1.50 Trce 1.50 1.00 Scli 1.50 Trec 1.50
1.50 Sllp 1.50 Scli 1.50 Trce 1.50 1.50 Sllp 1.50 Slrp 1.50 Scli 1.50 Trce 1.50
rew
Sw 1.35
rew
7-8
7.2 Frames
Hypothesis 18:
Sw 1.35
rew
Serviceability Limit State. Hypothesis 19: Hypothesis 20: Hypothesis 21: Hypothesis 22: Hypothesis 23: Hypothesis 24: Hypothesis 25: Hypothesis 26: Hypothesis 27:
ew
Sw 1.00 Sw 1.00
Sw 1.00 Sw 1.00 Sw 1.00 Sw 1.00
ew rew
rew
1.00 Scli 1.00 Trce 1.00 1.00 Scli 1.00 Trec 1.00
1.00 Sllp 1.00 Scli 1.00 Trce 1.00 1.00 Sllp 1.00 Slrp 1.00 Scli 1.00 Trce 1.00 1.00 Sllp 1.00 Scli 1.00 Trec 1.00 1.00 Sllp 1.00 Slrp 1.00 Scli 1.00 Trec 1.00
rew
rew
rew
Serviceability Limit State quasi-permanent combination for cracking. Hypothesis 28: Hypothesis 29: Hypothesis 30: Hypothesis 31: Hypothesis 32: Hypothesis 33: Hypothesis 34: Hypothesis 35: Hypothesis 36:
1.00 Sllp 0.20 1.00 Sllp 0.20 Scli 0.20 0.20 Scli 0.20 Trce 0.20 0.20 Scli 0.20 Trec 0.20 1.00 Sllp 0.20 Scli 0.20 Trec 0.20 1.00 Sllp 0.20 Slrp 0.20 Scli 0.20 Trce 0.20 1.00 Sllp 0.20 Scli 0.20 Trec 0.20 1.00 Sllp 0.20 Slrp 0.20 Scli 0.20 Trec 0.20
rew
pt
pt
rew
rew
rew
rew
7.2.4
Reinforcement
The predesign of the reinforcement is done by using simplified formulas that, in general, will give values near to the ones obtained from code checking, but do not guaranty the fulfilment of it, being necessary a later accurate checking of the initial predesign. The reinforcement is calculated regarding:
7-9
7-10
Influence lines ............................................................................................ 3 8.2.1 8.2.2 8.2.3 8.2.4 Range and restrictions .............................................................. 3 Opening and closing influence lines ......................................... 3 Assemblies ............................................................................... 3 Examples .................................................................................. 4
8.3
Solid to shell ............................................................................................ 23 8.3.1 8.3.2 8.3.3 8.3.4 8.3.5 8.3.6 Introduction ............................................................................. 23 Initial data ............................................................................... 23 Calculation of the shells thicknesses ..................................... 24 Calculation of the stress tensor ............................................... 26 Calculation of forces and moments ......................................... 26 Results on the dummy shell elements .................................... 27
8.1
8.1.1
Using the cost per unit volume of the CivilFEM materials defined in the structure, the cost of each of the elements that compose the structure is computed. The cost, this way obtained, is an approximation to the real cost of the structure, since it does not take into account particular details or the final exact geometry of complex structures. Nevertheless, it is of great use in optimization analyses, in which the broad global cost of the structure must be minimized The cost of each element is computed as follows: Volumetric elements (SOLID): The volume of the element is multiplied by the cost per unit volume of its material. Linear elements (BEAM, LINK): The cost of the cross sections is calculated from the values of the different materials that compose it and its discretization into tessella and plates, taking into account the gross section formulation, not the effective section. The total cost of the element will be the arithmetic media of the costs of each cross section (one for each end), multiplied by its length. Shell elements: As for linear elements, the cost of each end (shell vertex) is computed, adding the cost of the reinforcement amount for concrete vertices, and the mean value is used for the whole element. Shear and torsional reinforcement (beams and shells) is not considered in the cost calculation. The cost can be obtained detailed for each material (~COSTLST command) or can be used as a variable in the analysis (~COST command). The elements meshed using a generic ANSYS material will not be considered for the cost calculation.
8.1.2
Weight
It is sometimes necessary to know the weight of the structure, which can be obtained in two ways: From the geometry of the structure and the densities of the materials used. Once solved, adding the reactions on the supports. The second method can lead to misunderstanding errors when coupling equations between nodes are used, rotated supports, etc. The first method can be directly applied using the ~WEIGHT command. The procedure followed for its calculation is the same as the one described for the cost computation, but using the specific weight of the material instead of its cost per unit volume.
8-1
The elements meshed using a generic ANSYS material will not be considered for the weight calculation by this first method.
8-2
8.2
8.2.1
Influence lines
Range and restrictions
It is possible to obtain influence lines in 2D and 3D beam structures in which the model is meshed using BEAM188 and BEAM189 elements. For a given 3D structure, up to 36 different influence lines can be obtained, result of combining any of the six target forces and moments (FX, FY, FZ, MX, MY, MZ) with six possible actions (FX, FY, FZ, MX, MY, MZ). For 2D structures the number of possible influence lines is nine (FX, FY, MZ) vs (FZ, MY, MZ). The definition of the elements orientation must be done using the third node K. It is important to point out that both the target forces and moments as the actions are always referred to the nodal coordinate systems. To obtain the influence line, CivilFEM uses the reciprocity theorem in the MllerBreislau formulation, so it is needed temporally to alter the structure. Because of its nature, the influence line cannot be calculated for other nodes than for those connected to two, and only two, nodes.
8.2.2
As stated before, the structure must be altered temporally in order to obtain the influence line. This means that degrees of freedom may be released, beams may be unconnected, etc. CivilFEM will alter the structure when the influence line is created (opening influence line, ~ILOPEN command) and will allow to restore it to its initial geometry and conditions either immediately after it has been calculated or some time after (~ILCLOSE command), in order to allow to postprocess the results of the influence line.
8.2.3
Assemblies
CFInfLine%ILID%POSITIVE CFInfLine%ILID%NEGATIVE
Where %LID% is the number of the created influence line. These assemblies contain nodes and elements for which a load (force, moment or pressure) which acts on them has a positive or negative effect on the target force or moment. It is important to notice that pressures on beam elements will act perpendicular to them, with a direction which depends on the element axis (and therefore the location of the I, J, K nodes) so it is advisable to pay attention to its definition, in relation with the nodal coordinate system.
8-3
8.2.4
8.2.4.1
Examples
Description
In order to facilitate the handling of influence lines five examples have been prepared. These are included hereafter with sketches of the structure and log files: Example 1 It is a continuous horizontal beam with five spans. The influence lines for the bending moment and shear force at a point in the middle of the span are obtained. The action is a vertical force FY. This example, as the following one, is very simple and allows having a first contact with this utility. Example 2 In the same structure as the previous example the influence lines for the bending moment and shear force at a point located on a support are obtained. The action is maintained as a vertical load FY. Example 3 The structure is now a plane built-in circular arch. Influence lines for shear and axial forces are obtained at an intermediate non centred point. The action is a force perpendicular to the arch. The interest of this example is basically the handling of nodal coordinate systems. Example 4 Over a plane frame a certain surface load may act or not, in the way shown in the corresponding sketch. The aim is to obtain the distribution that creates the maximum negative bending moment at a point. In this example nodal coordinate systems are used again. Now they must be coordinated with the element coordinate system. Once the influence line has been obtained, the assembly which contains the elements that generate the negative bending moment on the node is loaded, and the structure is solved. In this example tolerances are also used (NEGTOL). It is recommended to practice this example given different values to this field. Example 5 This last example works with a three dimensional structure, located on a plane, on which the loads act perpendicular to the plane in the Z direction.
8-4
The aim is now to obtain the influence line of the torsional moment.
8-5
8.2.4.2
Sketches
8-6
LOG
! ! Example 1: Influence Lines - 5 spans continuous beam ! Target: First span middle point FINISH ~CFCLEAR,,1 /TITLE, 'Influence lines by CivilFEM: Continuous beam (I)' ~CODESEL,EC3,EC2 ~UNITS,SI /PREP7 ! ! ! =========================== STEP 1: STRUCTURE DEFINITION ! Set European codes ! Set International System units
! Element type ET,1,BEAM188,,,2 ! Material: EC3-Steel ~CFMP,10,LIB,STEEL,EC3,Fe 360 ! Beams section ~SSECLIB,1,1,1,16 ! IPE 500 (H shaped) ~SECMDF,1,ROTATE,,,90 ! IPE 500 rotation ~BMSHPRO,1,BEAM,1,1,,,188,0,0,,Beam 1 ! Solid Modeling TYPE,1 $ MAT,10 $ SECNUM,1 K,1 K,2,2 K,3,4 K,4,8 K,5,12 K,6,16 K,7,20 K,100, 100, 100 ! BEAM188 K-Orientation point ! Boundary Conditions I: Articulated Supports DK,1,ux,0 $ DK,1,uy,0 DK,3,ux,0 $ DK,3,uy,0 DK,4,ux,0 $ DK,4,uy,0 DK,5,ux,0 $ DK,5,uy,0 DK,6,ux,0 $ DK,6,uy,0 DK,7,ux,0 $ DK,7,uy,0 L,1,2 ! Line 1 L,2,3 ! 2 L,3,4 ! 3 L,4,5 ! 4 L,5,6 ! 5 L,6,7 ! 6 ! Meshing ESIZE,0.5 LATT,ALL,10,,1,,100,,1 LMESH,ALL ! Element size
8-7
! Boundary conditions II: Plane structure D,ALL,UZ,0 D,ALL,ROTX,0 D,ALL,ROTY,0 NSEL,ALL $ ESEL,ALL ! ! ! =========================== STEP 2: INFLUENCE LINE CALCULATION
! Target node nn=NODE(kx(2),ky(2),0) ! Bending moment I.L. ----------------------------------------------~ILOPEN,5,MZ,FY,nn,,,,1 /POST1 ! Creating Influence Line Graphics /DSCA,ALL,10 PLDISP,2 /PREP7 ! Closing the Influence Line ~ILCLOSE ! Shear force I.L. ----------------------------------------------~ILOPEN,5,FY,FY,nn,,,,1 /POST1 ! Creating Influence Line Graphics /DSCA,ALL,10 PLDISP,2 /PREP7 ! Closing the Influence Line ~ILCLOSE
8-8
8.2.4.3
Sketches
8-9
LOG
! ! Example 2: Influence Lines - 5 spans continuous beam ! Target point: Support FINISH ~CFCLEAR,,1 /TITLE, 'Influence lines by CivilFEM: Continuous beam (II)' ~CODESEL,EC3,EC2 ~UNITS,SI /PREP7 ! ! ! =========================== STEP 1: STRUCTURE DEFINITION ! Set European codes ! Set International System units
! Element types ET,1,BEAM188,,,2 ! Material: EC3-Steel ~CFMP,10,LIB,STEEL,EC3,Fe 360 ! Beams section ~SSECLIB,1,1,1,16 ! IPE 500 (H shaped) ~BMSHPRO,1,BEAM,1,1,,,188,0,0,,Beam 1 ! Solid Modeling TYPE,1 $ MAT,10 $ SECNUM,1 K,1 K,2,2 K,3,4 K,4,8 K,5,12 K,6,16 K,7,20 K,100, 100, 100 ! BEAM188 K-Orientation point ! Boundary Conditions I: Articulate Supports DK,1,ux,0 $ DK,1,uy,0 DK,3,ux,0 $ DK,3,uy,0 DK,4,ux,0 $ DK,4,uy,0 DK,5,ux,0 $ DK,5,uy,0 DK,6,ux,0 $ DK,6,uy,0 DK,7,ux,0 $ DK,7,uy,0 L,1,2 ! Line 1 L,2,3 ! 2 L,3,4 ! 3 L,4,5 ! 4 L,5,6 ! 5 L,6,7 ! 6 ! Meshing ESIZE,0.5 LATT,ALL,10,,1,,100,,1 LMESH,ALL ! Element size
8-10
D,ALL,UZ,0 D,ALL,ROTX,0 D,ALL,ROTY,0 NSEL,ALL $ ESEL,ALL ! ! ! =========================== STEP 2: INFLUENCE LINE CALCULATION
! Target node nn=NODE(kx(3),ky(3),0) ! Bending moment I.L. ----------------------------------------------~ILOPEN,5,MZ,FY,nn,,,,1 /POST1 ! Creating Influence Line Graphics /DSCA,ALL,10 PLDISP,2 /PREP7 ! Closing the Influence Line ~ILCLOSE ! Shear force I.L. ----------------------------------------------~ILOPEN,5,FY,FY,nn,,,,1 ! Creating Influence Line Graphics /POST1 /DSCA,ALL,10 PLDISP,2 /PREP7 ! Closing the Influence Line ~ILCLOSE
8-11
8.2.4.4
Sketches
8-12
LOG
! ! Example 3: Influence Lines - Built-in circular arch ! FINISH ~CFCLEAR,,1 /TITLE, 'Influence lines by CivilFEM: Arch' ~CODESEL,EC3,EC2 ~UNITS,SI /PREP7 ! ! ! =========================== STEP 1: STRUCTURE DEFINITION ! Set European codes ! Set International System units
! Element types ET,1,BEAM188,,,2 ! Material: EC3-Steel ~CFMP,10,LIB,STEEL,EC3,Fe 360 ! Beams section ~SSECLIB,1,1,1,16 ! IPE 500 (H shaped) ~SECMDF,1,ROTATE,,,90 ! IPE 500 rotation (I shaped) ~BMSHPRO,1,BEAM,1,1,,,188,0,0,,Beam 1 ! Solid Modeling TYPE,1 $ MAT,10 $ SECNUM,1 *AFUN,DEG ! Using degrees K, 1, 6*COS(150),6*SIN(150) K, 2, 6*COS(120),6*SIN(120) K, 3, 6*COS( 30),6*SIN( 30) K,100, 0, 0 ! BEAM188 K-Orientation point *AFUN,RAD ! Using radians LARC,1,2,3,6.0001 LARC,2,3,1,6.0001 ! Boundary conditions I; Built-in arch ends. DK,1,ALL,0 DK,3,ALL,0 ! Meshing ESIZE,0.5 ! Element size LATT,ALL,10,,1,,100,,1 LMESH,ALL ! Boundary conditions II: Plane structure D,ALL,UZ,0 D,ALL,ROTX,0 D,ALL,ROTY,0 NSEL,ALL $ ESEL,ALL ! Rotating nodes CSYS,2 ! Cylindrical system NROT,ALL ! X-> Radial Y->Tangential
8-13
CSYS,0 ! ! !
! Target node nn=NODE(kx(2),ky(2),0) ! Bending moment I.L. ---------------------------------------------~ILOPEN,5,MZ,FX,nn,,,,1 /POST1 ! Creating Influence Line Graphics /DSCA,ALL,-1 PLDISP,2 /PREP7 ! Closing the Influence Line ~ILCLOSE ! Shear force I.L. ----------------------------------------------~ILOPEN,6,FX,FX,nn,,,,1 /POST1 ! Creating Influence Line Graphics /DSCA,ALL,-1 PLDISP,2 /PREP7 ! Closing the Influence Line ~ILCLOSE ! Axial force I.L. ----------------------------------------------~ILOPEN,7,FY,FX,nn,,,,1 /POST1 ! Creating Influence Line Graphics /DSCA,ALL,-1 PLDISP,2 /PREP7 ! Closing the Influence Line ~ILCLOSE
8-14
8.2.4.5
Sketches
8-15
LOG
! ! Example 4: Influence Lines - 3 legs frame ! FINISH ~CFCLEAR,,1 /TITLE, 'Influence lines by CivilFEM: Frame' ~CODESEL,EC3,EC2 ~UNITS,SI /PREP7 ! ! ! =========================== STEP 1: STRUCTURE DEFINITION ! Set European codes ! Set International System units
! Element types ET,1,BEAM188,,,2 ! Material: EC3-Steel ~CFMP,10,LIB,STEEL,EC3,Fe 360 ! Beams section ~SSECLIB,1,1,1,16 ~SECMDF,1,ROTATE,,,90 ! IPE 500 (H shaped) ! IPE 500 rotation (I shaped)
8-16
~BMSHPRO,1,BEAM,1,1,,,188,0,0,,Beam 1 ! Solid Modeling TYPE,1 $ MAT,10 $ SECNUM,1 K,1 K,2,0,5 K,4,6,2 K,5,6,7 K,3,(KX(2)+KX(5))/2,(KY(2)+KY(5))/2 K,6,12,0 K,100, 100, 100 ! BEAM188 K-Orientation point (Lines 2 and 3) K,101,-100, 100 ! BEAM188 K-Orientation point (Lines 1 and 4) ! Boundary Conditions DK,1,ux,0 $ DK,1,uy,0 DK,4,ux,0 $ DK,4,uy,0 DK,6,ux,0 $ DK,6,uy,0 L,1,2 ! Line 1 L,2,3 ! 2 L,3,5 ! 3 L,4,5 ! 4 L,5,6 ! 5 I: Articulated Supports $ DK,1,rotz,0 $ DK,4,rotz,0 $ DK,6,rotz,0
! Meshing with different orientations ESIZE,1 ! Element size LSEL,S,LINE,,2,3 LSEL,A,LINE,,5 LATT,ALL,10,,1,,100,,1 LMESH,ALL LSEL,A,LINE,,1,4,3 LATT,ALL,10,,1,,101,,1 LMESH,ALL ! Boundary conditions II: Plane frame D,ALL,UZ,0 D,ALL,ROTX,0 D,ALL,ROTY,0 NSEL,ALL ! Target node nn=NODE(kx(3),ky(3),0) ! Node rotation LSEL,S,LINE,,1 LSEL,A,LINE,,4 NSLL,S,0 NMODIF,ALL,,,,90,0,0 ! Vertical supports
LSEL,S,LINE,,2,3 ! Lintel NSLL,S,0 NSEL,A,NODE,,nn Angle1=ATAN( (KY(5)-KY(2))/(KX(5)-KX(2)) )*180/3.14159265 ! lintel slope NMODIF,ALL,,,,Angle1,0,0 LSEL,S,LINE,,5 ! Leaning support NSLL,S,0 Angle2=ATAN2(KY(5)-KY(6), KX(5)-KX(6))*180/3.14159265 NMODIF,ALL,,,,Angle2,0,0 NSEL,ALL
! support slope
8-17
! ! =========================== STEP 2: INFLUENCE LINE CALCULATION ! ~ILOPEN,10,MZ,FY,nn,,,,1,0.001,0.001 /POST1 ! Creating Influence Line Graphics /DSCA,ALL,2 PLDISP,2 RSYS,SOLU /GRAPHICS,FULL PLNSOL,U,Y /PREP7 ! Closing the Influence Line ~ILCLOSE ! ! ! =========================== STEP 3: STRUCTURE CALCULATION
! Structure Loading CMSEL,S,CFInfLine10_NEGATIVE SFBEAM,ALL,1,PRES,100000 ESEL,ALL NSEL,ALL ! Structure calculation /SOLU SOLVE ! Bending moments plotting /POST1 ETABLE,MF_D,SMISC,2 ETABLE,MF_F,SMISC,15 PLLS,MF_D,MF_F
8-18
8.2.4.6
Sketches
8-19
LOG
! ! Example 5: Influence Lines - 3D plane structure ! FINISH ~CFCLEAR,,1 /TITLE, 'Influence lines by CivilFEM: Frame' ~CODESEL,EC3,EC2 ~UNITS,SI /PREP7 ! ! ! =========================== STEP 1: STRUCTURE DEFINITION ! Set European codes ! Set International System units
! Element types ET,1,BEAM188,,,2 ! Material: EC3-Steel ~CFMP,10,LIB,STEEL,EC3,Fe 360 ! Beams section ~SSECLIB,1,1,1,16 ! IPE 500 (I shaped) ~BMSHPRO,1,BEAM,1,1,,,188,0,0,,Beam 1 ! Solid Modeling TYPE,1 $ MAT,10 $ SECNUM,1 ! K-Points K, 1,-4, 8 K, 2, 4, 8 K, 3, 0, 0 K, 4, 0,14 K, 5, 0, 8 K, 6, 0, 4 K,100,100,100 ! X axis beams L, 1, 5 $ L, 5, 2 ! Y axis beams L, 3, 6 $ L, 6, 5 $ L, 5, 4 ! Boundary Conditions: Built-in Supports KSEL,S,KP,,1,4 DK,ALL,ALL,0 KSEL,ALL ! Meshing ESIZE,0.25 LATT,ALL,10,,1,,100,,1 LMESH,ALL NSEL,ALL $ ESEL,ALL ! ! ! Element size
8-20
! ! Target node nn=NODE(kx(6),ky(6),0) ! Torsional moment I.L. ----------------------------------------------~ILOPEN,5,MY,FZ,nn,,,,1 /POST1 ! Creating Influence Line Graphics /VUP,ALL,Z /VIEW,1,0,1 PLDISP,2 /PREP7 ! Closing the Influence Line ~ILCLOSE ! Shear force I.L. ----------------------------------------------~ILOPEN,5,FY,FY,nn,,,,1 /POST1 ! Creating Influence Line Graphics /DSCA,ALL,10 PLDISP,2 /PREP7 ! Closing the Influence Line ~ILCLOSE
8-21
8.3
8.3.1
Solid to shell
Introduction
In finite element analyses it is usual to model reinforced concrete or prestressed concrete structures, using 3D solid elements, which give as results stresses at the nodes of the elements. Nevertheless, codes and standards, in the majority of the cases and countries, make use of forces and moments for the calculations, either for shell or beam elements. CivilFEM has a utility (SOLID SECTION) that allows to integrate the stresses obtained on a model that can be assumed as prismatic, to turn them into beams forces and moments. The aim of the present utility is to obtain, in structures made up of 3D solid elements and that can be assumed as a laminar structure, the forces and moments needed to apply a code or standard based on these values.
8.3.2
Initial data
It is necessary to define the following types of data: Structure (complete or a part of it), which is already defined by the 3D solid elements. Necessary information for the definition of the shell elements. The structure to be analyzed is the data required first. It must be defined by two components: Nodes of a surface (outer or inner) of the structure. All the elements of the part of the structure. The following figure shows these requirements.
8-23
External nodes
Apart from this, to define the reinforced concrete shells, it is necessary to define the cover that will be used and the material for the reinforcement. From this information, CivilFEM creates a new component with dummy SHELL181 elements, at the mid-surface of the 3D structure that will be the base to obtain the needed results. These elements will also be used for the results. The dummy shell elements have materials and shell properties assigned, which CivilFEM creates from the material of the solid structure and the thicknesses. The created material will add no mass to the structure so it does not interfere in inertial or transient analyses. The new shell elements are defined on nodes created independently from the existent model. These nodes have all their degrees of freedom constrained. Moreover, this utility generates the following components: CF_SD2SH_NODES_#: generated nodes component of dummy shells group number #. CF_SD2SH_ELEMENTS _#: generated elements component of dummy shells group number #.
8.3.3
From the gravity center of the surfaces of the outer elements, CivilFEM casts perpendicular rays, perpendicular to this surface, which intersect the different
8-24
elements of the structure (hexahedra, tetrahedra or pyramids) at two of their faces (entry and exit) shown as points 1 and 2 in the following figure.
If the ray is not perpendicular to the outer surface, CivilFEM will correct the rays direction so that its vector is the mean value of the perpendicular vectors to the entry and exit surfaces. But if the ray exits through a lateral surface, instead of the opposite face, the direction of the ray will be parallel to this lateral face. Instead of using this perpendicular direction to define the integration planes, a local coordinate system can be used. In this case, the ray will follow the direction of the Z axis of the local coordinate system and will also orientate the element axis of the dummy shells parallel to this coordinate system. If the direction of the Z axis is 5 away from the mean value of the entry and exit vectors, CivilFEM will show it in the errors file CF_SD2SH.ERR and a warning will be issued with the number of the elements on which this warning is present. In this process, the thickness d of the structure is obtained for each analyzed section. This value can be rounded according to a certain tolerance given in each case or to a certain value. If a constant thickness is set by the optional command argument TH and the obtained thickness is different, CivilFEM will show it in the errors file CF_SD2SH.ERR and a warning will be issued with the number of the elements on which this warning is present. If any dummy shell element cannot be generated, CivilFEM will show it in the errors file CF_SD2SH.ERR writing the outer solid element number which its outer face is used to generate the shell element.
8-25
8.3.4
During the procedure to obtain the thicknesses of the shell elements, each casted ray defines calculation points in space (entry and exit points of each solid element). The calculation of the stress tensor in each of these points is done by interpolation from the nodes of the faces. A group of stress tensors
G i
is obtained:
1 xy 2 zy xz yz 3
G i
yx zx
i = 1, n
8.3.5
8.3.5.1
Tx
dt
i 1
xi
xi 1
di
di
, t = thickness direction
Where di are the distances of the calculation points to the center of the dummy shell element. In the same way, for the Y direction:
n 1
Ty
i 1
yi
yi 1
di
di
8.3.5.2
Bending moments
The bending moment is the static moment of the stresses function from an axis at the center of the section:
Mx = My =
. dt . dt
Where is the distance of each point to the center. To calculate the moments, the following formulation has been used:
8-26
n 1
Mx
i 2
xi 1
di
di
di
di
1
di 2
1 2
xi
xi 1
di
di
di
2 di
1
di 3
n 1
My
i 2
yi 1
di
di
di
di
1
di 2
1 2
yi
yi 1
di
di
di
2 di
1
di 3
8.3.5.3
Shear forces
xy
and
dt
yz
n 1
stresses:
zxi zx i 1
zx
i 1 n 1
2
zyi zy i 1
di di
di di
zy
dt
i 1
8.3.5.4
Txy
xy
dt
i 1
xyi
xy i 1
di
di
8.3.5.5
Torsional moment
Mxy
i 2
xyi 1
di
di
di
di
1
di 2
1 2
xyi
xyi 1
di
di
di
2 di
1
di 3
8.3.6
The dummy shell elements can be postprocessed in the same way as any other element of the structure. Nevertheless it must be taken into account that their nodes have no stresses or movement results. Since these elements have forces and moments as results, it is possible to perform code checking on them. Data from the code check will be stored in the results file to be postprocessed as in any other shell element. To be able to apply reinforcement to the structure, CivilFEM needs to know the directions of the reinforcements on the shell elements, so these must be oriented so that their axes have the direction of the reinforcement bars. This orientation must be
8-27
defined after the dummy shell elements have been created if they have not been oriented by the command argument.
8.3.7
Remesh
In order to increase the accurancy of the method, it is possible to remesh the exterior elements of the dummy shell group. The remesh level varies between 1 and 3, where 3 is the finer remesh. For the finer level, the exterior elements are divided into 26 or 29 depending on triangular or quadrangular shape in such a way the number of calculation points are increased and their location is closer to the boundary. So, boundary behavior is captured with a higher accurancy.
8-28
10-A.7.12 Checking for Lateral-Torsional Buckling of Members Subjected to Bending and Axial Compression ......................... 54 10-A.7.13 Critical Forces and Moments Calculation................................. 63
10-A.1 Scope
10-A.1 Scope
Steel structures checking according to Eurocode 3 in CivilFEM is included in the checking of structures composed by welded or rolled shapes under axial forces, shear forces and bending moments in 3D. The calculations made by CivilFEM correspond to the prescriptions of Eurocode 3 Design of Steel Structures Part 1-1 General Rules for Building, sections.
10-A-1
Checking to buckling:
ENV 1993-1-1:1992 - Compression members with constant cross-section - Lateral-torsional buckling of beams - Members subjected to bending and axial tension - Members subjected to bending and axial compression Art. 5.5.1 Art. 5.5.2 Art. 5.5.3 Art. 5.5.4 EN 1993-1-1:2005 Art. 6.3.1 Art. 6.3.2 N/A Art. 6.3.3
10-A-3
Moreover, it is possible to check solid sections captured from 2D or 3D models if the cross section is classified as structural steel.
10-A-5
10-A-7
YCF YS ZCF ZS
O
ZEC3
YEC3
Figure 10-A.5-1 Axis Orientation in Beam Sections In the Eurocode 3 axis system: The system origin coincides with the CivilFEM one. XEC3 axis coincides with CivilFEM X-axis. YEC3 axis is the relevant axis for bending and its orientation is defined by the user. (~MEMBPRO and ~CHKSTL commands). ZEC3 axis is perpendicular to the plane defined by X and Y axis, in a way that ensure a right-handed system. To define this reference system, the user must indicate which of the CivilFEM axis: -Z, -Y, +Z or +Y coincides with the relevant axis for positive bending. The user may define this reference system with the commands: ~MEMBPRO, when defining member properties for Eurocode 3 and ~CHKSTL when checking according to this code. However, in case of any contradiction, the adopted option is the one established with ~MEMBPRO command, the one introduced through ~CHKSTL command is neglected. As conclusion, the code reference system coincides with CivilFEM one, rotated a certain multiple of 90 degrees, as it is showed below. Table 10-A.5-1 Relevant Axis for Angle of Rotation (in clockwise) of Bending in CivilFEM Eurocode 3 Reference System respect to Reference System the CivilFEM Reference System
10-A-9
10-A-10
10-A.6.1
Sections Data
Eurocode 3 considers the following data set for the section: - Gross section data - Net section data - Effective section data - Data concerning to the section and plates class. Gross section data correspond to the nominal properties of the cross-section. From net section only the area is considered. This area is calculated discounting the holes for screws, rivets and other holes from the gross section area. (The area of holes is introduced through the parameter AHOLES in ~SECMDF command). Effective section data and section and plates class data are obtained in the checking process according to the effective width method. This method discounts for class 4 cross-sections, the non-resistance zones for local buckling. For cross-sections of a lower class, this method does not reduce the section because of the local buckling. The Eurocode 3 module takes the gross section data in user units and CivilFEM axis or section axis as initial data. The program calculates the effective section data and the class data, and stores them in CivilFEMs results file, in user units and in CivilFEM or section axis. All these data can be listed and plotted with the ~PLLSSTL, ~PLCSEC3 and ~PRSTL commands. In the following tables, the section data used in Eurocode 3 are shown: Table 10-A.6-1 Common data for gross, net and effective sections
Description Input data: 1.- Height 2.- Web thickness H Tw Data
10-A-11
Chapter 10-A Steel Structures according to Eurocode 3 3.- Flanges thickness 4.- Flanges width 5.- Distance between flanges 6.- Radius of fillet (Rolled shapes) 7.- Toe radius (Rolled shapes) 8.- Weld throat thickness (Welded shapes) 9.- Web free depth Tf B Hi r1 r2 a d
Output data
(None)
Output data:
(None)
10-A-12
10-A.6 Data and Results used by CivilFEM Output data: 1.- Net Cross-section area * The section holes are introduced as a cross section property Anet
The effective section depends on the section geometry and on the forces and moments that are applied on it. Consequently, for each element end, the effective section is calculated. Table 10-A.6-4 Effective section data
Description Imput data: Output data: 1.- Cross-section area 2.- Moments of inertia for bending 3.- Product of inertia 4.- Elastic resistant modulus 5.- Gravity center coordinates 6.- Distance between GC and SC in Y and in Z 7.- Warping constant 8.- Shear resistant areas Aeff Iyyeff, Izzeff Izyeff Wyeff, Wzeff Ygeff, Zgeff Ymseff, Zmseff Iw Yws, Zws CivilFEM CivilFEM CivilFEM CivilFEM Section Section Data (None) Reference axis
10-A.6.2
Member Properties
For Eurocode 3 checking the data set used at member level is shown in the following table. All data, is stored with the section data in user units and in CivilFEM reference axis. This data is defined as the parameters L, K, KW, C1, C2, C3, BETAMY, BETAMZ, BETAMLT, PSIVEC, CFBUCKXY and CFBUCKXZ (for ENV 1993-1-1:1992)
CivilFEM Theory Manual 300609. Ingeciber, S.A.
10-A-13
L, K, KW, C1, C2, C3, CMY, CMZ, CMLT, CFBUCKXY and CFBUCKXZ (for EN 1993-1-1:2005) of ~MEMBPRO command. Table 10-A.6-6 Member Properties
Description Input data: 1.- Unbraced length of member (global buckling). Length between lateral restraints (lateral-torsional buckling) 2.- Effective length factors 3.- Lateral buckling factors, depending on the load and restraint conditions 4.- Equivalent uniform moment factors for flexural buckling 5.- Equivalent uniform moment factors for lateral-torsional buckling 6.- Reduction factor for vectorial effects 7.- Buckling factors for planes XZ and YZ (Effective buckling length for plane XY =L*Cfbuckxy ) (Effective buckling length for plane XZ =L*Cfbuckxz ) L k, kw C1, C2, C3 BetaMy, BetaMz BetaMlt PsiVec Cfbuckxy, Cfbuckxz L k, kw C1, C2, C3 CMy, CMz CMLt N/A Cfbuckxy, Cfbuckxz ENV 1993-11:1992 EN 1993-11:2005
10-A.6.3
Material Properties
In Eurocode 3 checking, the following material properties are used: Table 10-A.6-7 Material properties
Description Steel yield strength Ultimate strength Property Fy(th) Fu(th)
M0
M1 M2
Elasticity modulus Poisson coefficient Shear modulus *th =thickness of the plate
10-A.6.4
The forces and moments necessary for the checking are obtained from the CivilFEM results file for the selected load step and substep. CivilFEM makes the necessary operations to change to Eurocode 3 units system, axis and criteria.
10-A-14
Even, the program makes the necessary sign conversions to satisfy the code criterion (compressive forces and stresses are positive). Internally, CivilFEM works according to code prescriptions. Ansys forces and moments depend on the option selected by the user in the CLASSMOD argument of the ~CHKSTL command. If the selected option is partial, the calculation of the cross-section class is accomplished with the same forces and moments used in the checking (default option). Otherwise, if the selected option is full, all the forces and moments are considered in the calculation of the cross-section class, independently of the solicited checking type. The partial forces and moments sets, considered in each type of external load, are shown in the following table. The forces and moments represented in the top of the table are referred to Eurocode 3 axis (relevant axis for bending YY), and with the Eurocode 3 signs criterion (in general, compressive force is positive, except for tension and bending + axial tension, where the tensile force is considered positive). All the terms are the used by the code. Table 10-A.6-8 Forces and moments External Load
Tension Compression Bending moment Bending moment Shear Shear Bending + Shear Bending + Shear Bi-axial bending Bending and axial force Bending and axial force Bending + axial + shear Buck. resis. Cmp. members Lateral-torsional buckling Lateral-torsional buckling Bend. & axial tension buck. Bend. & axial tension buck. Bend. & ax. Comp. buck. Bend. & ax. Comp. buck. FX FX -FX -FX MY MZ -FX -FX -FX -FX -FX MY MZ MY MZ Tens.+ Tens.+ Cmp.+ Cmp.+ FY FZ MY FY MY MY MZ MZ FY FZ FZ MY MZ MZ Cmp.+ Cmp.+ Cmp.+ Cmp.+ Cmp.+
Nsd Vsd
FX -FX
Note
Tens.+ Cmp.+
MY MZ
10-A-15
10-A.6.5
The ultimate result is to check if the code conditions for each type of external load are fulfilled. In general, for any type of external force, the condition required by the code in a section is the following one:
NSd Nc.Rd
My.Sd My.Rd
Mz.Sd Mz.Rd
The numerators are the forces and moments in the section, axial force and bending moments in Y and in Z axis. These forces and moments are modified in some cases by corrector factors that depend on the type of external load and on the presence of shear forces. The denominators are the design resistances of the cross-section to each one of the forces and moments. These terms are calculated in a particular way for each type of external load and for each cross-section class. At the same time, the section class depends on the cross-section type and on the internal forces and moments. CivilFEM gives the checking results for each element end, storing them in an alternative in the CivilFEM results file (.RCV), in such way that all results can be retrieved by indicating the corresponding alternative number using the command ~CFSET. The available data for each checking type are described in the tables included in the following sections corresponding to the different checking types carried out by the program.
10-A-16
for EN 1993-1-1:2005
Read the checking type requested by the user. Checking type by default: Bending, shear and axial force. Read the CivilFEM axis that is going to be considered as relevant axis for bending, in order to make it coincide with the Y axis of Eurocode 3. By default, in CivilFEM, the relevant axis of bending that coincides with +Y axis of Eurocode 3 is Z-axis. The following operations are necessary for each selected element: a. Obtain material properties corresponding to the element, stored in CivilFEM database, and calculate the rest of the properties needed for checking: Properties obtained from CivilFEM database: Calculated properties: Epsilon, material coefficient:
235 fy (th)
4.
(fy in N/mm2)
b. Obtain the cross-section data corresponding to the element. c. Initialize values of the effective cross-section. d. Initialize reduction factors of section plates and the rest of plate parameters necessary for obtaining the plate class. e. If it necessary for the verification type (buckling checking), calculate the critical forces and moments of the section for buckling: elastic critical forces for the two planes, XY and XZ and the elastic critical moment for lateral-torsional buckling. (See section: Calculation of critical forces and moments). f. Obtain internal forces and moments (NSd, Vy.Sd, Vz.Sd, Mx.Sd, My.Sd, Mz.Sd for ENV 1993-1-1:1992 and NEd, Vy.Ed, Vz.Ed, Mx.Ed, My.Ed, Mz.Ed for EN 1993-1-1:2005) in the section.
10-A-17
g. Specific section checking according to the type of external load. The specific checking includes: 1. Selection, if necessary, of the forces and moments that participate in the section class calculation and in the checking process. 2. Obtaining the cross-section class and calculating the effective section properties (See Section: General Processing of Sections). 3. Checking the cross-section according to the external load and class, calculating the following criteria: Crt_TOT, Crt_N, Crt_Mx and Crt_My. h. Writing of the results.
10-A.7.1
The sections, according to Eurocode 3, are made up by plates. These plates can be classified according to: 1. 2. Way of working: webs and flanges in Y and Z axis, according to the considered relevant axis of bending. Union condition with the rest of plates: internal plates or outstand plates
The sections of the shapes included in program libraries contain this information for each plate. CivilFEM classifies plates in flanges or webs according to each axis and gives the plate union condition at each end. The ends can be classified as fixed or free (an end is called fixed if it is in contact with other plate, and free if it is not). For studying the structure safety, Eurocode 3 classifies sections in 4 possible classes: Class 1 Class 2 Class 3 Cross-sections are those which can form a plastic hinge with the rotation capacity required for plastic analysis. Cross-sections are those which can reach their plastic moment resistance, but have limited rotation capacity. Cross-sections are those in which the stress in the extreme compression fiber of the steel member can reach its yield strength, but local buckling is liable to prevent development of the plastic moment resistance. Cross-sections are those in which it is necessary to make explicit allowances for the effects of local buckling when determining their moment resistance or compression resistance.
Class 4
The cross-section class is the highest (least favorable) class of its elements: flanges and webs (plates). First, it is determined the class of each plate according to the limits of Eurocode 3. The plate class depends on:
10-A-18
1.
The geometric width to thickness ratio, with the plate width properly corrected according to the plate and shape type. GeomRat = Corrected_Width / thickness The width correction consists of discounting from it, in the fixed ends, the zone where the buckling is considered disabled. This zone depends on the shape type. Usually, the radio of fillet in hot rolled shapes or the weld throats in welded shapes give the deduction zone. The values of the appropriate width that uses CivilFEM for each section type are: Welded Shapes: Double T section: Internal webs or flanges: Corrected width = d d Web free depth Outstand flanges: Corrected B for ENV 1993-1-1:1992 width 2
B Tw r1 for ENV 1993-1-1:2005 2
Where: B Tw r1 T section: Internal webs or flanges: Corrected width = d Outstand flanges: Corrected width = C section: Internal webs or flanges: Corrected width = d Outstand flanges: Corrected B for ENV 1993-1-1:1992 width B Tw r1 for ENV 1993-1-1:2005
B 2
10-A-19
L section:
2 Corrected width = l1 l2 2 l1, l2 Angle flange width
Box section: Internal webs: Corrected width = H H Height Internal flanges: Corrected width = B - 2Tw Tw Web thickness Circular hollow section Corrected width = H Rolled Shapes: Double T section: Internal webs or flanges: Corrected width = d d Web free depth Outstand flanges: Corrected width = B T Section: Internal webs or flanges: Corrected width = d Outstand flanges: Corrected width = C Section: Internal webs or flanges: Corrected width = d Outstand flanges: Corrected width = B L Section: Corrected width = l1, l2 Box section:
10-A-20 CivilFEM Theory Manual 010708. Ingeciber, S.A.
2 l1
B 2
Flanges width
B 2
l2 2
Internal webs: Corrected width = d Internal flanges: Corrected width = B - 3Tf Tf Pipe section: Corrected width = H 2. A limit for this ratio, that depends on the material parameter and on the normal stress distribution in the plate section. This last value is given by the following parameters: , , and k0, and the plate type, internal or outstand, and in this last case it depends on if the free end is under tension or under compression. Limit (class) = f( , , , k0)
235 fy (fy in N/mm2)
Flanges thickness
k0
Buckling factor The higher stress in the plate ends. The lower stress in the plate ends.
A linear stress distribution in the plate is assumed. The procedure to determine the section class follows these steps: 1. Obtaining stresses at first plate ends from the stresses applied on the section, properly filtered according to the verification type requested by the user. Calculation of parameters: , Internal plates:
ENV 1993-1-1:1992 EN 1993-1-1:2005
2.
and k0
1 0
0 1
k0 1
16
2
0.112 1
k0
8.2 1.05
k0
k0 5.98 1
2
7.81 6.29
9.78
k0 = infinite
10-A-21
Outstand plates with the absolute value of the stress at the free end greater than the corresponding to the fixed end: For
1
0.07
2
k0
0.57 0.21
For
1
k0 = infinite
Outstand plates with the absolute value of the stress at the free end lower than the corresponding to the fixed end: For
k0
0
0.578 (ENV 1993-1-1:1992 and EN 1993-1-1:2005) 0.34
For
0
1.7 5
1
17.1
2
k0
For
1
k0 = infinite
Cases in which k0 = infinite are not included in the code. In these cases, it is considered that the plate is practically in tension and it is not necessary to determine the class. These cases have been included to avoid errors in the program, and the value k0=infinite has been adopted because the resultant plate class is 1 and the plate reduction factor is = 1 (the same values that if all the plate was in tension). The reduction factor is used later, in the effective section calculation. 3. Obtaining the limiting proportions in function of: , and k0 and the plate characteristics (internal, outstand, compressed free end or not). ENV 1993-1-1:1992: Internal plates: Limit(1) 396 / (13 1)
Limit(1)
Limit(2) Limit(2) Limit(3)
36 /
456 / (13 1) 41.5 / 42 / (0.67 0.33 )
10-A-22
Limit(3)
62 (1 ) ( )
for
-1
for welded shapes for rolled shapes for welded shapes for rolled shapes for welded shapes
Limit(2) 11 / Limit(2) 10 /
Limit(3) Limit(3)
23 k 0 21 k 0
9 11 10
23 k 0 21 k 0
for welded shapes for rolled shapes for welded shapes for rolled shapes for welded shapes
36 /
456 / (13 1) 41.5 / 42 / (0.67 0.33 )
Limit(3)
62 (1 ) ( )
10-A-23
Limit(3)
21 k 0
Limit(2)
10
21 k 0
Limit(3)
This is the general formulation used by the program to obtain the limiting proportions for determining plates classes. It can be checked that the rest of limits specified in Eurocode 3 are particular cases of these ones. For example: In sections totally compressed: = 1; = 1 for all plates In sections under pure bending: = 0.5; = -1 for the web = 1; = 1 for compressed flanges 4. Obtaining the plate class: If GeomRat < Limit(1) If Limit(1) GeomRat < Limit(2) If Limit(2) GeomRat < Limit(3) If Limit(3) GeomRat Plate Class = 1 Plate Class = 2 Plate Class = 3 Plate Class = 4
The sequence (1,2,3,4) is repeated for each section plate. 5. Assignment of the higher class of the plates to the section In tubular sections, the section class is directly determined as if it was an unique plate, with parameters GeomRat and Limits calculated as follows GeomRat = outer diameter/ thickness.
10-A-24
In class 4 sections, the section resistance is reduced, using the effective width method. For each section plate, the effective lengths at both ends of the plate and the reduction factors 1 and 2 are calculated. These factors connect the length of the effective zone at each plate end with its width. Effective_length_end1 = plate_width* Effective_length_end 2 = plate_width* In this process the formulation included in Eurocode 3 has been used: = 1. Internal plates: For
2/ 1
10-A-25
beff plate_width
2
For
10-A-26
Figure 10-A.7-4
beff
bc
c /(1
beff bt plate_width
2
For
bc
c /(1
beff plate_width
bt plate_width
and
2
If end 2 is the fixed end, the values The global reduction factor For p 0.673
For
0.673
p
0.22
2 p
10-A-27
bt
p
28.4 k 0
where:
b
= = =
k0 = buckling factor To determine effective section properties three steps are followed: 1. Effective widths of flanges are calculated from factors and calculated with the gross section properties. As result, an intermediate section, with reduced flanges and webs corresponding to a gross section, is obtained. The resultant section properties are obtained and factors are calculated again. 3. and
Effective widths of webs are determined, so the effective section is determined. Finally, the section properties are recalculated again.
In the table of the effective section data are included the recalculated section properties. The checking is accomplished with the gross, net or effective section properties, according to the section class and to the checking type. Each checking type follows a specific procedure that is explained in the following sections.
10-A.7.2
Corresponds to chapter 5.4.3 in ENV 1993-1-1:1992 and chapter 6.2.3 in EN 1993-1-1:2005. 1. Forces and moments selection The forces and moments considered in this checking type are: Nd = FX Design value of the axial force (positive if it is tensile force, if it is compression, the element is not processed). Represented as NSd in ENV 1993-1-1:1992 and NEd in EN 1993-1-1:2005.
2.
Class definition and effective section properties calculation. In this verification type, the section class is always 1 and the considered section is the gross or the net section. Criteria calculation For members under axial tension, the general criterion Crt_TOT is checked at each section. This criterion coincides with the axial criterion Crt_N .
3.
10-A-28
Nd
Nt.Rd
Crt_TOT
Crt_N
Nd Nt.Rd
where Nt.Rd is the design tension resistance of the cross-section, taken as the smaller value of:
NPl.Rd
Afy /M 0
design plastic resistance of the gross crosssection design ultimate resistance of the net crosssection
Nu.Rd
0.9Anet fu /M2
4.
Output results written in the CivilFEM results file (.RCV) as an alternative. Checking results: criteria and variables are described at the following table: Table 10-A.7-1 Checking of Members in Axial Tension Concepts Description NSd NEd Nt.Rd Nd/Nt.Rd Npl.Rd Nu.Rd Design value of the tensile force (ENV 1993-11:1992). Design value of the tensile force (EN 1993-11:2005). Design tension resistance of the cross-section. Axial criterion. Eurocode 3 global criterion. Design plastic resistance of the gross cross-section. Design ultimate resistance.
CRT_TOT Nd/Nt.Rd
10-A.7.3
Corresponds to chapter 5.4.4 in ENV 1993-1-1:1992 and chapter 6.2.4 in EN 1993-1-1:2005. 1. Forces and moments selection. The forces and moments considered in this checking type are: Nd = FX Design value of the axial force (positive if it is tensile force, if it is compression, the element is not processed). Represented as NSd in ENV 1993-1-1:1992 and NEd in EN 1993-1-1:2005.
2.
Class definition and effective section properties calculation. In this verification type, the section class is always 1 and the considered section is the gross or the net section. Criteria calculation For members in axial compression, the general criterion Crt_TOT is
3.
10-A-29
checked at each section. This criterion coincides with the axial criterion Crt_N:
NSd
Nc.Rd Crt_TOT
Crt_N
NSd Nc.Rd
where Nc.Rd is the design compression resistance of the cross-section Class 1,2 or 3 cross-sections:
Nc.Rd
Table 10-A.7-2 Checking of Members in Axial Compression Result Concepts Description NSD NED NCRD CRT_N CLASS AREA A,Aeff NSd NEd Nc.Rd Nd/Nc.Rd Design axial force (ENV 1993-1-1:1992). Design axial force (EN 1993-1-1:2005). Design compression strength of the cross-section. Axial criterion. Eurocode 3 global criterion. Section Class. Used area of the section (Gross or Effective).
CRT_TOT Nd/Nc.Rd
10-A.7.4
Corresponds to chapter 5.4.5 in ENV 1993-1-1:1992 and chapter 6.2.5 in EN 1993-1-1:2005. 1. Forces and moments selection. The forces and moments considered in this checking type are: Md = MY or MZ Design value of the bending moment along the relevant axis for bending. Represented as MSd in ENV 1993-1-1:1992 and MEd in EN 1993-1-1:2005.
2.
Class definition and effective section properties calculation. The class section is determined by the sections general processing and with the previously selected forces and moments if the selected option is partial, or with all the forces and moments if the option is full. All the calculation is accomplished with the gross section properties.
10-A-30
3.
Criteria calculation In members subjected to bending moment and in the absence of shear force, the following condition at each section is checked:
Crt_My
Md Mc.Rd
Md Mc.Rd
Mc.Rd
design value of the bending moment design moment resistance of the cross-section
Class 1 or 2 cross-sections:
WPl fy / M 0
Mc.Rd
Wel fy / M 0
Weff fy / M1
Mc.Rd
4.
Output results written in the CivilFEM results file (.RCV) as an alternative. Checking results: criteria and variables are described at the following table.
Table 10-A.7-3 Checking of Members under Bending Moment Result Concepts Description MSD MED MCRD CRT_M CLASS W Wel,W pl,W eff MSd MEd Mc.Rd Md/Mc.Rd Design value of the bending moment (ENV 1993-1-1:1992). Design value of the bending moment (EN 19931-1:2005). Design moment resistance of the cross-section. Bending criterion. Eurocode 3 global criterion. Section Class. Used section modulus (Elastic, Plastic or Effective).
CRT_TOT Md/Mc.Rd
10-A.7.5
Corresponds to chapter 5.4.6 in ENV 1993-1-1:1992 and chapter 6.2.6 in EN 1993-1-1:2005. 1. Forces and moments selection. The forces and moments considered in this checking type are:
10-A-31
Vd = FZ or FY
Design value of the shear force perpendicular to the relevant axis of bending. Represented as VSd in ENV 1993-1-1:1992 and VEd in EN 1993-1-1:2005.
2.
Class definition and effective section properties calculation. In this verification type, the section class is always 1 and the effective section is the gross section. Criteria calculation. In members under shear force, the following condition at each section is checked:
3.
Vd
where: Vd VPl.Rd Av
VPl.Rd
Crt_TOT
Crt_S
Vd VPl.Rd
design value of the shear force design plastic shear resistance: VPl.Rd
A v fy / 3
M 0
shear area, obtained subtracting from the gross area the Flanges_Area summation of the flanges areas: A v A Following modifications for previous computation of Av are taken: a. Rolled I and H sections, load parallel to web:
Av
Av
tw
2r t f
Av
Av
tw
r tf
EN 1993-1-1:2005 specifies some particular cases for the calculation of Av: Rolled I and H sections, load parallel to web:
Av
Av
tw
2r t f
hw t w
Rolled T shaped sections with load parallel to the web: A v 0.9 (A b t f ) Where: = 1.2 for steels with fy = 460 MPa = 1.0 for steels with fy > 460 MPa hw tw Web depth Web thickness
10-A-32
4.
Output results written in the CivilFEM results file (.RCV) as an alternative. Checking results: criteria and variables are described in the following table.
Table 10-A.7-4 Checking of Members under Shear Force Result Concepts Description VSD VED VPLRD CRT_S CLASS S_AREA Av VSd VEd Vpl.Rd Vd/Vpl.Rd Design value of the shear force (ENV 1993-1-1:1992). Design value of the shear force (EN 1993-1-1:2005). Design plastic shear resistance. Shear criterion. Eurocode 3 global criterion. Section Class. Shear area.
CRT_TOT Vd/Vpl.Rd
10-A.7.6
Corresponds to chapter 5.4.7 in ENV 1993-1-1:1992 and chapter 6.2.8 in EN 1993-1-1:2005. 1. Forces and moments selection. The forces and moments considered in this checking type are: Vd = FZ or FY Design value of the shear force perpendicular to the relevant axis of bending. Represented as VSd in ENV 1993-1-1:1992 and VEd in EN 1993-1-1:2005. Design value of the bending moment along the relevant axis of bending. Represented as MSd in ENV 1993-1-1:1992 and MEd in EN 1993-1-1:2005.
Md = MY or MZ
2.
Class definition and effective section properties calculation. The class section is determined by the sections general processing and with the previously selected forces and moments if the selected option is partial, or with all the forces and moments if the option is full. All the calculation is accomplished with the gross section properties. Criteria calculation. In members subjected to bending moment and shear force, the following condition at each section is checked:
Md MV.Rd
3.
Crt_TOT
Crt_BS
Md MV.Rd
where:
MV.Rd
10-A-33
The reduction by shear is applied if the design value of the shear force exceeds 50% of the design plastic shear resistance of the cross-section, that is when: Vd > 0.5 Vpl.Rd The design resistance moment is obtained as follows: a. For cross-sections with equal flanges, bending about the major axis (rolled or welded double T sections, channel sections and tubular rectangular sections):
MV.Rd
If Vd
Wpl
A2 v fy M 0 4t w
Vpl.Rd
2
2Vd Vpl.Rd
If Vd
Vpl.Rd
0
b. In other cases:
MV.Rd
Wpl fy (1
Note: This is equivalent to a reduction of the yield strength fy applied to the whole section, Eurocode 3 only requires to apply it to the shear area. It is a conservative simplification. For both cases MV.Rd must be adopted as the smaller value between MV.Rd and MC.Rd. MC.Rd is the design moment resistance of the cross-section, calculated according to the class. 4. Output results written in the CivilFEM results file (.RCV) as an alternative. Checking results: criteria and variables are described at the following table.
Table 10-A.7-5 Checking of Members under Bending Moment and Shear Force Result Concepts Description MSD VSD MED MSd VSd MEd Design value of the bending moment (ENV 1993-1-1:1992). Design value of the shear force (ENV 1993-11:1992). Design value of the bending moment (EN 1993-1-1:2005).
10-A-34
Design value of the shear force (EN 1993-11:2005). Reduced design resistance moment of the cross-section. Bending and Shear criterion. Eurocode 3 global criterion. Section Class. Shear area. Used section modulus (Elastic, Plastic or Effective). Design plastic shear resistance. Reduction factor.
10-A.7.7
Checking of Members under Bending Moment + Axial Force and Bi-axial Bending + Axial Force
Corresponds to chapter 5.4.8 in ENV 1993-1-1:1992 and chapter 6.2.9 in EN 1993-1-1:2005. 1. Forces and moments selection. The forces and moments considered in this checking type are: Nd = FX Design value of the axial force. Represented as NSd in ENV 1993-1-1:1992 and NEd in EN 1993-11:2005. Design value of the bending moment along the relevant axis of bending. Represented as My.Sd in ENV 1993-1-1:1992 and My.Ed in EN 1993-1-1:2005. Design value of the bending moment about the secondary axis of bending. Represented as Mz.Sd in ENV 1993-1-1:1992 and Mz.Ed in EN 1993-1-1:2005.
My.d = MY or MZ
Mz.d = MZ or MY
2.
Class definition and effective section properties calculation. The class section is determined by the sections general processing and with the previously selected forces and moments if the selected option is partial, or with all the forces and moments if the option is full. All the calculation is accomplished with the gross section properties. Criteria calculation. For members subjected to bi-axial bending and in absence of shear force, the following conditions at each section are checked: Class 1 and 2 sections:
3.
10-A-35
My.d MNy.Rd
Mz.d MNz.Rd
Crt_Mz
where MNy.Rd and MNz.Rd are the design moment resistance of the crosssection, reduced by the presence of the axial force:
MNy.Rd
Mypl.Rd 1
Nd
Npl.Rd
2
MNz.Rd
Where and
Mzpl.Rd 1
Nd
Npl.Rd
are constants, which may take the following values: = 2 and =5n
1
=2
but
Also EN 1993-1-1:2005 specifies that in case of rolled shapes with I or H sections, or other sections with flanges, it is not necessary to do reduce the design plastic strength for bending around the y-y axis due to the acial force, when the following two conditions are fulfiled:
10-A-36
Nd
Nd
0.25 Npl,Rd y
0.5 hw t w fy
M0
(if it does not reach half the tension strength of the web) The same is applicable for bending around the z-z axis due to the axial force. There is no reduction when the following condition is fulfiled (only EN 1993-1-1:2005):
Nd h w t w fy
M0
My.d MNy.Rd
condition equivalent to:
Crt_TOT
Crt_My
My.d MNy.Rd
Nd Afyd
condition equivalent to:
Crt_N
Crt_My
Crt_Mz
fy /
M0
where W el.y is the elastic resistant modulus about y axis and W el.z is the elastic resistant modulus about z axis. In absence of Mz.d the above criterion becomes:
10-A-37
Nd Afyd
which is equivalent to:
Crt_N
Crt_My
Class 4 sections:
Nd A eff fyd
condition equivalent to:
Crt_N
Nd A eff fyd My.d NdeNy Weff.y fyd Mz.d NdeNy Weff.z fyd
Crt_My
Crt_Mz
where: Aeff Weff.y Weff.z eNy eNz
effective area of the cross-section effective section modulus of the cross-section when subjected to a moment about the y axis effective section modulus of the cross-section when subjected to a moment about the z axis shift of the gravity center along the y axis shift of the gravity center along the z axis
10-A-38
Nd A eff fyd
which is equivalent to:
Crt_N
Crt_My
Crt_Mz
4.
Output results written in the CivilFEM results file (.RCV) as an alternative. Checking results: criteria and variables are described at the following table.
Table 10-A.7-6 Checking of Members under Bending Moment + Axial Force and Bi-axial Bending + Axial Force Result Concepts Description NSD MYSD MZSD NED MYED MZED NCRD MNYRD MNZRD NSd My.Sd Mz.Sd NEd My.Ed Mz.Ed Afyd, Aefffyd MNy.Rd, W el.yfyd, Weff.yfyd MNz.Rd, W el.zfyd, Weff.zfyd Design value of the axial force (ENV 1993-11:1992). Design value of the bending moment about Y axis (ENV 1993-1-1:1992). Design value of the bending moment about Z axis (ENV 1993-1-1:1992). Design value of the axial force (EN 1993-11:2005). Design value of the bending moment about Y axis (EN 1993-1-1:2005). Design value of the bending moment about Z axis (EN 1993-1-1:2005). Design compression resistance of the crosssection Reduced design moment resistance of the crosssection about Y axis Reduced design moment resistance of the crosssection about Z axis
10-A-39
Description Bending criterion along Y Bending criterion along Z Alpha constant Beta constant Eurocode 3 global criterion Section Class
CRT_TOT Crt_tot CLASS AREA WY WZ SIGXED ENY ENZ USE_MY USE_MZ PARM_N A,Aeff
Wel.y, W pl.y, W eff.y Used section Y modulus (Elastic, Plastic or Effective) Wel.z, W pl.z, W eff.z Used section Z modulus (Elastic, Plastic or Effective) X.Ed eNy eNz My.d+NdeNy Mz.d+NdeNz n Maximum longitudinal stress Shift of the Z axis in Y direction Shift of the Y axis in Z direction Modified design value of the bending moment about Y axis Modified design value of the bending moment about Z axis Parameter n
10-A.7.8
Corresponds to chapter 5.4.9 in ENV 1993-1-1:1992 and chapter 6.2.10 in EN 1993-1-1:2005. 1. Forces and moments selection The forces and moments considered in this checking type are: Nd = FX Design value of the axial force. Represented as NSd in ENV 1993-1-1:1992 and NEd in EN 1993-11:2005. Design value of the shear force perpendicular to the secondary axis of bending. Represented as Vy.Sd in ENV 1993-1-1:1992 and Vy.Ed in EN 1993-1-1:2005. Design value of the shear force perpendicular to the relevant axis of bending. Represented as Vz.Sd in ENV 1993-1-1:1992 and Vz.Ed in EN 1993-1-1:2005. Design value of the bending moment about the
Vy.d = FY or FZ
Vz.d FZ or FY
My.d = MY or MZ
10-A-40
relevant axis of bending. Represented as My.Sd in ENV 1993-1-1:1992 and My.Ed in EN 1993-1-1:2005. Mz.d = MZ or MY Design value of the bending moment about the secondary axis of bending. Represented as Mz.Sd in ENV 1993-1-1:1992 and Mz.Ed in EN 1993-1-1:2005.
2.
Class definition and effective section properties calculation. The class section is determined by the sections general processing and with the previously selected forces and moments if the selected option is partial, or with all the forces and moments if the option is full. All the calculation is accomplished with the gross section properties. Criteria calculation. In members subjected to bending, axial and shear force, the same conditions of the bending +axial force and bi-axial bending are checked at each section, reducing the design plastic resistance moment by the presence of shear force. The shear force effects is taken into account when it exceeds 50% of the design plastic resistance of the cross-section. In this case, both the axial and the shear force are taken into account. The axial force effects are included as said in the previous section, and the shear force effects are taken into account considering a yield strength for the cross-section, reduced by the factor (1- ), giving:
3.
fyd
where: = (2Vd /Vpl.Rd - 1)2 =0
fy 1
/ M 0
This yield strength reduction is selectively applied to the resistance of the cross-section along each axis, according to the previous conditions. Note: The yield strength reduction is applied to the whole cross-section, Eurocode only requires to apply it to the shear area. It is a conservative simplification. 4. Output results written in the CivilFEM results file (.RCV) as an alternative. Checking results: criteria and variables are described at the following table.
Table 10-A.7-7 Checking of Members under Bending, Shear and Axial Force Result Concepts Description NSD VZSD NSd VSd Design value of the axial force (ENV 19931-1: 1992). Design value of the shear force (ENV 19931-1: 1992).
10-A-41
Result VYSD MYSD MZSD NED VZED VYED MYED MZED NCRD MNYRD MNZRD CRT_N CRT_MY CRT_MZ ALPHA BETA RHO_Y RHO_Z CRT_TOT AREA WY WZ SIGXED
10-A-42
Concepts VSd My.Sd Mz.Sd NEd VEd VEd My.Ed Mz.Ed Afyd, Aefffyd MNy.Rd, Wyfyd(1-) MNz.Rd, Wzfyd(1- ) Nd/NcRd Myd/MNyRd Mzd/MNzRd Crt_tot A, Aeff Wel.y, W pl.y, W eff.y Wel.z, W pl.z, W eff.z x.Ed 1
Description Design value of the shear force (ENV 19931-1: 1992). Design value of the bending moment about Y axis (ENV 1993-1-1: 1992). Design value of the bending moment about Z axis (ENV 1993-1-1:1992). Design value of the axial force (EN 1993-11:2005). Design value of the shear force (EN 19931-1:2005). Design value of the shear force (EN 19931-1:2005). Design value of the bending moment about Y axis (EN 1993-1-1:2005). Design value of the bending moment about Z axis (EN 1993-1-1:2005). Design compression resistance of the cross-section. Reduced design moment Y resistance of the cross-section. Reduced design moment Z resistance of the cross-section. Axial criterion. Bending Y criterion. Bending Z criterion. Alpha constant. Beta constant. Reduction factor for MNYRD. Reduction factor for MNZRD. Eurocode 3 global criterion. Used area of the section (Gross or Effective). Used section Y modulus (Elastic, Plastic or Effective). Used section Z modulus (Elastic, Plastic or Effective). Maximum longitudinal stress.
Result ENY ENZ USE_MY USE_MZ SHY_AR SHZ_AR PARM_N eNy eNz
Concepts
Description Shift of the Z axis in Y direction. Shift of the Y axis in Z direction. Modified design value of the bending moment about Y axis. Modified design value of the bending moment about Z axis. Shear Y area. Shear Z area. Parameter n.
My.d+NdeNz Mz.d+NdeNy Av Av n
10-A.7.9
Corresponds to chapter 5.5.1 in ENV 1993-1-1:1992 and chapter 6.3.1 in EN 1993-1-1:2005. 1. Forces and moments selection. The forces and moments considered in this checking type are: Nd = FX Design value of the axial force (positive if it is compression, if it is not, the element is not processed). Represented as NSd in ENV 1993-11:1992 and NEd in EN 1993-1-1:2005.
2.
Class definition and effective section properties calculation. The class section is determined by the sections general processing and with the previously selected forces and moments if the selected option is partial, or with all the forces and moments if the option is full. All the calculation is accomplished with the gross section properties. Criteria calculation. When the buckling of compression members is been checking, the criterion is given by:
3.
Nd
where: Nb.Rd
Nb.Rd
Crt_TOT
Crt_CB
Nd Nb.Rd
Design buckling resistance. Nb.Rd = 1 for class 1, 2 or 3 sections. = Aeff /A for class 4 sections.
A fy /
M1
Reduction factor for the relevant buckling mode, the program does not consider the torsional or the lateraltorsional buckling.
10-A-43
1
2 2 1 2
0.5 1
0.2
where is an imperfection factor that depends on the buckling curve. This curve depends on the cross-section type, producing the following values for : Table 10-A.7-8 Imperfection factor
Section type
Rolled I Rolled I Rolled I Rolled I Rolled I Rolled I Rolled I Rolled I
Limits
h/b>1.2 and tf h/b>1.2 and tf 40mm 40mm 100mm 100mm
yy zz yy zz yy zz yy zz
h/b>1.2 and 40mm<t h/b>1.2 and 40mm<tf h/b h/b 1.2 and tf 1.2 and tf
100mm 100mm
tf>100mm tf>100mm
tf tf
40mm 40mm
yy zz yy zz
b c c d
tf >40mm tf >40mm
Rolled box and pipe Welded box and pipe (Using fyb)
Any Any
a b
0.21 0.34
Any yy zz Any
b c c c
10-A-44
for EN 1993-1-1:2005
Steel fy
< 460 MPa 460 MPa
Buckling axis
40mm yy
Buckling curve
a a0 b a0 b a c a b a c a d c d c 0.21 0.13 0.34 0.13 0.34 0.21 0.49 0.21 0.34 0.21 0.49 0.21 0.76 0.49 0.76 0.49
Rolled I
h/b>1.2 and t
Rolled I
h/b>1.2 and t
40mm
zz
< 460 MPa 460 MPa < 460 MPa 460 MPa < 460 MPa 460 MPa < 460 MPa 460 MPa < 460 MPa 460 MPa < 460 MPa 460 MPa < 460 MPa 460 MPa
Rolled I
yy
Rolled I
zz
Welded I
h/b
1.2 and t
100mm
yy
Welded I
h/b
1.2 and t
100mm
zz
Rolled I
t>100mm
yy
Rolled I
t>100mm
zz
t t
40mm 40mm
yy zz yy zz
b c c d
t >40mm t >40mm
< 460 MPa Pipes Hot finished Cold formed Thick weld: Reinforced box sections a/t>0.5 b/t<30 h/tw<30 In other case all all 460 MPa all
a a0 c
all all
all all
c b
0.49 0.34
U, T, plate
all
all
0.49
all
all
0.34
A Afy Ncr
1 2
10-A-45
where Ncr is the elastic critical force for the relevant buckling mode. (See section, Critical Forces and Moments Calculation). The elastic critical axial forces are calculated in the planes XY (Ncrxy) and XZ (Ncrxz) and the corresponding values of xy and xz , taking the smaller one as the final value for . = min( 4.
xy
xz
Output results written in the CivilFEM results file (.RCV) as an alternative. Checking results: criteria and variables are described at the following table.
Table 10-A.7-10 Checking for Buckling of Compression Members Result Concepts Description NSD NED NBRD CRT_CB CRT_TOT CHI BETA_A AREA CHI_Y CHI_Z CLASS PHI_Y PHI_Z LAM_Y LAM_Z NCR_Y NCR_Z
y
Design value of the compressive force (ENV 1993-1-1:1992). Design value of the compressive force (EN 1993-1-1:2005). Design buckling resistance of a compressed member. Compression buckling criterion. Eurocode 3 global criterion.
z
Reduction factor for the relevant buckling mode. Ratio of the used area to gross area. Area of the gross section. Reduction factor for the relevant My buckling mode. Reduction factor for the relevant Mz buckling mode. Section Class. Parameter Phi for bending My. Parameter Phi for bending Mz. Non-dimensional reduced slenderness for bending My. Non-dimensional reduced slenderness for bending Mz. Elastic critical force for the relevant My buckling mode. Elastic critical force for the relevant Mz buckling mode.
y z Ncr Ncr
10-A-46
Concepts y z
Description Imperfection factor for bending My. Imperfection factor for bending Mz.
2.
Class definition and effective section properties calculation. The class section is determined by the sections general processing and with the previously selected forces and moments if the selected option is partial, or with all the forces and moments if the option is full. All the calculation is accomplished with the gross section properties. Criteria calculation. When checking for lateral-torsional buckling of beams, the criterion shall be taken as:
3.
Md
where: Mb.Rd
Mb.Rd
Crt_TOT
Crt_LT
Md Mb.Rd
= 1 for class 1and 2 sections. = W el.y /W pl.y for class 3 sections. = W eff.y /W pl.y for class 4 sections.
LT
The value of
is calculated as:
1
LT LT 2 LT 2 LT 1 2
LT
0.5 1
LT
LT
0.2
2 LT
10-A-47
LT
Mcr w Wpl.y fy
where:
LT
Mcr
= 0.49 for welded sections. is the elastic critical moment for lateral-torsional buckling (See chapter Table 10-A.7-14 Checking for Lateral-Torsional Buckling of Members Subjected to Bending and Axial Compression for EN 1993-1-1:2005 Result Concepts Description NED NEd Design value of the axial compression force. Design value of the bending moment about Y axis. Design value of the bending moment about Z axis.
M1
MYED
My.Ed
MZED
Mz.Ed
NBRD1
Afy/
MYRD1
LT
W yfy/
Reduced design moment resistance of the crosssection about Y axis. Reduced design moment resistance of the crosssection about Z axis.
MZRD1
Wzfy/
M1
10-A-48
NBRD2
Afy/
M1
MYRD2
LT
W yfy/
Reduced design moment resistance of the crosssection about Y axis. Reduced design moment resistance of the crosssection about Z axis. Parameter Ky. Parameter Kz. Parameter KLT. Axial criterion. Bending Y criterion. Bending Z criterion. Axial criterion. Bending Y criterion. K=KyLT if torsion exists and if not present K= yKy Bending Z criterion.
MZRD2
Wzfy/
M1
Ky Kz KLT NEd/NcRd1
CRT_MY2 KCmy(My,Ed+NEdeNy)/MyRd2
CRT_N2+CRT_MY2+CRT_MZ2 Criterion 2
10-A-49
CRT_TOT Crt_tot
Reduction factor for the relevant buckling mode. Reduction factor for the relevant My buckling mode. Reduction factor for the relevant Mz buckling mode. Reduction factor for lateraltorsional buckling. Used area of the section (Gross or Effective). Used section Y modulus (Elastic, Plastic or Effective). Used section Z modulus (Elastic, Plastic or Effective). Shift of the Z axis in Y direction. Shift of the Y axis in Z direction.
CHI_Y
CHI_Z
CHI_LT
LT
AREA
A, Aeff
WY
WZ
ENY
eNy
ENZ
eNz
10-A-50
NCR_Y
Ncr
Elastic critical force for the relevant My buckling mode. Elastic critical force for the relevant Mz buckling mode. Elastic critical moment for lateraltorsional buckling. Nondimensional reduced slenderness for bending My. Nondimensional reduced slenderness for bending Mz. Nondimensional reduced slenderness for lateraltorsional buckling.
NCR_Z
Ncr
MCR
Mcr
LAM_Y
LAM_Z
LAM_LT
LT
Critical Forces and Moments Calculation) 4. Output results written in the CivilFEM results file (.RCV) as an alternative. Checking results: criteria and variables are described at the following table.
Table 10-A.7-11 Checking for Lateral-Torsional Buckling of Beams Subjected to Bending Result Concepts Description MSD MED MSd MEd Design value of the bending moment (ENV 19931-1:1992). Design value of the bending moment (EN 1993CivilFEM Theory Manual 300609. Ingeciber, S.A.
10-A-51
1-1:2005). MBRD CRT_LT CRT_TOT CLASS CHI_LT BETA_W WPL PHI_LT LAM_LT MCR ALP_LT
LT
Buckling resistance moment of a laterally unrestrained beam. Lateral-torsional buckling criterion. Eurocode 3 global criterion. Section Class. Reduction factor for lateral-torsional buckling. Ratio of the used modulus to plastic modulus. Plastic modulus. Parameter Phi for lateral-torsional buckling. Non-dimensional reduced slenderness. Elastic critical moment for lateral-torsional buckling. Imperfection factor for lateral-torsional buckling.
W Wpl.y
LT
LT Mcr LT
10-A.7.11 Checking Lateral-Torsional Buckling of Members Subjected to Combined Bending and Axial Tension
Corresponds to chapter 5.5.3 in ENV 1993-1-1:1992. Not available for EN 19931-1:2005. 1. Forces and moments selection. The forces and moments considered in this checking type are: NSd = FX Design value of the axial force (positive if it is tensile force, if it is compression, the element is not processed). Design value of the bending moment about the relevant bending axis.
MSd = MY or MZ 2.
Class definition and effective section properties calculation. The class section is determined by the sections general processing and with the previously selected forces and moments if the selected option is partial, or with all the forces and moments if the option is full. All the calculation is accomplished with the gross section properties. Criteria calculation. When studying lateral-torsional buckling of members subjected to combined bending and axial tension, the value of the axial force is multiplied by a reduction factor vec for treating the axial force and bending moment as a vector magnitude. The value of vec depends on the country where the code is going to be applied. That factor is introduced as a property at member level and
3.
10-A-52
usually its value is equal to: vec = 0.8 The stress in the extreme compression fiber is calculated as follows:
com.ed MSd Wcom vecNt.Sd A
where W com is the elastic section modulus for the extreme compression fiber and Nt.Sd is the design value of the axial tension. The verification equation is derived to:
Meff.Sd Mb.Rd
Meff.Sd
where Meff.Sd = W com 4.
Mb.Rd
Crt_TOT
Crt_LT
com.ed
Output results written in the CivilFEM results file (.RCV) as an alternative. Checking results: criteria and variables are described at the following table.
Table 10-A.7-12 Art. 5.5.3 Checking Lateral-Torsional Buckling of Members Subjected to Combined Bending and Axial Tension Results Concepts Description NTSD MSD MEFFSD MBRD CRT_LT CLASS WCOM Wcom Nt.Sd MSd Meff.Sd Mb.Rd Meff.Sd /Mb.Rd Design value of the axial tension. Design value of the bending moment. Effective design internal moment. Buckling resistance moment of a laterally unrestrained beam. Lateral-torsional buckling criterion. Eurocode 3 global criterion. Section Class. Elastic section modulus for the extreme compression fiber. Net calculated stress in the extreme compression fiber. Reduction factor for lateral-torsional buckling. Ratio of the used modulus to plastic modulus. Plastic modulus. Parameter Phi for lateral-torsional buckling. Esbeltez adimensional reducida. Elastic critical moment for lateral-torsional buckling.
CivilFEM Theory Manual 300609. Ingeciber, S.A. 10-A-53
LT
W Wpl.y
LT
LT Mcr
ALP_LT
LT
10-A.7.12 Checking for Lateral-Torsional Buckling of Members Subjected to Bending and Axial Compression
Corresponds to chapter 5.5.4 in ENV 1993-1-1:1992 and chapter 6.3.3 in EN 1993-1-1:2005. 1. Forces and moments selection. The forces and moments considered in this checking type are: Nd = FX Design value of the axial compression (positive in compression, if in tension the element is not processed). Represented as NSd in ENV 1993-11:1992 and NEd in EN 1993-1-1:2005. Design value of the bending moment about the relevant axis of bending. Represented as My.Sd in ENV 1993-1-1:1992 and My.Ed in EN 1993-11:2005. Design value of the bending moment about the secondary axis of bending. Represented as Mz.Sd in ENV 1993-1-1:1992 and Mz.Ed in EN 1993-11:2005.
My.d = MY or MZ
Mz.d = MZ or MY
2.
Class definition and effective section properties calculation. The class section is determined by the sections general processing and with the previously selected forces and moments if the selected option is partial, or with all the forces and moments if the option is full. All the calculation is accomplished with the gross section properties. Criteria calculation. ENV 1993-1-1:1992 When studying the lateral-torsional buckling of members subjected to combined bending and axial compression, the criterion to satisfy is given by:
3.
Nd Nb.Rd
My.d Myb.Rd
Mz.d Mzb.Rd
Crt_N
Nd Nb.Rd
10-A-54
Crt_My
My.d Myb.Rd
Mz.d Mzb.Rd
Crt_Mz
Nb.Rd Myb.Rd Mzb.Rd
Design buckling resistance for compression. Design buckling resistance moment (principal axis) Design buckling resistance moment (secondary axis).
The member resistances depend on the cross-section class and on the possibility that the lateral-torsional buckling is a potential failure mode for the structure. Members with class 1 and 2 cross-sections shall satisfy:
Nd min Afy /
where:
k yMy.d
M1
WPl.y fy /
M1
k zMz.d WPl.z fy / M1
ky
1
y
Nd A fy
1.5
My
Wpl.y
Wel.y
y
Wel.y
1 Nd kz z Afy
z
0.90
kz
1.5
Mz
Wpl.z
Welz
z
Wel.z
min
0.90
min( y ;
where:
y
and
are the reduction factors defined at the section corresponding to Checking for Buckling of Compression Members.
Mz
My
and
are equivalent uniform moment factors for flexural bending. These factors are entered as properties at member level (~MEMBPRO command). (See section Data at Member Level, factors BetaMy and BetaMz).
10-A-55
Members with Class 1 and 2 cross-sections for which lateral-torsional buckling is a potential failure mode shall satisfy:
Nd z Afy /
where:
kLTMy.d
M1 LT
WPl.y fy /
M1
k zMz.d WPl.z fy / M1
kLT
0.15
LT z
Nd A fy
LT
M.LT
0.15
LT
0.90
where M.LT is an equivalent uniform moment factor for lateral-torsional buckling. This factor, as the precedent ones BetaMy and BetaMz, is introduced as a member property. (See section data at Member Level, factor BetaMlt). Members with Class 3 cross-sections shall satisfy:
Nd min Afy /
where ky, kz and
k yMy.d
M1
Wel.y fy /
M1
k zMz.d Wel.zFy /
1
M1
min are
y y
0.90
Mz
0.90
Members with Class 3 cross-section for which lateral-torsional buckling is a potential failure mode shall satisfy:
Nd z Afy /
kLTMy.d
M1 LT Wel.y fy / M1
k zMz.d Wel.z fy / M1
Nd min Afy /
where: ky, kz and
k y (My.d NdeNy )
M1
Weff.y fy /
M1
min
are the same as for class 1 and 2 cross-section, but using the effective area Aeff, instead of the gross area A. are the same as for class 3 crosssections, but adding the moment Nd.eN that appears by the shift of the gravity center in the effective cross-section, when determining My and Mz.
and
10-A-56
defined in the section corresponding to Checking of members under bending and axial force and bi-axial bending.
Members with Class 4 cross-section for which lateral-torsional buckling is a potential failure mode shall satisfy:
Nd z Afy /
where: kLT
Lt
Wel.y fy /
M1
is the same as for class 1 and 2 cross-sections, but using the effective area Aeff, instead of the gross area A. is the same as for class 2 cross-sections, but adding the moment Nd.eN that appears by the shift of the gravity center in the effective cross-section, when determining MLT.
EN 1993-1-1:2005 and Annex B (method 2) The following criterion will always be calculated:
NEd Nb,Rd 1
K yCmy
My,Ed
eN,yNEd
Myb,Rd 1
K yCmz
Mz,Ed
eN,zNEd
Mzb,Rd 1
1
Crt_1 = Crt_N1 + Crt_My1 + Crt_Mz1 Also, for elements without torsional buckling:
NEd Nb,d 2
K yCmy
My,Ed
eN,yNEd
Myb,Rd 2
K zCmz
Mz,Ed
eN,zNEd
Mzb,Rd 2
NEd Nb,Rd 2
K yLT
My,Ed
eN,yNEd
Myb,Rd 2
K zCmz
Mz,Ed
eN,zNEd
Mzb,Rd 2
1
Crt_My1
K yCmy
My,Ed
eN,yNEd
Myb,Rd 1
10-A-57
Crt_Mz1
K yCmz
Mz,Ed
eN,zNEd
Mzb,Rd 1
Crt_TOT1
Crt_N2 NEd Nb,Rd 2
yK y Cmy
Crt_My2
My,Ed
eN,yNEd
Myb,Rd 2 eN,yNEd
Bending moment criterion 2 for principal axis without torsional buckling Bending moment criterion 2 for principal axis when torsional buckling is considered. Bending moment criterion 2 for secondary axis. Criterion 2 Global criterion.
Crt_My2
K yLT
My,Ed
Myb,Rd 2
Mz,Ed eN,zNEd
Crt_Mz2
K ZCmz
Mzb,Rd 2
Nb,Rd1 Nb,Rd2
(
LT
z
Afy /
M1
Mb,Rdy1
LT
Wy fy /
M1
Mb,Rdy1
Mb,Rdy2
Wz fy /
Wz fy /
M1
Afy /
M1
Mb,Rdy2
LT
Wy fy /
M1
M1
and
corresponding to checking for Buckling of Compression Members. lateral buckling factor according to 6.3.2.2. Is 1 for members not susceptible to torsional deformations
LT
eN,y and eN,z shifts of the centroid of the effective area relative to the centre of gravity of the gross section in class 4 members for y, z axes. cm,y , cm,z and cm,LT are equivalent uniform moment factors for flexural
bending. These factors are entered as member properties at member level. (See CMy, CMy and CMz). These factors may be taken from Table B.3 from Annex B of code EN 1993-1-1:2005. Checking parameters: Class A
Wy
Wz
eN,y
eN,z eN,z
10-A-58
1 2 3
A A A
Wpl,y Wpl,y
Wpl,z Wpl,z
0.6 0.6 1
Wel,y
Wel,z
Aeff
Weff,y
Weff,z
0.8
Ky
Kz
1 2 0.6 NEd z NC,Rd
K yLT
0.2
NEd yNC,Rd
1
z
1
0.2 NEd z NC,Rd NEd z NC,Rd
0.1. c mLT
0.25
3y4
All sections
1 0.6
NEd y NC,Rd
1 0.6
where:
y
Limited slenderness values for y-y and z-z axes. Minor than 1.
fy
M1
NC,Rd
A*
4.
Output results written in the CivilFEM results file (.RCV) as an alternative. Checking results: criteria and variables are described at the following table.
Table 10-A.7-13 Checking for Lateral-Torsional Buckling of Members Subjected to Bending and Axial Compression for ENV 1993-1-1:1992 Result Concepts Description NSD MYSD NSd My.Sd Design value of the axial compression force. Design value of the bending moment
10-A-59
M1
Design compression resistance of the cross-section. , Reduced design moment resistance of the cross-section about Y axis. Reduced design moment resistance of the cross-section about Z axis. Interaction factor Ky. Interaction factor Kz. Interaction factor KLT. Axial criterion. Bending Y criterion. Bending Z criterion. Eurocode 3 global criterion. Section Class.
M1
M1
MZRD
M1
M1
K(Myd+NdeNy)/MyRd K(Mzd+NdeNz)/MzRd 1
CRT_TOT Crt_tot CLASS CHIMIN CHI_Y CHI_Z CHI_LT AREA WY WZ ENY ENZ NCR_Y NCR_Z Min{
y
Reduction factor for the relevant buckling mode. Reduction factor for the relevant My buckling mode. Reduction factor for the relevant Mz buckling mode. Reduction factor for lateral-torsional buckling. Used area of the section (Gross or Effective). Used section Y modulus (Elastic, Plastic or Effective). Used section Z modulus (Elastic, Plastic or Effective). Shift of the Z axis in Y direction. Shift of the Y axis in Z direction. Elastic critical force for the relevant My buckling mode. Elastic critical force for the relevant Mz
LT
A, Aeff Wel.y, W pl.y, W eff.y Wel.z, W pl.z, W eff.z eNy eNz Ncr Ncr
10-A-60
Result MCR ALP_Y ALP_Z ALP_LT LAM_Y LAM_Z LAM_LT MU_Y MU_Z MU_LT Mcr y z LT y z LT
Concepts
Description buckling mode. Elastic critical moment for lateral-torsional buckling. Imperfection factor for bending My. Imperfection factor for bending Mz. Imperfection factor for lateral-torsional buckling. Non-dimensional reduced slenderness for bending My. Non-dimensional reduced slenderness for bending Mz. Non-dimensional reduced slenderness for lateral-torsional buckling. Parameter Muy for bending My. Parameter Muz for bending Mz. Parameter MuLT for lateral-torsional buckling.
LT
Table 10-A.7-14 Checking for Lateral-Torsional Buckling of Members Subjected to Bending and Axial Compression for EN 1993-1-1:2005 Result Concepts Description NED MYED MZED NBRD1 MYRD1 MZRD1 NBRD2 MYRD2 MZRD2 NEd My.Ed Mz.Ed Afy/ Design value of the axial compression force. Design value of the bending moment about Y axis. Design value of the bending moment about Z axis.
M1
LT
W yfy/
Reduced design moment resistance of the cross-section about Y axis. Reduced design moment resistance of the cross-section about Z axis.
Wzfy/
z
M1
Afy/
M1
LT
W yfy/
Reduced design moment resistance of the cross-section about Y axis. Reduced design moment resistance of the
Wzfy/
M1
10-A-61
Concepts
Description cross-section about Z axis. Parameter Ky. Parameter Kz. Parameter KLT. Axial criterion.
NEd/NcRd1
Bending Z criterion.
CRT_MY2 KCmy(My,Ed+NEdeNy)/ Bending Y criterion. K=KyLT if torsion MyRd2 exists and if not present K= yKy CRT_MZ2 KzCmz(Mz,Ed+NEdeNz) Bending Z criterion. /Mzb,Rd2 CRT_2 CRT_N2+CRT_MY2 Criterion 2 +CRT_MZ2 1 Eurocode 3 global criterion. Section Class. Min{
y y
CRT_TOT Crt_tot CLASS CHIMIN CHI_Y CHI_Z CHI_LT AREA WY WZ ENY ENZ NCR_Y ,
Reduction factor for the relevant buckling mode. Reduction factor for the relevant My buckling mode. Reduction factor for the relevant Mz buckling mode. Reduction factor for lateral-torsional buckling. Used area of the section (Gross or Effective). Used section Y modulus (Elastic, Plastic or Effective). Used section Z modulus (Elastic, Plastic or Effective). Shift of the Z axis in Y direction. Shift of the Y axis in Z direction. Elastic critical force for the relevant My
LT
A, Aeff Wel.y, W pl.y, W eff.y Wel.z, W pl.z, W eff.z eNy eNz Ncr
10-A-62
Concepts
Description buckling mode. Elastic critical force for the relevant Mz buckling mode. Elastic critical moment for lateral-torsional buckling. Non-dimensional reduced slenderness for bending My. Non-dimensional reduced slenderness for bending Mz. Non-dimensional reduced slenderness for lateral-torsional buckling.
Ncrxy
AE 2 2 xy
AE 2 2 xz
AE
ixy L xy
ixz L xz
Ncrxz
AE
Elastic critical axial force in plane XY. Elastic critical axial force in plane XZ. Gross area. Elasticity modulus. Member slenderness in plane XY. Member slenderness in plane XZ. Radius of gyration of the member in plane XY. Radius of gyration of the member in plane XZ. Buckling length of member in plane XY. Buckling length of member in plane XZ.
The buckling length in both planes is the length between ends restrained against lateral movement and it is obtained from the member properties, according to the following expressions:
10-A-63
Lxy
LCfbuckxy
Lxz
where: Cfbuckxy Cfbuckxz
LCfbuckxz
For the calculation of the elastic critical moment for lateral-torsional buckling, Mcr, the following equation, valid only for uniform symmetrical cross-sections about the minor axis, shall be used (Annex F, ENV 1993-1-1:1992). Eurocode 3 does not give the method for calculating this moment in nonsymmetrical crosssections or sections with other symmetry plane (angles, channel section, etc.).
2
Mcr
C1
EIz
2
kL
k kw
Iw Iz
kL GIt
2
1 2
EIz
C2 z g
C3 z j
C2 z g
C3 z j
zj
zs
0.5 y2 Iy A
z2 z dA
where: Mcr C1, C2 y C3 k y kw E Iy Iz L G zg za Elastic critical moment for lateral-torsional buckling. Factors depending on the loading and end restraint conditions. Effective length factors. Elasticity modulus. Moment of inertia about the principal axis. Moment of inertia about the minor axis. Length of the member between end restraints. Shear modulus. za zs Coordinate of the point of load application. ANSYS always considers that the load is applied at the gravity center, therefore: za = 0. Coordinate of the shear center. Cross-section area.
zs A
Factors C and k are read from the properties at member level (~MEBMPRO command). The integration of the previous equation is calculated as a summation extended at each plate. This calculation is accomplished for each plate according to its ends coordinates: y1, z1 and y2, z2 and its thickness s.
10-A-64
y
A
z dA
i 1
si *
Li
y2
z2 z dl
y z
Li y1 - y 2
2
y1 l*cos z1 l*sin
z2 y2 z1 y1
2
arctang
z1 - z 2
= plate width
Li
Figure 10-A.7-6
10-A-65
Compression Check .................................................................................. 7 10-B.3.1 Checking for Buckling of Members Subjected to Axial Compression............................................................................. 7 10-B.3.2 Checking for Buckling of Members Subjected to Axial Force + Bending Moment ....................................................................... 7 10-B.3.3 Calculation of the Maximum Equivalent Stress in the Section .. 7 10-B.3.4 Calculation of EA Criterion ........................................................ 8
10-B.4
Tension Check ........................................................................................... 9 10-B.4.1 Calculation of the Net Section Area .......................................... 9 10-B.4.2 Checking of Members Subjected to Tension ............................ 9 10-B.4.3 Checking of Members Subjected to Bending Moment + Axial Tension ..................................................................................... 9 10-B.4.4 Calculation of the Maximum Equivalent Stress in the Section 10 10-B.4.5 Calculation of EA Criterion ...................................................... 10
10-B.5
Bending Check ........................................................................................ 11 10-B.5.1 Calculation of Maximum Combined Stress ............................. 11 10-B.5.2 Calculation of the Maximum Tangential Stress ....................... 11 10-B.5.3 Calculation of the Maximum Equivalent Stress in the Section 12 10-B.5.4 Calculation of the EA Criterion ................................................ 12
10-B.1 Scope
10-B.1 Scope
The checking of steel structures according to EA in CivilFEM is included in the checking of steel structures made of rolled or welded shapes. The calculations are accomplished according to the prescriptions included in the articles 3.1, 3.2 and 3.4 of the EA Code. Cross sections available for checking are those accessible by library as well as by sections created by dimensions or by plates. The solid sections made by structural steel are also available for checking.
10-B-1
The design steel strength u is obtained from the material yield strength e and from its partial safety factor a, according to the prescriptions included in the article 3.1.7. of the EA Code:
u e
a
where:
e a
Both the steel yield strength e and the partial safety factor a should be previously defined in the material properties associated to each element. (See ~CFMP command).
10-B.2.2
Section Data
The section data of the element must be included in CivilFEM database. All geometrical and mechanical properties are automatically obtained defining the cross section or capturing the solid section. Below the section data necessary for checking according to EA are listed: Table 10-B.2-1 Section Data Data A Iy Iz Iyz Y Z iy iz Yws Zws Xwt Description Area of the cross-section Moment of inertia about Y axis Moment of inertia about Z axis Product of inertia about YZ Coordinate Y of the considered fiber Coordinate Z of the considered fiber Radius of gyration about Y axis Radius of gyration about Z axis Shear area in Y Shear area in Z Torsional modulus
10-B-3
10-B.2.3
Forces and moments for elements ends are obtained from CivilFEMs results file (file. RCV) for the selected load step and substep. Table 10-B.2-2 Forces and Moments Forces and Moments Nx Ty Tz Tx My Mz Description Axial force. Design Shear force in Y. Design Shear force in Z. Design torsional moment. Bending moment in Y. Bending moment in Z.
10-B.2.4
The mechanic slenderness of the member in both planes is calculated from the unbraced length of the member L, the buckling length factors in both planes XY and XZ, (see ~MEMBPRO command), and from the radius of gyration of the section i y and iz. Finally, the maximum slenderness is adopted:
xy L xy iz
xz
xz iy
xv
10-B-4
10-B.2.5
The coefficient is obtained from the modulus of elasticity Ex, the steel yield strength e, ( e is taken as the maximum of the plates), and from the maximum slenderness of the member , using the following formulation:
Euler
Ex
B Euler 1.3 e
Crit B B2 4 Euler e 2
e Crit
For each element the calculated value is stored as an alternative in CivilFEMs results file (file.RCV) with the parameter name OMEGA.
10-B-5
10-B.3.1
The axial direct stress is calculated considering the buckling factor previously calculated, as the product of the axial compressive force acting on the section by the buckling factor divided by the area of the section. This value is stored for each element end in the active alternative in the CivilFEMs results file with the parameter name SDYMZM:
SDYMZM
Nx A
10-B.3.2
The combined stresses due to the axial compression force and to bending moments around the Y and Z axes are calculated from the forces and moments values, from the stresses in each one of the sections points and from the mechanical properties of the section, taking into account the buckling factor :
(Stress at point)
(-1)
Nx A
cmax
pto,max
pto,max
(-1)
Nx A
x.
The maximum combined stress obtained in such way for each element end is stored in the active alternative in the CivilFEMs results file with the parameter name SCMAX.
10-B.3.3
The maximum equivalent stress in the section * is taken as the value of the maximum combined stress cmax calculated in the previous section:
cmax
10-B-7
The maximum equivalent stress for each element end is stored in the active alternative in the CivilFEMs results file with the parameter name SCEQV.
10-B.3.4
Calculation of EA Criterion
The equivalent stress obtained is divided by the steel design strength u in order to obtain a value, stored as the CRT_TOT parameter in the CivilFEMs results file for each element end. This value shall vary between 0.0 and 1.0 so that the element will be valid according to the EA code, that is, the equivalent stress must be lower than the steel design stress.
CRT_TOT * u
10-B-8
10-B.4.1
The net section area is calculated from the holes area (AHOLES parameter of the ~SECMDF command) and the gross area, subtracting to the gross area the corresponding area of the holes:
An
A Aholes
10-B.4.2
The stress due to the axial tension force is calculated as the greater of the following values: The quotient between axial tension force acting in the section FX and the section area. The quotient between axial tension force acting in the section minus 0.4 multiplied by the sum of the forces F transmitted by the bolts placed in the net section that is being checked, and the net section area. This value is stored in the active alternative in the CivilFEMs results file with the parameter named SDYMZM:
SDYMZM max
Nx Nx 0.4F , A An
10-B.4.3
The combined stresses due to the axial tension force and bending moments around the Y and Z axes are calculated from the forces and moments values, from the stresses in each section point and from the mechanical properties of the section, taking into account the net section area and the sum of forces and moments transmitted by the bolts situated in the net section:
cmax
Where
pto,max
pto,max
Nx A
SDYMZM
x.
10-B-9
The maximum combined stress obtained in such way for each element end is stored in the active alternative in the CivilFEMs results file with the parameter named SCMAX.
10-B.4.4
The maximum equivalent stress in the section * is taken as the value of the maximum combined stress cmax calculated in the previous section:
cmax
The maximum equivalent stress for each element end is stored in the active alternative in the CivilFEMs results file with the parameter named SCEQV.
10-B.4.5
Calculation of EA Criterion
The equivalent stress obtained is divided by the steel design strength u in order to obtain a value, stored as the CRT_TOT parameter in the CivilFEMs results file for each element end. This value shall vary between 0.0 and 1.0 so that the element will be valid according to the EA code, that is, the equivalent stress must be lower than the steel design stress.
CRT_TOT * u
10-B-10
10-B.5.1
The combined stresses due to the axial force and bending moments around the Y and Z axes are calculated from the stresses in each one of the sections points and from the mechanical properties of the section.
cmax
Where
pto,max
pto,max
x.
The maximum combined stress obtained in such way for each element end is stored in the active alternative in the CivilFEMs results file with the parameter named SCMAX.
10-B.5.2
The maximum tangential shear and torsion stresses for each element end are calculated from the shear forces and torsional moments and from the section mechanical properties with the following equations: Error! No se pueden crear objetos modificando cdigos de campo.
Tz Z ws
xz
Tx X wt
where:
xy xz
Maximum tangential stress due to the shear force T y. Maximum tangential stress due to the shear force T z. Shear area about Y axis. Shear area about Z axis. Maximum tangential stress due to torsion. Torsional resistant modulus.
Yws Zws
t
Xwt
10-B-11
The maximum tangential stress is taken as the maximum of the sum of the maximum tangential stresses due to the torsional moment and the maximum tangential stress due to the shear force for the Y and Z axes directions:
smax
max(
xy
xz
The maximum tangential stress for each element end is stored in the active alternative in the CivilFEMs results file with the parameter named SSMAX.
10-B.5.3
The equivalent stress * is calculated according to the specifications stated in the article 3.4.3.5 of the code, through the following expression:
cmax 2 3 smax 2
The maximum equivalent stress for each element end is stored in the active alternative in the CivilFEMs results file with the parameter named SCEQV.
10-B.5.4
The equivalent stress obtained is divided by the steel design strength u in order to obtain a value, stored as the CRT_TOT parameter in the active alternative in the CivilFEMs results file for each element end. This value shall vary between 0.0 and 1.0 so that the element will be valid according to the EA code, that is, the equivalent stress must be lower than the steel design stress.
CRT_TOT * u
10-B-12
10-C.1 Scope
10-C.1 Scope
BS 5950 (1985) is the British standard for the structural use of steelwork in building, widely in use in regions which experience or have experienced British influence. The purpose of this manual is to define the reach and method of implementing this method within CivilFEM. All the different types of analyses considered in this standard have been developed according to the ultimate limit state in accordance with the simple and rigid design methods. Semi-rigid design and experimental verification fall beyond the scope of this specification. The cross sections that can be checked are rolled or welded, subjected to axial forces, shear and bending in 2D and 3D, as well as solid sections subjected to the aforementioned forces. The calculations made by CivilFEM correspond to the prescriptions of British Standard 5950 (1985) Structural use of steelwork in building: Part 1. Code of practice for design in simple and continuous construction.
10-C-1
10-C-3
Moreover, it is possible to check solid sections captured from 2D or 3D models with a transversal cross section classified as structural steel.
10-C-5
10-C-7
The description of the first two coordinate systems can be found in Chapter 5: Axis Orientation in Beam Sections
YCF YBS YS
ZCF
ZS
O
XBS
Figure 10-C.5-1 Axis Orientation in Beam Sections In the BS 5950 (1985) axis system: The system origin coincides with the CivilFEM one The ZBS axis coincides with the CivilFEM X axis The XBS axis is the principal axis for bending and its orientation is defined by the user (~MEMBPRO and ~CHKSTL commands). The YBS axis is perpendicular to the plane defined by the X and Y-axis, in such a way as to ensure a right-handed system. To define this reference system, the user must indicate which of the CivilFEM axis: -Z, -Y, +Z or +Y coincides with the relevant axis for positive bending. The user may define this reference system with the commands: ~MEMBPRO, when defining member properties for British Standard 5950 (1985) or ~CHKSTL when checking according to this code. However, in case of any contradiction, the adopted option is the one established with ~MEMBPRO command, the one introduced through ~CHKSTL command is neglected.
10-C-9
10-C.6.1
Section Data
BS 5950 (1985) considers the following data set for the cross section: Gross section data. Net section data. Effective section data. Data concerning to the section and element class. Gross section data correspond to the nominal properties of the cross-section. From net section only the area is considered. This area is calculated discounting the area of holes for screws, rivets and other holes from the gross section area, taking into account the deduction for fastener holes according to section 3.4 of the code. The area of holes is introduced through the parameter AHOLES as a code property (see ~SECMDF command). In the case of the effective section, the only data considered is the area, which is obtained from the net area, multiplying it by a coefficient Ke which depends on type of steel used. Section and element class data are obtained using table 7 (section 3.5.2) of BS 5950 (1985), which limits the width to thickness ratios for each section class according to section type (hot-rolled or welded), element type (web or flange) and position (internal or external element). CivilFEM adopts the section class as the biggest from all the elements (least favorable).
10-C-10
A stress reduction factor (fr) is calculated for slender (class 4) sections. For other sections no stress reduction factor is applied (f r=1). The BS 5950 (1985) module takes the gross section data in user units and CivilFEM axis or section axis as initial data (see the section corresponding to Reference axis in beam sections in Chapter 5 of this Manual). The data are properly transformed from the sections axis into the BS 5950 (1985) axis and the results are given in the code axis. The program calculates the effective and net section data and the class data, and stores them in CivilFEMs results file, in user units and in the CivilFEM coordinate system. All these data can be listed and plotted with ~CSLST and ~PRSTL commands. The section data used in BS 5950-1985 is shown in the following tables:
I.- Section Dimensions
Description Input data: 1.- Height 2.- Web thickness 3.- Flanges thickness 4.- Flanges width 5.- Distance between flanges 6.- Radius of fillet (Rolled shapes) 7.- Toe radius (Rolled shapes) 8.- Weld throat thickness (Welded shapes) 9.- Web free depth Output data H Tw Tf B Hi r1 r2 a d (None) Data
10-C-11
Chapter 10-C Steel Structures according to BS 5950 (1985) 10.- Product of inertia 11.- Elastic resistant modulus 12.- Plastic resistant modulus 13.- Radius of gyration 14.- Coordinates of the center of gravity 15.- Distance between GC and SC in X and in Y 16.- Distance CG to shear center along Y axis 17.- Distance CG to shear center along X axis 18.- Warping Constant 19.- Shear resistant areas 20.- Torsional resistant modulus Output Data: 1.- Y coordinate of plastic center 2.- X coordinate of plastic center 3.- Stress Reduction Factor 4.- Maximum thickness 5.- N Parameter 6.- Section Class 7.- Web class for shear buckling check (X axis) 8.- Web class for shear buckling check (Y axis) * The section properties listed here in are related to the BS coordinate system (XBS, YBS, ZBS) Yp Xp fr EPSmax NsupCmp Cls ClsAlmX ClsAlmY Ixy Wx, Wy Wpx, Wpy ix, iy Ymin, Ymax, Xmin, Xmax Xms, Yms Ys Xs Iw Yws, Xws Zwt
An
A AHOLES
* Deduction for holes are introduced as a code property (see chapter 5 of this manual)
10-C-12
The effective area is obtained by multiplying the previously obtained net area by a coefficient Ke, dependent on the material properties (see chapter 3 of this manual).
Description Input data: 1.- Net Area 2.- Ke Output data: 1.- Effective Area * Ae Anet Ke Data
Ae
Ke An with A e
A (Gross area)
10-C.6.2
Member Properties
The data used at member level by BS 5950 (1985) is shown in the following table. All the data is stored with the section data in user units and in the CivilFEM coordinate system. (Parameters L, Kcxy, Kcxz, KLtxy, KLtxz, CFBUCKXY, CFBUCKXZ CteRob, n, m, DL and CHCKAXIS of the ~MEMBPRO command). Table 10-C.6-1 Member Properties
10-C-13
Chapter 10-C Steel Structures according to BS 5950 (1985) Description Input data: 1.- Unbraced length of member 2.- Compression buckling factor for plane XY 3.- Compression buckling factor for plane XZ 4.- Lateral torsional buckling factor for plane XY 5.- Lateral torsional buckling factor for plane XZ 6.- Buckling factors for planes XY and XZ (Unbraced length for plane XY =L*Cfbuckxy ) (Unbraced length for plane XZ =L*Cfbuckxz ) 7.- Robertson Constant 8.- Equivalent uniform moment factor 9.- Slenderness correction factor 10.- Depth of the lip 11.- CivilFEM Axis which is the X axis in BS 5950 (1985) 0: Not defined 1: -Z CivilFEM 2: +Y CivilFEM 3: +Z CivilFEM 4: -Y CivilFEM Output data: L Kcxy Kcxz KLtxy Kltxz Cfbuckxy, Cfbuckxz CteRob m n DL CHCKAXIS Section 4.7.2 Section 4.7.2 Section 4.3.5 Section 4.3.5 Data Article
10-C.6.3
Material Properties
BS 5950 (1985) uses the following material properties in its checks, and refers to BS 4360: Table 10-C.6-2 Material properties
Description Specified minimum yield strength Specified minimum ultimate tensile strength Design strength (from table 6, 3.1.1) Modulus of elasticity Poissons ratio Coefficient of linear thermal expansion Effective/net area ratio (section 3.3.3) Material strength factor Constant Shear Modulus *th =thickness of plate considered Properties, symbol Ys Us py E=205kN.mm =0.3 =12 10 Ke
m=1 -6 -2
-1
12
275 py
G
10-C-14
Notes: 1. Of all these coefficients, those used by ANSYS are, the steel elasticity modulus E, Poissons ratio , and the coefficient of linear thermal expansion . 2. The value of the material strength factor m is taken as 1 (section 2.1.1) 3. The standard considers other safety coefficients such as l, p and f which depend on the type of load and which the user will have to enter manually in the load combination module . 4. The constant is calculated by CivilFEM and stored in the material properties
10-C.6.4
The forces relevant to each check are obtained from the CivilFEM results file (.RCV) for the selected load step and substep. CivilFEM will perform all the necessary conversions to comply with the units, axis and criteria of BS 5950 (1985), including sign-changes according the conventions used in the standard. CivilFEM works internally using the standards units and conventions. The forces and moments considered are shown in the following table. The forces and moments represented here in are referred to BS 5950 (1985) axis (relevant axis for bending X). All the terms are the used by the code. Table 9.7-3 Forces and moments External Load F FVX FVY MX MY Axial force Shear force about major axis (X) Shear force about minor axis (Y) Bending moment about major axis Bending moment about minor axis Description
10-C-15
3.
Ke
M
E 2*(1 )
en N/mm2)
b. Obtain the cross-section data corresponding to the element. c. Determination of section class. d. Calculate reduction factors to apply to the design strength in the case of slender sections (class 4). e. Obtain forces acting on the section (Fx, Fvx, Fvy, Mx, My). f. Specific section checking according to the type of external load. g. Writing of results, which will be stored in the CivilFEM results file (.RCV) as an alternative.
10-C-16
10-C.7.1
According to BS 5950 (1985), the sections are made up of different elements, which can be classified according to: a) The way they work: Webs and flanges in the X and Y axis, depending on which is the principal bending axis. The classification of the elements according to the way they work (webs or flanges) is included in the program section library. In other cases the user can specify it or, by default, the program will automatically determine it as a function of the angle with respect to the principal axis of bending, following the below criterion: For For
45 Web 45 Flange
b) Their relation to the other elements: Internal or outside elements The sections of the shapes included in the program libraries contain this information for each element. CivilFEM classifies element as either flange or web according to each axis and gives the element union condition at each end. The ends can be classified as fixed or free (i.e. an end is called fixed if it is in contact with an other plate, and free if it is not). For studying the structure safety, BS 5950 (1985) classifies cross sections in four different classes according to their width to thickness ratio (section 3.5.2): Class 1 Plastic cross sections are those in which a plastic hinge can be developed with sufficient rotation capacity to allow redistribution of moments within the structure. Compact cross sections are those in which the full plastic moment capacity can be developed but local buckling may prevent development of a plastic hinge with sufficient rotation capacity to permit plastic design. Semi-compact sections are those in which the stress at the extreme fibers can reach the design strength but local buckling may prevent the development of the full plastic moment. Slender sections are those, which contain slender elements subject to compression due to moment or axial load. Local Buckling may prevent the stress in a slender section from reaching the design strength.
Class 2
Class 3
Class 4
The cross-section class is the highest (least favorable) class of its elements: flanges and webs (plates). The class of each element is first determined according to the limits of table 7 of BS 5950 (1985). According to this table, the class of an element depends on: 1. The width to thickness ratio.
CivilFEM Theory Manual 300609. Ingeciber, S.A. 10-C-17
Rd = Width / Thickness 2. The limits of this ratio, according to the type of section, element and position. The elements whose ratio exceeds the limits specified in this table are considered to be class 4. The limits are the following (refer to figure 3 of the code for dimensions): Sections built up by welding: Type of element Flange, external Flange, internal Web, internal* Element Class Class 1
Rd 7.5 Rd 23
Class 2
Rd 8.5 Rd 25
Class 3
Rd 13 Rd 28
Rd
79 0.4 0.6
Rd
98
If R 0.5
Rd (104 76 R)
If 0.5 R
0.45
Rd
120 (1 1.6 R)
* Check webs for shear buckling in accordance with section 4.4.5 of the code when Rd 63 (see section 9.8.2 of this manual)
Rolled sections: Type of element Flange, external Flange, internal Web, internal* Element Class Class 1
Rd 8.5 Rd 26
Class 2
Rd 9.5 Rd 32
Class 3
Rd 15 Rd 39
Rd
79 0.4 0.6
Rd
98
If R 0.5
Rd (93 54 R)
If 0.5 R
0.45
10-C-18
Rd
120 (1 1.6 R)
* Check webs for shear buckling in accordance with section 4.4.5 of the code when Rd 63 ( see section 9.8.2 of this manual)
Class 2
Class 3
Rd 9.5
Rd 15
and
b d t 23
3.
Apart from the type of section, element and position, the limits of the width to thickness ratio also depend on the material parameter , of the stress distribution along the element and of the parameter , which translates into the following relationships
275
in N/mm2)
2 yc d
R
where: yc Distance from the plastic neutral axis to the edge of the web connected to the compression flange. If 2 the section is considered as having compression throughout. Design resistance of the material. Mean longitudinal stress in the web. Compression is positive and tension is negative.
mean
y
y media
10-C-19
Note: If R 0.45 the code does not specify how to determine the element class. Analyzing the expression 120 (1 1.6 R) , we can observe that the element is having tension throughout from R 0.5 . The code takes R 0.45 as a limit value and, therefore, the program assumes that for R 0.45 the element is having tension throughout and assigns the class 1 to the element. Tubular sections: In the case of a circular tube subject to moment or axial compression, the class of the section is determined directly as if it were a single element, using the Rd and the following limits: Rd = D/t D External diameter. t Thickness. Tubular sections Element Class Class 1 Class 2
2
Class 3
2
Rd 40
Rd 57
Rd 80
Note: For cross sections where the web has a width/thickness relationship (Rd) greater than 63 (shear slender web), the code sets that these should be checked for shear buckling, according to art. 4.4.5 of the code. For this, a web classification (Webclass) is established. Stress Reduction Factor (fr) calculation for slender elements According to BS 5950 (1985), when designing for slender sections in compression, the material design strength y has to be multiplied by a reduction factor fr (BS 5950 (1985) part 1, section 3.6.4). The method to determine the reduction factor of the section is the following 1. The reduction factor of each element (flanges) of the section is determined in the table below. 2. The smallest of these reduction factors is used as the overall reduction factor of the section. Table 10-C.7-1 Stress reduction factor for slender elements (fr) Element type External flange Section type welded Reduction factor
10 b 3 T 11 b 4 T
rolled
10-C-20
Internal flange
welded
21 b 7 T 31 b 8 T
rolled
Legs of single angle and double angle members with components separated
the lesser of
11 d 4 T
and
19 (b d) T
Outstand legs of double angle members with angles in contact back to back Stems of Tsections
11 b 4 T
14 d 5 T
10-C.7.2
1.
Checking of bending moment and shear force (BS 4.2.5 and 4.2.6)
Forces and moments selection The forces and moments considered in this checking type are: FV = FZ or FY MX = MY or MZ Design value of the shear force perpendicular to the relevant axis of bending. Design value of the bending moment along the relevant axis of bending.
2. 3.
Class determination and calculation of the design strength reduction factor for slender sections (for all other section class fr=1). Criteria calculation Shear checking (Article 4.2.3 of BS 5950 (1985))
In members subjected to bending moment and shear force: 3.1. The first condition to be checked is the shear criteria at each section:
10-C-21
Fv
Where: PV
y
Pv
Crt_V
Fv Pv
0.6
Av
Design strength of the material (reduced for slender sections). Shear area, obtained by subtracting the summation of the flanges area from the gross area.
AV
Shear Area Calculation (AV) According to section 4.2.3 the shear area is calculated as follows: Section type Rolled I, H and channel sections, load parallel to web. Built-up sections and boxes, load parallel to webs. Solid bars and plates. Rectangular hollow sections, load parallel to webs. Circular hollow sections. Any other case. where: t B D d A Ao Total web thickness Breadth Overall depth Depth of the web Area of the section Area of the rectilinear element of the section which has the largest dimension in the direction parallel to the load
i web elements
D D B
0.6 A 0.9 A0
breadthi thicknessi
In the case of biaxial bending both shear areas, that perpendicular to the standards X-axis and that perpendicular to the Y one, are calculated. 3.2. Shear buckling resistance of thin webs (Article 4.4.5) If the sections web is class 4 (i.e. slender, d/t 63), it should be checked for shear buckling and satisfy the following criterion:
10-C-22
Crt _ PV
FV Vcr
Vcr
Where: Vcr qcr d t
qcr d t
Shear buckling resistance (summation extended to all section webs). Critical shear strength. Depth of the web. Thickness of the web.
The critical shear strength is obtained from tables 21(a) to (d) from BS 5950 (1985) part 1 where qcr= Fn ( y, d/t, a/d) and a is the distance between stiffeners. The program takes the stiffener spacing as infinity. These tables are only defined for the following design strength of the material: y=265 N/mm2, y=275 N/mm2, y=340 N/mm2, y=355 N/mm2. For the remaining values of design strength, the program adopts the following tables for the calculation of qcr: Table 10-C.7-2 Determination of critical shear strength (qcr)
Grade 40 Grade 43 Grade 50 Grade 55 Grade y 2 (N/mm ) Thickness Thickness Thickness Thickness WR50A (mm) (mm) (mm) (mm) Thickness (mm) 450 430 415 355 345 340 325 275 265 260 255 245 240 225 40 63 100 * The code only establish these four tables. 16 63 100 16 40 16 40 63 100 25/40 12 12/25/40 50 12/25/40 63 16 25 40 Grade WR50B Thickness (mm) Grade Adopted WR50C Table Thickness (*) (mm) 21 d 21 d 21 d 21 d (*) 21 c 21 c (*) 21 c 21 b (*) 21 a (*) 21 a 21 a 21 a 21 a 21 a
10-C-23
Crt _ PV
3.3.
Besides the shear checking, the following condition at each section is checked (Articles 4.2.5 and 4.2.6 of BS 5950 (1985)):
Mx
Mc
Crt_M
Mx Mc
Mc
Where: Mc fr Mdf
fr
Mdf
The reduction of the bending resistant modulus due to the effect of shear load are only applied if the shear load is above 60% of shear capacity of the section: Fv > 0.6 Pv The bending resistant modulus is obtained is following: a. For slender and semi-compact sections: Mdf = Z b. For plastic and compact sections: If FV > 0.6PV Mdf = S < 1.2Z If FV 0.6PV Mdf = S SV
1
2.5 Fv Pv
1.5
If Mdf < 0 then Mdf = 0 Where: Z S SV Elastic resistant modulus of the section. Plastic resistant modulus of the section. Parameter to obtain the plastic reduced modulus due to the effect of shear force.
Si
Plastic modulus of the section remaining after deduction of Si the shear area: SR
i webs
4.
5.
Output results written in the CivilFEM results file (.RCV) as an alternative. Checking results: criteria and variables are described at the following table:
Table 10-C.7-3 Art. 4.2 Checking of Bending Moment and Shear Force Result MX MC FV PV CRT_V CRT_PV CRT_M CRT_TOT CLASS WEBCLAS S MDF VCR Mdf Vcr 3.5.2 3.5.2 4.2.5 4.4.5 Concepts Articles Mx Mc Fv Pv Fv/Pv Fv/Vcr Mx/Mc 4.2.3 4.2.3 4.4.5 4.2.5 and 4.2.6 4.2.5 and 4.2.6 Description Design value of the bending moment Moment capacity Design value of the shear force Design value of the shear capacity Shear criterion Buckling web criterion Bending criterion BS Global criterion Section class Web Class Plastic or elastic modulus of the section Shear buckling resistance
10-C.7.3
1.
Forces and moments selection. The forces and moments considered in this check are: Mx = MY or MZ Design value of the bending moment about the relevant axis of bending.
2.
Class determination.
CivilFEM Theory Manual 300609. Ingeciber, S.A. 10-C-25
3.
Criteria calculation. When checking for lateral torsional buckling (LTB) of beams the criterion shall be taken as:
_
Crt _ TOT
_
M Mb
M m MA
Where:
_
Equivalent uniform moment Lateral torsional buckling resistance moment Equivalent uniform moment factor, taken as 1 by default. Must be entered as a member property. Maximum bending moment on the member or the portion of the member under consideration
Mb m MA
Determination of the buckling resistance moment Mb (Article 4.3.7 and Appendix B.2) The value of Mb may be determined from:
Mb
b
ME Mp
2 b
ME Mp
LT
1 2
Mp
b
1 ME
Where: Mp Sx y ME Plastic moment capacity (Mp=Sx y) Plastic modulus about the major axis (X axis of the British Standard). Design strength of the material. Elastic critical moment: ME Perry coefficient.
2
Mp
2 LT
E
y
LT
The Perry coefficient LT for lateral torsional buckling should be taken as follows: a) For rolled sections:
LT b LT L0
with
LT
10-C-26
L0
with:
LT
2
0
LT
L0
LT
LT
L0
LT
Where:
L0
0.4
1 2
0 LT
LT for
LT
nvu
LE ry
Where: n v u Slenderness correction factor. Introduced by the user as a member property. By default its value is 1.0. Slenderness factor. Buckling parameter.
The buckling parameter u is taken as following for sections symmetrical about one axis:
u
Where: Iy Sx
Iy S2 x A 2H
1/ 4
Second moment of area about the minor axis Plastic modulus about the major axis
10-C-27
Factor A H
Iy Ix
4N N 1
Where: Icf Itf second moment of area of the compression flange about the minor axis of the section second moment of area of the tension flange about the minor axis of the section monosymmetry index, for I and T sections with lipped flanges The monosymmetry index is taken as follows:
0.8 2N 1 1 DL 2D DL 2D
1.0 2N 1
Where: D DL Overall depth of the section. Depth of the lip (Member property). By default DL=0.
10-C-28
LT,
2.25 n
S2 ' x A J
Iy Ix 1
1 2
J 2.6 Ix
Box Sections of uniform wall thickness need not to be checked for lateral torsional buckling effects provided that is not greater than the limiting values of given in table 38 of the Appendix B.2 of the code. Tabla 10-C.7-1 Slenderness limit D/B 1 2 Slenderness Limit infinite
350 275
y
225 275
y
170 275
y
Determination of the buckling resistance moment Mb for Single Angles (Article 4.3.8) The buckling resistance moment for a single angle is taken as:
Mb Mb Mb
Where: Z rvv
Elastic modulus about the relevant axis. Radius of gyration about the weakest axis.
10-C-29
Unrestrained length.
Note: The generic steel sections defined by plates do not have a specific treatment by the code for lateral torsional buckling checking. Therefore, these kind of sections will not be checked by the program for lateral torsional buckling. Table 10-C.7-4 Art. 4.3 Checking of Lateral Torsional Buckling Resistance Result MB Concepts Mb Articles B.2 and 4.3.8 4.3.7.2 4.3.7.6 4.3.7.5 Description Buckling resistance moment Equivalent uniform moment Equivalent uniform moment factor Slenderness Equivalent slenderness Limiting equivalent slenderness Global criterion Section class Webs class
Mb
3.5.2 3.5.2
10-C.7.4
1.
Forces and moments selection. The forces and moments considered it this check type are: F = FX Design value of the axial force (positive if it is tensile, if it compressive, the element is not processed)
2. 3.
Class determination. Criteria calculation. For members under axial tension, the general criterion Crt_TOT is checked at each section. This criterion coincides with the axial criterion Crt_N:
F Pt
Where: Pt Ae
y
Crt_TOT
Crt_N
F Pt
Effective area of the section (see section 3.3.3 of the BS). Design strength of the material.
10-C-30
4.
Output results written in the CivilFEM results file (.RCV) as an alternative. Checking results: criteria and variables are described at the following table: Table 10-C.7-5 Art. 4.6 Checking of Members in Axial Tension Result F PT Concepts Articles F Pt 4.6.1 4.6.1 4.6.1 Description Tension Force Tension capacity Global criterion
CRT_TOT F/Pt
10-C.7.5
1.
Forces and moments selection. The forces and moments considered it this check type are: F = FX Design value of the axial force (negative if it is compressive, if it is tensile, the element is not processed).
2. 3.
Class determination and calculation of the material resistance reduction factor in the case of slender sections (for all other cases f r=1). Criteria calculation. For members under axial compression, the general criterion Crt_TOT is checked at each section. This criterion coincides with the axial compression criterion Crt_CB:
F Pc
Where: F Pc Ag
c
Crt_TOT
Crt_CB
F Pc
Axial compression force. Compressive resistance: Pc=Ag Gross sectional area. Compressive strength.
c
( 2
1)
10-C-31
Where:
y
Design strength (factored depending on the sections class) should be reduced by 20N/mm2, therefore: for class 1, 2 or 3, welded sections: for class 4 welded sections:
yfinal yfinal yfr
20N/mm2
20N/mm2
Euler strength:
2 E
LE
ig
LE ig L
Effective length: LE = max(LKx, LKy). Radius of gyration about the relevant axis. Actual length of the member.
Kx, Ky Correction factors for planes XZ and YZ. The Perry coefficient, , for flexural buckling under load should be taken as follows:
0.001 a (
Where
o
0.2 (
y
)1/ 2
The constant a (Robertson constant) is determined by the program from the type of section and buckling axis, according to the table 25 of the BS 5950 (1985). Therefore, in case the user introduces a value for this constant in the member properties, the program will first take into account this value. a = 2.0 for table 27 (a) a = 3.5 for table 27 (b) a = 5.5 for table 27 (c) a = 8.0 for table 27 (d) To distinguish between I and H shapes the program follows the criteria bellow: I shapes 4. if ix/iy >2 H shapes if ix/iy <2 Output results written in the CivilFEM results file (.RCV) as an alternative. Checking results: criteria and variables are described in the following table.
10-C-32
Table 10-C.7-6 Art. 4.7 Checking of Members Axial Compression Result F PC RHOC LAMBDA LAMBDA0 Concepts F Pc
c
Articles 4.7 4.7.4 4.7.5 4.7.3 C.2 C.2 C.2 4.7 3.5.2 3.5.2
Description Compression Force Compression capacity Compression Resistance Slenderness Limiting slenderness Perry factor Robertson constant Global criterion Web class Section class
Lambda Lambda0
10-C.7.6
1.
Forces and moments selection. The forces and moments considered it this check type are: F = FX Mx = MY or MZ My = MZ or MY Design value of the axial force. Design value of the bending moment along the primary bending axis. Design value of the bending moment about the secondary bending axis.
2. 3.
Class determination (in the case of members to a tension force and moments, the design strength py isnt reduced for slender sections). Criteria calculation.
In members subjected to an axial tension force and bending moments, each section should be checked to the same conditions as for members subjected to bending moment and shear force. Therefore, for this type of checking, the following conditions are checked: 3.1 Shear checking in both directions
Crt _ VX Fvx Pvx 1
Crt _ VY
Where:
Fvy Pvy
10-C-33
Shear forces about X and Y axis. Shear capacity about X and Y axis.
Fvx Vcrx
Crt _PVY
Fvy Vcry
Where Vcrx and Vcry are the shear buckling resistance respect to X and Y axis, respectively
Vcrx Vcry
qrc d t qrc d t
3.3 Checking of axial force and bending moments Each section is checked according to the following condition:
F Ae
equivalent to:
y
Mx Mcx
My Mcy
Crt_AXL
F Pt
Mx Mcx
Crt_Mx
Crt_My
Where: F Mx My Ae
y
My Mcy
Axial force. Bending moment about major axis. Bending moment about minor axis. Effective area of the section. Design strength of the material. Moment capacity about major axis. Moment capacity about minor axis.
Mcx Mcy
10-C-34
Mcx and Mcy are calculated according to the Articles 4.2.5 and 4.2.6 of BS 5950 (1985). For this type checking (moments on both directions), the shear area, the plastic modulus and the Sv parameter are calculated with respect to both directions (X and Y axis). 3.3 Checking of global criterion CRT_TOT = Max (Crt_CMP, Crt_VX, Crt_VPX, Crt_VY, Crt_VPY) 4. Output results written in the CivilFEM results file (.RCV) as an alternative. Checking results: criteria and variables are described in the following table.
Table 10-C.7-7 Art. 4.8.2 Checking of Tension Members with Moments Result F MX MY FVX FVY PVX PVY PT MCX MCY CRT_AXL CRT_VX CRT_VY CRT_MX CRT_MY CRT_PVX CRT_PVY CRT_CMP F Mx My Fvx Fvy Pvx Pvy Pt Mcx Mcy F/(Ae y) FVX/PVX FVY/PVY Mx/Mcx My/Mcy FVX/VCRX FVY/VCRY Crt_AXL + Crt_MX + 4.2.3 4.2.3 4.6.1 4.2.5, 4.2.6 4.2.5, 4.2.6 4.8.2 4.2.3 4.2.3 4.2.5, 4.2.6 4.2.5, 4.2.6 4.4.5 4.4.5 4.8.2 4.2.5 4.2.5 Concepts Articles Description Axial tension force Bending moment about major axis Bending moment about minor axis Shear force about major axis Shear force about minor axis Shear capacity about major axis Shear capacity about minor axis Axial Tension Capacity Moment capacity about major axis Moment capacity about minor axis Axial Criterion Shear Criterion about major axis Shear Criterion about minor axis Bending Criterion about major axis Bending Criterion about minor axis Buckling web Criterion about major axis Buckling web Criterion about minor axis Axial + moments Criterion
10-C-35
Result SVX SVY CRT_TOT AVX AVY VCRX VCRY MDFX MDFY ZX SX ZY SY CLASS WEBCLAS S
Concepts Crt_MY Svx Svy Avx Avy Vcrx Vcry Sx, Zx, SxSvx*Ro1 Sy, Zy, SySvy*Ro1 Zx Sx Zy Sy
Articles 4.2.6 4.2.6 4.8.2 4.2.3 4.2.3 4.4.5 4.4.5 4.2.6 4.2.6 4.2.6 4.2.6 4.2.6 4.2.6 3.5.2 3.5.2
Description Sv parameter for major axis Sv parameter for minor axis Global criterion Shear Area for major axis Shear Area for minor axis Shear buckling resistant for major axis Shear buckling resistant for minor axis Resistant modulus for major axis Resistant modulus for minor axis Elastic Modulus about major axis Plastic Modulus about major axis Elastic Modulus about minor axis Plastic Modulus about minor axis Sections class Web class
10-C.7.7
1.
Forces and moments selection. The forces and moments considered it this check type are: F = FX Fvx = FY or FZ Fvy = FZ or FY Mx = MY or MZ My = MZ or MY Design value of the axial force. Design value of the shear force perpendicular to the primary bending axis. Design value of the shear force perpendicular to the secundary bending axis. Design value of the bending moment along the primary bending axis. Design value of the bending moment about the secondary bending axis.
10-C-36
2. 3.
Class determination (in the case of members to a tension force and moments, the design strength py isnt reduced for slender sections). Criteria calculation.
Compression members are checked for local capacity at the points of greatest bending and axial load. This capacity may be limited either by yielding or local buckling depending on the section properties. The member is then checked for overall buckling. Therefore, for this type of checking, the following conditions are checked: 3.1 Local Capacity Check 3.1.1 Axial Criterion
Crt _ AX _ L F Fc 1
3.1.2 Local criteria as for Tension Members with Moments Bending criterion (primary axis)= Crt_MX_L Bending criterion (secondary axis)= Crt_MY_L Shear criterion about major axis= Crt_VX Shear criterion about minor axis = Crt_VY Buckling web Criterion about major axis = Crt_PVX Buckling web Criterion about minor axis = Crt_PVY 3.1.3 Component Local Criterion
Crt _ CM _ L Crt _ AX _ L Crt _ MX _ L Crt _ MY _ L 1
Where: F Pc Ag
c
Design value of the axial compressive force. Compression resistance: Pc = Ag Gross section area. Compressive strength.
c
10-C-37
Where: m Mx Mb Equivalent uniform moment factor. Introduced as a member property. By default m=1. Bending moment about major axis. Buckling resistance moment capacity about the major axis.
Crt _ MY _ O
Where: m My
y
m My
y
Zy
Equivalent uniform moment factor. Introduced as a member property. By default m=1. Bending moment about minor axis. Design strength of the material. Elastic modulus about the minor axis.
Zy
4. Output results written in the CivilFEM results file (.RCV) as an alternative. Checking results: criteria and variables are described in the following table. Table 10-C.7-8 Art. 4.8.3 Checking of Compression Members with Moments Results F PC FVX F Pc Fvx 4.7.4 Concepts Articles Description Design value of the axial compressive force Compression resistance Shear force about major axis
10-C-38
Results MX ZX SX SVX AVX VCRX MDFX PVX MCX FVY MY ZY SY SVY AVY VCRY MDFY PVY MCY M LAMBDA LAMBDA0 LAMBDAL0 Mx Zx Sx Svx Avx
Concepts
Articles
Elastic Modulus about major axis Plastic Modulus about major axis Sv parameter for major axis Shear Area for major axis Shear buckling resistant for major axis Resistant modulus for major axis Shear capacity about major axis Moment capacity about major axis Shear force about minor axis Bending moment about minor axis
Vcrx Sx, Zx, SxSvx*Ro1 Pvx Mcx Fvy My Zy Sy Svy Avy Vcry Sy, Zy, SySvy*Ro1 Pvy Mcy M Lambda Lambda0 LambdaL0
4.2.6 4.2.6 4.2.6 4.2.3 4.4.5 4.2.6 4.2.3 4.2.5, 4.2.6 4.8.3.3 4.3.7.5 C.2 4.3.7.5 B.2.4
Elastic Modulus about minor axis Plastic Modulus about minor axis Sv parameter for minor axis Shear Area for minor axis Shear buckling resistant for minor axis Resistant modulus for minor axis Shear capacity about minor axis Moment capacity about minor axis Equivalent uniform moment factor Slenderness Limiting slenderness Equivalent slenderness Limiting equivalent slenderness
LAMBDALT LambdaLT
10-C-39
Concepts
CRT_CM_L Crt_AX_L + Crt_MX_L + Crt_MY_L CRT_CM_O Crt_AX_O + Crt_MX_O + Crt_MY_O CRT_AX_L CRT_MX_L CRT_MY_L F/FC Mx/Mcx My/Mcy
4.8.3
Global Axial + moments Criterion Local axial criterion Local bending moment criterion about X axis Local bending moment criterion about Y axis Global axial criterion Global bending moment criterion about X axis Global bending moment criterion about Y axis Shear criterion about X axis Buckling web Criterion about major axis Shear criterion about Y axis Buckling web Criterion about minor axis Section Class Web Class
CRT_MY_O
m My
y
4.8.3
Zy
4.2.3 4.4.5 4.2.3 4.4.5 3.5.2 3.5.2
WEBCLASS Webclass
10-C-40
10-D.1 Scope
10-D.1 Scope
The British Standard BS 5950:2000 supersedes BS 5950:1985, which is withdrawn. BS 5950:2000 is the British Standard for the structural use of steelwork in building, widely in use in regions which experience or have experienced British influence. The purpose of this manual is to define the reach and method of implementing this method within CivilFEM. All the different types of analyses considered in this standard have been developed according to the ultimate limit state in accordance with the simple and continuous design methods. Semi-continuous design and experimental verification fall beyond the scope of this specification. The cross sections that can be checked are rolled or welded, subjected to axial forces, shear and bending in 2D and 3D, as well as solid sections subjected to the aforementioned forces. The calculations made by CivilFEM correspond to the prescriptions of British Standard 5950:2000 Structural use of steelwork in building: Part 1. Code of practice for design Rolled and welded sections.
10-D-1
10-D-3
Moreover, it is possible to check solid sections captured from 2D or 3D models with a transversal cross section classified as structural steel.
10-D-5
10-D-7
YCF YBS YS
ZCF
ZS
O
XBS
Figure 10-D.5-1 Axis Orientation in Beam Sections In the BS 5950:2000 axes system: The system origin coincides with the CivilFEM one The ZBS axis coincides with the CivilFEM X axis The XBS axis is the principal axis for bending and its orientation is defined by the user (~MEMBPRO and ~CHKSTL commands). The YBS axis is perpendicular to the plane defined by the X and Yaxes, in such a way as to ensure a right-handed system. To define this reference system, the user must indicate which of the CivilFEM axis: -Z, -Y, +Z or +Y coincides with the relevant axis for positive bending. The user may define this reference system with the commands: ~MEMBPRO, when defining member properties for British Standard 5950:2000 or ~CHKSTL when checking according to this code. However, in case of any contradiction, the adopted option is the one established with ~MEMBPRO command, the one introduced through ~CHKSTL command is neglected.
10-D-9
10-D.6.1
Section Data
BS 5950:2000 considers the following data set for the cross section: Gross section data Net section data Effective section data Data concerning to the section and element class. Gross section data correspond to the nominal properties of the cross-section. From net section, the net area and the effective net area are considered. The net area is calculated discounting the area of holes for screws, rivets and other holes from the gross section area, taking into account the deduction for fastener holes according to section 3.4.4 of the code (see figures 3 and 4 of the code). The area of holes is introduced through the parameter AHOLES as a code property (see ~SECMDF command). The effective net area is obtained from the net area, multiplying it by a coefficient Ke which depends on type of steel used. This coefficient is calculated by the program and stored together with the material properties. Effective section data are obtained in the checking process according to the effective width method (Sect. 3.6 of BS 5950:2000). This method discounts for class 4 cross-sections, the non-resistance zones for local buckling. For crosssections of a lower class, this method does not reduce the section because of the local buckling.
10-D-10
As an alternative method for slender cross sections calculation, a reduced design strength ( yr) may be calculated at which the cross section would be class 3 (section 3.6.5 of the code). Section and element class data are obtained using tables 11 and 12 of BS 5950:2000 (section 3.5.2). The classification of each element is based on its width to thickness ratio and according to section type (hot-rolled or welded), element type (web or flange) and position (internal or external element). CivilFEM adopts the section class as the biggest from all the elements (least favorable). The BS 5950:2000 module takes the gross section data in user units and CivilFEM axis or section axis as initial data (see the section corresponding to Reference axis in beam sections in Chapter 5 of this Manual). The data are properly transformed from the sections axis into the BS 5950:2000 axis and the results are given in the code axis. The program calculates the effective and net section data and the class data, and stores them into CivilFEMs results file, in user units and in the CivilFEM coordinate system. All these data can be listed and plotted with ~CSLST and ~PRSTL commands. The section data used in BS 5950:2000 is shown in the following tables:
I.- Section Dimensions
Description Input data: 1.- Height 2.- Web thickness 3.- Flanges thickness 4.- Flanges width 5.- Distance between flanges 6.- Radius of fillet (Rolled shapes) 7.- Toe radius (Rolled shapes) 8.- Weld throat thickness (Welded shapes) 9.- Web free depth Output data H Tw Tf B Hi r1 r2 a d (Nothing) Data
10-D-11
Chapter 10-D Steel Structures according to BS 5950:2000 Xmn, Xmx Xm, Ym Ys Xs Iw Yws, Xws Zwt
9.- Distance between GC and SC in X and in Y 10.- Distance CG to shear center along Y axis 11.- Distance CG to shear center along X axis 12.- Warping Constant 13.- Shear resistant areas 14.- Torsional resistant modulus Output Data: 1.- Shear area for major axis (X) 2.- Sv parameter for major axis (X) 3.- Shear area for minor axis (Y) 4.- Sv parameter for minor axis (X) 5.- Critical shear strength of web panel for major axis 6.- Critical shear strength of web panel for minor axis 7.- Y coordinate of plastic center 8.- X coordinate of plastic center * The section properties listed here in are related to the BS coordinate system (XBS, YBS, ZBS)
10-D-12
10-D.6 Data and Results used by CivilFEM Description 8.- Plastic resistant X modulus 9.- Section class 10.- Web class for shear buckling Data Wpxeff Cls ClsAlm
10-D.6.2
Member Properties
The data used at member level by BS 5950:2000 is shown in the following table. All the data is stored with the section data in user units and in the code coordinate system. (Parameters L, Kcx, Kcy, KLtx, KLty, mlt, mx, my, CFBUCKX, CFBUCKY, CteRob, DL, d/a and CHCKAXIS of the ~MEMBPRO command).
10-D-13
Appendix C.2 Section 4.8.3 Section 4.8.3 Section 4.3.6.6 Section 4.3.6.7 Section 4.4.5
10-D.6.3
Material Properties
Table 10-D.6-2 Material properties
Description Properties, symbol Ys Us py (table 9 of BS 5950-1:2000 and table 3 of EN10113-2:1993)
m=
Yield strength Tensile strength Design strength Material strength factor Modulus of elasticity Shear Modulus Poissons ratio Coefficient of linear thermal expansion Effective net area coefficient
1
2
E = 205 kN/mm
2 (1
= 0.3
-6
)
C
-1
= 12 10
10-D-14
Constant
275 py
The code uses other safety factors ( l, p) which depend on the type of loads and which must be used when performing load combinations.
10-D.6.4
The forces relevant to each check are obtained from the CivilFEM results file (.RCV) for the selected load step and substep. CivilFEM will perform all the necessary conversions to comply with the units, axes and criteria of BS 5950:2000, including sign-changes according the conventions used in the standard. CivilFEM works internally using the standards units and conventions. The forces and moments considered are shown in the following table. The forces and moments represented here in are referred to code axis (relevant axis for bending X). All the terms are the used by the code.
Table 10-D.6-3 Forces and moments External Load F FVX FVY MX MY MZ Axial force Shear force about major axis (X) Shear force about minor axis (Y) Bending moment about major axis Bending moment about minor axis Torsional bending moment Description
10-D-15
3.
E 2*(1 )
in N/mm2)
b. Obtain the cross-section data corresponding to the element. c. Determination of section class. d. There are two calculation procedures for slender cross sections (class 4) that may be may chosen by the user: 1. Initialize reduction factors of section plates and the effective cross section properties calculation. 2. Calculate a reduced design strength that should be used in place of the nominal design strength (section 3.6.5 of the code). e. Obtain forces acting on the section (FX, Fvx, Fvy, Mx, My). f. Specific section checking according to the type of external load.
CivilFEM Theory Manual 010708. Ingeciber, S.A.
10-D-16
g. Writing of results, which will be stored in the CivilFEM results file (.RCV) as an alternative.
10-D.7.1
According to BS 5950:2000, the sections are made up of different elements, which can be classified according to: a) The way they work: Webs and flanges in the X and Y axes, depending on which is the principal bending axis. b) Their relation to the other elements: Internal or outside elements The sections of the shapes included in the program libraries contain this information for each element. CivilFEM classifies element as either flange or web according to each axis and gives the element union condition at each end. The ends can be classified as fixed or free (i.e. an end is called fixed if it is in contact with an other plate, and free if it is not). For studying the structure safety, BS 5950:2000 classifies cross sections in four different classes to determine whether local buckling influences their capacity (section 3.5.2): Class 1 Plastic cross sections are those in which a plastic hinge can be developed with sufficient rotation capacity to allow redistribution of moments within the structure. Compact cross sections are those in which the full plastic moment capacity can be developed but local buckling may prevent development of a plastic hinge with sufficient rotation capacity to permit plastic design. Semi-compact sections are those in which the stress at the extreme fibers can reach the design strength but local buckling may prevent the development of the full plastic moment. Slender sections are those, which contain slender elements subject to compression due to moment or axial load. Local buckling may prevent the stress in a slender section from reaching the design strength.
Class 2
Class 3
Class 4
The cross-section class is the highest (least favorable) class of its elements: flanges and webs. The class of each element is first determined according to the limits of tables 11 and 12 of BS 5950:2000. According to these tables, the class of an element depends on: 1. The width to thickness ratio. The dimensions of the elements (b, d, t, T) should be taken as shown in Figure 5 of the code. Rd = Width / Thickness
10-D-17
2.
The limits of this ratio, according to the type of section, element (flange or web) and position (internal or outside). Elements that do not meet the limits for class 3 semi compact are classified as class 4. The limits are the following (refer to figure 5 of the code for dimensions): Sections other than circular hollow sections (CHS) and rectangular hollow section (RHS):
Compression element Outstand rolled flange Angle, compression due to bending Angle, axial compression
Class 1 9*
Class 2 10*
Class 3 15*
15*
y
b d t
Outstand welded flange Internal flange, compression due to bending Internal flange, axial compression Web of an I, H or box section, compression due to bending 8* 28* 9* 32* 13* 40*
24
For r1 > 0 100* /(1+1.5r1) but 40* Web of an I, H or box section, axial compression Web of a channel Stem of a T section, rolled or cut from a rolled I or H section 0 0 120* /(1+2r2) but 40* 40* 8* 40* 9* 40* 18*
Circular hollow sections (CHS): Circular hollow sections are classified as having only one element and the width to thickness ratio (Rd) is determined as follows: Rd = D/t D = Diameter. t = Wall thickness.
Class 1 Class 2 Class 3
10-D-18
40*2 0
50*2 0
140*2 80*2
Class 3 35*
Notes: 1. The classification of the elements according to the way they work (webs or flanges) is included in the program section library. In other cases the user can specify it or, by default, the program will automatically determine it as a function of the angle with respect to the principal axis of bending, following the below criterion: For For
45 Web
45 Flange
2. Apart from the type of section, type and position of the element, the limits of the width to thickness ratio also depend on the material parameter and on the parameters r and r , which translates into the following relationships a) For I or H-sections with equal flanges:
10-D-19
r1
Fc d t
with 1 r1 1
yw
r2
Fc Ag
yw
b) For I or H-sections with unequal flanges: The program deals with this type of sections as generic sections for which the values of r1 and r2 are the following: r1 = 1 r2 = 1 c) Rectangular hollow sections or welded box sections with equal flanges:
r1
Fc 2 d t
with 1 r1 1
yw
r2
Where: Ag Bc Bt d Fc f1 f2
yf yw
Fc Ag
yw
Gross section area. Width of the compression flange. Width of the tension flange. Web depth. Axial compression (negative for tension). Maximum compressive stress in the web (figure 7 of the code). Minimum compressive stress in the web (figure 7 of the code). Design strength of the flanges. Design strength of the web (but Thickness of the tension flange. Web thickness.
yw yf).
Tc Tf t
3. The webs are also classified for shear buckling resistance according to the following criteria: For rolled sections with Rd > 70* For welded sections with Rd > 62*
10-D-20
In these cases, the shear buckling resistance should be checked according to the section 4.4.5 of the BS 5950:2000. 4. Class 3 semi-compact sections are designed using the effective plastic modulus Seff according to section 3.5.6 and followings of BS 5950:2000.
10-D.7.2
BS 5950:2000 accept two different procedures for designing slender cross sections. The user may choose the method to be followed by the program through the ~CHKSTL command: a) Effective section properties calculation (Sections 3.6.2, 3.6.3, 3.6.4) The local buckling resistance of class 4 slender cross sections is allowed for in design by adopting effective section properties. The width of the compression elements are reduced in such way that the effective width of a class 4 section be the same as the maximum width for a class 3 section. In the outstand elements the reduction is applied to its free end and in the internal elements the non-effective zone comprises a central portion of the element with two equal portions of effective zone in the ends. For each section element, the program calculates two reduction factors 1 and 2 to determine the effective width at each element end. These factors connect the width of the effective zone at each element end with its width. Effective_width_end1 = plate_width* Effective_ width _end 2 = plate_width*
1 2
b
b
Figure 10-D.7-1 Effective area calculation (Aeff) The effective area is determined from the effective cross section as shown in Figure 8a of the code (section 3.6.2.2).
10-D-21
Effective modulus calculation (Zeff) The effective modulus is determined from the effective cross section as shown in Figure 8b of the code (section 3.6.2.3).
10-D-22
For cross sections with slender webs, the effective modulus is determined from the effective cross section as shown in Figure 9 of the code (section 3.6.2.4).
Circular Hollow Sections For circular hollow sections, the effective modulus and the effective area is determined according to the section 3.6.6 of BS 5950:2000. b) Alternative Method (section 3.6.5)
10-D-23
As an alternative to the method described previously, a reduced design strength yr is calculated at which the cross section would be class 3 semi compact. The reduced design strength is used in place of y in the checks on section capacity and member buckling resistance. The reduction factor f r is calculated for each section 4 element according to the bellow expression:
fr
3 2
yr
fr
Where:
3
Limiting value for a class 3 section according to the tables 11 and 12 of the code. Width to thickness ratio for each element.
10-D.7.3
1.
Forces and moments selection The forces and moments considered in this checking type are: FV = FZ or FY MX = MY or MZ Design value of the shear force perpendicular to the relevant axis of bending. Design value of the bending moment along the relevant axis of bending.
2.
Class determination and calculation either of the effective section properties or the design strength reduction factor for slender sections (depending on the selected method). Criteria calculation
3.
In members subjected to bending moment and shear force, three conditions should be checked: 3.1. Shear checking (Article 4.2.3 of BS 5950:2000)
Fv Pv
Fv
Where: PV
y
Pv
Crt_V
Design value of the shear capacity: PV = 0.6 YAV Design strength of the material l. Shear area.
Av
10-D-24
Shear Area Calculation (AV) According to section 4.2.3 the shear area is calculated as follows: Table 10-D.7-1 Shear area Shape Rolled I, H and channel sections, load parallel to web. Welded I sections, load parallel to web. Solid bars and plates. Rectangular hollow sections, load parallel to webs. Welded box sections. Circular hollow sections. Any other case. where: t B D d A Ao Total web thickness. Breadth. Overall depth. Depth of the web. Area of the section. Area of the rectilinear element of the section which has the largest dimension in the direction parallel to the load:
i web elements
D D B
2td 0.6 A 0.9 A0
breadthi thicknessi
In the case of biaxial bending it is necessary to consider both shear areas, that perpendicular to the Standards X-axis and that perpendicular to the Y one. 3.2. Shear buckling resistance of thin webs (Article 4.4.5) The shear buckling resistance should be checked if the ratio d/t of the web exceeds 70 for a rolled section or 62 for welded sections. It should satisfy the following criterion:
Crt _ PV FV Vw 1
Vw
Where:
qw d t
10-D-25
Vw qw d t
Shear buckling resistance (summation extended to all section webs). Critical shear strength. Depth of the web. Thickness of the web.
The critical shear strength is obtained following the Appendix H.1 of the code where qw= Fn ( y, d/t, d/a) and a is the distance between stiffeners. The ratio d/a may be introduced by the user as a member property. By default, d/a = 1. If the web of the section is not slender (d/t < 70 for rolled sections and d/t < 62 for welded sections): Crt_PV = 0 3.3. Bending moment check
Besides the shear checking, the following condition at each section is checked (Article 4.2.5 of BS 5950:2000):
Mx
Mc
Crt_M
Mx Mc
Mc = fr yMdf Where: Mc fr Mdf Moment capacity. Stress reduction factor (only for the alternative method for slender sections). Bending resistant modulus.
The reduction of the bending resistant modulus due to the effect of shear load are only applied if the shear load is above 60% of shear capacity of the section: Fv > 0.6 Pv The bending resistant modulus is obtained by the following expressions: 1. If Fv 0.6 Pv Mdf = S < 1.2Z For semi-compact sections: Mdf = Seff For slender sections: Mdf = Zeff For plastic or compact sections:
10-D-26
2. If Fv > 0.6 Pv a. For plastic or compact sections: Mdf = S SV b. For semi-compact sections: Mdf = Seff SV c. For slender sections:
Mdf
Zeff
2 Fv Pv
Sv ) 1.5
2
Where: Z Zeff S Seff SV Elastic resistant modulus of the section. Effective elastic modulus. Plastic resistant modulus of the section. Effective plastic modulus. Plastic reduced modulus due to the effect of shear force.
Sv Parameter Calculation The Sv calculation is done following the expression below: SV = S - Sf Where: S Sf Plastic resistant modulus of the section: S
i elements
Si
Plastic modulus of the section remaining after deduction Si of the shear area: S f
i webs
4.
5.
Output results written in the CivilFEM results file (.RCV) as an alternative. Checking results: criteria and variables are described in the following table:
10-D-27
Tabla 10-D.7-1 Art. 4.2 Checking of Bending Moment and Shear Force Result MX MC FV PV CRT_V CRT_PV Concepts Articles Description Mx Mc Fv Pv
Fv Pv Fv Mx
Moment capacity Design value of the shear force Design value of the shear capacity Shear criterion Buckling web criterion
4.2.5
Mc
Section class Webs' Class Plastic or elastic modulus of the section Shear buckling resistance
10-D.7.4
Forces and moments selection. The forces and moments considered in this check are: MX = MY or MZ Design value of the bending moment about the relevant axis of bending.
Class determination. Criteria calculation. Resistance to lateral-torsional buckling need not be checked separately in the following cases: Bending about the minor axis Circular hollow sections (CHS), square RHS or circular or square solid bars I, H, Channel or Box sections, if equivalent slenderness ( not exceed the limiting equivalent slenderness ( L0)
LT)
does
RHS, unless the slenderness exceeds the limiting value given in Table 15 of the code for the relevant value D/B.
10-D-28
When checking for lateral torsional buckling of beams the criterion shall be taken as:
Crt _ TOT mLT Mx Mb 1
Where: Mb mLT Lateral torsional buckling resistance moment. Equivalent uniform moment factor for lateral torsional buckling. It can be introduced as a member property according to the table 18 of the code (by default, mLT=1). Maximum major axis bending moment.
Mx
3.1 Determination of the buckling resistance moment Mb (Article 4.3.6.4) The value of Mb may be determined from the following: For plastic and compact sections: Mb = For semi-compact sections: Mb = For slender sections: Mb =
bZeff bSeff bSX
10-D-29
Where b is the bending strength. If the equivalent slenderness LT is not more than the limiting slenderness L0 for the relevant design strength given in the tables 16 and 17 of the code, then b should be taken as equal to y and no allowance need to be made for lateral torsional buckling. For
LT L0
b = y
Otherwise the bending strength is obtained from the formula given in the Appendix B.2.1 of the code: For
LT>
E y 1 2 E y
L0
b LT LT
y LT
LT
2
E
E
LT
Where
LT
The Perry coefficient LT for lateral torsional buckling should be taken as follows: a) For rolled sections:
LT LT LT L0
/1000 con
LT
LT L0 < L0 L0
L0 LT <
LT =
0 2 2
LT ( LT- L0)/1000
2 3
L0 L0
LT = LT = LT =
LT LT
L0
L0
0.4
1 2
LT LT
LT
is taken as follows:
uv
W
10-D-30
The ratio
1.0
Seff/SX Zeff/SX
max(
LEx LEy , ) ry ry
Lex
Ley
L CfBuckx Kltx
L CfBucky Klty
The buckling parameter u and the torsional index x are calculated as follows: For I and H sections
u 4S2 x 2 2 A hs
D (Tc 2
1/ 4
hs
Tt )
0.566 hs (A / J)0.5
Iy S2 x A 2H
1/ 4
1/ 2
AH x 1.132 Iy J
1
Where: J Tc Tt SX Ix
Iy Ix
Torsion constant (mechanical property of the section). Thickness of the compression flange. Thickness of the tension flange. Plastic modulus about the major axis. Moment of inertia about the major axis (mechanical property of the section).
10-D-31
Iy A H
Moment of inertia about the minor axis (mechanical property of the section). Cross sectional area (mechanical property of the section). Warping constant (mechanical property of the section).
1 2
0.05
Where: Icf Itf Moment of area of the compression flange about the minor axis of the section. Moment of area of the tension flange about the minor axis of the section. Monosymmetry index, for I and T sections with lipped flanges. The monosymmetry index is calculated as follows:
0.8 2 1 1 DL 2D DL 2D
for
> 0.5
1.0 2
for
< 0.5
Where: D DL Overall depth of the section (mechanical property of the section). Depth of the lip (introduced as a Member property). By default DL=0.
B. Equivalent slenderness determination for Box Sections including RHS (Appendix B.2.6)
LT,
2.25
10-D-32
S2 ' x A J
Iy Ix 1
J 2.6 Ix
LT,
b) If Iyy > Ixx : Lateral torsional buckling occurs about the x-x axis and is given by:
LT
LT
2.8
LEB T2
0.5
c) If Ixx < Iyy : Lateral torsional buckling occurs about the x-x axis and is given by:
LT
LT
0.25
4Sx
2 2
A2 D T
2
1 2 1 2
w 0.05
4H Iy D T
2
2
0.5
0.566(D T / 2) A / J
1 Iy /Ix
H B3 T 3 144 D T / 2 t3 36
3
10-D-33
LT,
2.25 * (
*
0.5
)0.5
2 Zu a AJ
Iv Iu
Lv rv
LT,
2.25 *
4.5
v
)0.5
0.5
2 a
0.5
4.5
v
ui2
0
2 i
Iu
dA 1 t
The monosymmetry index a for an unequal angle is taken as positive when the short leg is in compression and negative when the long leg is in compression.
o
Table 10-D.7-3 Art. 4.3 Checking of Lateral Torsional Buckling Resistance Result MB UMLT M LAMBDA m Lambda B.2 Concepts Mb Articles 4.3.6 4.3.6 Description Buckling resistance moment Equivalent uniform moment Equivalent uniform moment factor Slenderness Equivalent slenderness Limiting equivalent slenderness
10-D-34
CRT_TOT
mLT Mx Mb
4.3.6
Global criterion
CLASS WEBCLASS
3.5.2 3.5.2
10-D.7.5
1.
Forces and moments selection. The forces and moments considered it this check type are: F = FX Design value of the axial force (positive if it is tensile). If it is compressive, the element is not processed.
2. 3.
Class determination. Criteria calculation. For members under axial tension, the general criterion Crt_TOT is checked at each section. This criterion coincides with the axial criterion Crt_N:
F Pt
Crt_TOT
Crt_N
F Pt
Aneff /
Output results written in the CivilFEM results file (.RCV) as an alternative. Checking results: criteria and variables are described at the following table: Table 10-D.7-4 Art. 4.6 Checking of Members in Axial Tension Result F PT Concepts F Pt Articles 4.6.1 4.6.1 4.6.1 Description Tension Force Tension capacity Global criterion
CRT_TOT F/Pt
10-D.7.6
1.
Forces and moments selection. The forces and moments considered it this check type are: F = FX Design value of the axial force (negative if it is compressive). If it is tensile, the element is not
10-D-35
processed. 2. 3. Class determination. Criteria calculation. For members under axial compression, the general criterion Crt_TOT is checked at each section. This criterion coincides with the axial compression criterion Crt_CB:
F Pc
Where: F Pc
Crt_TOT
F Pc
The compressive strength is determined according to the article 4.7.4 of BS 5950:2000: For class 1, 2 or 3 sections: Pc = Ag For class 4 sections: Pc = Aeff Where: Ag Aeff
c cs cs c
Gross sectional area. Effective cross sectional area. Compressive strength. Compressive strength for a reduced slenderness of (A eff / A g )0.5 .
( 2
1)
Where:
y
Design strength (reduced by 20N/mm2 for welded I, H or box sections). Euler strength:
2 E
10-D-36
Slenderness: ig LE L Kx and Ky
LE
ig
Radius of gyration about the relevant axis. Effective buckling length: LE = max(LCfBuckxKX, LCfBuckyKY) Actual length of the member. Correction factors of buckling lengths for planes XZ and YZ.
The Perry coefficient for flexural buckling under load should be taken as follows (Appendix C.2):
0.001 a (
Where
o
0.2 (
y
)1/ 2
The constant a (Robertson constant) is determined by the program from the type of section and buckling axis, according to the table 23 of the BS 5950:2000. Therefore, in case the user introduces a value for this constant in the member properties, the program will first take into account this value. a= 2.0 for curve (a) a= 3.5 for curve (b) a= 5.5 for curve (c) a= 8.0 for curve (d) To distinguish between I and H shapes the program follows the criteria bellow: I shapes if ix/iy >2
H shapes if ix/iy <2 4. Output results written in the CivilFEM results file (.RCV) as an alternative. Checking results: criteria and variables are described in the following table. Table 10-D.7-5 Art. 4.7 Checking of Members Axial Compression Result F PC RHOC Concepts F PC
c
10-D-37
Slenderness Limiting slenderness Perry factor Robertson constant Global criterion Web class Section class
10-D.7.7
Forces and moments selection. The forces and moments considered it this check type are: F = FX MX= MY or MZ MY= MZ or MY Design value of the axial force. Design value of the bending moment along the primary bending axis. Design value of the bending moment about the secondary bending axis.
Class determination. Criteria calculation. In members subjected to an axial tension force and bending moments, each section should be checked to the same conditions as for members subjected to bending moment and shear force (see section 9.8.3 of this manual). Therefore, for this type of checking, the following conditions are checked: 3.1 Shear checking in both directions
Crt _ VX Fvx Pvx 1
Crt _ VY
Fvy Pvy
Where Fvx and Fvy are the shear forces about X and Y axis, and Pvx and Pvy the shear capacity about X and Y axis. 3.2 Shear buckling resistance of shear webs
Crt _ PVX Fvx Vwx 1
Crt _PVY
Fvy Vwy
10-D-38
Where Vwx and Vwy are the shear buckling resistance about X and Y axis, respectively.
Vwx Vwy
qwx d t qwy d t
3.3 Checking of axial force and bending moments Each section is checked according to the following condition:
F Aneff
equivalent to:
y
Mx Mcx
My Mcy
Crt_AXL
F Pt
Mx Mcx
Crt_Mx
Crt_My
Where: F Mx My Aneff
y
My Mcy
Axial force. Bending moment about major axis. Bending moment about minor axis. Effective net area of the section. Design strenght of the material. Moment capacity about major axis. Moment capacity about minor axis.
Mcx Mcy
Mcx and Mcy are calculated according to the Article 4.2.5 of BS 5950:2000. For this type checking (moments on both directions), the shear area, the plastic modulus and the Sv parameter are calculated with respect to both directions (X and Y axis). 3.3 Checking of global criterion CRT_TOT = Max (Crt_CMP, Crt_VX, Crt_VPX, Crt_VY, Crt_VPY)
10-D-39
4.
Output results written in the CivilFEM results file (.RCV) as an alternative. Checking results: criteria and variables are described in the following table.
Table 10-D.7-6 Art. 4.8.2 Checking of Tension Members with Moments Result F MX MY FVX FVY PVX PVY PT MCX MCY CRT_AXL CRT_VX CRT_VY CRT_MX CRT_MY CRT_PVX CRT_PVY CRT_CMP F Mx My Fvx Fvy Pvx Pvy Pt Mcx Mcy F/(Aneff y) FVX/PVX FVY/PVY Mx/Mcx My/Mcy FVX/VWX FVY/VWY Crt_AXL + Crt_MX + Crt_MY Svx Svy Avx Avy Vwx Vwy Sx, Zx, Sx4.2.3 4.2.3 4.6.1 4.2.5 4.2.5 4.6.1 4.2.3 4.2.3 4.2.5 4.2.5 4.4.5 4.4.5 4.8.2 4.2.5 4.2.5 Concepts Articles Description Axial tension force Bending moment about major axis Bending moment about minor axis Shear force about major axis Shear force about minor axis Shear capacity about major axis Shear capacity about minor axis Axial Tension Capacity Moment capacity about major axis Moment capacity about minor axis Axial Criterion Shear Criterion about major axis Shear Criterion about minor axis Bending Criterion about major axis Bending Criterion about minor axis Buckling web Criterion about major axis Buckling web Criterion about minor axis Axial + moments Criterion
Sv parameter for major axis Sv parameter for minor axis Global criterion Shear Area for major axis Shear Area for minor axis Shear buckling resistant for major axis Shear buckling resistant for minor axis Resistant modulus for major axis
10-D-40
Description Resistant modulus for minor axis Elastic Modulus about major axis Plastic Modulus about major axis Elastic Modulus about minor axis Plastic Modulus about minor axis Sections class Webs class
10-D.7.8
Forces and moments selection. The forces and moments considered it this check type are: F = FX Fvx = FY or FZ Fvy = FZ or FY MX= MY or MZ MY= MZ or MY Design value of the axial force. Design value of the shear force perpendicular to the primary bending axis. Design value of the shear force perpendicular to the secundary bending axis. Design value of the bending moment along the primary bending axis. Design value of the bending moment about the secondary bending axis.
Class determination. Criteria calculation. Compression members are checked for local capacity at the points of greatest bending and axial load. This capacity may be limited either by yielding or local buckling depending on the section properties. The member is then checked for overall buckling. Therefore, for this type of checking, the following conditions are checked: 3.1 Local Capacity Check 3.1.1 Axial Criterion
Crt _ AX _ L F Fc 1
For class 1, 2 or 3 sections: Fc = Ag For class 4 sections: Fc = Aeff Bending criterion (major axis)= Crt_MX_L Bending criterion (minor axis)= Crt_MY_L Shear criterion about major axis= Crt_VX Shear criterion about minor axis = Crt_VY Buckling web Criterion about major axis = Crt_PVX Buckling web Criterion about minor axis = Crt_PVY 3.1.3 Component Local Criterion
Crt _ CM _ L
y
Crt _ AX _ O _ 2
Where: F Pc Pcy
F Pcy
Design value of the axial compressive force. Compression resistance. Compresion resistance, considering buckling about the minor axis only: For class 1, 2 or 3 sections: Pc = Ag For class 4 sections: Pc = Aeff
c c
Ag
c
Gross section area. Compressive strength obtained according the article 4.7.5 of the code.
Crt _MX _ O _1
mx Mx y Zx
10-D-42
Crt _ MX _ O _ 2
mLT MLT Mb
Where: mx mLt Equivalent uniform moment factor. Introduced as a member property. By default mx=1. Equivalent uniform moemnt factor for lateral torsional buckling. Introduced as a member property. By default mLt=1. Bending moment about major axis. Buckling resistance moment according the article 4.3 of the code. Maximum major axis moment .
Mx Mb MLT
Crt _MY _ O
Where: my MY Zy
my My
y
Zy
Equivalent uniform moment factor. Introduced as a member property. By default my=1. Bending moment about minor axis. Elastic modulus about the minor axis (for slender class 4 sections Zyeff is taken).
Crt _ Cmp _ O _1
Crt _ CM _ O _ 2
Fx Pc
mx Mx
y
my My
y
Zx
Zy
Crt _ Cmp _ O _ 2
Crt _ CM _ O
Fx Pcy
mlt MLT Mb
my My
y
Zy
Max(Crt _ CM _ O _1 , Crt _ CM _ O _ 2 1
10-D-43
Output results written in the CivilFEM results file (.RCV) as an alternative. Checking results: criteria and variables are described in the following table. Table 10-D.7-7 Art. 4.8.3 Checking of Compression Members with Moments TABLE F PC FVX MX ZX SX SVX AVX VWX MDFX PVX MCX FVY MY ZY SY SVY AVY VWY MDFY PVY MCY M LAMBDA LAMBDA0 F Pc Fvx Mx Zx Sx Svx Avx Vwx 4.2.5 4.2.5 4.2.5 4.2.3 4.4.5 4.7.4 Concepts Articles Description Design value of the axial compressive force Compression resistance Shear force about major axis Bending moment about major axis Elastic Modulus about major axis Plastic Modulus about major axis Sv parameter for major axis Shear Area for major axis Shear buckling resistant for major axis Resistant modulus for major axis Shear capacity about major axis Moment capacity about major axis Shear force about minor axis Bending moment about minor axis 4.2.5 4.2.5 4.2.5 4.2.3 4.4.5 Elastic Modulus about minor axis Plastic Modulus about minor axis Sv parameter for minor axis Shear Area for minor axis Shear buckling resistant for minor axis Resistant modulus for minor axis Shear capacity about minor axis Moment capacity about minor axis Equivalent uniform moment factor Slenderness Limiting slenderness Equivalent slenderness
Sx, Zx, Sx-Svx*Ro1 4.2.5 Pvx Mcx Fvy My Zy Sy Svy Avy Vwy 4.2.3 4.2.5
Sy, Zy, Sy-Svy*Ro1 4.2.5 Pvy Mcy M Lambda Lambda0 4.2.3 4.2.5 4.8.3.3 4.3.7.5 C.2 4.3.7.5
LAMBDALT LambdaLT
10-D-44
Concepts
Description Limiting equivalent slenderness Perry Factor Buckling resistance moment capacity Total Criterion
LAMBDAL0 LambdaL0
CRT_CM_L
4.8.3
4.8.3
Local axial criterion Local bending moment criterion about X axis Local bending moment criterion about Y axis Global axial criterion Global bending moment criterion about X axis Global bending moment criterion about Y axis Shear criterion about X axis Buckling web Criterion about major axis Shear criterion about Y axis Buckling web Criterion about minor axis Section Class Webs Class
mx Mx mLT MLT , Mb y Zx
my My
y
CRT_MY_O
4.8.3
Zy
4.2.3 4.4.5 4.2.3 4.4.5 3.5.2 3.5.2
WEBCLASS Webclass
10-D-45
10-E.1 Scope
10-E.1 Scope
Steel structures checking according to LRFD, December 27 of 1999 in CivilFEM is included in the checking of structures composed by welded or rolled shapes under axial forces, shear forces and bending moments in 3D. The calculations made by CivilFEM correspond to the prescriptions of LRFD (Load Factor Resistance Design) according to the specifications of the following sections: D E F G H Tension members. Columns and other compression members. Beams and other flexural members. Plate girders. Members under combined forces and torsion.
10-E-1
Buckling check:
- Compression members subjected to flexure - Compression members subjected to flexure and torsion - Plate girders LRFD apt. E-2 LRFD apt. E-3 LRFD apt. G
10-E-3
Moreover, it is possible to check solid sections captured from 2D or 3D models with a transversal cross section classified as structural steel.
10-E-5
BDAxSHTR
10-E-6
10-E.5.1
Sections Data
LRFD considers the following data set for the section: Gross section data Net section data Effective section data Data concerning to the section and plates class. Gross section data correspond to the nominal properties of the cross-section. From net section only the area is considered. This area is calculated discounting the holes for screws, rivets and other holes from the gross section area. The user will have to take into account that LRFD indicates that the diameter from which to calculate the parameter AHOLES is greater than the real diameter (the total calculated area is introduced in the parameter AHOLES with the command ~SECMDF). Effective section data and section and plates class data are obtained in the checking process according to chapter B, section B5 of the code. This chapter, classifies steel sections into three groups, compact, noncompacts and slender, depending upon the width-thickness ratio and some mandatory limits. The LRFD module takes the gross section data in user units and CivilFEM axis or section axis as initial data. The program calculates the effective section data and the class data, and stores them in CivilFEMs results file, in user units and in CivilFEM or section axis. All these data can be listed and plotted with the ~PLLSSTL, ~PLCSEC3 and ~PRSTL commands. In the following tables, the section data used in LRFD are shown:
10-E-7
Table 10-E.5-1 Common data for gross, net and effective sections
Description Input data: 1.- Height 2.- Web thickness 3.- Flanges thickness 4.- Flanges width 5.- Distance between flanges 6.- Radius of fillet (Rolled shapes) 7.- Toe radius (Rolled shapes) 8.- Weld throat thickness (Welded shapes) 9.- Web free depth Output data Data H Tw Tf B Hi r1 r2 a d (None)
Tky tkz A It Iyy, Izz Izy Wely, Welz Wply, Wplz iy, iz Ycdg, Zcdg Ymin, Ymax, Zmin, Zmax Yms, Zms Iw Yws, Zws Xwt Iuu, Ivv (None)
CivilFEM CivilFEM CivilFEM CivilFEM CivilFEM CivilFEM CivilFEM CivilFEM Section Section Section CivilFEM CivilFEM Principal CivilFEM
10-E-8
10-E.5 Data and Results used by CivilFEM 1.- Cross-section area Anet
The effective section depends upon the geometry of the section, thus, for each element and for each end the effective section is calculated. Table 10-E.5-4 Net section data
Description Input data: Output data: 1.- Reduction factor 2.- Reduction factor 3.- Reduction factor Q Qs Qa Data (None)
10-E-9
Chapter 10-E Steel Structures according to LRFD Output data: 1.- Class 2.- Bending axis for checking purposes 3.- Plates class 4.- Plate reduction factor in point 1 5.- Plate reduction factor in point 2 6.- Compresin class 7.- Bending class 8.- Width to thickness ratio (b/t) 9.- p compression 10.- r compression 11.- Plate compression class 12.- p bending 13.- r bending 14.- Bending class CLASS AXIS PC PF1 PF2 CLS_COMP CLS_FLEX RATIO LAMBDP_C LAMBDR_C CLASE_C LAMBDR_P LAMBDR_F CLASE_F
10-E.5.2
Member Properties
For LRFD the checked data set used at member level is shown in the following table. All data, is stored with the section data in user units and in CivilFEM reference axis. (Parameters L, KY, KZ, KTOR, CB, LB, CHCKAXIS, of ~MEMBPRO command). Table 10-E.5-6 Member Properties
Description Input data: 1.- Unbraced length of member (global buckling) 2.- Effective length factors Y direction 3.- Effective length factors Z direction 4.- Effective length factors for torsional buckling 5.- Flexural factor relative to bending moment 6.- Length between lateral restraints Output data: 1.- Compresin class 2.- Bending class CLS_COMP CLS_FLEX KTOR Cb Lb L KY KZ B-3 B-7 B-7 App. E-3 F1.2a F1.2 Data Section
10-E.5.3
Material Properties
10-E-10
10-E-11
b) Obtain the cross-section data corresponding to the element. c) Initiate the values of the plates reduction factors and other plates parameters to determine its class. d) Specific section checking according to the type of external load. e) Results. Checking results are available CivilFEM for each element end, grouping them into alternatives in the results file .RCV, in such way that the user may access them by indicating the number of the alternative using the CivilFEM command ~CFSET. In the tables included in the sections corresponding to the different types of checking, the necessary data corresponding to the each type of solicitation is described.
10-E.6.1
Steel sections are classified as compact, noncompact or slender-element sections. For a section to qualify as compact its flanges must be continuously connected to the web or webs and the width-thickness ratios of its compression elements must not exceed the limiting width-thickness ratios p (see table B5.1 of LRFD). If the width-thickness ratio of one or more compression elements exceeds p but does not exceed r, the section is noncompact. If the widththickness ratio of any element exceeds r, (see table B5.1 of LRFD), the section is referred to as a slender-element compression section. Therefore, the code suggests different lambda values depending if the element is subjected to compression, flexure or compression plus flexure.
10-E-13
The section classification is the worst-case scenario of all its plates. Therefore, the class is calculated for each plate with the exception of pipe sections, which have their own formulation because it can no be decomposed into plates. This classification will take into account the following parameters: a) length of elements: The program will take as the element length (b or h) the length of the plate (distance between the extreme points), except when specifying otherwise. b) flange or web distinction: In the cases in which a distinction has to be made between flange or web the following criteria will be taken into account: Once the principal axis of bending is defined, the program will examine the sections plates. Fields Pty and Ptz of the plates, indicate if they behave as flanges, webs or undefined, taking the correct one for the each axis. In the case of been undefined, the following criterion will be taken into account to classify the plate as flange or web: if | y|<| z| (increments of end coordinates) and flexure is in the Y axis, it is considered as web, if not, it will be a flange. The reverse way will hold true for flexure in the Z-axis. Hot rolled steel shapes: Section I and C: The length of the plate h will be taken as the value d of the section dimensions. Section Box: The length of the plate will be taken as the width length minus three times the thickness.
10-E.6.1.1
In order to check under compression it is necessary to know if the particular element is stiffened or unstiffened. - For stiffened elements:
p
0.0
1.49 E Fy
Pipe sections
r
0.11
E Fy
Box sections
10-E-14
1.12
E Fy E Fy
1.40
- Unstiffened elements:
p
0.0
0.56
E Fy
Angular sections
r
0.45
E Fy
Stem of T sections
r
0.75
E Fy
10-E.6.1.2
The bending check is only applicable to very specific sections. Therefore the slenderness factor is indicated for each section: Section I and C:
Py
kc
Fy A g ;
4 h tw
0.90
Fr =
69 MPa for hot rolled shapes (10 ksi) 114 MPa for welded sections (16.5 ksi)
FL = minimum of (Fyf Fr) y (Fyw) where Fyf and Fyw are the Fy of flange and web respectively. Flanges of rolled sections:
p
0.38
E FL
0.83
E FL
0.38
E Fyf
0.95
E FL k c
Flange:
10-E-15
If
Pu
Py
0.125 :
3.76
If
Pu
Py
0.125 :
1.12
Always:
5.70
P E 1 0.74 u Fy Py
Pu is the compression axial force (taken as positive). If in tension, it will be taken as cero. Pipe section:
p
0.07
E Fy
0.31
E Fy
1.12
E Fy E Fy
1.40
Flanges: the program distinguishes between flange and web upon the principal axis indicated by the user. If
Pu
Py
0.125 :
3.76
If
Pu
Py
0.125 :
1.12
Always: T section:
p
5.70
P E 1 0.74 u Fy Py
0.0
0.75 E Fy
Stem:
10-E-16
Flanges :
0.56
E Fy
10-E.6.2
The axial tension force must be taken as positive (if the tension force has a negative value the element will not be checked) Design strength of tension members: lower value of a) yielding in the gross section:
t t Pn
= 0.90
= 0.75
P n = Fu A e Being: Ae Ag Fy Fu Effective net area. Gross area. Minimum yield stress. Minimum tensile strength.
The effective net are will be taken as Ag AHOLES. The user will need to enter the correct value for AHOLES (the code indicates that the diameter is 2 mm greater than the real diameter ). Table 10-E.6-1 Chapter D Checking of Members in Axial Tension Result
FIPNG FIPNE FIPN CRT_TOT
Concepts
t Pn (a)
Chapter References
D1 D1 D1 D1 (D1-1) (D1-2) (D1) Pu/fiPn
Description
Design strength for yielding in the gross section Design strength for fracture in the net section Design strength Total criterion according to LRFD Compact, non-compact or slender classification for Compression Compact, non-compact or slender classification for Bending
t Pn (b)
10-E-17
10-E.6.3
Among the checks for members subjected to axial compression, the LRFD distinguishes between the following checks:
10-E.6.3.1
This type of check can be carried out for compact sections as well as for noncompact or slender sections. For these three cases the follows the following steps: Axial compression design strength:
c Pn c
(E2) (E2-1)
= 0.85
Pn = AgFcr
c
Kl Fy r E
Q = Q s Qa (a) for
c
1.5
Fcr Q(0.658Q c )Fy
2
(E2-2) (A-B5-15)
(b) for
1.5
Fcr
Where: Ag r K l
0.877
2 c
Fy
(E2-3) (A-B5-16)
Gross area of member. Governing radius of gyration about the buckling axis. Effective length factor. Unbraced length.
Factor Q for compact and noncompact sections is always 1. Nevertheless, for slender sections, the value of Q has a particular procedure. Such procedure is described bellow: Factor Q for slender sections: For unstiffened plates Qs must be calculated, and for stiffened plates Qa. If these cases do not apply (a box section or an angular section, for example), a value of 1 will be taken. For circular sections, there is a particular procedure of calculating Q. such procedure is described bellow: For circular sections, Q is:
10-E-18
Qa
0.038E Fy (D t)
2 3
0.11 E
Fy
Dt
0.45 E
Fy
Factor Qs: If there are several plates free, the value of Qs is taken as the biggest value of all. The program will check the slenderness of the section in the following order: Angular If If
0.45 E Fy 0.91 E Fy 0.91 E Fy
Qs
1.340 0.76
E Fy
Qs
0.53
E Fy
2
Stem of T If If
0.75 E Fy 1.03 E Fy 1.03 E Fy
Qs
1.908 1.22
E Fy
Qs
0.69
E Fy
2
Rolled shapes If
0.56 E Fy 1.03 E Fy
Qs
1.415 0.74
E Fy
If 1.03 E Fy Other sections If 0.64 k c E Fy If 1.17 k c E Fy Where is the element slenderness and 4 kc ,0.35 k c 0.763 kc=0.763 Factor Qa:
Qs
0.69
E Fy
2
1.17 k c E Fy
Qs
Qs
1.415 0.65
0.90k c E Fy
2
k c E Fy
The calculation of factor Qa is an iterative process. Its procedure is the following: 1) An initial value of Q equal to Qs is taken 2) With this value Fcr is calculated 3) This Fcr value is taken to calculate f (f = c Fcr) 4) For elements with stiffened plates, the effective width be is calculated.
CivilFEM Theory Manual 300609. Ingeciber, S.A.
10-E-19
5) With be the effective area is calculated 6) With the value of the effective area, Qa is calculated, and the process starts again.
Qa
For a box section If
1.40 E f
effctivearea grossarea
E 0.38 E 1 f f
be
1.91 t
If it is not within those limits, be = b With the be values for each plate, the part that does not contribute [t(b-be)] is subtracted from the area (where t is the plate thickness). Using this procedure, the effective area is calculated. Finally, with Qs and Qa, Q is calculated, and Fcr obtained. Output results are written in the CivilFEM results file (.RCV) as an alternative. Checking results: criteria and variables are described at the following table. Table 10-E.6-2 Chapter E Checking of Members Subjected to Compression Result
QS Qa Q LAMBDA FCR PN
Concepts
QS Qa Q LAMBDA FCR PN
c Pn
Chapter
Appendix B Appendix B Appendix B E E& Appendix B E E
References
(A-B5.3a) (A-B5.3c) (A-B5-17) (E2-4)
Description
Unstiffened Compression elements reduction factor Stiffened Compression elements reduction factor Full reduction factor for slender sections Equivalent slenderness parameter
(E2-2,3) (A-B5- Critical stress 15,16) (E2-1) Pu/fiPn Nominal axial strength Total criterion of LRFD Compact, non-compact or slender classification for Compression Compact, non-compact or slender classification for Bending
CRT_TOT F /
10-E-20
10-E.6.3.2
This type of check can be carried out for compact sections as well as for noncompact or slender sections. For these three cases the follows the following steps: Axial design strength:
c Pn
(E3)
c
= 0.85 (E3-1)
1.5
Fcr Q(0.658Q e )Fy (A-E3-2)
2
(b) for
1.5
Fcr
Where:
0.877
2 e
Fy
(A-E3-3)
Fy
e
Fe
Q = Q s Qa Factor Q for compact and noncompact sections is 1. Nevertheless, for slender sections, the Q factor has a particular procedure of calculation. Such procedure is equal to the one described previously. The elastic stress for critical torsional buckling or flexural-torsional buckling Fe is calculated as the lower solution of the following third degree equation, in which the axis have been changed to adapt to CivilFEM normal axis:
(Fe Fex )(Fe Fey )(Fe Fez ) F (Fe
2 e
y Fez ) o ro
F (Fe
2 e
z Fey ) o ro
(A-E3-7)
Where: Kx G Cw J Iy, Iz x0,y0 Effective length factor for torsional buckling. Shear modulus (MPa). Warping constant (mm6). Torsional constant (mm4). Moments of inertia about the principal axis (mm4). Coordinates of shear center with respect to the center of gravity (mm).
10-E-21
r0
2 y0
2 z0
Iy Iz A
2 z0 2
H 1
2 y0
r0
Fey
E K y l / ry
E K z l / rz
2
Fez
2
Fex
where: A l Ky, Kz ry, rz
2
E Cw Kx l
G J
1
2
A r0
Cross-sectional area of member. Unbraced length. Effective length factor, in the z and y directions. Radii of gyration about the principal axes. Polar radius of gyration about the shear center.
r0
In this formula, CivilFEM principal axes are used. If the CivilFEM axes are the principal axes 5 sexagesimal, Ky and Kz are calculated with respect to the Y and Z-axes of CivilFEM. If this is not the case (angular shapes, for example) axes U and V will be used as principal axes, being U the axes with higher inertia. The torsional inertia (Ixx in CivilFEM, J in LRFD) is calculated for CivilFEM sections, but not for captured sections. Therefore the user will have to introduce this parameter in the mechanical properties of CivilFEM. Output results are written in the CivilFEM results file (.RCV) as an alternative. Checking results: criteria and variables are described at the following table.
Table 10-E.6-3 Chapter E Checking of elements subjected to compression for flexural-torsional buckling Result
QS Qa Q
Concepts
QS Qa Q
Chapter
References
Description
Unstiffened Compression elements reduction factor Stiffened Compression elements reduction factor Full reduction factor for slender sections
10-E-22
10-E.6 Checking Process LAMBDA FCR PN FE CRT_TOT CLS_COMP CLS_BEND LAMBDA FCR PN FE Axil / Class Class
c Pn
Appendix E (A-E3-4) Appendix E (A-E3-2,4) Appendix E (A-E3-1) Appendix E (A-E3-7) Appendix E Pu/fiPn
Equivalent slenderness parameter Critical stress Nominal axial strength Elastic buckling stress Total criterion of LRFD Compact, non-compact or slender classification for Compression Compact, non-compact or slender classification for Bending
10-E.6.4
Chapter F is only applicable for compact and noncompact sections subjected to bending moment and shear.
10-E.6.4.1
a) Yielding
Flexure check
The nominal flexural strength (Mn) is the lowest value of four checks: b) Lateral-torsional buckling c) Flange local buckling d) Web local buckling I sections with slender webs (plate girders), are checked according to Appendix G. The value of the nominal flexural strength taking into account the following considerations: For compact sections, if Lb < Lp only yielding of steel will be checked. For T sections, and other compact sections, only yielding and torsional buckling will be checked. The case of lateral-torsional buckling does not applied to sections loaded on the minor axis of inertia, as well as box or square sections. The case of lateral-torsional buckling, only applies for sections with double symmetry, channel and T sections. For other sections, the code uses Appendix F1. Therefore the rest of sections will be checked for torsion plus combined loads and will not be checked under flexure. For non-compact sections, the code uses Appendix F1, which contemplates the following cases (Table A-F1.1 of LRFD) summarized herein:
10-E-23
Shape
Fcr
p
2 X1 X2 2 2
r
E Fyf
Notes
Cb X1 2
Lb rz
1.76
X1 1 FL
1 X2FL2
0.69E
2
rolled welded
FLSz
0.90Ek c
2
b t
Class B5.1
Class B5.1
h t w Class B5.1
Class B5.1
Shape
Limit State
Mr
p N.A.
N.A. N.A.
FySy
0.69E
2
b t
Class B5.1
Class B5.1
N.A. N.A.
N.A.
N.A.
N.A.
Shape
Mr
Fcr
p
Lb rz
Notes
FyfSeff
2ECb JA Sz
0.13E JA Mp
2E JA Mr
It cannot be a plate girder
Seff Fy S
b t
10-E-24
Shape
Mr
Fcr NA NA NA
p NA
Notes
Pipe FLB
Mn
0.33E 0.021E Fy S Dt Dt
Class D t B5.1
Class B5.1
WLB NA
NA
NA NA
NA
Shape
Mr
Fcr
Mn
Mcr
EIzGJ Lb
1 B2
FLB
N.A.
WLB N.A.
Where:
X1
Sz
EGJA 2
X2
C Sz 4 w Iz GJ
2.3
d Iz Lb J
1.0My stem in compression.
(positive sign if the stem is under tension, negative if it is under compression) In T sections: Mn
Output results are written in the CivilFEM results file (.RCV) as an alternative. Checking results: criteria and variables are described in the following table.
10-E-25
Description
Checked Yielding limit state Checked Lateral-Torsional Buckling limit state Checked Flange Local Buckling limit state Checked Web Local Bucking limit state Yielding limit state criterion Lateral-Torsional Buckling limit state criterion Flange Local Buckling limit state criterion Web Local Bucking limit state criterion Required flexural strength Plastic bending moment Total criterion of LRFD Compact, non-compact or slender classification for Compression Compact, non-compact or slender classification for Bending
CLS_BEND Class
10-E.6.4.2
Shear check
Shear check applies to shapes I and C loaded in the plane of the web and non slender web (for slender webs look at 10-E.6.4.3). The calculation procedure is as follows:
h / tw 2.45 E / Fyw h / tw 2.45 E / Fyw Vn
0.6Fyw A w
Vn 0.6Fyw A w 2.45 E / Fyw h / tw
3.07 E / Fyw
3.07 E / Fyw
h / tw
260 Vn
Aw
4.52E (h / t w )2
Where Aw is the web area. Output results are written in the CivilFEM results file (.RCV) as an alternative. Checking results: criteria and variables are described in the following table.
10-E-26
Concepts
CHK_YLD CHK_LTB Vu/fiVn
Chapter References
F F F F2.1 (F2-2,3) Web area
Description
Nominal shear strength Total criterion of LRFD Compact, non-compact or slender classification for Compression Compact, non-compact or slender classification for Bending
10-E.6.4.3
Plate girders
These type of sections are treated by the LRFD in Appendix G. In this Appendix only I shapes loaded in the plane of the web are checked. For the web to be considered slender the height-thickness ratio has to be the following:
h tw
and also
h tw
260
The nominal flexural strength Mn is the minimum of the following checks: tension-flange yield compression flange buckling The first check uses the following formula:
Mn
where: Sxt Re Fyt
SxtReFyt (A-G2-1)
Section modulus referred to tension flange. 1.0 Yield strength of tension flange.
Mn
where:
RPG 1
SxcRPGReFcr (A-G2-2)
hc ar 1200 300ar t w
5.70
E Fcr
1.0
The critical stress depends upon different slenderness parameters such as , p, r and Cpg in the following way: For
p
Fcr
Fyf
10-E-27
For
Fcr
For >
r
Cb Fyf
Cpg
2
1 2
p r p
Fyf
Fcr
The slenderness values have to be calculated for the following limit states: Lateral torsional buckling
Lb rT
p
1.76
E Fyf E Fyf
4.44
Cpg
rT is the radius of gyration of compression flange plus one third of the compression portion of the web (mm). By default, the program takes a conservative value of Cb = 1. Nevertheless the user may calculate this value according to section F1.2 and introduce it as a member property Flange local buckling
bf 2t f
p
0.38
E Fyf E Fyf / k c
1.35
Cpg
where:
kc
4 / h tw
and
0.35
kc
0.73
The program will choose, between these two slenderness values, the one that produces a lower value of critical stress. It also checks for shear, using as a value for Vn the value resulting from the following formula: Cv of (A-G3-5 and 6).
10-E-28 CivilFEM Theory Manual 300609. Ingeciber, S.A.
Vn
0.6 Fyw A w Cv
where the value of the shear coefficient Cv, is calculated in the following way: For
1.10 K vE Fyw h tw 1.37 K vE Fyw
Cv
1.10 K vE Fyw h tw
For
h tw
1.37
K vE Fyw
Cv
1.51K vE h tw
2
Fyw
where the Kv value is taken as 5.0 if a/h exceeds 3.0 or [260 / (h/tw)]2 Also, CivilFEM gives the interaction criterion between flexure and shear. This criterion is calculated using the following formula:
Crt _FS
Mu 1 1.375 Mn
0.625
Vu Vn
The global criterion is the maximum of the three criteria. Output results are written in the CivilFEM results file (.RCV) as an alternative. Checking results: criteria and variables are described in the following table. Table 10-E.6-6 Appendix G Plate Girders Result
Fcr_LTB Fcr_FLB Fcr
Concepts
Fcr_LTB Fcr_FLB Min (FCR_LTB, FCR_FLB ) Rpg rt
Chapter
Appendix G Appendix G Appendix G
References
(A-G2-4,6) (A-G2-4,6)
Description
Critical stress for lateraltorsional buckling Critical stress for flange local buckling Critical stress
Rpg rt Mn Crt_M Cv Vn
Appendix G Appendix G
(A-G2-3)
Plate girder bending strength reduction factor Radius of gyration for (A-G27) Nominal flexural strength Nominal flexural strength criterion
Min (MnCFB, Appendix G MnTFY) Mu/fiMn Cv Vn Appendix G Appendix G Appendix G (A-G3-5,6) (A-G3-2)
10-E-29
Chapter 10-E Steel Structures according to LRFD Crt_V Crt_FS Crt_TOT CLS_COMP Vu/fiVn Crt_FS Crt_TOT Class Appendix G Appendix G Appendix G (A-G5-1) Nominal shear strength criterion Flexure-Shear Interaction criterion Total criterion of LRFD Compact, non-compact or slender classification for Compression Compact, non-compact or slender classification for Bending
CLS_BEND
Class
10-E.6.5
10-E.6.5.1
For this check, it is necessary to know first the value of Mn. This value comes into play in the checking formulas. The value of Mn, will be calculated in the same way as members subjected to flexure, that is, the nominal flexure strength (Mn) is the minimum of four checks: 1. Yielding 2. Lateral-torsional buckling 3. Flange local buckling 4. Web local buckling In case of having bending plus traction or bending plus compression, the interaction between flexure and axial force is limited by the following equations: (a) For
Pu Pn 0.2
Pu Pn
(b) For
Pu Pn 0.2
8 9
Muz bMnz
Muy
b
Mny
1.0
(H1-1a)
Pu 2 Pn
If the axial force is tension: Pu
Muz bMnz
Muy
b
Mny
1.0
(H1-1b)
10-E-30
Pn Mu Mn y z
Nominal tensile strength (N). Required flexural strength (Nmm). Nominal flexural strength (Nmm). Strong axis of bending. Weak axis of bending. Resistance factor for tension. Resistance factor for flexure = 0.90 Required compressive strength (N). Nominal compressive strength (N). Required flexural strength (Nmm). Nominal flexural strength (Nmm). Strong axis of bending. Weak axis of bending. Resistance factor for compression= 0.85 Resistance factor for flexure = 0.90
The following checks are carried out by CivilFEM: Axial force and flexural buckling Bending moment Z direction Bending moment Y direction If one of these checks do not meet the code requirements, it will not be possible to check the member under flexure plus tension / compression. Output results are written in the CivilFEM results file (.RCV) as an alternative. Checking results: criteria and variables are described in the following table. Table 10-E.6-7 Chapter H Checking of Members Subjected to Flexure plus Tension / Compression Result
QS
Concepts
QS
Chapter
Appendix B
References
(A-B5.3a)
Description
Unstiffened Compression elements reduction factor (compression) Stiffened Compression elements reduction factor (compression) Full reduction factor for slender sections (compression) Column slenderness parameter (compression)
Qa
Qa
Appendix B
(A-B5.3c)
Q LAMBDA
Q LAMBDA
Appendix B Appendix E
(A-B5-17) (E2-4)
10-E-31
Chapter 10-E Steel Structures according to LRFD FCR PN CRT_AXL FIPNG FIPNE FIPN CRT_TOT CHK_YLDZ CHK_LTBZ CHK_FLBZ CHK_WLBZ CRT_YLDZ CRT_LTBZ FCR PN CRT_AXL FIPNG FIPNE FIPN CRT_TOT CHK_YLDZ CHK_LTBZ CHK_FLBZ CHK_WLBZ Mu/fiMnYd Mu/fiMnLTB Appendix E &B Appendix E Appendix E D D D H H H H H H H (D1-1) (D1-2) (D1) (H1-1a,b) (E2-2,3) (AB5-15,16) (E2-1) Compression critical stress (compression) Nominal axial strength (compression) Axial strength criterion Design strength for yielding in the gross section (tension) Design strength for fracture in the net section (tension) Design strength (tension) Total criterion Checked Yielding limit state (Z axis) Checked Lateral-Torsional Buckling limit state (Z axis) Checked Flange Local Buckling limit state (Z axis) Checked Web Local Bucking limit state (Z axis) Yielding limit state criterion (Z axis) Lateral-Torsional Buckling limit state criterion (Z axis)
10-E.6.5.2
This code check is based upon a check of stress, normal, tangential and buckling, following the next procedure: For the limit state of yielding, under normal stress:
fun
Fy
= 0.90
fuv
0.6
= 0.90
Fy
fun o fuv
c
Fcr
= 0.85
For elements subjected to compression with flexural buckling, for the case of fun.
CivilFEM Theory Manual 300609. Ingeciber, S.A.
10-E-32
For elements subjected to compression with lateral-torsional buckling, for the case of fuv.
Output results are written in the CivilFEM results file (.RCV) as an alternative. Checking results: criteria and variables are described in the following table: Table 10-E.6-8 Chapter H Checking of Members Subjected to Torsion, Flexure, Shear and/or Axial Force Result
FUN FUV FCRFBK FCRFBK CRT_TOT
Description
Required normal stress Required shear stress Fcr for flexural buckling analysis Fcr for flexural torsional buckling analysis Total criterion Compact, non-compact or slender classification for Compression Compact, non-compact or slender classification for bending
10-E-33
10-F.1 Scope
Checking Process..................................................................................... 15 10-F.6.1 10-F.6.2 10-F.6.3 10-F.6.4 10-F.6.5 10-F.6.6 Bending Checking ................................................................... 15 Shear Checking ....................................................................... 17 Bending & Shear Checking ...................................................... 18 Axial Checking ......................................................................... 19 Bending & Axial checking ........................................................ 20 Compression Buckling Checking ............................................ 21
10-F.1 Scope
10-F.1 Scope
Steel structures checking according to GB50017 in CivilFEM is included in the checking of structures composed by welded or rolled shapes under axial forces, shear forces and bending moments in 3D. The calculations made by CivilFEM correspond to the prescriptions of GB50017 according to the specifications of the following sections:
4 5
Bending element calculations Axially loaded structures and calculation of compression and bending
Moreover, it is possible to check solid sections captured from 2D or 3D models with a transversal cross section classified as structural steel.
10-6
From net section only the area is considered. This area is calculated discounting the holes for screws, rivets and other holes from the gross section area. The user will have to take into account that LRFD indicates that the diameter from which to calculate the parameter AHOLES is greater than the real diameter (the total calculated area is introduced in the parameter AHOLES with the command ~SECMDF).
10-F.5.2
Member Properties
For LRFD the checked data set used at member level is shown in the following table. All data, is stored with the section data in user units and in CivilFEM reference axis. (Parameters GAMMAy, GAMMAz, TSECy, TSECz, L, KY, KZ, of ~MEMBPRO command).
10-F.5.3
The cross section type is defined by values introduced in TSECY and TSECZ member properties (see ~MEMBPRO command). Otherwise they will be computed from the following table 10-F.5-3:
10-10
Y
b
Z
a
I Section
Y
0.8
Welded Section
Channel
Y Z
Rolled or Welded
Pipe
Y
Rolled By dimensions
a b
a b
L angle
Rolled
Rolled or Welded if
b h 2 t
20
Standard T
Y
Z
Rolled or Welded
40
Y
c
Z
b
80mm
d b
c b
b h 2 t
20
Rolled or Welded if
b h 2 t
20
10-F.5.4
Material Properties
10-12
Table 10-F.5-5 Material properties Description Steel yield strength Ultimate strength Shear strength Elasticity modulus
*th = plate thickness
Property
f (th)
fce (th)
fv (th)
E
10-F.5.5
Forces and moments for elements ends are obtained from CivilFEMs results file (file. RCV) for the selected load step and substep. Table 10-F.5-6 Forces and Moments Forces and Moments Nx Ty Tz Tx My Mz Description Axial force. Design Shear force in Y. Design Shear force in Z. Design torsional moment. Bending moment in Y. Bending moment in Z.
10-F.6.1
Bending Checking
In CivilFEM the checking of elements under bending according to GB50017 code is done for each element end of those selected elements or solid sections of the model whose cross section type is structural steel. For the checking, the program follows the following steps:
10-F.6.1.1
The maximum normal stress is calculated with the general equation for sections subjected to bending moments according to axes, not necessarily principal of inertia :
My
* n y
(Iz z Iyz y)
Mz
z
(Iy y Iyz z)
IyIz I2 yz
Where:
My
Bending moment in Y direction Bending moment in Z direction Moment of inertia in Y direction Moment of inertia in Z direction Product of inertia about YZ
y
Mz
Iy
Iz
Iyz
, z are obtained from the associated member properties (see ~MEMBPRO command). Otherwise they should be adopted according to Table 10-F.6.1
Plastic development coefficients
1.2
1.05
1.15
1.15
1.05
1.05
Y
Z
Other case
1.0
1.0
10-16
10-F.6.1.2
The equivalent stress obtained is divided by the steel design strength u in order to obtain a value, stored as the CRT_TOT parameter in the active alternative in the CivilFEMs results file for each element end. This value shall vary between 0.0 and 1.0 so that the element will be valid according to the GB50017 code, that is, the equivalent stress must be lower than the steel design stress.
CRT_TOT * u
10-F.6.2
Shear Checking
In CivilFEM the checking of elements under shear force according to GB50017 code are done for each element end of those selected elements or solid sections of the model whose cross section type is structural steel.
10-F.6.2.1
The maximum tangential shear and torsion stresses for each element end are calculated from the shear forces and from the section mechanical properties with the following equation:
* t
MAX
Ty Yws
Tz Zws
Where: Ty Tz Yws Zws Shear Force in Y direction Shear Force in Z direction Shear area about Y axis. Shear area about Z axis.
10-F.6.2.2
The equivalent stress obtained is divided by the steel design strength u in order to obtain a value, stored as the CRT_TOT parameter in the active alternative in the CivilFEMs results file for each element end. This value shall vary between 0.0 and 1.0 so that the element will be valid according to the GB50017 code, that is, the equivalent stress must be lower than the steel design stress.
CRT_TOT * u 1
10-F.6.3
In CivilFEM the checking of elements under bending and shear forces according to GB50017 code are done for each element end of those selected elements or solid sections of the model whose cross section type is structural steel. The following steps:
10-F.6.3.1
The maximum normal stress is calculated with the general equation for sections subjected to bending moments according to axes, not necessarily principal of inertia :
* n
Where: Bending moment in Y direction Bending moment in Z direction Moment of inertia in Y direction Moment of inertia in Z direction Product of inertia about YZ
My
Mz
Iy
Iz
Iyz
10-F.6.3.2
The maximum tangential shear and torsion stresses for each element end are calculated from the shear forces and from the section mechanical properties with the following equation:
10-18
* t
MAX
Ty Yws
Tz Ywz
Where: Ty Tz Yws Zws Shear Force in Y direction Shear Force in Z direction Shear area about Y axis. Shear area about Z axis.
10-F.6.3.3
is calculated by using:
n2
3 t2
The maximum equivalent stress for each element end is stored in the active alternative in the CivilFEMs results file with the parameter named SCEQV.
10-F.6.3.4
The equivalent stress obtained is divided by the steel design strength u in order to obtain a value, stored as the CRT_TOT parameter in the active alternative in the CivilFEMs results file for each element end. This value shall vary between 0.0 and 1.0 so that the element will be valid according to the GB50017 code, that is, the equivalent stress must be lower than the steel design stress.
CRT_TOT * f 1
Where is the amplifying factor for the combined design strength. If n and t have different sign = 1.2, otherwise = 1.1.
10-F.6.4
Axial Checking
In CivilFEM the checking of elements under axial (without considering buckling) forces according to GB50017 code are done for each element end of those selected elements or solid sections of the model whose cross section type is structural steel.
10-F.6.4.1
The maximum tangential shear and torsion stresses for each element end are calculated from the shear forces and from the section mechanical properties with the following equation:
*
1 0.5
n1 N n An
Where: Axial force Net area of the cross section Number of high-strength frictional bolts Number of bolts at the calculated section
N
An
n
n1
n1 coefficient is given by RTB factor which can be modified with n ~SECMDF command.
In CivilFEM
10-F.6.4.2
The equivalent stress obtained is divided by the steel design strength u in order to obtain a value, stored as the CRT_TOT parameter in the active alternative in the CivilFEMs results file for each element end. This value shall vary between 0.0 and 1.0 so that the element will be valid according to the GB50017 code, that is, the equivalent stress must be lower than the steel design stress.
CRT_TOT
* f
10-F.6.5
In CivilFEM the checking of elements under bending and axial forces according to GB50017 code are done for each element end of those selected elements or solid sections of the model whose cross section type is structural steel.
10-F.6.5.1
is calculated by using:
10-20
My
*
N An
(Iz z Iyz y)
Mz
z
(Iy y Iyz z)
IyIz I2 yz
Where: Bending moment in Y direction Bending moment in Z direction Moment of inertia in Y direction Moment of inertia in Z direction Product of inertia about YZ
My
Mz
Iy
Iz
Iyz
, z are obtained from the associated member properties (see ~MEMBPRO command). Otherwise they should be adopted according to Table 10-F.6.1
y
10-F.6.5.2
The equivalent stress obtained is divided by the steel design strength u in order to obtain a value, stored as the CRT_TOT parameter in the active alternative in the CivilFEMs results file for each element end. This value shall vary between 0.0 and 1.0 so that the element will be valid according to the GB50017 code, that is, the equivalent stress must be lower than the steel design stress.
CRT_TOT
* f
10-F.6.6
In CivilFEM the checking of elements considering buckling according to GB50017 code are done for each element end of those selected elements or solid sections of the model whose cross section type is structural steel and under compression.
10-F.6.6.1
is calculated by using:
N A
Where is the stability coefficient for axially compressed members. The stability coefficient is calculated from the slenderness ratio:
y
ky iy kz iz
Where: L Unbraced length of member (see ~MEMBPRO command) Buckling length factors in Y axis (see ~MEMBPRO command) Buckling length factors in Z axis (see ~MEMBPRO command) Rotational radius to Y axis Rotational radius to Z axis
ky
kz
iy iz
In non symmetric sections, principal inertia directions are taken as axes. To compute a) If
n
:
fy / E 0.215 then
2 1 n
b) Otherwise:
1 2 2 n
2 n
2 n
2 n
Where
CROSS SECTION a b c
n
0.41 0.65
1.05
0.73
10-22
1.05 1.05
1.35
d
n
1.05
10-F.6.6.2
The equivalent stress obtained is divided by the steel design strength u in order to obtain a value, stored as the CRT_TOT parameter in the active alternative in the CivilFEMs results file for each element end. This value shall vary between 0.0 and 1.0 so that the element will be valid according to the GB50017 code, that is, the equivalent stress must be lower than the steel design stress.
CRT_TOT
* f
10-G.1 Scope
10-G.1 Scope
Steel structures checking according to Steel Construction Manual of AISC 13th Edition (December 2005) in CivilFEM is included in the checking of structures composed by welded or rolled shapes under axial forces, shear forces and bending moments in 3D. The calculations made by CivilFEM according to the following sections of Part 16 Specifications and Codes: D E F G H Design of members for tension. Design of members for compression. Design of members for flexure. Design of members for shear. Design of members for combined forces and torsion.
10-G-1
Buckling check:
Compression members subjected to flexure Compression members subjected to flexure and torsion E3,E7 E4,E7
10-G-3
Moreover, it is possible to check solid sections captured from 2D or 3D models with a transversal cross section classified as structural steel.
10-G-5
SHEAR BEND_AXL
BDAxSHTR
10-G-6
10-G.5.1
Sections Data
AISC 13TH EDITION considers the following data set for the section: Gross section data Net section data Effective section data Data concerning to the section and plates class. Gross section data correspond to the nominal properties of the cross-section. From net section only the area is considered. This area is calculated discounting the holes for screws, rivets and other holes from the gross section area. The user will have to take into account that AISC 13TH EDITION indicates that the diameter from which to calculate the parameter AHOLES is greater than the real diameter (the total calculated area is introduced in the parameter AHOLES with the command ~SECMDF). Effective section data and section and plates class data are obtained in the checking process according to chapter B, section B5 of the code. This chapter, classifies steel sections into three groups, compact, noncompacts and slender, depending upon the width-thickness ratio and some mandatory limits. The AISC 13TH EDITION module takes the gross section data in user units and CivilFEM axis or section axis as initial data. The program calculates the effective section data and the class data, and stores them in CivilFEMs results file, in user units and in CivilFEM or section axis. All these data can be listed and plotted with the ~PLLSSTL and ~PRSTL commands. In the following tables, the section data used in AISC 13TH EDITION are shown:
10-G-7
Table 10-G.5-1 Common data for gross, net and effective sections
Description Input data: 1.- Height 2.- Web thickness 3.- Flanges thickness 4.- Flanges width 5.- Distance between flanges 6.- Radius of fillet (Rolled shapes) 7.- Toe radius (Rolled shapes) 8.- Weld throat thickness (Welded shapes) 9.- Web free depth Output data Data H Tw Tf B Hi r1 r2 a d (None)
Tky tkz A It Iyy, Izz Izy Wely, Welz Wply, Wplz iy, iz Ycdg, Zcdg Ymin, Ymax, Zmin, Zmax Yms, Zms Iw Yws, Zws Xwt Iuu, Ivv (None)
CivilFEM CivilFEM CivilFEM CivilFEM CivilFEM CivilFEM CivilFEM CivilFEM Section Section Section CivilFEM CivilFEM Principal CivilFEM
10-G-8
10-G.5 Data and Results used by CivilFEM 1.- Cross-section area Anet
The effective section depends upon the geometry of the section, thus, for each element and for each end the effective section is calculated. Table 10-G.5-4 Net section data
Description Input data: Output data: 1.- Reduction factor 2.- Reduction factor 3.- Reduction factor Q Qs Qa Data (None)
10-G-9
Chapter 10-G Steel Structures according to AISC 13TH EDITION Output data: 1.- Class 2.- Bending axis for checking purposes 3.- Plates class 4.- Plate reduction factor in point 1 5.- Plate reduction factor in point 2 6.- Compression class 7.- Bending class 8.- Width to thickness ratio (b/t) 9.- p compression 10.- r compression 11.- Plate compression class 12.- p bending 13.- r bending 14.- Bending class CLASS AXIS PC PF1 PF2 CLS_COMP CLS_FLEX RATIO LAMBDP_C LAMBDR_C CLASE_C LAMBDR_P LAMBDR_F CLASE_F
10-G.5.2
Member Properties
For AISC 13TH EDITION the checked data set used at member level is shown in the following table. All data, is stored with the section data in user units and in CivilFEM reference axis. (Parameters L, KY, KZ, KTOR, CB, LB, CHCKAXIS, of ~MEMBPRO command). Table 10-G.5-6 Member Properties
Description Input data: 1.- Unbraced length of member (global buckling) 2.- Effective length factors Y direction 3.- Effective length factors Z direction 4.- Effective length factors for torsional buckling 5.- Flexural factor relative to bending moment 6.- Length between lateral restraints Output data: 1.- Compression class 2.- Bending class CLS_COMP CLS_FLEX L KY KZ KTOR Cb Lb Data
10-G.5.3
Material Properties
In AISC 13TH EDITION checking, the following material properties are used:
10-G-10
10-G-11
b) Obtain the cross-section data corresponding to the element. c) Initiate the values of the plates reduction factors and other plates parameters to determine its class. d) Specific section checking according to the type of external load. e) Results. Checking results are available CivilFEM for each element end, grouping them into alternatives in the results file .RCV, in such way that the user may access them by indicating the number of the alternative using the CivilFEM command ~CFSET. In the tables included in the sections corresponding to the different types of checking, the necessary data corresponding to the each type of solicitation is described.
10-G.6.1
Design Requirements.
Design for Strength Using Load and Resistance Factor Design (LRFD)
10-G.6.1.1
Ru
Where: Ru Rn Required strength (LRFD). Nominal strength. Resistance factor.
Ru
10-G-13
Rn
Design strength
10-G.6.1.2
Ra
Where: Ra Rn Required strength (ASD) Nominal strength. Safety factor
Rn /
10-G.6.2
Steel sections are classified as compact, noncompact or slender-element sections. For a section to qualify as compact its flanges must be continuously connected to the web or webs and the width-thickness ratios of its compression elements must not exceed the limiting width-thickness ratios p (see table B4.1 of AISC 13TH EDITION). If the width-thickness ratio of one or more compression elements exceeds p but does not exceed r, the section is noncompact. If the width-thickness ratio of any element exceeds r, (see table B4.1 of AISC 13TH EDITION), the section is referred to as a slender-element compression section. Therefore, the code suggests different lambda values depending if the element is subjected to compression, flexure or compression plus flexure. The section classification is the worst-case scenario of all its plates. Therefore, the class is calculated for each plate with the exception of pipe sections, which have their own formulation because it can no be decomposed into plates. This classification will take into account the following parameters: a) length of elements: The program will take as the element length (b or h) the length of the plate (distance between the extreme points), except when specifying otherwise. b) flange or web distinction: In the cases in which a distinction has to be made between flanges or web the following criteria will be taken into account:
10-G-14
Once the principal axis of bending is defined, the program will examine the sections plates. Fields Pty and Ptz of the plates indicate if they behave as flanges, webs or undefined, taking the correct one for the each axis. In the case of been undefined, the following criterion will be taken into account to classify the plate as flange or web: if | y|<| z| (increments of end coordinates) and flexure is in the Y axis, it is considered as web, if not, it will be a flange. The reverse way will hold true for flexure in the Z-axis. Hot rolled steel shapes: Section I and C: The length of the plate h will be taken as the value d of the section dimensions. Section Box: The length of the plate will be taken as the width length minus three times the thickness.
10-G.6.2.1
In order to check under compression it is necessary to know if the particular element is stiffened or unstiffened. - For stiffened elements:
p
0.0
1.49 E Fy
Pipe sections
r
0.11
E Fy
Box sections
p
1.12
E Fy E Fy
1.40
- Unstiffened elements:
p
0.0
0.56
E Fy
Angular sections
10-G-15
0.45
E Fy
Stem of T sections
r
0.75
E Fy
10-G.6.2.2
The bending check is only applicable to very specific sections. Therefore the slenderness factor is indicated for each section: Section I and C:
Py
kc
Fy A g ;
4 h tw
0.90
Fr =
69 MPa for hot rolled shapes (10 ksi) 114 MPa for welded sections (16.5 ksi)
FL = minimum of (Fyf Fr) y (Fyw) where Fyf and Fyw are the Fy of flange and web respectively. Flanges of rolled sections:
p
0.38
E FL
0.83
E FL
0.38
E Fyf
0.95
E FL k c
Flange: If
Pu
Py
0.125 :
3.76
If
Pu
Py
0.125 :
1.12
Always:
5.70
P E 1 0.74 u Fy Py
Pu is the compression axial force (taken as positive). If in tension, it will be taken as cero.
10-G-16
Pipe section:
p
0.07
E Fy
0.31
E Fy
1.12
E Fy E Fy
1.40
Flanges: the program distinguishes between flange and web upon the principal axis indicated by the user. If
Pu
Py
0.125 :
3.76
If
Pu
Py
0.125 :
1.12
Always: T section:
p
5.70
P E 1 0.74 u Fy Py
0.0
0.75 E Fy
E Fy
Stem:
Flanges:
0.56
10-G.6.3
The axial tension force must be taken as positive (if the tension force has a negative value the element will not be checked) Design tensile strength t Pn and the allowable tensile strength Pn/ t, of tension members, shall be the lower value of :
10-G-17
= 0.90 (LRFD)
t = 1.67 (ASD)
= 0.75 (LRFD)
t = 2.00 (ASD)
Being: Ae Ag Fy Fu Effective net area. Gross area. Minimum yield stress. Minimum tensile strength.
The effective net are will be taken as Ag AHOLES. The user will need to enter the correct value for AHOLES (the code indicates that the diameter is 2 mm greater than the real diameter).
10-G.6.4
The design compressive strength, cPn ,and the allowable compressive strength, Pn/ c , are determinated as follows: The nominal compressive strength, Pn , shall be the lowest value obtained according to the limit states of flexural buckling, torsional buckling and flexuraltorsional buckling.
c
= 0.90 (LRFD)
c = 1.67 (ASD)
10-G.6.4.1
This type of check can be carried out for compact sections as well as for noncompact or slender sections. For these three cases the follows the following steps: Nominal compressive strength, Pn : Pn = AgFcr
c
(E3-1)
Kl Fy r E
Q = Q s Qa
10-G-18
(a) for
KL r
4.71
E Fy
Fy
Fcr
(b) for
KL r 4.71 E Fy
Q(0.658Fe )Fy
Fcr
Where: Ag r K l Fe Gross area of member.
0.877Fe
Governing radius of gyration about the buckling axis. Effective length factor. Unbraced length.
2
E
2
KL r
Factor Q for compact and noncompact sections is always 1. Nevertheless, for slender sections, the value of Q has a particular procedure. Such procedure is described bellow: Factor Q for slender sections: For unstiffened plates Qs must be calculated, and for stiffened plates Qa. If these cases do not apply (a box section or an angular section, for example), a value of 1 will be taken. For circular sections, there is a particular procedure of calculating Q. such procedure is described bellow: For circular sections, Q is:
Q Qa 0.038E Fy (D t) 2 3
0.11 E
Fy
Dt
0.45 E
Fy
Factor Qs: If there are several plates free, the value of Qs is taken as the biggest value of all. The program will check the slenderness of the section in the following order: Angular If If
0.45 E Fy 0.91 E Fy 0.91 E Fy
Qs
1.340 0.76
E Fy
Qs
0.53
E Fy
2
Stem of T
CivilFEM Theory Manual 300609. Ingeciber, S.A. 10-G-19
If If
0.75 E Fy 1.03 E Fy
1.03 E Fy
Qs
1.908 1.22
E Fy
Qs
0.69
E Fy
2
Rolled shapes If
0.56 E Fy 1.03 E Fy
Qs
1.415 0.74
E Fy
If 1.03 E Fy Other sections If 0.64 k c E Fy If 1.17 k c E Fy Where is the element slenderness and 4 kc ,0.35 k c 0.763 kc=0.763 Factor Qa:
Qs
0.69
E Fy
2
1.17 k c E Fy
Qs
Qs
1.415 0.65
0.90k c E Fy
2
k c E Fy
The calculation of factor Qa is an iterative process. Its procedure is the following: 1) An initial value of Q equal to Qs is taken 2) With this value Fcr is calculated 3) This Fcr value is taken to calculate f (f = Pn / Aeff) 4) For elements with stiffened plates, the effective width be is calculated. 5) With be the effective area is calculated 6) With the value of the effective area, Qa is calculated, and the process starts again.
Qa
For a box section If
1.40 E f
effctivearea grossarea
E 0.38 E 1 f f
be
1.91 t
10-G-20
If it is not within those limits, be = b With the be values for each plate, the part that does not contribute [t(b-be)] is subtracted from the area (where t is the plate thickness). Using this procedure, the effective area is calculated. Finally, with Qs and Qa, Q is calculated, and Fcr obtained. Output results are written in the CivilFEM results file (.RCV) as an alternative.
10-G.6.4.2
This type of check can be carried out for compact sections as well as for noncompact or slender sections. For these three cases the follows the following steps: Nominal compressive strength, Pn : Pn = AgFcr (a) for
e
(E4-1)
1.5
Fcr Q(0.658Q e )Fy
2
(b) for
1.5
Fcr
Where:
0.877
2 e
Fy
Fy
e
Fe
Q = Q s Qa Factor Q for compact and noncompact sections is 1. Nevertheless, for slender sections, the Q factor has a particular procedure of calculation. Such procedure is equal to the one described previously. The elastic stress for critical torsional buckling or flexural-torsional buckling Fe is calculated as the lower solution of the following third degree equation, in which the axis have been changed to adapt to CivilFEM normal axis:
(Fe Fex )(Fe Fey )(Fe Fez ) F (Fe
2 e
y Fez ) o ro
F (Fe
2 e
z Fey ) o ro
(E4-6)
Where:
10-G-21
Kx G Cw J Iy, Iz x0,y0
Effective length factor for torsional buckling. Shear modulus (MPa). Warping constant (mm6). Torsional constant (mm4). Moments of inertia about the principal axis (mm4). Coordinates of shear center with respect to the center of gravity (mm).
2
r0
2 y0
2 z0
Iy Iz A
2 z0 2
H 1
2 y0
r0
Fey
E K y l / ry
E K z l / rz
2
Fez
2
Fex
where: A l Ky, Kz ry, rz
2
E Cw Kx l
G J
1
2
A r0
Cross-sectional area of member. Unbraced length. Effective length factor, in the z and y directions. Radii of gyration about the principal axes. Polar radius of gyration about the shear center.
r0
In this formula, CivilFEM principal axes are used. If the CivilFEM axes are the principal axes 5 sexagesimal, Ky and Kz are calculated with respect to the Y and Z-axes of CivilFEM. If this is not the case (angular shapes, for example) axes U and V will be used as principal axes, being U the axes with higher inertia. The torsional inertia (Ixx in CivilFEM, J in AISC 13TH EDITION) is calculated for CivilFEM sections, but not for captured sections. Therefore the user will have to introduce this parameter in the mechanical properties of CivilFEM. Output results are written in the CivilFEM results file (.RCV) as an alternative.
10-G-22
10-G.6.5
Chapter F is only applicable to members subject to simple bending about one principal axis.
10-G.6.5.1
Flexure check
The design flexural strength, b Mn, and the allowable flexural strength, Mn/b , shall be determined as follows: For all provisions:
b
= 0.90 (LRFD)
b = 1.67 (ASD)
Where Mn is the lowest value of four checks according to sections F2 through F12: a) Yielding b) Lateral-torsional buckling c) Flange local buckling d) Web local buckling The value of the nominal flexural strength taking into account the following considerations: For compact sections, if Lb < Lp only yielding of steel will be checked. For T sections, and other compact sections, only yielding and torsional buckling will be checked. The case of lateral-torsional buckling does not applied to sections loaded on the minor axis of inertia, as well as box or square sections. The case of lateral-torsional buckling, only applies for sections with double symmetry, channel and T sections. Therefore the rest of sections will be checked for torsion plus combined loads and will not be checked under flexure. For non-compact sections, the code contemplates the following cases:
10-G-23
Shape
Fcr
p
2 X1 X2 2 2
r
E Fyf
Cb X1 2
Lb rz
1.76
X1 1 FL
1 X2FL2
0.69E
2
rolled welded
FLSz
0.90Ek c
2
b t
Class B4.1
Class B4.1
h t w Class B4.1
Class B4.1
Shape
Limit State
Mr
p N.A.
N.A. N.A.
FySy
0.69E
2
b t
Class B4.1
Class B4.1
N.A. N.A.
N.A.
N.A.
N.A.
Shape
Mr
Fcr
p
Lb rz
FyfSeff
2ECb JA Sz
0.13E JA Mp
2E JA Mr
Seff Fy S
b t
10-G-24
Shape
Mr
Fcr NA NA NA
p NA
Notes
Pipe FLB
Mn
0.33E 0.021E Fy S Dt Dt
Class D t B4.1
Class B4.1
WLB NA
NA
NA NA
NA
Shape
Mr
Fcr
Mn
Mcr
EIzGJ Lb
1 B2
FLB
N.A.
WLB N.A.
Where:
X1
Sz
EGJA 2
X2
C Sz 4 w Iz GJ
2.3
d Iz Lb J
1.0My stem in compression.
(positive sign if the stem is under tension, negative if it is under compression) In T sections: Mn
For slender webs the nominal flexural strength Mn is the minimum of the following checks: tension-flange yield compression flange buckling The first check uses the following formula:
Mn
where:
SxcFy
10-G-25
Sxc Fy
Mn
where:
SxcRPGFcr
RPG
hc aw 1200 300aw t w
5.70
E Fy
1.0
The critical stress depends upon different slenderness parameters such as , p, r and Cpg in the following way: For For
p p r
Fcr
Fyf
Fcr
For >
r
Cb Fyf
Cpg
2
1 2
p r p
Fyf
Fcr
The slenderness values have to be calculated for the following limit states: Lateral torsional buckling
Lb rT
p
1.76
E Fyf E Fyf
4.44
Cpg
rT is the radius of gyration of compression flange plus one third of the compression portion of the web (mm). By default, the program takes a conservative value of Cb = 1. Nevertheless the user may calculate this value and introduce it as a member property Flange local buckling
bf 2t f
10-G-26
0.38
E Fyf E Fyf / k c
1.35
Cpg
where:
kc
4 / h tw
and
0.35
kc
0.73
The program will choose, between these two slenderness values, the one that produces a lower value of critical stress. Output results are written in the CivilFEM results file (.RCV) as an alternative.
10-G.6.6
= 0.90 (LRFD)
v = 1.67 (ASD)
The nominal shear strength, Vn , of stiffened webs, according to the limit states of shear yielding and shear buckling, is
Vn
0.6Fy A w Cv
2.45 E / Fy :
= 1.00 (LRFD)
v = 1.50 (ASD)
Cv = 1.0 (web shear coefficient) For webs of all other doubly symmetric shapes and singly symmetric shapes and channels Cv is determined as follows: 1. For h / t w
1.10 k vE / Fy
Cv
1.10 k vE / Fy h / tw
3. For h / t w
1.37 k vE / Fy
10-G-27
Cv
1.51k vE h / tw
2
Fy
Where Aw is the overall depth times the web thickness. We assume that there are not stiffeners, therefore web plate buckling coefficient, Kv will be calculated as a constant equal to 5.0. Output results are written in the CivilFEM results file (.RCV) as an alternative.
10-G.6.7
10-G.6.7.1
For this check, it is necessary to know first the value of Mn. This value comes into play in the checking formulas. The value of Mn, will be calculated in the same way as members subjected to flexure, that is, the nominal flexure strength (Mn) is the minimum of four checks: 1. Yielding 2. Lateral-torsional buckling 3. Flange local buckling 4. Web local buckling In case of having bending plus traction or bending plus compression, the interaction between flexure and axial force is limited by the following equations: (a) For
Pr Pc 0.2
Pr Pc
(b) For
Pr Pc 0.2
8 Mrz 9 Mcz
Mry Mcy
1.0
(H1-1a)
Pr 2Pc
If the axial force is tension: Pr Pc
Mrz Mcz
Mry Mcy
1.0
(H1-1b)
Required tensile strength (N). Available tensile strength (N): tPn (LRFD) or Pn/ t (ASD)
10-G-28
Mr Mc
Required flexural strength (Nmm). Available flexural strength (Nmm): Design: bMn (LRFD) or Allowable: Mn/ b (ASD)
y z
t b
Strong axis bending. Weak axis bending. Resistance factor for tension (Sect.D2) Resistance factor for flexure = 0.90 Safety factor for tension (Sect D2) Safety factor for flexure = 1.67 Required compressive strength (N). Available compressive strength (N): Design: cPn (LRFD) or Allowable: Pn/ c (ASD)
t b Pr Pc
Mr Mc
Required flexural strength (Nmm). Available flexural strength (Nmm): Design: bMn (LRFD) or Allowable: Mn/ b (ASD)
y z
c b
Strong axis of bending. Weak axis of bending. Resistance factor for compression =0.90 Resistance factor for flexure = 0.90 Safety factor for compression =1.67 Safety factor for flexure = 1.67
c b
The following checks are carried out by CivilFEM: Axial force and flexural buckling Bending moment Z direction Bending moment Y direction If one of these checks do not meet the code requirements, it will not be possible to check the member under flexure plus tension / compression. Output results are written in the CivilFEM results file (.RCV) as an alternative.
10-G-29
10-G.6.7.2
The design torsional strength, TTn , and the allowable torsional strength, Tn/T , shall be the lowest value obtained according to the limit states of yielding under normal stress, shear yielding under shear stress or buckling, determined as follows:
T
= 0.90 (LRFD)
T = 1.67 (ASD)
Fn
Fy
Fn
For the limit state of buckling:
0.6Fy
Fn
Where Fcr is calculated
0.6Fcr
Output results are written in the CivilFEM results file (.RCV) as an alternative.
10-G-30
10-H.7.11 Checking Lateral-Torsional Buckling of Members Subjected to Combined Bending and Axial Tension (Art. 6.3.4.1)..................................................................................... 46 10-H.7.12 Checking for Lateral-Torsional Buckling of Members Subjected to Bending and Axial Compression (Art. 6.3.4.2) .... 48 10-H.7.13 Critical Forces and Moments Calculation................................. 52
10-H.1 Scope
10-H.1 Scope
Steel structures checking according to Documento Bsico de Seguridad Estructural de Acero, CTE DB SE-A (March 2006) in CivilFEM is included in the checking of structures composed by welded or rolled shapes under axial forces, shear forces and bending moments in 3D. The calculations made by CivilFEM correspond to the prescriptions of CTE DB SE-A, sections: 5.2.4 Classification of cross-sections 6.2 6.3 Resistance of cross-sections Buckling resistance of members
10-H-1
Checking to buckling:
- Compression members with constant cross-section - Lateral-torsional buckling of beams - Members subjected to bending and axial CTE DB SE-A sect. 6.3.2 CTE DB SE-A sect. 6.3.3 CTE DB SE-A sect. 6.3.4.1
- Members subjected to bending and axial compression CTE DB SE-A sect. 6.3.4.2
10-H-3
Moreover, it is possible to check solid sections captured from 2D or 3D models if the cross section is classified as structural steel.
10-H-5
10-H-7
YCF YS ZCF ZS
O
ZCTE
YCTE
Figure 10-H.5-1 Axis Orientation in Beam Sections In the CTE DB SE-A axis system: The system origin coincides with the CivilFEM one. XCTE axis coincides with CivilFEM X-axis. YCTE axis is the relevant axis for bending and its orientation is defined by the user. (~MEMBPRO and ~CHKSTL commands). ZCTE axis is perpendicular to the plane defined by X and Y axis, in a way that ensure a right-handed system. To define this reference system, the user must indicate which of the CivilFEM axis: -Z, -Y, +Z or +Y coincides with the relevant axis for positive bending. The user may define this reference system with the commands: ~MEMBPRO, when defining member properties for CTE DB SE-A and ~CHKSTL when checking according to this code. However, in case of any contradiction, the adopted option is the one established with ~MEMBPRO command, the one introduced through ~CHKSTL command is neglected. As conclusion, the code reference system coincides with CivilFEM one, rotated a certain multiple of 90 degrees, as it is showed below. Table 10-H.5-1 Relevant Axis for Bending Angle of Rotation (in clockwise) of in CivilFEM Reference CTE DB SE-A Reference System System respect to the CivilFEM Reference
10-H-9
10-H-10
10-H.6.1
Sections Data
CTE DB SE-A considers the following data set for the section: - Gross section data - Net section data - Effective section data - Data concerning to the section and plates class. Gross section data correspond to the nominal properties of the cross-section. From net section only the area is considered. This area is calculated discounting the holes for screws, rivets and other holes from the gross section area. (The area of holes is introduced through the parameter AHOLES in ~SECMDF command). Effective section data and section and plates class data are obtained in the checking process according to the effective width method (Sect. 5.2.5 of CTE DB SE-A). This method discounts for class 4 cross-sections, the non-resistance zones for local buckling. For cross-sections of a lower class, this method does not reduce the section because of the local buckling. The CTE DB SE-A module takes the gross section data in user units and CivilFEM axis or section axis as initial data. The program calculates the effective section data and the class data, and stores them in CivilFEMs results file, in user units and in CivilFEM or section axis. All these data can be listed and plotted with the ~PLLSSTL and ~PRSTL commands. In the following tables, the section data used in CTE DB SE-A are shown: Table 10-H.6-1 Common data for gross, net and effective sections
Description Input data: 1.- Height 2.- Web thickness H Tw Data
10-H-11
Chapter 10-H Steel Structures according to CTE DB SE-A 3.- Flanges thickness 4.- Flanges width 5.- Distance between flanges 6.- Radius of fillet (Rolled shapes) 7.- Toe radius (Rolled shapes) 8.- Weld throat thickness (Welded shapes) 9.- Web free depth Tf B Hi r1 r2 a d
Output data
(None)
Output data:
(None)
10-H-12
10-H.6 Data and Results used by CivilFEM Output data: 1.- Cross-section area * The section holes are introduced as a property at member level Anet
The effective section depends on the section geometry and on the forces and moments that are applied on it. Consequently, for each element end, the effective section is calculated. Table 10-H.6-4 Effective section data
Description Input data: Output data: 1.- Cross-section area 2.- Moments of inertia for bending 3.- Product of inertia 4.- Elastic resistant modulus 5.- Gravity center coordinates 6.- Distance between GC and SC in Y and in Z 7.- Warping constant 8.- Shear resistant areas Aeff Iyyeff, Izzeff Izyeff Wyeff, Wzeff Ygeff, Zgeff Ymseff, Zmseff Iw Yws, Zws CivilFEM CivilFEM CivilFEM CivilFEM Section Section Data (None) Reference axis
10-H.6.2
Member Properties
For CTE DB SE-A checking the data set used at member level is shown in the following table. All data, is stored with the section data in user units and in CivilFEM reference axis. (Parameters L, K, KW, C1, C2, C3, CMY, CMZ, CMLT, PSIVEC, CFBUCKXY and CFBUCKXZ of ~MEMBPRO command).
10-H-13
10-H.6.3
Material Properties
In CTE DB SE-A checking, the following material properties are used: Table 10-H.6-7 Material properties
Description Steel yield strength Ultimate strength Partial safety factors Property Fy(th) Fu(th)
M0 M1 M2
Elasticity modulus Poisson coefficient Shear modulus *th =thickness of the plate
10-H.6.4
The forces and moments necessary for the checking are obtained from the CivilFEM results file (.RCV) for the selected load step and substep. CivilFEM makes the necessary operations to change to CTE DB SE-A units system, axis and criteria. Even, the program makes the necessary sign conversions to satisfy
10-H-14
the code criterion (compressive forces and stresses are positive). Internally, CivilFEM works according to code prescriptions. Ansys forces and moments depend on the option selected by the user in the CLASSMOD argument of the ~CHKSTL command. If the selected option is partial, the calculation of the cross-section class is accomplished with the same forces and moments used in the checking (default option). Otherwise, if the selected option is full, all the forces and moments are considered in the calculation of the cross-section class, independently of the solicited checking type. The partial forces and moments sets, considered in each type of external load, are shown in the following table. The forces and moments represented in the top of the table are referred to CTE DB SE-A axis (relevant axis for bending YY), and with the CTE DB SE-A signs criterion (in general, compressive force is positive, except for tension and bending + axial tension, where the tensile force is considered positive). All the terms are the used by the code. Table 10-H.6-8 Forces and moments External Load
Tension Compression Bending moment Bending moment Shear Shear Bending + Shear Bending + Shear Bi-axial bending Bending and axial force Bending and axial force Bending + axial + shear Buck. resis. Cmp. members Lateral-torsional buckling Lateral-torsional buckling Bend. & axial tension buck. Bend. & axial tension buck. Bend. & ax. Comp. buck. Bend. & ax. Comp. buck. FX FX -FX -FX MY MZ -FX -FX -FX -FX -FX MY MZ MY MZ FY FZ MY FY MY MY MZ MZ FY FZ FZ MY MZ MZ
NEd
FX -FX
MyEd MzEd
MY MZ
10-H.6.5
The ultimate result is to check if the code conditions for each type of external load are fulfilled.
CivilFEM Theory Manual 300609. Ingeciber, S.A.
10-H-15
In general, for any type of external force, the condition required by the code in a section is the following one:
NEd Nc.Rd
My,Ed My.Rd
Mz.Ed Mz.Rd
1k
5.98 * 1
The numerators are the forces and moments in the section, axial force and bending moments in Y and in Z axis. These forces and moments are modified in some cases by corrector factors that depend on the type of external load and on the presence of shear forces. The denominators are the design resistances of the cross-section to each one of the forces and moments. These terms are calculated in a particular way for each type of external load and for each cross-section class. At the same time, the section class depends on the cross-section type and on the internal forces and moments. CivilFEM gives the checking results for each element end, storing them in an alternative in the CivilFEM results file (.RCV), in such way that all results can be retrieved by indicating the corresponding alternative number using the command ~CFSET. The available data for each checking type are described in the tables included in the following sections corresponding to the different checking types carried out by the program.
10-H-16
NEd Nc.Rd
are the following ones: 1. 2. 3.
My,Ed My.Rd
Mz.Ed Mz.Rd
Read the checking type requested by the user. Checking type by default: Bending, shear and axial force. Read the CivilFEM axis that is going to be considered as relevant axis for bending, in order to make it coincide with the Y axis of CTE DB SE-A. By default, in CivilFEM, the relevant axis of bending that coincides with +Y axis of CTE DB SE-A is Z-axis. The following operations are necessary for each selected element: a. Obtain material properties corresponding to the element, stored in CivilFEM database, and calculate the rest of the properties needed for checking: Properties obtained from CivilFEM database: Elasticity modulus Poissons ratio Yield strength Ultimate strength Partial safety factors Shear modulus Thickness of the plate Calculated properties: Epsilon, material coefficient:
235 fy (th)
4.
M2
(CTE DB SE-A
(fy in N/mm2)
b. Obtain the cross-section data corresponding to the element. c. Initialize values of the effective cross-section. d. Initialize reduction factors of section plates and the rest of plate parameters necessary for obtaining the plate class. e. If it necessary for the verification type (buckling checking), calculate the critical forces and moments of the section for buckling: elastic
CivilFEM Theory Manual 300609. Ingeciber, S.A. 10-H-17
critical forces for the two planes, XY and XZ and the elastic critical moment for lateral-torsional buckling. (See section: Calculation of critical forces and moments). f. Obtain internal forces and moments (NEd, Vy.Ed, Vz.Ed, Mx.Ed, My.Ed, and Mz.Ed) in the section. g. Specific section checking according to the type of external load. The specific checking includes: 1. Selection, if necessary, of the forces and moments that participate in the section class calculation and in the checking process. 2. Obtaining the cross-section class and calculating the effective section properties (See Section: General Processing of Sections). 3. Checking the cross-section according to the external load and class, calculating the following criteria: Crt_TOT, Crt_N, Crt_Mx and Crt_My. h. Writing of the results.
10-H.7.1
The sections, according to CTE DB SE-A, are made up by plates. These plates can be classified according to: 1. 2. Way of working: webs and flanges in Y and Z axis, according to the considered relevant axis of bending. Union condition with the rest of plates: internal plates or outstand plates
The sections of the shapes included in program libraries contain this information for each plate. CivilFEM classifies plates in flanges or webs according to each axis and gives the plate union condition at each end. The ends can be classified as fixed or free (an end is called fixed if it is in contact with other plate, and free if it is not). For studying the structure safety, CTE DB SE-A classifies sections in 4 possible classes (Sect. 5.2.4): Class 1 Class 2 Class 3 Cross-sections are those which can form a plastic hinge with the rotation capacity required for plastic analysis. Cross-sections are those which can reach their plastic moment resistance, but have limited rotation capacity. Cross-sections are those in which the stress in the extreme compression fiber of the steel member can reach its yield strength, but local buckling is liable to prevent development of the plastic moment resistance. Cross-sections are those in which it is necessary to make explicit allowances for the effects of local buckling when determining their moment resistance or compression
CivilFEM Theory Manual 010708. Ingeciber, S.A.
Class 4
10-H-18
resistance. The cross-section class is the highest (least favorable) class of its elements: flanges and webs (plates). First, it is determined the class of each plate according to the limits of the Table 5.3 of CTE DB SE-A. According to this table, the plate class depends on: 1. The geometric width to thickness ratio, with the plate width properly corrected according to the plate and shape type. GeomRat = Corrected_Width / thickness The width correction consists of discounting from it, in the fixed ends, the zone where the buckling is considered disabled. This zone depends on the shape type. Usually, the radio of fillet in hot rolled shapes or the weld throats in welded shapes give the deduction zone, (see Table 5.3 of CTE DB SE-A). The values of the appropriate width that uses CivilFEM for each section type are: Welded Shapes: Double T section: Internal webs or flanges: Corrected width = d d Web free depth
B 2
Outstand flanges: Corrected width = B T section: Internal webs or flanges: Corrected width = d Outstand flanges: Corrected width = C section: Internal webs or flanges: Corrected width = d Outstand flanges: Corrected width = B L section: Corrected width = l1, l2
2 l1 l2 2 Angle flange width
Flanges width
B 2
10-H-19
Box section: Internal webs: Corrected width = H H Height Internal flanges: Corrected width = B - 2Tw Tw Web thickness Circular hollow section Corrected width = H Rolled Shapes: Double T section: Internal webs or flanges: Corrected width = d d Web free depth Outstand flanges: Corrected width = B T Section: Internal webs or flanges: Corrected width = d Outstand flanges: Corrected width = C Section: Internal webs or flanges: Corrected width = d Outstand flanges: Corrected width = B L Section: Corrected width = l1, l2 Box section: Internal webs: Corrected width = d Internal flanges:
2 l1
B 2
Flanges width
B 2
l2 2
10-H-20
Corrected width = B - 3Tf Tf Pipe section: Corrected width = H 2. A limit for this ratio, that depends on the material parameter and on the normal stress distribution in the plate section. This last value is given by the following parameters: , , and k , and the plate type, internal or outstand, and in this last case it depends on if the free end is under tension or under compression. Limit (class) = f( , , , k )
235 fy (fy in N/mm2)
Flanges thickness
Buckling factor The higher stress in the plate ends. The lower stress in the plate ends.
A linear stress distribution in the plate is assumed. The procedure to determine the section class follows these steps: 1. Obtaining stresses at first plate ends from the stresses applied on the section, properly filtered according to the verification type requested by the user. Calculation of parameters: , and k
2.
k is obtained from formulas included in table 5.6 of CTE DB SEA. Internal plates: For
1
For
8.2 1.05
10-H-21
For
k
For
7.81 6.29
9.78
3
k 5.98 * 1
2
Outstand plates with the absolute value of the stress at the free end greater than the corresponding to the fixed end: For
1 0
k
For
0 3
.57 .21
.07
.57 .21
.07
Outstand plates with the absolute value of the stress at the free end lower than the corresponding to the fixed end: For
0
k 0.578 0.34
For
1
k 1.7 5 17.1
2
Cases in which k = infinite are not included in the code. In these cases, it is considered that the plate is practically in tension and it is not necessary to determine the class. These cases have been included to avoid errors in the program, and the value k =infinite has been adopted because the resultant plate class is 1 and the plate reduction factor is = 1 (the same values that if all the plate was in tension). The reduction factor is used later, in the effective section calculation. 3. Obtaining the limiting proportions in function of: , and k and the plate characteristics (internal, outstand, compressed free end or not). Internal plates:
Limit(1) Limit(1) 396 / (13 1) 36 /
for for
0.5 0.5
10-H-22
Limit(2)
Limit(2) Limit(3)
456 / (13 1)
41.5 / 42 / (0.67 0.33 )
0.5 0.5 -1 -1
Limit(3)
62 (1 ) ( )
Limit(2) 10 /
Limit(3)
21 k
Limit(1) Limit(2)
9 10
Limit(3) 21 k
Where:
k
1
0.57 0.21
0.07
if 1
k
k
0.578 0.34
1.7 5
if 1
17.1
2
if 0
This is the general formulation used by the program to obtain the limiting proportions for determining plates classes. It corresponds to tables 5.3 and 5.4. It can be checked that the rest of columns are particular cases of these ones. For example: In sections totally compressed: =1 y In sections under pure bending: = 0.5 y = 1 for all plates = -1 for the web
10-H-23
=1 Etc. 4.
Obtaining the plate class: If GeomRat < Limit(1) If Limit(1) GeomRat < Limit(2) If Limit(2) GeomRat < Limit(3) If Limit(3) GeomRat
The sequence (1,2,3,4) is repeated for each section plate. 5. Assignment of the higher class of the plates to the section In tubular sections, the section class is directly determined as if it was an unique plate, with parameters GeomRat and Limits calculated as follows GeomRat = d/t d = outer diameter. t = thickness. 2 Limit(1) 50
Limit(2) 70 2 Limit(3) 90 2
In class 4 sections, the section resistance is reduced, using the effective width method of Section 5.2.5 of CTE DB SE-A. For each section plate, the effective lengths at both ends of the plate and the reduction factors 1 and 2 are calculated. These factors connect the length of the effective zone at each plate end with its width. Effective_length_end1 = plate_width* Effective_length_end 2 = plate_width* In this process the formulation included in table 5.6 of CTE DB SE-A, has been used: = 1. Internal plates: For
2/ 1
10-H-24
be1 plate_width
be2 plate_width
be1 plate_width
be2 bt plate_width
Figure 10-H.7-3
10-H-25
beff =
beff plate_width
2
For
Figure 10-H.7-4
beff
bc
c /(1
beff bt plate_width
2
For
bc
c /(1
The global reduction factor is obtained by (Art. 5.2.5): For a plane element simply supported at extremes:
10-H-26
0.188
2 p
bt
p
28.4 k
where:
b
= = =
k = buckling factor To determine effective section properties three steps are followed: 1. Effective widths of flanges are calculated from factors and calculated with the gross section properties. As result, an intermediate section, with reduced flanges and webs corresponding to a gross section, is obtained. The resultant section properties are obtained and are calculated again. 3. and factors
Effective widths of webs are determined, so the effective section is determined. Finally, the section properties are recalculated again.
In the table of the effective section data are included the recalculated section properties. The checking is accomplished with the gross, net or effective section properties, according to the section class and to the checking type. Each checking type follows a specific procedure that is explained in the following sections.
10-H.7.2
1.
Forces and moments selection The forces and moments considered in this checking type are: NSd = FX Design value of the axial force (positive if it is tensile force, if it is compression, the element is not processed). Class definition and effective section properties calculation. In this verification type, the section class is always 1 and the considered section is the gross or the net section.
2.
10-H-27
3.
Criteria calculation For members under axial tension, the general criterion Crt_TOT is checked at each section. This criterion coincides with the axial criterion Crt_N .
NEd
Nt.Rd
Crt_TOT
Crt_N
NEd Nt.Rd
Nt,Rd
Npl,Rd
Nt,Rd
Nu,Rd
where Nt.Rd is the design tension resistance of the cross-section, taken as the smaller value of:
NPl.Rd
Afyd
design plastic resistance of the gross crosssection design ultimate resistance of the net crosssection
Nu.Rd
0.9Anetafud
4.
Output results written in the CivilFEM results file (.RCV) as an alternative. Checking results: criteria and variables are described at the following table:
Table 10-H.7-1 Art. 6.2.3 Checking of Members in Axial Tension Result Concepts Articles Description NED NTRD CRT_N NPLRD NURD NEd Nt.Rd NEd/Nt.Rd Npl.Rd Nu.Rd 6.2.3 6.2.3 6.2.3 6.2.3 6.2.3 6.2.3 Design value of the tensile force Design tension resistance of the cross-section Axial criterion CTE DB SE-A global criterion Design plastic resistance of the gross cross-section Design ultimate resistance
CRT_TOT NEd/Nt.Rd
10-H.7.3
1.
Forces and moments selection. The forces and moments considered in this checking type are: NEd = FX Design value of the axial force (positive if it is tensile force, if it is compression, the element is not processed).
10-H-28
2.
Class definition and effective section properties calculation. In this verification type, the section class is always 1 and the considered section is the gross or the net section. Criteria calculation For members in axial compression, the general criterion Crt_TOT is checked at each section. This criterion coincides with the axial criterion Crt_N:
3.
NEd
Nc.Rd
Crt_TOT
Crt_N
NSd Nc.Rd
where Nc.Rd is the design compression resistance of the cross-section Class 1,2 or 3 cross-sections:
Nc.Rd
Nu.Rd
4.
Output results written in the CivilFEM results file (.RCV) as an alternative. Checking results: criteria and variables are described at the following table.
Table 10-H.7-2 Art. 6.2.5 Checking of Members in Axial Compression Result Concepts Articles References Description NSD NCRD NEd Nc.Rd 5.4.4 5.4.4 (5.16) (5.16) Axial force Design compression resistance of the crosssection Axial criterion Eurocode No.3 global criterion Section Class A,Aeff 5.4.4 (5.16) Used area of the section (Gross or Effective)
NEd/Nc.Rd NEd/Nc.Rd
5.4.4 5.4.4
(5.16) (5.16)
10-H.7.4
1.
Forces and moments selection. The forces and moments considered in this checking type are: MEd = MY o MZ Design value of the bending moment along the relevant axis for bending.
10-H-29
2.
Class definition and effective section properties calculation. The class section is determined by the sections general processing and with the previously selected forces and moments if the selected option is partial, or with all the forces and moments if the option is full. All the calculation is accomplished with the gross section properties. Criteria calculation In members subjected to bending moment and in the absence of shear force, the following condition at each section is checked:
3.
Crt_My
MEd Mc.Rd
MEd Mc.Rd
design value of the bending moment design moment resistance of the cross-section
Class 1 or 2 cross-sections:
Mpl.Rd
Class 3 cross sections:
WPl fyd
Mel.Rd
Class 4 cross sections:
Wel fyd
Mo.Rd
4.
Weff fyd
Output results written in the CivilFEM results file (.RCV) as an alternative. Checking results: criteria and variables are described at the following table.
Table 10-H.7-3 Art. 6.2.6 Checking of Members under Bending Moment Result Concepts Articles Description MED MCRD CRT_M CLASS W Wel,W pl,W eff 6.2.6 MEd Mc.Rd MEd/Mc.Rd 6.2.6 6.2.6 6.2.6 6.2.6 Design value of the bending moment Design moment resistance of the cross-section Bending criterion CTE DB SE-A global criterion Section Class Used section modulus (Elastic, Plastic or Effective)
CRT_TOT MEd/Mc.Rd
10-H-30
10-H.7.5
1.
Forces and moments selection. The forces and moments considered in this checking type are: VEd = FZ or FY Design value of the shear force perpendicular to the relevant axis of bending.
2.
Class definition and effective section properties calculation. In this verification type, the section class is always 1 and the effective section is the gross section. Criteria calculation. In members under shear force, the following condition at each section is checked:
3.
VEd
where: VEd VPl.Rd Av
VPl.Rd
Crt_TOT
Crt_S
VEd VPl.Rd
design value of the shear force design plastic shear resistance: VPl.Rd
A v fyd / 3
shear area, obtained subtracting from the gross area the summation of the flanges areas: Av A Flanges_Area
4.
Output results written in the CivilFEM results file (.RCV) as an alternative. Checking results: criteria and variables are described in the following table.
Table 10-H.7-4 Art. 6.2.4 Checking of Members under Shear Force Result Concepts Article Description s VED VPLRD CRT_S VEd Vpl.Rd VEd/Vpl.Rd 6.2.4 6.2.4 6.2.4 6.2.4 Design value of the shear force Design plastic shear resistance Shear criterion CTE DB SE-A global criterion Section Class Av 6.2.4 Shear area
10-H-31
10-H.7.6
1.
Checking of Members under Bending Moment and Shear Force (Art. 6.2.8)
Forces and moments selection. The forces and moments considered in this checking type are: VEd = FZ or FY MEd = MY or MZ Design value of the shear force perpendicular to the relevant axis of bending. Design value of the bending moment along the relevant axis of bending.
2.
Class definition and effective section properties calculation. The class section is determined by the sections general processing and with the previously selected forces and moments if the selected option is partial, or with all the forces and moments if the option is full. All the calculation is accomplished with the gross section properties. Criteria calculation. In members subjected to bending moment and shear force, the following condition at each section is checked:
3.
MEd
where:
MV.Rd
Crt_TOT
Crt_BS
MEd MV.Rd
MV.Rd
The reduction by shear is applied if the design value of the shear force exceeds 50% of the design plastic shear resistance of the cross-section. This is when: VEd > 0.5 Vpl.Rd The design resistance moment is obtained as follows: a. For cross-sections with equal flanges, bending about the major axis (rolled or welded double T sections, channel sections and tubular rectangular sections):
MV.Rd
if VEd
Wpl
A2 v fyd 4t w
Vpl.Rd
2
2VEd Vpl.Rd
if VEd
Vpl.Rd
0
b. In other cases:
10-H-32
MV.Rd
Wpl fyd (1
Note: This is equivalent to a reduction of the yield strength fy applied to the whole section, CTE DB SE-A only requires to apply it to the shear area. It is a conservative simplification. For both cases MV.Rd must be adopted as the smaller value between MV.Rd and MC.Rd MC.Rd is the design moment resistance of the cross-section, calculated according to the class. Output results written in the CivilFEM results file (.RCV) as an alternative. Checking results: criteria and variables are described at the following table. Table 10-H.7-5 Art. 6.2.8 Checking of Members under Bending Moment and Shear Force Result Concepts Articles Description MED VED MVRD CRT_BS CRT_TOT CLASS S_AREA W VPLRD RHO Av Wel,W pl,W eff Vpl.Rd 6.2.8 6.2.8 6.2.8 6.2.8 MEd VEd Mv.Rd MEd/Mv.Rd MEd/Mv.Rd 6.2.8 6.2.8 6.2.8 6.2.8 6.2.8 Design value of the bending moment Design value of the shear force Reduced design resistance moment of the cross-section Bending and Shear criterion CTE DB SE-A global criterion Section Class Shear area Used section modulus (Elastic, Plastic or Effective) Design plastic shear resistance Reduction factor
10-H.7.7
Checking of Members under Bending Moment + Axial Force and Bi-axial Bending + Axial Force (Art. 6.2.8)
1.
Forces and moments selection. The forces and moments considered in this checking type are: NEd = FX MY.Ed = MY or MZ MZ.Ed = MZ or MY Design value of the axial force. Design value of the bending moment along the relevant bending axis. Design value of the bending moment about the secondary bending axis.
10-H-33
2.
Class definition and effective section properties calculation. The class section is determined by the sections general processing and with the previously selected forces and moments if the selected option is partial, or with all the forces and moments if the option is full. All the calculation is accomplished with the gross section properties. Criteria calculation. For members subjected to bi-axial bending and in absence of shear force, it is used the same formulation ( Art 6.2.8 ). For I or H welted sections, the effect of the axial force is ignored if it does not come to the half of the tension resistance of the web.
3.
NEd Npl,Rd
where:
My,Ed Mpl,Rdy
Mz,Ed Mpl,Rdz
Crt_N
Crt_My
Crt_Mz
fyd fy /
where W pl.y is the plastic resistant modulus about y axis and Wpl.z is the plastic resistant modulus about z axis. In absence of Mz.Ed the above criterion becomes:
NEd Afyd
10-H-34
Crt_N
Crt_My
Class 3 sections:
NEd Npl,Rd
where:
My,Ed Mel,Rdy
Mz,Ed Mel,Rdz
Crt_N
Crt_My
Crt_Mz
fyd
fy /
M0
where W el.y is the elastic resistant modulus about y axis and Wel.z is the elastic resistant modulus about z axis. In absence of Mz.Sd the above criterion becomes:
10-H-35
NEd Afyd
which is equivalent to:
Crt_N
Crt_My
Class 4 sections:
NEd Nu,Rd
where:
Crt_N
Crt_My
My.Ed
Crt_Mz
Weff.z fyd
fy /
M0
fyd
10-H-36
Crt_N
Crt_My
My.Ed
Weff.y fyd
where: Aeff Weff.y Weff.z eNy eNz effective area of the cross-section effective section modulus of the cross-section when subjected to a moment about the y axis effective section modulus of the cross-section when subjected to a moment about the z axis shift of the gravity center along the y axis shift of the gravity center along the z axis
4.
Output results written in the CivilFEM results file (.RCV) as an alternative. Checking results: criteria and variables are described at the following table.
Table 10-H.7-6 Art.6.2.8 Checking of Members under Bending Moment + Axial Force and Bi-axial Bending + Axial Force Result Concepts Articles Description NED MYED MZED NCRD NEd My.Ed Mz.Ed Afyd, 6.2.8 6.2.8 6.2.8 6.2.8 Design value of the axial force Design value of the bending moment about Y axis Design value of the bending moment about Z axis Design compression resistance of
10-H-37
Result MNYRD
Concepts Aefffyd MNy.Rd, W el.yfyd, Weff.yfyd MNz.Rd, W el.zfyd, Weff.zfyd NEd/NcRd MyEd/MNyRd MzEd/MNzRd 1
Articles 6.2.8
Description the cross-section Reduced design moment resistance of the cross-section about Y axis Reduced design moment resistance of the cross-section about Z axis Axial criterion Bending criterion along Y Bending criterion along Z CTE DB SE-A global criterion Section Class
MNZRD
6.2.8
6.2.8
Used area of the section (Gross or Effective) Used section Y modulus (Elastic, Plastic or Effective) Used section Z modulus (Elastic, Plastic or Effective) Shift of the Z axis in Y direction Shift of the Y axis in Z direction Modified design value of the bending moment about Y axis Modified design value of the bending moment about Z axis
Wel.y, W pl.y, W eff.y 6.2.8 Wel.z, W pl.z, W eff.z 6.2.8 eNy eNz My.Ed+NEdeNy Mz.Ed+NEdeNz 6.2.8 6.2.8 6.2.8 6.2.8
10-H.7.8
1.
Checking of Members under Bending, Shear and Axial Force (Art. 6.2.8)
Forces and moments selection The forces and moments considered in this checking type are: NEd = FX Vy.Ed = FY or FZ Vz.Ed = FZ or FY My.Ed= MY or MZ Mz.Ed = MZ or MY Design value of the axial force. Design value of the shear force perpendicular to the secondary axis of bending. Design value of the shear force perpendicular to the relevant axis of bending. Design value of the bending moment about the relevant axis of bending. Design value of the bending moment about the secondary axis of bending.
10-H-38
2.
Class definition and effective section properties calculation. The class section is determined by the sections general processing and with the previously selected forces and moments if the selected option is partial, or with all the forces and moments if the option is full. All the calculation is accomplished with the gross section properties. Criteria calculation. In members subjected to bending, axial and shear force, the same conditions of the bending +axial force and bi-axial bending are checked at each section, reducing the design plastic resistance moment by the presence of shear force. The shear force effects is taken into account when it exceeds 50% of the design plastic resistance of the cross-section. In this case, both the axial and the shear force are taken into account. The axial force effects are included as said in the previous section, and the shear force effects are taken into account considering a yield strength for the cross-section, reduced by the factor (1- ), giving:
3.
fyd
where: = (2VSd /Vpl.Rd -1)2 =0
fy 1
/ M 0
for VSd /Vpl.Rd > 0.5 for VSd /Vpl.Rd < 0.5
This yield strength reduction is selectively applied to the resistance of the cross-section along each axis, according to the previous conditions. Note: The yield strength reduction is applied to the shear area. It is a conservative simplification. 4. Output results written in the CivilFEM results file (.RCV) as an alternative. Checking results: criteria and variables are described at the following table.
Table 10-H.7-7 Art. 6.2.8 Checking of Members under Bending, Shear and Axial Force Result Concepts Articles Description NED VZED VYED MYED MZED NEd VEd VEd My.Ed Mz.Ed 6.2.8 6.2.8 6.2.8 6.2.8 6.2.8 Design value of the axial force Design value of the shear force Design value of the shear force Design value of the bending moment about Y axis Design value of the bending moment about Z axis
10-H-39
Result NCRD
Articles 6.2.8
Description Design compression resistance of the crosssection Reduced design moment Y resistance of the crosssection Reduced design moment Z resistance of the crosssection Axial criterion Bending Y criterion Bending Z criterion Reduction factor for MNYRD Reduction factor for MNZRD CTE DB SE-A global criterion Used area of the section (Gross or Effective) Used section Y modulus (Elastic, Plastic or Effective) Used section Z modulus (Elastic, Plastic or Effective) Shift of the Z axis in Y direction Shift of the Y axis in Z direction Modified design value of the bending moment about Y axis Modified design value of the bending moment about Z axis Shear Y area Shear Z area
MNYRD
MNy.Rd, Wyfyd(1-)
6.2.8
MNZRD
MNz.Rd, Wzfyd(1-)
6.2.8
6.2.8 6.2.8 6.2.8 6.2.8 6.2.8 6.2.8 6.2.8 6.2.8 6.2.8 6.2.8 6.2.8 6.2.8
Mz.Ed+NEdeNy Av Av
10-H.7.9
1.
Forces and moments selection. The forces and moments considered in this checking type are: NEd = FX Design value of the axial force (positive if it is
10-H-40
compression, if it is not, the element is not processed). 2. Class definition and effective section properties calculation. The class section is determined by the sections general processing and with the previously selected forces and moments if the selected option is partial, or with all the forces and moments if the option is full. All the calculation is accomplished with the gross section properties. Criteria calculation. When the buckling of compression members is been checking, the criterion is given by:
3.
NEd
where: NEd Nb.Rd
Nb.Rd
Crt_TOT
Crt_CB
NEd Nb.Rd
Nb.Rd
A fyd
Where A is the area of the lateral section for classes 1, 2 or 3 and efficient area Aeff for class 4. Reduction factor for the relevant buckling mode, the program does not consider the torsional or the lateraltorsional buckling, because in these cases, CTE DB SE-A makes reference to ENV 1993-1-3 CTE DB SEA Part 1-3 (in elaboration process). The calculation in members of constant cross-section may be determined from:
1
2 2 1 2
and
0.5 1
0.2
Where is an imperfection factor that depends on the buckling curve. This curve depends on the cross-section type, buckling plane and steel type, producing the following values for (figure 6.3 and table 6.3 from CTE DB SE-A): Table 10-H.7-1 Imperfection factor
Section type Limits Buckling axis Steel type Buckling curve
10-H-41
Rolled I Rolled I Rolled I Rolled I Rolled I Rolled I Rolled I Rolled I Welded I Welded I Welded I Welded I Rolled I Rolled I Rolled I Rolled I h/b 1.2 and t 100mm h/b 1.2 and t 100mm h/b>1.2 and 40mm<t 100mm h/b>1.2 and 40mm<t 100mm h/b>1.2 and t 40mm h/b>1.2 and t 40mm
yy
a a0 b a0 b a c a b a c a d c d c
0.21 0.13 0.34 0.13 0.34 0.21 0.49 0.21 0.34 0.21 0.49 0.21 0.76 0.49 0.76 0.49
zz
yy
zz
yy
zz
t>100mm
yy
t>100mm
zz
t t
40mm 40mm
yy zz yy zz
b c c d
t >40mm t >40mm
---------
all
all
0.49
S235 a S355 Pipes Hot finished Cold formed Thick weld: Reinforced box sections a/t>0.5 b/t<30 h/tw<30 In other case all S450 all all
a a0 c
all all
all all
c b
0.49 0.34
U, T, plate
---------
all
all
0.49
---------
all
all
0.34
10-H-42
Afy Ncr
where Ncr is the elastic critical force for the relevant buckling mode. (See section, Critical Forces and Moments Calculation). The elastic critical axial forces are calculated in the planes XY (Ncrxy) and XZ (Ncrxz) and the corresponding values of xy and xz , taking the smaller one as the final value for . = min( 4.
xy
xz
Output results written in the CivilFEM results file (.RCV) as an alternative. Checking results: criteria and variables are described at the following table.
Table 10-H.7-8 Art. 6.3.2 Checking for Buckling of Compression Members Result Concepts Articles Reference Description s NED NBRD CRT_CB CRT_TO T CHI AREA CHI_Y CHI_Z CLASS PHI_Y PHI_Z LAM_Y LAM_Z NCR_Y NCR_Z
y
(5.45)
Design value of the compressive force Design buckling resistance of a compressed member Compression buckling criterion
CTE DB SE-A global criterion Reduction factor for the relevant buckling mode Area of the gross section Reduction factor for the relevant My buckling mode Reduction factor for the relevant Mz buckling mode Section Class Parameter Phi for bending My Parameter Phi for bending Mz Non-dimensional reduced slenderness for bending My Non-dimensional reduced slenderness for bending Mz Elastic critical force for the relevant My buckling mode Elastic critical force for the
y z Ncr Ncr
10-H-43
Result
Concepts
ALP_Y ALP_Z
y z
10-H.7.10 Checking for Lateral-Torsional Buckling of Beams Subjected to Bending (Art. 6.3.3)
For YCTE axis of double T and channel section and for Y and Z axes of box sections. Forces and moments selection. The forces and moments considered in this checking type are: MEd = MY or MZ 1. Design value of the bending moment about the relevant axis of bending.
Class definition and effective section properties calculation. The class section is determined by the sections general processing and with the previously selected forces and moments if the selected option is partial, or with all the forces and moments if the option is full. All the calculation is accomplished with the gross section properties. Criteria calculation. When checking for lateral-torsional buckling of beams, the criterion shall be taken as:
2.
MEd
where: MEd Mb.Rd
Mb.Rd
Crt_TOT
Crt_LT
MEd Mb.Rd
Design value of the bending moment. Design buckling resistance moment of a laterally unrestrained beam. Mb.Rd LT Wy fy / M1 W y = W pl.y for class 1and 2 sections. W y = W el.y for class 3 sections. W y = W eff.y for class 4 sections. Reduction factor for lateral-torsional buckling.
LT
LT
The value of
10-H-44
LT
0.5 1
LT
LT
0.2
1 2
LT
Wy fy Mcr
Buckling curve a b c d d
LT
Output results written in the CivilFEM results file (.RCV) as an alternative. Checking results: criteria and variables are described at the following table.
Table 10-H.7-9 Art. 6.3.3 Checking for Lateral-Torsional Buckling of Beams Subjected to Bending Result Concepts Articles Description MED MBRD CRT_LT CRT_TO T CLASS CHI_LT WPL PHI_LT LAM_LT
LT
Design value of the bending moment Buckling resistance moment of a laterally unrestrained beam Lateral-torsional buckling criterion CTE DB SE-A global criterion Section Class
Reduction factor for lateraltorsional buckling Plastic modulus Parameter Phi for lateral-torsional buckling Non-dimensional reduced
Wpl.y
LT
LT
10-H-45
slenderness MCR ALP_LT Mcr LT 6.3.3 6.3.3 Elastic critical moment for lateraltorsional buckling (Annex. F) Imperfection factor for lateraltorsional buckling
10-H.7.11 Checking Lateral-Torsional Buckling of Members Subjected to Combined Bending and Axial Tension (Art. 6.3.4.1)
1. Forces and moments selection. The forces and moments considered in this checking type are: NEd = FX Design value of the axial force (positive if it is tensile force, if it is compression, the element is not processed). Design value of the bending moment about the relevant axis of bending.
MEd = MY or MZ 2.
Class definition and effective section properties calculation. The class section is determined by the sections general processing and with the previously selected forces and moments if the selected option is partial, or with all the forces and moments if the option is full. All the calculation is accomplished with the gross section properties. Criteria calculation. When studying lateral-torsional buckling of members subjected to combined bending and axial tension, the value of the axial force is multiplied by a reduction factor vec for treating the axial force and bending moment as a vectorial effect. The value of vec depends on the country where the code is going to be applied. That factor is introduced as a property at member level and usually its value is equal to: vec = 0.8 The stress in the extreme compression fiber is calculated as follows:
com.ed MEd Wcom 0.8. Nt.Ed A
3.
where W com is the elastic section modulus for the extreme compression fiber and Nt.Ed is the design value of the axial tension. The verification equation is derived to:
Meff.Ed Mb.Rd
Meff.Ed
Mb.Rd
Crt_TOT
Crt_LT
com.Ed
10-H-46
4.
Output results written in the CivilFEM results file (.RCV) as an alternative. Checking results: criteria and variables are described at the following table.
Table 10-H.7-10 Art. 6.3.4.1 Checking Lateral-Torsional Buckling of Members Subjected to Combined Bending and Axial Tension Result Concepts Articles Description NTED MED MEFFED MBRD CRT_LT Nt.Ed MEd Meff.Ed Mb.Rd Meff.Ed/Mb.Rd 6.3.4.1 6.3.4.1 6.3.4.1 6.3.4.1 6.3.4.1 6.3.4.1 6.3.4.1 6.3.4.1 6.3.4.1 6.3.4.1 6.3.4.1 6.3.4.1 6.3.4.1 Design value of the axial tension Design value of the bending moment Effective design internal moment Buckling resistance moment of a laterally unrestrained beam Lateral-torsional buckling criterion CTE DB SE-A global criterion Section Class Wcom Elastic section modulus for the extreme compression fiber Net calculated stress in the extreme compression fiber Reduction factor for lateraltorsional buckling Plastic modulus Parameter Phi for lateraltorsional buckling Non-dimensional reduced slenderness Elastic critical moment for lateral-torsional buckling (Annex F) Imperfection factor for lateraltorsional buckling
LT
Wpl.y
LT
LT Mcr
ALP_LT
LT
6.3.4.1
10-H-47
10-H.7.12 Checking for Lateral-Torsional Buckling of Members Subjected to Bending and Axial Compression (Art. 6.3.4.2)
1. Forces and moments selection. The forces and moments considered in this checking type are: NSd = FX My.Sd = MY or MZ Mz.Sd = MZ or MY Design value of the axial compression. Design value of the bending moment about the relevant bending axis. Design value of the bending moment about the secondary axis bending axis.
Class definition and effective section properties calculation. The class section is determined by the sections general processing and with the previously selected forces and moments if the selected option is partial, or with all the forces and moments if the option is full. All the calculation is accomplished with the gross section properties. Criteria calculation.
3.
NEd Nb.Rd 1
Ky
Cm,yMy.Ed
eN,yNEd
Myb.Rd 1
Ky
Cm,zMz.Ed
eN,zNEd
Mzb.Rd 1
1
Crt_1 = Crt_N1 + Crt_My1 + Crt_Mz1 Also, for elements without torsional buckling:
NEd Nb.Rd 2
Ky
Cm,yMy.Ed
eN,yNEd
Myb.Rd 2
Kz
Cm,zMz.Ed
eN,zNEd
Mzb.Rd 2
NEd Nb.Rd 2
K yLT
My.Ed
eN,yNEd
Myb.Rd 2
Kz
Cm,zMz.Ed
eN,zNEd
Mzb.Rd 2
1
Where:
Crt_N1
NEd Nb.Rd 1
10-H-48
Crt_My1 K y
Cm,yMy.Ed
eN,yNEd
Myb.Rd 1
Ky Cm,zMz.Ed eN,zNEd
Bending moment criterion for principal axis 1. Bending moment criterion for secondary axis 1 General criterion 1.
Crt_Mz1
Crt_TOT1
Mzb.Rd 1
Crt_N2
NEd Nb.Rd
Crt_My2
Ky
Cm,yMy.Ed
eN,yNEd
Bending moment criterion 2 for principal axis without torsional buckling Bending moment criterion 2 for principal axis when torsional buckling is considered. Bending moment criterion 2 for secondary axis. Criterion 2 Global criterion.
Crt_My2
K yLT
Mz.Ed Mzb.Rd
Myb.Rd 2
Crt_Mz2
Crt_TOT2
Nb,Rd1
Nb,Rd2
(
y
Afy /
Afy /
M1
Mb,Rdy1
Mb,Rdy2
LT
Wy fy /
Wy fy /
M1
Mb,Rdy1
Mb,Rdy2
Wz fy /
Wz fy /
M1
M1
LT
M1
M1
LT
and z are the reduction factors defined for the section corresponding to checking for Buckling of Compression Members.
y
lateral buckling factor, (Art 6.3.3). Value is 1 for members not submited to lateral torsional bucking.
LT
eN,y eN,y and eN,z displacements of the center of gravity of the effectivity lateral section refered to the center of gravity of the lateral gross section in class 4 members.
cm,y , cm,z and cm,LT are equivalent uniform moment factors for flexural
bending (See CTE DB SE-A Sect. 6.3.4.2 and table 6.14). These factors are member properties at member level. (See CMy and CMz).
10-H-49
Wz
Wpl,z Wpl,z Wel,z
eN,y
0 0 0 Depending on the members and stress
eN,z eN,z
0 0 0 Depending on the members and stress
0.6 0.6 1
Aeff
Weff,y
Weff,z
0.8
Ky
Kz
1 2 0.6 NEd z NC,Rd NEd z NC,Rd NEd z NC,Rd
K yLT
1 and 2
1
Thin hollow
0.2
NEd yNC,Rd
1
z
0.2
1 0.6
NEd y NC,Rd
1 0.6
where:
cm,y
cm,i
than 1.
NC,Rd A* fy
M1
4.
Output results written in the CivilFEM results file (.RCV) as an alternative. Checking results: criteria and variables are described in the following table.
10-H-50
Table 10-H.7-11 Art. 6.3.4.2 Checking for Lateral-Torsional Buckling of Members Subjected to Bending and Axial Compression Result Concepts Description NED MYED MZED NBRD1 MYRD1 MZRD1 NBRD2 MYRD2 NEd MyEd MzEd Design value of the axial force. Design value of the bending moment about Y axis Design value of the bending moment about Z axis
M1
Afy /
LT
Wy fy /
M1
Reduced moment resistance of the cross-section about Y axis Reduced moment resistance of the cross-section about Z axis Compression resistance of the crosssection
Wz fy /
z
Afy /
M1
LT
Wy fy /
M1
Reduced moment resistance of the cross-section about Y axis (with torsional buckling ) Reduced moment resistance of the cross-section about Y axis (without torsional buckling ) Reduced moment resistance of the cross-section about Z axis Parameter K y Parameter K z Parameter KLT Axial force criterion 1 Bending Y criterion 1 Bending Z criterion 1
LT
Wy fy /
M1
Wz fy / Ky
M1
Kz KLT
NEd/NcRd Ky(CmyMyEd + NEdeNy) / MyRd
zKz(CmzMzEd + NEdeNz) / MzRd
CRT_TOT1 Crt_N1+Crt_MY1+C Criterion 1 rt_MZ1 CRT_N2 CRT_MY2 CRT_MZ2 NEd/NcRd Ky(CmyMyEd + NEdeNy) / (y)MyRd Kz(CmzMz Ed + NEdeNz) / MzRd Axial force criterion 2 Bending Y criterion 2 Bending Z criterion 2
10-H-51
Result
Concepts
Description
CRT_TOT2 Crt_N2+Crt_My2+C Criterion 2 r t_Mz2 CRT_TOT CLASS CHI_Y CHI_Z CHI_LT AREA WY WZ ENY ENZ NCR_Y NCR_Z MCR LAM_Y LAM_Z LAM_LT
y
Crt_tot = min(Crit_1,crit_2)
Criterio global de CTE DB SE-A Section Class Reduction factor for the relevant My buckling mode Reduction factor for the relevant Mz buckling mode Reduction factor for lateral-torsional buckling Used area of the section (Gross or Effective) Used section Y modulus (Elastic, Plastic or Effective) Used section Z modulus (Elastic, Plastic or Effective) Shift of the Z axis in Y direction Shift of the Y axis in Z direction Elastic critical force for the relevant My buckling mode Elastic critical force for the relevant Mz buckling mode Elastic critical moment for lateraltorsional buckling Non-dimensional reduced slenderness for bending moment My Non-dimensional reduced slenderness for bending moment Mz Non-dimensional reduced slenderness for lateral-torsional buckling
LT
eNy
eNz
Ncr Ncr Mcr
y
LT
10-H-52
Ncrxy
AE 2 2 xy
AE 2 2 xz
AE
ixy L xy
ixz L xz
Ncrxz
AE
Elastic critical axial force in plane XY. Elastic critical axial force in plane XZ. Gross area. Elasticity modulus. Member slenderness in plane XY. Member slenderness in plane XZ. Radius of gyration of the member in plane XY. Radius of gyration of the member in plane XZ. Buckling length of member in plane XY. Buckling length of member in plane XZ.
The buckling length in both planes is the length between ends restrained against lateral movement and it is obtained from the member properties according to the following expressions:
L xy
LCfbuckxy
Lxz
where: Cfbuckxy Cfbuckxz
LCfbuckxz
Elastic critical moment for lateral-torsional buckling is obtained according to article 6.3.3.3:
MCR
M2ltv
M2ltw
where:
Mltv C1 GIt EIz
Mltw
Wel,y 2EC1i2f,z
10-H-53
where:
MCR Mltv
Mltw
It Iz
MCR component for uniform torsional resistance. MCR component for non uniform torsional resistance.
Uniform torsional modulus. Moment of inertia about the Z axis. Length of the member between end restraints. Shear modulus. Factor depending on the loading and end restraint conditions. Elasticity modulus. Elastic modulus referred to the inertia axis of the most compressed fiber. Radius of gyration refered to the minor inertia axis of the area defined by the compressed wedge and one third of the webs compressed part.
Lc
G C1 E
Wel,y
i2 f ,z
Factor C1 must be previously defined as a member property, according to CTE DB SE-A table 6.11.
10-H-54
10-I.1 Scope
Checking Process..................................................................................... 19 10-I.6.1 10-I.6.2 10-I.6.3 10-I.6.4 10-I.6.5 10-I.6.6 10-I.6.7 Section classification ............................................................... 19 Checking of tension members ................................................. 22 Checking of members in axial compression ............................ 23 Checking of flexural members ................................................. 29 Allowable stress in shear ......................................................... 37 Combined stresses: Axial compression and bending .............. 39 Combined stresses: Axial tension and bending ....................... 40
10-I.1 Scope
10-I.1 Scope
Steel structures checking according to AISC-ASD Ninth Edition (1989) in CivilFEM is included in the checking of structures composed by welded or rolled shapes under axial forces, 2D bending + axial forces and bending and torsional moments in 3D. Calculations made are included in the prescriptions of the 5 th part of the Specifications and Codes of the Manual of Steel Construction Allowable stress design. That Code corresponds to the ninth edition of those technical specifications. Sections type that can be checked using this version are: I-shaped section, U or channel section, T section for rolled or welded shapes, tubular or pipe section, rectangular tubular section and L section. The calculations made by CivilFEM correspond to the prescriptions of AISCASD according to the specifications of the following sections: B D E F G H Design requirements Tension members Columns and other compression members Beams and other flexural members Plate girders Combined stresses
10-I-7
Buckling checking:
- Compression members subjected to flexure - Compression members subjected to flexure and torsion AISC-ASD chap. E-2 AISC-ASD chap. E-3
10-I-9
Moreover, it is possible to check solid sections captured from 2D or 3D models with a transversal cross section classified as structural steel.
10-I-11
10-I-13
10-I.5.1
Section Data
AISC-ASD considers the following data set for the section: Gross section data Net section data Effective section data Data concerning to the section and plates class. Gross section data correspond to the nominal properties of the cross-section. From net section only the area is considered. This area is calculated discounting the holes for screws, rivets and other holes from the gross section area. The user will have to take into account that AISC-ASD indicates that the diameter from which to calculate the parameter AHOLES is greater than the real diameter (the total calculated area is introduced in the parameter AHOLES with the ~SECMDF command). Effective section data and section and plates class data are obtained in the checking process according to chapter B, section B5 of the code. This chapter, classifies steel sections into three groups, compact, non compact and slender, depending upon the width-thickness ratio and some mandatory limits. The AISC-ASD checking takes the gross section data in user units and CivilFEM axis or section axis as initial data. The program calculates the effective section data and the class data, and stores them in CivilFEM results file, in user units and in CivilFEM or section axis. All these data can be listed and plotted with the ~PLLSSTL, ~PLCSEC3 and ~PRSTL commands. In the following tables, the section data used in AISC-ASD are shown:
10-IG-14
Table 10-I.5-1 Common data for gross, net and effective sections
Description Input data: 1.- Height 2.- Web thickness 3.- Flanges thickness 4.- Flanges width 5.- Distance between flanges 6.- Radius of fillet (Rolled shapes) 7.- Toe radius (Rolled shapes) 8.- Weld throat thickness (Welded shapes) 9.- Web free depth Output data Data H Tw Tf B Hi r1 r2 a d (None)
Tky tkz A It Iyy, Izz Izy Wely, Welz Wply, Wplz iy, iz Ycdg, Zcdg Ymin, Ymax, Zmin, Zmax Yms, Zms Iw Yws, Zws Xwt Iuu, Ivv (None)
CivilFEM CivilFEM CivilFEM CivilFEM CivilFEM CivilFEM CivilFEM CivilFEM Section Section Section CivilFEM CivilFEM Principal CivilFEM
10-I-15
Chapter 10-IG Steel Structures according to AISC-ASD Ninth Edition Output data: 1.- Cross-section area
Anet
The effective section depends upon the geometry of the section, thus, for each element and for each end the effective section is calculated. Table 10-I.5-4 Net section data
Description Input data: Output data: 1.- Full reduction factor for slender sections 2.- Unstiffened compression elements reduction factor 3.- Stiffened compression elements reduction factor Q Qs Qa Data (None)
10-IG-16
10-I.5 Data and Results used by CivilFEM Output data: 1.- Class 2.- Bending axis for checking purposes 3.- Plates class 4.- Plate reduction factor in point 1 5.- Plate reduction factor in point 2 6.- Compression class 7.- Bending class 8.- Width to thickness ratio (b/t) 9.- p compression 10.- r compression 11.- Plate compression class 12.- p bending 13.- r bending 14.- Bending class CLASS AXIS PC PF1 PF2 CLS_COMP CLS_FLEX RATIO LAMBDP_C LAMBDR_C CLASE_C LAMBDR_P LAMBDR_F CLASE_F
10-I.5.2
Member Properties
For AISC-ASD the checked data set used at member level is shown in the following table. All data, is stored with the section data in user units and in CivilFEM reference axis. (Parameters L, Kxy, Kxz, Kz, CB, LB of ~MEMBPRO command). Table 10-I.5-6 Member Properties
Description Input data: 1.- Unbraced length of member (global buckling) 2.- Effective length factors in both planes 3.- Effective length factors for torsional buckling 4.- Factor depending on the My moments gradient Output data: 1.- Compression class 2.- Bending class CLS_COMP CLS_FLEX L Kxy,Kxz Kz Cb Table C-C2.1 E3 F1.3 Data Section
10-I.5.3
Material Properties
10-I-17
AISC-ASD code specifies fixed values for modulus of elasticity and for shear modulus: E= 29000 ksi (U.S.) or 200 GPa (S.I.) G= 11200 ksi (U.S.) or 77.2 GPa (S.I.) Default values for any material can be modified (user defined).
10-I.5.4
Forces and moments for elements ends are obtained from CivilFEMs results file (file. RCV) for the selected load step and substep. Table 10-I.5-8 Forces and Moments Forces and Moments Nx Ty Tz Tx My Mz Description Axial force. Design Shear force in Y. Design Shear force in Z. Design torsional moment. Bending moment in Y. Bending moment in Z.
10-IG-18
10-I.6.1
Section classification
AISC-ASD Code establishes three sections types: compact, non compact and slender section. For a section to qualify as compact its flanges must be continuously connected to the web or webs and the width-thickness ratios of its compression elements must not exceed the limiting width-thickness ratios p (table B5.1 of AISC-ASD). If the width-thickness ratio of one or more compression elements exceeds p but does not exceed r, the section is non compact. If the width-thickness ratio of any element exceeds r, (table B5.1 of AISC-ASD), the section is referred to as a slender-element compression section. Therefore, the code suggests different lambda values depending if the element is subjected to compression, flexure or compression plus flexure. The section classification is the worst-case scenario of all its plates. Therefore, it is calculated for each plate with the exception of pipe sections, which have their own formulation because it can no be decomposed into plates. This classification will take into account the following parameters: a) length of elements: The program will take as the element length (b or h) the length of the plate (distance between the extreme points), except when specifying otherwise. b) flange or web distinction:
CivilFEM Theory Manual 300609. Ingeciber, S.A. 10-I-19
In the cases in which a distinction has to be made between flange or web the following criteria will be taken into account: Once the principal axis of bending is defined, the program will examine the sections plates. Fields Pty and Ptz of the plates, indicate if they behave as flanges, webs or undefined, taking the correct one for the each axis. In the case of been undefined, the following criterion will be taken into account to classify the plate as flange or web: if | y|<| z| (increments of end coordinates) and flexure is in the Y axis, it is considered as web, if not, it will be a flange. The reverse way will hold true for flexure in the Z-axis. Hot rolled steel shapes: Section I and C: The length of the plate h will be taken as the value d of the section dimensions. Section Box: The length of the plate will be taken as the width length minus three times the thickness.
10-I.6.1.1
In order to check under compression it is necessary to know if the particular element is stiffened or unstiffened. For stiffened elements:
p
0.0
253
r
Fy
1. Pipe sections
3300
r
Fy
2. Box sections
190
p
238
r
Fy
Fy
Unstiffened elements:
p
0.0
95
r
Fy
1. Angular sections
76
r
Fy
10-IG-20
2. Stem of T sections
127
r
Fy
10-I.6.1.2
The bending check is only applicable to very specific sections. Therefore the slenderness factor is indicated for each section: Section I and C: Flanges of rolled sections:
65
p
95
r
Fy
Fy
65
p
95
r
Fy
Fy / K c
Where Fy is the specified minimum yield stress and Kc is a coefficient is computed as follows:
kc
kc 1.0 for user defined (welded) sections with clear distance between flanges and web thickness ratio h/t w
kc 4.05 if h/tw (h / tw)0.46
70
Webs: the program distinguishes between flange and web upon the principal axis indicated by the user. Where :
fa Fy 0.16
640
p
Fy
p
(1 3.74)
fa Fy
fa >0.16 Fy
257 Fy
3300
r
Fy
10-I-21
190
p
238
r
Fy
Fy
Webs: the program distinguishes between flange and web upon the principal axis indicated by the user. Where :
fa Fy 0.16
640
p
Fy
p
(1 3.74) 257 Fy
fa Fy
fa >0.16 Fy
0.0
127
r
Fy
Flanges :
65
p
95
r
Fy
Fy
10-I.6.2
In CivilFEM the checking of elements under tension according to chapter D of AISC-ASD code is done for each end of those selected elements and solid sections of the model whose cross section type is structural steel. The axial tension force must be taken as positive (if the tension force has a negative value the element will not be checked).
10-I.6.2.1
The allowable tensile stress FT is obtained with a value that does not exceed neither 0.6Fy corresponding to the gross area nor 0.5Fu corresponding to the effective net area, that is taking away the holes. The value of 0.750.5Fu has been obtained assuming that the effective net area is the 75% of the gross area:
FT
10-IG-22
10-I.6.2.2
Slenderness ratio
For members whose design is based on tensile force, the slenderness ratio L/r is saved into slend CivilFEM parameter.
10-I.6.2.3
The total criterion is stored as the CRT_TOT parameter in the active alternative in the CivilFEMs results file for each element end. This value shall vary between 0.0 and 1.0 so that the element will be valid according to the AISCASD code, that is, the equivalent stress must be lower than the steel design stress.
CRT_TOT fa FT 1
10-I.6.3
In CivilFEM the checking of elements under axial compression is done for each element end of those selected elements or solid sections of the model whose cross section type is structural steel. Among the checks for members subjected to axial compression, the AISC-ASD distinguishes between the following checks, depending on consideration of flexural-torsional buckling according to specified in Chapter E and Appendix B.
10-I.6.3.1
This type of check can be carried out for compact sections as well as for non compact or slender sections. For these three cases the follows the following steps: Equations proposed by AISC-ASD Code for buckling of members under compression are: The value of KL/r is calculated, being K the factor of effective length, L length of the bar and r the respective radius of gyration. KL/r defines the maximum slenderness of the member:
KL r
Cc is calculated as:
max
K xzL K xyL , ry rz
10-I-23
Cc
2 2E QFy
When the ratio KL/r is less than Cc the allowable stress is:
Q 1 FA 5 3
(A-B5-11)
When the ratio KL/r is less than Cc the allowable stress is:
FA
(A-B5-12)
b t
ma x
bf d , tf tw
b When t 76
When
76 Fy Fy b t 155 Fy 155 Fy
Qs = 1.0 (4-3a)
Qs
1.340 0.00447
b t
Fy (4-3b)
b When t
Qs
15000 b Fy t
2
(4-3c)
10-IG-24
bf 2t f 127 Fy bf 2t f
Qs
Qs
Qs
1.0
1.908 0.00715
20000 Fy bf 2t f
2
bf 2t f
Fy
(A-B5-5)
(A-B5-6)
If
Qs
195 Fy kc
1.0
If
Fy kc bf 2t f
bf 2t f 195 Fy kc
Qs
1.293 0.00309
bf 2t f
Fy kc
(A-B5-3)
If
Qs
26200k C Fy bf 2t f
2
(A-B5-4)
Rest of sections
Qs
Always:
1.0
(A-B5.2c)
t f flange thickness
t tw
760 Fy
10-I-25
Then Qa =1.0 In the opposite case: Effective web depth: For I-shape and channel sections:
bef 253t w f 1 44.3 (t / t w ) f
(A-B5-8)
(A-B5-7)
Aef
A (t bef )t w
Qa Aef / A
As we can see, an iterative process is required for bef calculation because the stress f in the plate depends on the effective net area. In this utility, the iterative process starts assuming that:
f
For rest of sections Qa
1.0
0.6FyQs
Finally, with Qs and Qa, Q is calculated, and FA obtained with equations (A-B511) and (A-B5-12).
10-I.6.3.2
Slenderness ratio
For members whose design is based on compressive force, the slenderness ratio KL/r is saved into slend CivilFEM parameter. When limiting proportions for slender channels and tees are not satisfied according to table A-B5.1, slenderness ratio has a value of 2.0E50. Table 10-I.6-1 Limiting proportions for channels and tees (A-B5.1) Shape Built-up channels Rolled channels Built-up tees Rolled tees Ratio of Flange Width to Profile Depth Ratio of Flange Thickness to Web or Stem Thickness
0.25
0.50 0.50 0.50
3.0
2.0 1.25 1.10
10-IG-26
10-I.6.3.3
The total criterion is stored as the CRT_TOT parameter in the active alternative in the CivilFEMs results file for each element end. This value shall vary between 0.0 and 1.0 so that the element will be valid according to the AISCASD code, that is, the equivalent stress must be lower than the steel design stress.
CRT_TOT fa FA 1
Output results are written in the CivilFEM results file (.RCV) as an alternative.
10-I.6.3.4
This type of check can be carried out for compact sections as well as for non compact or slender sections. Although the code considers that the failure by flexural-torsional buckling is not usual in hot-rolled shapes, if these shapes are made from relatively thin plate elements, it is possible that they suffer this failure. We can use Appendix E3 of LRFD Specification (AISC 1986) for the establishment of the flexural-torsional buckling effect. The elastic buckling stress Fe can be directly determined from the equations included in Appendix E3 of LRFD. The equivalent slenderness e will be given by:
e
KL r
E Fe
(C-E2-2)
The elastic stress for critical torsional buckling or flexural-torsional buckling Fe is calculated as the lower solution of the following third degree equation, in which the axis have been changed to adapt to CivilFEM normal axis:
(Fe Fex )(Fe Fey )(Fe Fez ) F (Fe
2 e
y Fez ) o ro
F (Fe
2 e
z Fey ) o ro
(LRFD A-E3-7) Where: Kz G Cw J Iy, Iz Effective length factor for torsional buckling. Shear modulus (MPa). Warping constant (mm6). Torsional constant (mm4). Moments of inertia about the principal axis (mm4).
CivilFEM Theory Manual 300609. Ingeciber, S.A. 10-I-27
x0,y0
r0
2 y0
2 z0
Iy Iz A
2 z0 2
H 1
2 y0
r0
Fey
E K y l / ry
E K z l / rz
2
Fez
2
Fex
where: A l Kxy, Kxz ry, rz
2
E Cw Kx l
G J
1
2
A r0
Cross-sectional area of member. Unbraced length. Effective length factor, in the z and y directions. Radius of gyration about the principal axes. Polar radius of gyration about the shear center.
r0
In this formula, CivilFEM principal axes are used. If the CivilFEM axes are the principal axes 5 sexagesimal degrees, Ky and Kz are calculated with respect to the Y and Z-axes of CivilFEM. If this is not the case (angular shapes, for example) axes U and V will be used as principal axes, being U the axes with higher inertia. The torsional inertia (Ixx in CivilFEM, J in LRFD) is calculated for CivilFEM sections, but not for captured sections. Therefore the user will have to introduce this parameter in the mechanical properties of CivilFEM. Factor Q for compact and non compact sections is 1. Nevertheless, for slender sections, the Q factor has a particular procedure of calculation. Such procedure is equal to the one described previously. Once the elastic buckling stress Fe has been calculated, it is possible to obtain the equivalent slenderness e and with this value to calculate the allowable compression strength FA considering flexural-torsional buckling with equations (A-B5-11) and (A-B5-12).
10-I.6.3.5
The total criterion is stored as the CRT_TOT parameter in the active alternative in the CivilFEMs results file for each element end. This value shall vary
10-IG-28
between 0.0 and 1.0 so that the element will be valid according to the AISCASD code, that is, the equivalent stress must be lower than the steel design stress.
CRT_TOT fa FA 1
(considering flexural-torsional buckling) Where fa is the computed axial stress on the gross area:
fa N Ag
Output results are written in the CivilFEM results file (.RCV) as an alternative. Checking results: criteria and variables are described at the following table.
10-I.6.4
In CivilFEM the checking of elements according to AISC-ASD code are done for each element end of those selected elements or solid sections of the model whose cross section type is structural steel. Chapter F of code is only applicable for compact and non compact sections subjected to bending moment and shear. Chapter G is dedicated to plate girders.
10-I.6.4.1
10-I.6.4.1.1
First the section is checked in order to test if it satisfies the requirements for compact sections that are shown in the Table B5.1 Limiting Width-Thickness Ratios for Compression Elements. Those requirements can be summarized as compact web and compact flange conditions for the section type that we are studying. But these compact web and compact flange conditions are different for rolled and welded sections. In the same way, the paragraph F1.1 Members with compact sections, specifies a checking: the laterally unsupported length must be less than Lc, as given by the smaller of:
Lc
where: bf d Af
min(
76bf Fy
10-I-29
Elements with compact sections. When the compact web and flange conditions as well as the condition (F1-2), defined in article F1.1, are fulfilled, the section can reach its ultimate plastic moment without any buckling effects. As a result, the strength can be increased till a 10%, and the allowable stress can be adopted as follows:
FB 0.66 Fy (F1-1)
Elements with non compact sections. In case that the condition (F1-2) is fulfilled but the web is non compact, the section can reach its ultimate plastic moment without any buckling, therefore the resistance can be increased up to a 10 %. As a result the allowable stress will be:
FB 0.60 Fy (F1-5)
This equation must be multiplied by the full reduction factor Qs, obtaining:
FB
0.60 Fy QS
In the case that the condition F1-2 is fulfilled but the flanges are non compact or slender elements, the allowable stress will be assumed as: For rolled shapes:
FB Fy (0.79 0.002 b t Fy )Qs 0.6Fy Qs
(F1-3)
FB Fy (0.79 0.002
b t
Fy Kc
)Qs
0.6 Fy Qs
(F1-4)
t > 70 then Kc = tf
4.05 t tf
0.46
If
t tf
70 then Kc = 1
b) Members with unbraced length greater than Lc If the condition defined in the article F1.1 is not fulfilled, no matter whether the section is compact or not, the allowable bending stress will be calculated using the following equations: If
L rt 102000Cb Fy
then
FB
0.60 Fy
If
102000Cb Fy
L rt
510000Cb Fy
then
10-IG-30
FB
L rt
Fy (L / rt )2 2 Fy 3 1530000Cb
0.6Fy
If
510000Cb Fy
then
FB
170000Cb (L / rt )2
0.60Fy
Where: rt The radius of gyration of a section comprising the compression flange plus 1/3 of the compression web area, taken about an axis in the plane of the web, is given by:
rt
1 t f bf 3 12 Af Aw / 6
Where Af is the area of a flange and Aw the area of the web. The inertia corresponding to plus 1/3 of the compression web area is neglected. Cb
M1 M ) 0.3( 1 )2 M2 M2
Cb
1.75 1.05(
Where M1 is the smaller bending moment at ends of the unbraced length and M2 the larger. An exact calculation would require changing the coefficients Cb in terms of the moments and forces of each one of the beams and for each load hypothesis. Even so, AISC-ASD Code indicates that can be adopted conservatively a constant coefficient with a value equal to Cb =1.0. As a result of that affirmation we have rather assumed it as a constant. This value can be changed in the member property (~MEMBPRO command). c) Allowable bending stres reduction (Chapter G) When the web of a member under bending buckles, a portion of the stresses resisted by the web is transferred to the flanges. Because of that, stresses of the flange under compression are greater than ones calculated in theory. Therefore, and in order to avoid lateral buckling problems those stresses must be reduced. When it is fulfilled:
t tw
970 Fy
10-I-31
the allowable bending stress will not exceed the value given by: FB < RPGREFB Where:
RPG 1 0.0005 Aw h Af t 760 FB
1.0
(G2-1)
1.0
0.6Fy FB
12 RE
Aw (3 Af A 12 2 w Af
) 1.0
(hybrid girders)
RE
1.0
(non-hybrid girders)
In the above expressions, RE is taken as 1.0 because currently the program deals with only non-hybrid girders.
10-I.6.4.1.2
Elements with compact sections. For doubly symmetric beams, as I-shaped sections, with compact section, the allowable stress can be determined with the following expression:
FB
0.75Fy
(F2-1)
That stress is allowed in I-shaped compact sections because of its great stiffness under lateral buckling in the direction of the maximum inertia. Elements with non compact sections. For the rest of non compact sections, the allowable bending stress will be:
FB Fy 1.075 0.005 bf 2t f Fy
(F2-3)
And if the requirement of compact section is not fulfilled, the allowable bending stress will be given by:
FB 0.60Fy
For channel sections the minor direction allowable bending stress is taken as follows:
FB
0.60Fy
(F2-2)
10-I.6.4.2
For pipe sections, the allowable bending stress for both strong and weak axes of bending is taken as:
10-IG-32
FB 0.66Fy
For non-compact sections:
(F3-1)
FB
0.60Fy
(F3-3)
10-I.6.4.3
10-I.6.4.3.1
In the same way as with I-shaped sections, the paragraph F1.1 Members with compact sections, specifies a checking: the laterally unsupported length must be less than Lc, as given by the smaller of:
Lc
where: bf d Af
min(
76bf Fy
a) Members with unbraced length less than Lc Elements with compact sections. When the compact web and flange conditions as well as the condition (F1-2), defined in article F1.1, are fulfilled, the section can reach its ultimate plastic moment without any buckling effects. As a result, the strength can be increased till a 10%, and the allowable stress can be adopted as follows:
FB 0.66 Fy (F1-1)
Elements with non compact sections. In case that the condition (F1-2) is fulfilled but the web is non compact, the section can reach its ultimate plastic moment without any buckling; therefore the resistance can be increased up to a 10 %. As a result the allowable stress will be:
FB 0.60 Fy (F1-5)
This equation must be multiplied by the full reduction factor Qs, obtaining:
FB
0.60 Fy QS
b) Members with unbraced length greater than Lc If the condition defined in the article F1.1 is not fulfilled, no matter whether the section is compact or not, the allowable bending stress will be calculated using the following equations: If
L rt 102000Cb Fy
then
FB
0.60 Fy
10-I-33
If
102000Cb Fy
FB
L rt
510000Cb Fy
then
Fy (L / rt )2 2 Fy 3 1530000Cb
0.6Fy
If
L rt
510000Cb Fy
then
FB
170000Cb (L / rt )2
0.60Fy
c) Allowable bending stress reduction (Chapter G) When the web of a member under bending buckles, a portion of the stresses resisted by the web is transferred to the flanges. Because of that, stresses of the flange under compression are greater than ones calculated in theory. Therefore, and in order to avoid lateral buckling problems those stresses must be reduced. When it is fulfilled:
t tw
970 Fy
the allowable bending stress will not exceed the value given by: FB < RPGREFB (G2-1)
10-I.6.4.3.2
In sections that do not fulfill conditions of section F2.1, that is, not doubly symmetrical or non compact sections, the allowable bending stress will be given by:
FB 0.60 Fy (F2-2)
10-I.6.4.4
For members bent about their strong or weak axes, members with compact sections, that satisfy the prescriptions of section B5, and with flanges continuously connected to the webs, the allowable stress is:
FB
0.66Fy
(F3-1)
If the member does not meet the compact section requirements of Sect. B5, the allowable stress is:
FB 0.60Fy
(F3-3)
10-IG-34
When the web of a member under bending buckles, a portion of the stresses resisted by the web is transferred to the flanges. Because of that, stresses of the flange under compression are greater than ones calculated in theory. Therefore, and in order to avoid lateral buckling problems those stresses must be reduced. When it is fulfilled:
t tw
970 Fy
the allowable bending stress will not exceed the value given by: FB < RPGREFB The definitions for RPG and RE are given earlier. (G2-1)
10-I.6.4.5
AISC-ASD code includes a specification (5-303) for allowable stress design of single angle members. The allowable bending stresses are calculated based on their principal axes of bending. The allowable stress is the minimum considering the limit state of local buckling and lateral-torsional buckling:
10-I.6.4.5.1
Local buckling
To prevent local buckling when the tip of an angle leg is in compression: b 65 When then t Fy
FB
When
0.66Fy
(5-1a)
65 Fy
b t
76 Fy
then
FB 0.60Fy
(5-1b)
When
b t
76 Fy
then
FB
where: b t Q
0.60QFy
(5-1c)
full width of angle leg in compression. thickness of the leg under consideration. stress reduction factor per Eq. (4-3a), (b) and (c)
10-I-35
An angle leg shall be considered to be in compression if the tip of the angle leg is in compression, in which case the calculated stress at the tip of this leg is used. For the tip of an angle leg in tension:
FB 0.66Fy
(5-2)
10-I.6.4.5.2
Lateral-torsional buckling
To prevent lateral-torsional buckling, the maximum compression stress shall not exceed: When Fob Fy then
FB
When
0.55 0.10
Fob Fob Fy
(5-3a)
Fob
Fy
then
FB
0.95 0.50
Fy Fob
Fy
0.66Fy
(5-3b)
Where Fob is the elastic lateral-torsional buckling stress as calculated below. a) Major axis of bending
Fob 143100Ivv Cb WuL2
2 u
0.052(Lt / rv )2
(5-6)
where: IUU IVV WU rV U Major principal moment of inertia. Minor principal moment of inertia. Major section modulus for compression at the tip of one leg Radius of gyration for minor principal axis
1 v(u2 v 2 )dA 2v 0 , special section property for A Iuu unequal leg angles, positive for short leg in compression and negative for long leg in compression. If the long leg is in compression anywhere along the unbraced length of the member, use the negative values of u.
u
v0
b) Minor axis of bending The same procedure as for local buckling (10-G.6.4.5.1) is applied.
10-IG-36
10-I.6.4.6
The total criterion is stored as the CRT_TOT parameter in the active alternative in the CivilFEMs results file for each element end. This value shall vary between 0.0 and 1.0 so that the element will be valid according to the AISCASD code, that is, the equivalent stress must be lower than the steel design stress.
CRT_TOT fb FB 1
10-I.6.5
In CivilFEM the checking of elements under shear force according to AISC-ASD code is done for each element end of those selected elements or solid sections of the model whose cross section type is structural steel.
10-I.6.5.1
The allowable shear stress for all sections except I-shaped, T, box and channel sections, is taken as follows:
FV
0.4Fy
(F4-1)
The allowable shear stress for major direction shears in I-shapes, tees, boxes and channels is evaluated as follows: If the ratio h/tw is lower than:
h tw
where: h tw
380 Fy
On the overall depth times web thickness the allowable shear stress is:
FV
0.4Fy
(F4-1)
Otherwise, on the clear distance between flanges times the web thickness is:
FV Fy Cv 2.89 0.4Fy
(F4-2)
10-I-37
CV
45000K v Fy t tw
2
Where KV a variable that depends on the distance between the flanges t and the spacing between stiffeners a: If the ratio a/t is lower than 1.0:
KV
If the ratio a/t is greater than 1.0:
4.00
5.34 (a / t)2
KV
5.34
4.00 (a / t)2
We have applied the AISC-ASD code assuming that there are not stiffeners, therefore a/t is greater than 1.0 and Kv will be calculated as a constant equal to 5.34. The diagonal tension field action that the Code specifies in the chapter G3, Allowable shear stress with tension field action, is not taken into account.
10-I.6.5.2
The Code establishes that the allowable shear stress is equal to:
10-I.6.5.3
The total criterion is stored as the CRT_TOT parameter in the active alternative in the CivilFEMs results file for each element end. This value shall vary between 0.0 and 1.0 so that the element will be valid according to the AISCASD code, that is, the equivalent stress must be lower than the steel design stress.
CRT_TOT fv FV 1
This equivalent stress fv is the maximum value obtained for both directions:
fv
MAX
Vy Yws
Vz Zws
10-IG-38
10-I.6.6
In CivilFEM the checking of elements under bending and axial compression forces according to AISC-ASD code (chapter H1) are done for each element end of those selected elements or solid sections of the model whose cross section type is structural steel. The following requirements shall be met simultaneously:
CRT1
fa FA
1.0
CRT2
fa 0.6Fy
fbz FBZ
fby FBY
1.0
Cm is a coefficient that depends on the bending moments distribution along the structure, and it can take different values as a function of the constraint conditions and its mobility, according to the section H1 of AISC-ASD Code. In this case Cmx and Cmy are both equal to 0.85 which is the value recommended for compression members in frames subjected to joint translation (sidesway) or for members whose ends are restrained against translation in the plane of bending. This value is usually conservative. FEY, FEZ are Euler stresses in the two principal directions, divided by a factor of safety. This factor comes from the necessity of covering residual stresses or a possible failure due to initial imperfections in the member. The factor of safety must be equal to 1.67, but in slender columns extremely sensitive to initial eccentricities, the AISC-ASD code increments this factor up to a 15% approximately. Therefore, the global factor of safety is 23/12.
FEZ
12 2E K L 23( xz )2 ry 12 2E K L 23( xy )2 rz
FEY
10-I.6.6.1
The total criterion is stored as the CRT_TOT parameter in the active alternative in the CivilFEMs results file for each element end. This value shall vary between 0.0 and 1.0 so that the element will be valid according to the AISCASD code, that is, the equivalent stress must be lower than the steel design stress.
CRT_TOT MAX(CRT1 ,CRT2) 1
10-I-39
10-I.6.7
In CivilFEM the checking of elements under bending and axial tension forces according to AISC-ASD code (chapter H2) are done for each element end of those selected elements or solid sections of the model whose cross section type is structural steel.
10-I.6.7.1
The total criterion is stored as the CRT_TOT parameter in the active alternative in the CivilFEMs results file for each element end. This value shall vary between 0.0 and 1.0 so that the element will be valid according to the AISCASD code, that is, the equivalent stress must be lower than the steel design stress.
CRT _ TOT fa FT fbz FBZ fby FBY 1.0
10-IG-40
10-J.1 Scope
Checking Process..................................................................................... 21 10-J.6.1 10-J.6.2 10-J.6.3 10-J.6.4 10-J.6.5 10-J.6.6 10-J.6.7 Section classification ............................................................... 21 Checking of tension members ................................................. 24 Checking of members in axial compression ............................ 25 Checking of flexural members ................................................. 31 Allowable stress in shear ......................................................... 39 Combined stresses: Axial compression and bending .............. 39 Combined stresses: Axial tension and bending ....................... 40
10-J.1 Scope
10-J.1 Scope
Steel structures checking according to ANSI/AISC N690-1994 in CivilFEM is included in the checking of structures composed by welded or rolled shapes under axial forces, 2D bending + axial forces and bending and torsional moments in 3D. Sections type that can be checked using this version are: I-shaped section, U or channel section, T section for rolled or welded shapes, tubular or pipe section, rectangular tubular section and L section. The calculations made by CivilFEM correspond to the prescriptions of ANSI/AISC N690-1994 according to the specifications of the following sections:
Q1.5.1.1 Tension Q1.5.1.3 Compression Q1.5.1.4 Bending Q1.10 Q1.6 Plate girders Combined stresses
10-J-7
Buckling checking:
- Compression members subjected to flexure - Compression members subjected to flexure and torsion ANSI/AISC N690-1994 Q1.5.1.3.1 ANSI/AISC N690-1994 Q1.5.1.3.6
10-J-9
Moreover, it is possible to check solid sections captured from 2D or 3D models with a transversal cross section classified as structural steel.
10-J-11
10-J-13
10-J.5.1
Section Data
ANSI/AISC N690-1994 considers the following data set for the section: Gross section data Net section data Effective section data Data concerning to the section and plates class. Gross section data correspond to the nominal properties of the cross-section. From net section only the area is considered. This area is calculated discounting the holes for screws, rivets and other holes from the gross section area. The user will have to take into account that ANSI/AISC N690-1994 indicates that the diameter from which to calculate the parameter AHOLES is greater than the real diameter (the total calculated area is introduced in the parameter AHOLES with the ~SECMDF command). Effective section data and section and plates class data are obtained in the checking process according to chapter Q1.9 of the code. This chapter, classifies steel sections into three groups, compact, non compact and slender, depending upon the width-thickness ratio and some mandatory limits. The ANSI/AISC N690-1994 analysis takes the gross section data in user units and CivilFEM axis or section axis as initial data. The program calculates the effective section data and the class data, and stores them in CivilFEM results file, in user units and in CivilFEM or section axis. All these data can be listed and plotted with the ~PLLSSTL, ~PLCSEC3 and ~PRSTL commands. In the following tables, the section data used in ANSI/AISC N690-1994 are shown:
10-J-15
Table 10-J.5-1 Common data for gross, net and effective sections
Description Input data: 1.- Height 2.- Web thickness 3.- Flanges thickness 4.- Flanges width 5.- Distance between flanges 6.- Radius of fillet (Rolled shapes) 7.- Toe radius (Rolled shapes) 8.- Weld throat thickness (Welded shapes) 9.- Web free depth Output data Data H Tw Tf B Hi r1 r2 a d (None)
Tky tkz A It Iyy, Izz Izy Wely, Welz Wply, Wplz iy, iz Ycdg, Zcdg Ymin, Ymax, Zmin, Zmax Yms, Zms Iw Yws, Zws Xwt Iuu, Ivv (None)
CivilFEM CivilFEM CivilFEM CivilFEM CivilFEM CivilFEM CivilFEM CivilFEM Section Section Section CivilFEM CivilFEM Principal CivilFEM
10-J16
10-J.5 Data and Results used by CivilFEM Output data: 1.- Cross-section area
Anet
The effective section depends upon the geometry of the section, thus, for each element and for each end the effective section is calculated. Table 10-J.5-4 Net section data
Description Input data: Output data: 1.- Full reduction factor for slender sections 2.- Unstiffened compression elements reduction factor 3.- Stiffened compression elements reduction factor Q Qs Qa Data (None)
10-J-17
Chapter 10-JH Steel Structures according to ANSI/AISC N690 Output data: 1.- Class 2.- Bending axis for checking purposes 3.- Plates class 4.- Plate reduction factor in point 1 5.- Plate reduction factor in point 2 6.- Compression class 7.- Bending class 8.- Width to thickness ratio (b/t) 9.- p compression 10.- r compression 11.- Plate compression class 12.- p bending 13.- r bending 14.- Bending class CLASS AXIS PC PF1 PF2 CLS_COMP CLS_FLEX RATIO LAMBDP_C LAMBDR_C CLASE_C LAMBDR_P LAMBDR_F CLASE_F
10-J.5.2
Member Properties
For ANSI/AISC N690-1994 the checked data set used at member level is shown in the following table. All data, is stored with the section data in user units and in CivilFEM reference axis. (Parameters L, Kxy, Kxz, Kz, CB, LB of ~MEMBPRO command). Table 10-J.5-6 Member Properties
Description Input data: 1.- Unbraced length of member (global buckling) 2.- Effective length factors in both planes 3.- Effective length factor for torsional buckling 4.- Factor depending on the My moments gradient 5.- Coefficients for compression members Output data: 1.- Compression class 2.- Bending class CLS_COMP CLS_FLEX L Kxy,Kxz Kz Cb Cmy,Cmz Table CQ1.8.1 CQ1.5.3.6 Q1.5.1.4.5 Data Section
10-J.5.3
Material Properties
10-J18
ANSI/AISC N690-1994 code specifies fixed values for modulus of elasticity and for shear modulus: E= 29000 ksi (U.S.) or 200 GPa (S.I.) G= 11200 ksi (U.S.) or 77.2 GPa (S.I.) Default values for any material can be modified (user defined).
10-J.5.4
Forces and moments for elements ends are obtained from CivilFEMs results file (file. RCV) for the selected load step and substep. Table 10-J.5-8 Forces and Moments Forces and Moments Nx Ty Tz Tx My Mz Description Axial force. Design Shear force in Y. Design Shear force in Z. Design torsional moment. Bending moment in Y. Bending moment in Z.
10-J-19
10-J.6.1
Section classification
ANSI/AISC N690-1994 Code establishes three sections types: compact, non compact and slender section. For a section to qualify as compact its flanges must be continuously connected to the web or webs and the width-thickness ratios of its compression elements must not exceed the limiting width-thickness ratios p (see table Q12 of Appendix A). If the width-thickness ratio of one or more compression elements exceeds p but does not exceed r, the section is non compact. If the widththickness ratio of any element exceeds r, (see table Q12 of Appendix A), the section is referred to as a slender-element compression section. Therefore, the code suggests different lambda values depending if the element is subjected to compression, flexure or compression plus flexure. The section classification is the worst-case scenario of all its plates. Therefore, it is calculated for each plate with the exception of pipe sections, which have their own formulation because it can no be decomposed into plates. This classification will take into account the following parameters: a) length of elements: The program will take as the element length (b or h) the length of the plate (distance between the extreme points), except when specifying otherwise. b) flange or web distinction:
CivilFEM Theory Manual 300609. Ingeciber, S.A. 10-J-21
In the cases in which a distinction has to be made between flange or web the following criteria will be taken into account: Once the principal axis of bending is defined, the program will examine the sections plates. Fields Pty and Ptz of the plates indicate if they behave as flanges, webs or undefined, taking the correct one for the each axis. In the case of been undefined, the following criterion will be taken into account to classify the plate as flange or web: if | y|<| z| (increments of end coordinates) and flexure is in the Y axis, it is considered as web, if not, it will be a flange. The reverse way will hold true for flexure in the Z-axis. Hot rolled steel shapes: Section I and C: The length of the plate h will be taken as the value d of the section dimensions. Section Box: The length of the plate will be taken as the width length minus three times the thickness.
10-J.6.1.1
In order to check under compression it is necessary to know if the particular element is stiffened or unstiffened. For stiffened elements:
p
0.0
253
r
Fy
1. Pipe sections
3300
r
Fy
2. Box sections
190
p
238
r
Fy
Fy
Unstiffened elements:
p
0.0
95
r
Fy
1. Angular sections
76
r
Fy
10-J22
2. Stem of T sections
127
r
Fy
10-J.6.1.2
The bending check is only applicable to very specific sections. Therefore the slenderness factor is indicated for each section: Section I and C: Flanges of rolled sections:
65
p
95
r
Fy
Fy
65
p
95
r
Fy
Fy / K c
Where Fy is the specified minimum yield stress and Kc coefficient is computed as follows:
kc
kc 1.0 for user defined (welded) sections with clear distance between flanges and web thickness ratio h/t w
kc 4.05 if h/tw (h / tw)0.46
70
Webs: the program distinguishes between flange and web upon the principal axis indicated by the user. Where :
fa Fy 0.16
640
p
Fy
p
(1 3.74)
fa Fy
fa >0.16 Fy
257 Fy
3300
r
Fy
10-J-23
190
p
238
r
Fy
Fy
Webs: the program distinguishes between flange and web upon the principal axis indicated by the user. Where:
fa Fy 0.16
640
p
Fy
p
(1 3.74) 257 Fy
fa Fy
fa >0.16 Fy
0.0
127
r
Fy
Flanges:
65
p
95
r
Fy
Fy
10-J.6.2
In CivilFEM the checking of elements under tension according to chapter Q1.5.1.1 of ANSI/AISC N690-1994 code is done for each end of those selected elements and solid sections of the model whose cross section type is structural steel. The axial tension force must be taken as positive (if the tension force has a negative value the element will not be checked).
10-J.6.2.1
The allowable tensile stress FT is obtained with a value that does not exceed neither 0.6 Fy corresponding to the gross area nor 0.5 Fu corresponding to the effective net area that is taking away the holes. The value of 0.75 0.5Fu has been obtained assuming that the effective net area is the 75% of the gross area:
FT
10-J24
10-J.6.2.2
Slenderness ratio
For members whose design is based on tensile force, the slenderness ratio L/r is saved into slend CivilFEM parameter.
10-J.6.2.3
The total criterion is stored as the CRT_TOT parameter in the active alternative in the CivilFEMs results file for each element end. This value shall vary between 0.0 and 1.0 so that the element will be valid according to the ANSI/AISC N690-1994 code, that is, the equivalent stress must be lower than the steel design stress.
CRT_TOT fa FT 1
10-J.6.3
In CivilFEM the checking of elements under axial compression is done for each element end of those selected elements or solid sections of the model whose cross section type is structural steel. Among the checks for members subjected to axial compression, the ANSI/AISC N690-1994 distinguishes between the following checks, depending on consideration of flexural-torsional buckling according to specified in Chapter Q1.5.1.3.
10-J.6.3.1
This type of check can be carried out for compact sections as well as for non compact or slender sections. For these three cases the follows the following steps: Equations proposed by ANSI/AISC N690-1994 for buckling of members under compression are: The value of KL/r is calculated, being K the factor of effective length, L length of the bar and r the respective radius of gyration. KL/r defines the maximum slenderness of the member:
KL r
Cc is calculated as:
max
K xzL K xyL , ry rz
10-J-25
Cc
2 2E QFy
When the ratio KL/r is less than Cc the allowable stress is:
Q 1 FA 5 3
When the ratio KL/r is less than Cc the allowable stress is:
FA
b t
ma x
bf d , tf tw
b When t 76
When
76 Fy Fy b t 155 Fy 155 Fy
Qs = 1.0
Qs
1.340 0.00447
b t
Fy
b When t
Qs
15000 b Fy t
2
(4-3c)
10-J26
bf 2t f 127 Fy bf 2t f
Qs
Qs
Qs
1.0
1.908 0.00715
20000 Fy bf 2t f
2
bf 2t f
Fy
If
Qs
195 Fy kc
1.0
If
Fy kc bf 2t f
bf 2t f 195 Fy kc
Qs
1.293 0.00309
bf 2t f
Fy kc
If
Qs
26200k C Fy bf 2t f
2
Rest of sections
Qs
Always:
1.0
(A-B5.2c)
t f flange thickness
t tw
760 Fy
10-J-27
Then Qa =1.0 In the opposite case: Effective web depth: For I-shape and channel sections:
bef 253t w f 1 44.3 (t / t w ) f
Aef
A (t bef )t w
Qa Aef / A
As we can see, an iterative process is required for bef calculation because the stress f in the plate depends on the effective net area. In this utility, the iterative process starts assuming that:
f
For rest of sections Qa
1.0
0.6FyQs
Finally, with Qs and Qa, Q is calculated, and FA obtained with earlier equations.
10-J.6.3.2
Slenderness ratio
For members whose design is based on compressive force, the slenderness ratio KL/r is saved into slend CivilFEM parameter. When limiting proportions for slender channels and tees are not satisfied according to table QC1, slenderness ratio has a value of 2.0E50. Table 10-J.6-1 Limiting proportions for channels and tees (QC1) Shape Built-up channels Rolled channels Built-up tees Rolled tees Ratio of Flange Width to Profile Depth Ratio of Flange Thickness to Web or Stem Thickness
0.25
0.50
3.0
2.0
0.50 0.50
1.25 1.10
10-J28
10-J.6.3.3
The total criterion is stored as the CRT_TOT parameter in the active alternative in the CivilFEMs results file for each element end. This value shall vary between 0.0 and 1.0 so that the element will be valid according to the ANSI/AISC N690-1994, that is, the equivalent stress must be lower than the steel design stress.
CRT_TOT fa FA 1
Output results are written in the CivilFEM results file (.RCV) as an alternative.
10-J.6.3.4
This type of check can be carried out for compact sections as well as for non compact or slender sections. Although the code considers that the failure by flexural-torsional buckling is not usual in hot-rolled shapes, if these shapes are made from relatively thin plate elements is possible that they suffer this failure. Appendix E3 of LRFD Specification (AISC 1986) will be used for the establishment of the flexuraltorsional buckling effect. The elastic buckling stress Fe can be directly determined from the equations included in Appendix E3 of LRFD. The equivalent slenderness e will be given by:
e
KL r
E Fe
(CQ1.5.1.3.6)
The elastic stress for critical torsional buckling or flexural-torsional buckling Fe is calculated as the lower solution of the following third degree equation, in which the axis have been changed to adapt to CivilFEM normal axis:
(Fe Fex )(Fe Fey )(Fe Fez ) F (Fe
2 e
y Fez ) o ro
F (Fe
2 e
z Fey ) o ro
(LRFD A-E3-7) Where: Kz G Cw J Iy, Iz x0,y0 Effective length factor for torsional buckling. Shear modulus (MPa). Warping constant (mm6). Torsional constant (mm4). Moments of inertia about the principal axis (mm4). Coordinates of shear center with respect to the center of gravity
10-J-29
(mm).
2
r0
2 y0
2 z0
Iy Iz A
2 z0 2
H 1
2 y0
r0
Fey
E K y l / ry
E K z l / rz
2
Fez
2
Fex
Where: A l Kxy, Kxz ry, rz
2
E Cw Kx l
G J
1
2
A r0
Cross-sectional area of member. Unbraced length. Effective length factor, in the z and y directions. Radius of gyration about the principal axes. Polar radius of gyration about the shear center.
r0
In this formula, CivilFEM principal axes are used. If the CivilFEM axes are the principal axes 5 sexadecimal degrees, Ky and Kz are calculated with respect to the Y and Z-axes of CivilFEM. If this is not the case (angular shapes, for example) axes U and V will be used as principal axes, being U the axes with higher inertia. The torsional inertia (Ixx in CivilFEM, J in LRFD) is calculated for CivilFEM sections, but not for captured sections. Therefore the user will have to introduce this parameter in the mechanical properties of CivilFEM. Factor Q for compact and non compact sections is 1. Nevertheless, for slender sections, the Q factor has a particular procedure of calculation. Such procedure is equal to the one described previously. Once the elastic buckling stress Fe has been calculated, it is possible to obtain the equivalent slenderness e and with this value to calculate the allowable compression strength FA considering flexural-torsional buckling with earlier equations.
10-J.6.3.5
The total criterion is stored as the CRT_TOT parameter in the active alternative in the CivilFEMs results file for each element end. This value shall vary
10-J30
between 0.0 and 1.0 so that the element will be valid according to the ANSI/AISC N690-1994, that is, the equivalent stress must be lower than the steel design stress.
CRT_TOT fa FA 1
(Considering flexural-torsional buckling) Where fa is the computed axial stress on the gross area:
fa N Ag
Output results are written in the CivilFEM results file (.RCV) as an alternative. Checking results: criteria and variables are described at the following table.
10-J.6.4
In CivilFEM the checking of elements according to ANSI/AISC N690-1994 are done for each element end of those selected elements or solid sections of the model whose cross section type is structural steel. Chapter 1.5.1.4.1 of code is only applicable for compact and non compact sections subjected to bending moment and shear. Appendix QC is dedicated to plate girders.
10-J.6.4.1
10-J.6.4.1.1
First the section is checked in order to test if it satisfies the requirements for compact sections that are shown in the Table Q12 Limiting Width-Thickness Ratios for Compression Elements. Those requirements can be summarized as compact web and compact flange conditions for the section type that we are studying. But these compact web and compact flange conditions are different for rolled and welded sections. In the same way, the paragraph Q1.5.1.4.1, specifies a checking: the laterally unsupported length must be less than Lc, as given by the smaller of:
Lc
where: bf d Af
min(
76bf Fy
20000 ) (d / A f )Fy
10-J-31
Elements with compact sections. When the compact web and flange conditions as well as the condition, defined in article Q1.5.1.4.1, are fulfilled, the section can reach its ultimate plastic moment without any buckling effects. As a result, the strength can be increased till a 10%, and the allowable stress can be adopted as follows:
FB 0.66 Fy
Elements with non compact sections. In case that the condition Q1.5.1.4.1 is fulfilled but the web is non compact, the section can reach its ultimate plastic moment without any buckling, therefore the resistance can be increased up to a 10 %. As a result the allowable stress will be:
FB 0.60 Fy
This equation must be multiplied by the full reduction factor Qs, obtaining:
FB
0.60 Fy QS
In the case that the condition is fulfilled but the flanges are non compact or slender elements, the allowable stress will be assumed as: For rolled shapes:
FB Fy (0.79 0.002 b t Fy )Qs 0.6Fy Qs
FB Fy (0.79 0.002
b t
Fy Kc
)Qs
0.6 Fy Qs
t > 70 then Kc = tf
4.05 t tf
0.46
If
t tf
70 then Kc = 1
b) Members with unbraced length greater than Lc If the condition defined in the article F1.1 is not fulfilled, no matter whether the section is compact or not, the allowable bending stress will be calculated using the following equations: If
L rt 102000Cb Fy
then
FB
0.60 Fy
If
102000Cb Fy
L rt
510000Cb Fy
then
10-J32
FB
L rt
Fy (L / rt )2 2 Fy 3 1530000Cb
0.6Fy
If
510000Cb Fy
then
FB
170000Cb (L / rt )2
0.60Fy
Where: rt The radius of gyration of a section comprising the compression flange plus 1/3 of the compression web area, taken about an axis in the plane of the web, is given by:
rt
1 t f bf 3 12 Af Aw / 6
Where Af is the area of a flange and Aw the area of the web. The inertia corresponding to plus 1/3 of the compression web area is neglected. Cb
Cb 1.75 1.05( M1 M ) 0.3( 1 )2 M2 M2
Where M1 is the smaller bending moment at ends of the unbraced length and M2 the larger. An exact calculation would require changing the coefficients Cb in terms of the moments and forces of each one of the beams and for each load hypothesis. Even so, ANSI/AISC N690-1994 indicates that can be adopted conservatively a constant coefficient with a value equal to Cb =1.0. As a result of that affirmation we have rather assumed it as a constant. This value can be changed in the member property (~MEMBPRO command). c) Allowable bending stress reduction (Q1.10.6) A portion of the stresses resisted by the web is transferred to the flanges when the web of a member under bending buckles. Because of that, stresses of the flange under compression are greater than ones calculated in theory. Therefore, and in order to avoid lateral buckling problems those stresses must be reduced. When it is fulfilled:
t tw
970 Fy
10-J-33
The allowable bending stress will not exceed the value given by: FB < RPGREFB Where:
RPG 1 0.0005 Aw h Af t 760 FB
1.0
(Q1.10-5)
1.0
0.6Fy FB
12 RE
Aw (3 Af A 12 2 w Af
) 1.0
(hybrid girders)
RE
1.0
(non-hybrid girders)
In the above expressions, RE is taken as 1.0 because currently the program deals with only non-hybrid girders.
10-J.6.4.1.2
Elements with compact sections. For doubly symmetric beams, as I-shaped sections, with compact section, the allowable stress can be determined with the following expression:
FB
0.75Fy
That stress is allowed in I-shaped compact sections because of its great stiffness under lateral buckling in the direction of the maximum inertia. Elements with non compact sections. For the rest of non compact sections, the allowable bending stress will be:
FB Fy 1.075 0.005 bf 2t f Fy
And if the requirement of compact section is not fulfilled, the allowable bending stress will be given by:
FB 0.60Fy
For channel sections the minor direction allowable bending stress is taken as follows:
FB
0.60Fy
10-J.6.4.2
For pipe sections, the allowable bending stress for both strong and weak axes of bending is taken as:
10-J34
FB 0.66Fy
For non-compact sections:
FB
0.60Fy
10-J.6.4.3
10-J.6.4.3.1
In the same way as with I-shaped sections, the chapter Q1.5.1.4.1, specifies a checking: the laterally unsupported length must be less than Lc, as given by the smaller of:
Lc
where: bf d Af
min(
76bf Fy
20000 ) (d / A f )Fy
a) Members with unbraced length less than Lc Elements with compact sections. When the compact web and flange conditions as well as the condition Q1.5.1.4.1 are fulfilled, the section can reach its ultimate plastic moment without any buckling effects. As a result, the strength can be increased till a 10%, and the allowable stress can be adopted as follows:
FB 0.66 Fy
Elements with non compact sections. In case that the conditions fulfilled but the web is non compact, the section can reach its ultimate plastic moment without any buckling, therefore the resistance can be increased up to a 10 %. As a result the allowable stress will be:
FB 0.60 Fy
This equation must be multiplied by the full reduction factor Qs, obtaining:
FB
0.60 Fy QS
b) Members with unbraced length greater than Lc If the condition defined in Q1.5.1.4.1 is not fulfilled, no matter whether the section is compact or not, the allowable bending stress will be calculated using the following equations: If
L rt 102000Cb Fy
then
FB
0.60 Fy
10-J-35
If
102000Cb Fy
FB
L rt
510000Cb Fy
then
Fy (L / rt )2 2 Fy 3 1530000Cb
0.6Fy
If
L rt
510000Cb Fy
then
FB
170000Cb (L / rt )2
0.60Fy
c) Allowable bending stress reduction (Q1.10.6) When the web of a member under bending buckles, a portion of the stresses resisted by the web is transferred to the flanges. Because of that, stresses of the flange under compression are greater than ones calculated in theory. Therefore, and in order to avoid lateral buckling problems those stresses must be reduced. When it is fulfilled:
t tw
970 Fy
the allowable bending stress will not exceed the value given by: FB < RPGREFB (Q1.10-5)
10-J.6.4.3.2
In sections that do not fulfill conditions of section, that is, not doubly symmetrical or non compact sections, the allowable bending stress will be given by:
FB 0.60 Fy
10-J.6.4.4
For members bent about their strong or weak axes, members with compact sections, that satisfy the prescriptions of section Q.1.9, and with flanges continuously connected to the webs, the allowable stress is:
FB
0.66Fy
If the member does not meet the compact section requirements of Q.1.9, the allowable stress is:
FB 0.60Fy
When the web of a member under bending buckles, a portion of the stresses resisted by the web is transferred to the flanges. Because of that, stresses of
10-J36
the flange under compression are greater than ones calculated in theory. Therefore, and in order to avoid lateral buckling problems those stresses must be reduced. When it is fulfilled:
t tw
970 Fy
the allowable bending stress will not exceed the value given by: FB < RPGREFB (Q1.10-5)
10-J.6.4.5
ANSI/AISC N690-1994 refers to AISC-ASD Specification for Allowable Stress Design of Single Angle Members. The allowable bending stresses are calculated based on their principal axes of bending. The allowable stress is the minimum considering the limit state of local buckling and lateral-torsional buckling:
10-J.6.4.5.1
Local buckling
To prevent local buckling when the tip of an angle leg is in compression: b 65 When then t Fy
FB
When
0.66Fy
(ASD 5-1a)
65 Fy
b t
76 Fy
then
FB 0.60Fy
(ASD 5-1b)
When
b t
76 Fy
then
FB
where: b t Q
0.60QFy
(ASD 5-1c)
full width of angle leg in compression. thickness of the leg under consideration. stress reduction factor per Eq. (ASD 4-3a), (b) and (c)
10-J-37
An angle leg shall be considered to be in compression if the tip of the angle leg is in compression, in which case the calculated stress at the tip of this leg is used. For the tip of an angle leg in tension:
FB 0.66Fy
(ASD 5-2)
10-J.6.4.5.2
Lateral-torsional buckling
To prevent lateral-torsional buckling, the maximum compression stress shall not exceed: When Fob Fy then
FB
When
0.55 0.10
Fob Fob Fy
(ASD 5-3a)
Fob
Fy
FB
then
0.95 0.50
Fy Fob
Fy
0.66Fy
(ASD 5-3b)
Where Fob is the elastic lateral-torsional buckling stress as calculated below. a) Major axis of bending
Fob 143100 Ivv Cb WuL2
2 u
0.052(Lt / rv )2
(ASD 5-6)
where: IUU IVV WU rV U Major principal moment of inertia. Minor principal moment of inertia. Major section modulus for compression at the tip of one leg Radius of gyration for minor principal axis
1 v(u2 v 2 )dA 2v 0 , special section property for A Iuu unequal leg angles, positive for short leg in compression and negative for long leg in compression. If the long leg is in compression anywhere along the unbraced length of the member, use the negative values of u.
u
v0
b) Minor axis of bending The same procedure as for local buckling (10-H.6.4.5.1) is applied.
10-J38
10-J.6.4.6
The total criterion is stored as the CRT_TOT parameter in the active alternative in the CivilFEMs results file for each element end. This value shall vary between 0.0 and 1.0 so that the element will be valid according to the ANSI/AISC N690-1994, that is, the equivalent stress must be lower than the steel design stress.
CRT_TOT fb FB 1
10-J.6.5
In CivilFEM the checking of elements under shear force according to ANSI/AISC N690-1994 is done for each element end of those selected elements or solid sections of the model whose cross section type is structural steel. The allowable shear stress on the overall depth times the web thickness is taken as follows:
FV
0.4Fy
10-J.6.5.1
The total criterion is stored as the CRT_TOT parameter in the active alternative in the CivilFEMs results file for each element end. This value shall vary between 0.0 and 1.0 so that the element will be valid according to the ANSI/AISC N690-1994, that is, the equivalent stress must be lower than the steel design stress.
CRT_TOT fv FV 1
This equivalent stress fv is the maximum value obtained for both directions:
fv
MAX
Vy Yws
Vz Zws
10-J.6.6
In CivilFEM the checking of elements under bending and axial compression forces according to ANSI/AISC N690-1994 (chapter Q1.6.1) are done for each element end of those selected elements or solid sections of the model whose cross section type is structural steel.
10-J-39
CRT1
fa FA
1.0
CRT2
fa 0.6Fy
fbz FBZ
fby FBY
1.0
Cm is a coefficient that depends on the bending moment distribution along the structure, and it can take different values as a function of the constraint conditions and its mobility, according to the section H1 of ANSI/AISC N6901994. In this case Cmx and Cmy are both equal to 0.85 which is the value recommended for compression members in frames subjected to joint translation (sidesway) or for members whose ends are restrained against translation in the plane of bending. This value is usually conservative. FEY, FEZ are Euler stresses in the two principal directions, divided by a factor of safety. This factor comes from the necessity of covering residual stresses or a possible failure due to initial imperfections in the member. The factor of safety must be equal to 1.67, but in slender columns extremely sensitive to initial eccentricities, the ANSI/AISC N690-1994 increments this factor up to a 15% approximately. Therefore, the global factor of safety is 23/12.
FEZ
12 2E K L 23( xz )2 ry
12 2E K L 23( xy )2 rz
FEY
10-J.6.6.1
The total criterion is stored as the CRT_TOT parameter in the active alternative in the CivilFEMs results file for each element end. This value shall vary between 0.0 and 1.0 so that the element will be valid according to the ANSI/AISC N690-1994, that is, the equivalent stress must be lower than the steel design stress.
CRT_TOT MAX(CRT1 ,CRT2) 1
10-J.6.7
In CivilFEM the checking of elements under bending and axial tension forces according to ANSI/AISC N690-1994 (chapter Q1.6.2) are done for each element
10-J40
end of those selected elements or solid sections of the model whose cross section type is structural steel.
10-J.6.7.1
The total criterion is stored as the CRT_TOT parameter in the active alternative in the CivilFEMs results file for each element end. This value shall vary between 0.0 and 1.0 so that the element will be valid according to the ANSI/AISC N690-1994, that is, the equivalent stress must be lower than the steel design stress.
CRT _ TOT fa FT fbz FBZ fby FBY 1.0
10-J-41
10-K.1 Scope
10-K.1 Scope
10-K.1 Scope
Steel structures checking according to ASME BPVC III Subsection NF in CivilFEM is included in the checking of structures composed by welded or rolled shapes under axial forces, shear forces and bending moments in 3D. The calculations made by CivilFEM correspond to the prescriptions of this code according to the specifications of the following sections:
1 2
10-KI-5
10-KI-5
Moreover, it is possible to check solid sections captured from 2D or 3D models with a transversal cross section classified as structural steel.
10-K6
10-KI-7
From net section only the area is considered. This area is calculated discounting the holes for screws, rivets and other holes from the gross section area. The user will have to take into account that the code indicates that the diameter from which to calculate the parameter AHOLES is greater than the real diameter (the total calculated area is introduced in the parameter AHOLES with the command ~SECMDF). In determining the effective net area Ae of axially loaded tension members, the reduction coefficient Ct must be set (parameter CT with the command ~SECMDF). By default, Ct=0.75.
10-K.5.2
Member Properties
For ASME BPVC III Subsection NF, the checked data set used at member level is shown in the following table. All data are stored with the section data in user units and in CivilFEM reference axis. (Parameters L, KY, KZ, CBY, CBZ, CMY, CMZ, PIN, COLUMN, BRACED of ~MEMBPRO command).
10-KI-9
CBZ
3322
CMY
3322
CMZ
3322
PIN
3322
10-K.5.3
Material Properties
In ASME BPVC III Subsection NF checking, the following material properties are used: Table 10-K.5-5 Material properties Description Steel yield strength Ultimate strength Elasticity modulus
*th = plate thickness
Furthermore, although austenitic stainless steel is an intrinsic material property, it can be modified by changing the material to User Defined.
10-K10
10-K.5.4
Forces and moments for elements ends are obtained from CivilFEMs results file (file. RCV) for the selected load step and substep. Table 10-K.5-6 Forces and Moments Forces and Moments Nx Ty Tz Tx My Mz Description Axial force. Design Shear force in Y. Design Shear force in Z. Design torsional moment. Bending moment in Y. Bending moment in Z.
10-KI-11
10-K.6.1
Tension Checking
In CivilFEM the checking of elements under tension according to ASME BPVC III Subsection NF code is done for each end of those selected elements and solid sections of the model whose cross section type is structural steel. For the checking, the program follows the following steps:
10-K.6.1.1
The allowable stress in tension shall be as given in the equations below: Except for pin-connected and threaded members, Ft shall be:
Ft
0.6 Sy
0.5 Su*
Ft
0.45 Sy
10-K.6.1.2
The obtained equivalent stress ft is divided by the steel design strength Ft in order to obtain a value, stored as the CRT_STR parameter in the corresponding alternative. This value will vary between 0.0 and 1.0 if the element is valid according to the ASME BPVC III Subsection NF code, that is, the equivalent stress must be lower than the steel design strength.
10-KI-13
CRT_STR
ft Ft
10-K.6.1.3
Slenderness ratio
The maximum slenderness ratio l/r for tension members is obtained and stored as SLD_RT. This slenderness ratio is divided by 240 (shall not exceed this value) and stored as the CRT_SLD. Therefore, this value will vary between 0.0 and 1.0 if the element is valid according this code.
STR_RT
max
l l , ry rz
CRT_SLD
SLD_RT 240
10-K.6.1.4
The Total Criterion is obtained from the maximum value of the stress criterion and the slender criterion and stored as the CRT_TOT parameter in the corresponding alternative in the CivilFEMs results file for each element end. This value will vary between 0.0 and 1.0 if the element is valid according the ASME BPVC III Subsection NF code.
CRT _ TOT
10-K.6.2
Shear Checking
In CivilFEM the checking of elements under shear force according to ASME BPVC III Subsection NF code is done for each element end of those selected elements or solid sections of the model whose cross section type is structural steel.
10-K.6.2.1
The allowable stress in shear shall be as given in the following equation, on the cross-sectional area effective in resisting shear:
Fv
0.40 Sy
10-K14
10-K.6.2.2
The equivalent stress obtained fV is divided by the steel design strength Fv in order to obtain a value, stored as the CRT_TOT parameter in the active alternative in the CivilFEMs results file for each element end. This value shall vary between 0.0 and 1.0 so that the element will be valid according to the ASME BPVC III Subsection NF code, that is, the equivalent stress must be lower than the steel design strength.
fv Fv
CRT_TOT
This equivalent stress fv is the maximum value obtained for both directions:
fv
MAX
Vy Yws
Vz Zws
10-K.6.3
Compression Checking
In CivilFEM the checking of elements under compression according to ASME BPVC III Subsection NF code is done for each element end of those selected elements or solid sections of the model whose cross section type is structural steel.
10-K.6.3.1
The allowable stress in compression shall be as required by the equations bellow: 1- Gross sections of columns, except those fabricated of austenitic stainless steel
1 FA 5 3
if
kl / r
Cc
FA
12 2E 23 (Kl / r)2
if
kl / r
Cc
where
10-KI-15
Cc
2 2E Sy
FA
Sy 0.47
kl / r 444
if
kl / r
120
FA
Sy 0.40
kl / r 600
if
kl / r
120
10-K.6.3.2
Slenderness ratio
The maximum slenderness ratio l/r for tension members is obtained and stored as SLD_RT. This slenderness ratio is divided by 200 (shall not exceed this value) and stored as the parameter CRT_SLD. Therefore, this value shall vary between 0.0 and 1.0 so that the element will be valid according this code.
STR_RT
max
ky l kz l , ry rz
CRT_SLD
SLD_RT 200
10-K.6.3.3
When axially loaded members containing elements subject to compression and having a width-thickness ratio in excess of the applicable limit below, ASME BPVC III Subsection NF Code decreases the efficiency of a section through the reduction factors:
10-K16
to a reduction of factor Qs when the width-thickness ratio exceeds the limits below. The width of flanges is taken from the free edge to the web. 1- For single angles, when b / t
76 / Sy
when
76 / Sy
Qs 1.0 b / t 155 / Sy
Qs 1.340 0.00447 b / t Sy
when
b / t 155 / Sy
Qs 15500 / Sy b / t
2
when
127 / Sy
Qs 1.0 b / t 176 / Sy
Qs 1.908 0.00715 b / t Sy
when
b / t 176 / Sy
Qs 20000 / Sy b / t
2
when
95 / Sy
Qs 1.0 b / t 176 / Sy
Qs 1.415 0.00437 b / t Sy
when
b / t 176 / Sy
Qs 20000 / Sy b / t
2
where Sy is the yield strength, in ksi. Furthermore, unstiffened elements of channels and tees whose proportions exceed the limits above are checked for the following limits: Shape Ratio of Flange Width to Ratio of Flange
10-KI-17
Profile Depth Built-up channels Rolled channels Built-up tees Rolled tees
0.25
3.0
0.50 0.50
0.50
Table NF-3322.2(e)(2)-1
2.0 1.25
1.10
This proportion checking result is written in the CivilFEM results file (.RCV) as CTR_W with the value of 0.0 if the proportion limits are fulfilled and 2100 if not.
be
253t f
50.3 (b / t) f
253 / Sy
be
253t f
44.3 (b / t) f
Where f is the axial compression stress on member based on effective area, in ksi. If unstiffened elements are included in the total cross section, f must be such that the maximum compressive stress in the unstiffened elements does not exceed FaQs. Therefore, the calculation of the effective width of the stiffened elements follows the following iterative process: a) The axial compression stress f is obtained b) An initial value of the effective width be is calculated.
10-K18
c) A new axial compression stress f of the effective area is obtained d) If f exceeds FaQs, a new axial compression stress f is obtained by increasing the last axial compression stress f. This iteration is repeated until the axial compression stress does not exceed FaQs or the effective area is equal to the total area.
From this effective width be , the form factor Qa, which is the ratio of the effective area to its total area is obtained:
Aef
(b bef ) t
Qa
Aef / A
10-K.6.3.4
The allowable stress for axially loaded compression members shall not exceed:
Q s Qa 1 FA 5 3
if
kl / r
Cc
After verify the equation above, the equivalent stress obtained fa is divided by the steel design strength Fa in order to obtain a value, stored as the CRT_STR parameter in the active alternative in the CivilFEMs results file for each element end. This value shall vary between 0.0 and 1.0 so that the element will be valid according to the ASME BPVC III Subsection NF code, that is, the equivalent stress must be lower than the steel design strength.
CRT_TOT fa Fa 1
10-K.6.3.5
The Total Criterion is obtained from the maximum value of the stress criterion and the slender criterion and stored as the CRT_TOT parameter in the active alternative in the CivilFEMs results file for each element end. This value will vary between 0.0 and 1.0 if the element is valid according to the ASME BPVC III Subsection NF code.
10-KI-19
CRT _ TOT
10-K.6.4
Bending Checking
In CivilFEM the checking of elements under bending according to ASME BPVC III Subsection NF code are done for each element end of those selected elements or solid sections of the model whose cross section type is structural steel. The following steps:
10-K.6.4.1
First, the section is checked in order to classify it as compact section, member with high flange width-thickness ratio or miscellaneous member: (a) Compact sections: For a section to qualify as compact its flanges must be continuously connected to the web or webs and the width-thickness ratios of its compression elements must not exceed the limiting ratios below: 1- The width-thickness ratio of the compression flanges shall not exceed: a. for unstiffened elements b. for stiffened elements 2- Depth-thickness ratio of webs
b/t 65 / Sy
b / t 190 / Sy
d/ t
d/ t
640 / Sy 1 3.74 fa / Sy
257 / Sy if fa / Sy 0.16
if
fa / Sy
0.16
3- Moreover, the compression flanges shall be braced laterally at intervals not exceeding 76bf / Sy nor 20000 / d/ A f Sy . This property is set by the user as a member property (~MEMBPRO command). If the cross section has no compression flanges, the member will be taken into account as braced laterally. (b) Members with high flange width-thickness ratio: members shall meet the requirements above, except that the unstiffened flanges meet:
65 / Sy b/t 95 / Sy
(c) Miscellaneous members: members not covered in the classification above. Then, the allowable bending stress shall be as required by the equations bellow: 1- I sections:
10-K20
a. Compact sections bent about their minor inertia axis shall not exceed a bending stress of:
FB 0.75 Sy
b. Members with high flange width-thickness ratio bent about their minor inertia axis shall not exceed a bending stress of:
FB
Sy 1.075 0.005 bf / 2t f
Sy
c. Compact sections bent about their major inertia axis shall not exceed:
FB 0.66Sy
d. Members with high flange width-thickness ratio bent about their major inertia axis shall not exceed a bending stress of:
FB
Sy 0.79 0.002 bf / 2t f
Sy
e. Miscellaneous members sections bent about their major inertia axis shall not exceed the larger value bellow:
FB1
when
2 3
Sy l / rc
/ 1530 103 Cb
1/ 2
Sy
0.60 Sy
1/ 2
102 103 Cb / Sy
l / rc
2
510 10 3 Cb / Sy
FB1
when l / rc
170 103 Cb / l / rc
510 103 Cb / Sy
1/ 2
0.60 Sy
where rc is the radius of a section comprising the compression flange plus one-third of the compression web area When the compression flange area is not less than the tension flange area,
FB2 12 103 Cb / l d / A f 0.60 Sy
f. Members not included above braced laterally in the region of compression stress shall not exceed a bending stress of:
FB 0.60 Sy
If these members are not braced laterally in the region of compression stress, the section will be not checked. 2- Tubular square box sections: a. Compact sections bent about their minor inertia axis but not necessary braced laterally shall not exceed a bending stress of:
FB 0.66 Sy
10-KI-21
but this section strength can be decreased through the reduction factors. 3- Pipe sections: a. If the diameter-thickness ratio of hollow circular sections not exceeds 3300/Sy, the bending stress shall not exceed:
FB 0.66 Sy
If the section exceeds the diameter-thickness ratio above, the section will be not checked. 4- U channel sections: a. If the section is bent about its major inertia axis, the bending stress shall not exceed the larger value bellow:
FB1
when
2 3
Sy l / rc
/ 1530 103 Cb
1/ 2
Sy
0.60 Sy
1/ 2
102 103 Cb / Sy
l / rc
2
510 10 3 Cb / Sy
FB1
when l / rc
170 103 Cb / l / rc
510 103 Cb / Sy
1/ 2
0.60 Sy
where rc is the radius of a section comprising the compression flange plus one-third of the compression web area When the compression flange area is not less than the tension flange area,
FB2 12 103 Cb / l d / A f 0.60 Sy
b. Members not included above braced laterally in the region of compression stress shall not exceed a bending stress of:
FB 0.60 Sy
If these members are not braced laterally in the region of compression stress, the section will be not checked. 5- Tees sections: a. Compact sections loaded in the direction of the web which coincides with the minor inertia axis, shall not exceed a bending stress of:
FB
10-K22
0.66Sy
b. Members with high flange width-thickness ratio sections loaded in the direction of the web which coincides with the minor inertia axis, shall not exceed a bending stress of::
FB
Sy 0.79 0.002 bf / 2t f
Sy
c. Miscellaneous members sections loaded in the direction of the web which coincides with the minor inertia axis, not exceed the larger value bellow:
FB1
when
2 3
Sy l / rc
/ 1530 103 Cb
1/ 2
Sy
0.60 Sy
1/ 2
102 103 Cb / Sy
l / rc
2
510 10 3 Cb / Sy
FB1
when l / rc
170 103 Cb / l / rc
510 103 Cb / Sy
1/ 2
0.60 Sy
where rc is the radius of a section comprising the compression flange plus one-third of the compression web area When the compression flange area is not less than the tension flange area,
FB2 12 103 Cb / l d / A f 0.60 Sy
d. Members not included above braced laterally in the region of compression stress shall not exceed a bending stress of:
FB 0.60 Sy
If these members are not braced laterally in the region of compression stress, the section will be not checked. 6- Rest of the sections: a. Members braced laterally in the region of compression stress shall not exceed a bending stress of:
FB 0.60 Sy
If these members are not braced laterally in the region of compression stress, the section will be not checked.
10-K.6.4.2
When flexural members containing elements subject to compression and having a width-thickness ratio in excess of the applicable limit below, ASME BPVC III Subsection NF Code decreases the efficiency of a section through the reduction factors:
10-KI-23
76 / Sy
when
76 / Sy
Qs 1.0 b / t 155 / Sy
Qs 1.340 0.00447 b / t Sy
when
b / t 155 / Sy
Qs 15500 / Sy b / t
2
when
127 / Sy
Qs 1.0 b / t 176 / Sy
Qs 1.908 0.00715 b / t Sy
when
b / t 176 / Sy
Qs 20000 / Sy b / t
2
95 / Sy
when
95 / Sy
Qs 1.0 b / t 176 / Sy
Qs 1.415 0.00437 b / t Sy
when
b / t 176 / Sy
Qs 20000 / Sy b / t
2
10-K24
where Sy is the yield strength, in ksi. Furthermore, unstiffened elements of channels and tees whose proportions exceed the limits above are checked for the following limits: Shape Built-up channels Rolled channels Built-up tees Rolled tees Ratio of Flange Width to Profile Depth Ratio of Flange Thickness to Web or Stem Thickness
0.25 0.50
0.50 0.50
Table NF-3322.2(e)(2)-1
3.0 2.0
1.25 1.10
This proportion checking result is written in the CivilFEM results file (.RCV) as CTR_W with the value of 0.0 if the proportion limits are fulfill and 2100 if not.
b/t
238 / Sy
be
253t f
50.3 (b / t) f
253 / Sy
be
253t f
44.3 (b / t) f
Where f is the compressive stress on member based on effective area, in ksi. If unstiffened elements are included in the total cross section, f must be such that the maximum compressive stress in the unstiffened elements does not exceed FbQs. Therefore, the calculation of the effective width of the stiffened elements follows the following iterative process: a) The maximum compressive stress f of the element is obtained
10-KI-25
b) An initial value of the effective width be is calculated in all the compressive elements. c) A new axial compressive stress f of the effective area is obtained d) If f exceeds FbQs, new effective widths be are obtained by increasing the last effective widths be. This iteration is repeated until the axial compression stress does not exceed FbQs or the effective area is equal to the total area.
From this effective width be , the form factor Qa, which is the ratio of the effective area to its total area is obtained:
Aef
(b bef ) t
Qa
Aef / A
10-K.6.4.3
When reduction factors are required, the maximum allowable bending stress shall not exceed 0.6 SyQs nor the Fb value as provided above. The computed bending stress fb obtained from the effective area is divided by the steel design strength Fb in order to obtain a value, stored as the CRT_TOT parameter in the active alternative in the CivilFEMs results file for each element end. This value shall vary between 0.0 and 1.0 so that the element will be valid according to the ASME BPVC III Subsection NF code, that is, the equivalent stress must be lower than the steel design strength.
CRT_TOT fb Fb 1
10-K.6.5
In CivilFEM the checking of elements under bending and axial compression forces according to ASME BPVC III Subsection NF code are done for each element end of those selected elements or solid sections of the model whose cross section type is structural steel.
10-K.6.5.1
For members subjected to both axial compression and bending, stresses shall satisfy the requirements of the following equations:
1.0
10-K26
1.0
1.0
1.5
The choice between primary stresses or both primary and secondary stresses is selected by the arguments of the ~CHKSTL command. The Total Criterion will be the maximum value of the equations bellow and will be stored as the CRT_TOT parameter in the active alternative in the CivilFEMs results file for each element end. This value shall vary between 0.0 and 1.0 so that the element will be valid according to the ASME BPVC III Subsection NF code, that is, the equivalent stress must be lower than the steel design strength.
10-K.6.6
In CivilFEM the checking of elements under bending and axial tension forces according to ASME BPVC III Subsection NF code are done for each element end of those selected elements or solid sections of the model whose cross section type is structural steel
10-K.6.6.1
Members subject to both axial tension and bending stresses shall satisfy the requirements of the following equation:
1.0
Where fb is the computed bending tensile stress. However, the computed bending compressive stress, taken alone, shall not exceed the allowable compression stress Fa. Therefore, the total criterion will be:
CRT _ TOT
MAX
10-KI-27
The total criterion is stored as the CRT_TOT parameter in the active alternative in the CivilFEMs results file for each element end. This value shall vary between 0.0 and 1.0 so that the element will be valid according to the ASME BPVC III Subsection NF code, that is, the equivalent stress must be lower than the steel design strength.
10-K28
Checking Process ..................................................................................... 11 10-L.6.1 10-L.6.2 10-L.6.3 10-L.6.4 10-L.6.5 10-L.6.6 10-L.6.7 Design Requirements. ............................................................ 11 General Processing of Sections. Section Class and Reduction Factors Calculation. ................................................................ 12 Checking of Members For Tension (Chapter ND) ................. 14 Checking of Members in Axial Compression (Chapter NE) .... 15 Checking of Members For Flexure Checking of Members For Shear (Chapter NF) ................ 21 (Chapter NG) ................ 24
Checking of Members For Combined Forces and Torsion (Chapter NH) .......................................................................... 25
10-L.1 Scope
10-L.1 Scope
Steel structures checking according to ANSI/AISC N690-06 Specification for Safety-Related Steel Structures for Nuclear Facilities (September 20, 2006) in CivilFEM is included in the checking of structures composed by welded or rolled shapes under axial forces, shear forces and bending moments in 3D. In this version, specification committee includes both ASD and LRFD methods unified, permitting designer to choose between one and another. Both methods are based in the required strength of each structural member, modified by established factor to being compared to design or allowable, depending on method The calculations made by CivilFEM according to the following sections: NB Design requirements ND Design of members for tension. NE Design of members for compression. NF Design of members for flexure. NG Design of members for shear. NH Design of members for combined forces and torsion.
10L-1
Buckling check:
Compression members subjected to flexure Compression members subjected to flexure and torsion NE3,NE7 NE4,NE7
10L-2
Moreover, it is possible to check solid sections captured from 2D or 3D models with a transversal cross section classified as structural steel.
10L-3
SHEAR BEND_AXL
BDAxSHTR
10L-4
10-L.5.1
Sections Data
N690-06 considers the following data set for the section: Gross section data Net section data Effective section data Data concerning to the section and plates class. Gross section data correspond to the nominal properties of the cross-section. From net section only the area is considered. This area is calculated discounting the holes for screws, rivets and other holes from the gross section area. The user will have to take into account that N690-06 indicates that the diameter from which to calculate the parameter AHOLES is greater than the real diameter (the total calculated area is introduced in the parameter AHOLES with the command ~SECMDF). Effective section data and section and plates class data are obtained in the checking process according to chapter NB4 of the code. This chapter, classifies steel sections into three groups, compact, noncompacts and slender, depending upon the width-thickness ratio and some mandatory limits. The N690-06 module takes the gross section data in user units and CivilFEM axis or section axis as initial data. The program calculates the effective section data and the class data, and stores them in CivilFEMs results file, in user units and in CivilFEM or section axis. All these data can be listed and plotted with the ~PLLSSTL and ~PRSTL commands. In the following tables, the section data used in N690-06 are shown:
10L-5
Table 10-L.5-1 Common data for gross, net and effective sections
Description Input data: 1.- Height 2.- Web thickness 3.- Flanges thickness 4.- Flanges width 5.- Distance between flanges 6.- Radius of fillet (Rolled shapes) 7.- Toe radius (Rolled shapes) 8.- Weld throat thickness (Welded shapes) 9.- Web free depth Output data Data H Tw Tf B Hi r1 r2 a d (None)
Tky tkz A It Iyy, Izz Izy Wely, Welz Wply, Wplz iy, iz Ycdg, Zcdg Ymin, Ymax, Zmin, Zmax Yms, Zms Iw Yws, Zws Xwt Iuu, Ivv (None)
CivilFEM CivilFEM CivilFEM CivilFEM CivilFEM CivilFEM CivilFEM CivilFEM Section Section Section CivilFEM CivilFEM Principal CivilFEM
10L-6
10-L.5 Data and Results used by CivilFEM 1.- Cross-section area Anet
The effective section depends upon the geometry of the section, thus, for each element and for each end the effective section is calculated. Table 10-L.5-4 Net section data
Description Input data: Output data: 1.- Reduction factor 2.- Reduction factor 3.- Reduction factor Q Qs Qa Data (None)
10L-7
Chapter 10 Steel Structures according to ANSI/AISC N690-06 Output data: 1.- Class 2.- Bending axis for checking purposes 3.- Plates class 4.- Plate reduction factor in point 1 5.- Plate reduction factor in point 2 6.- Compression class 7.- Bending class 8.- Width to thickness ratio (b/t) 9.- p compression 10.- r compression 11.- Plate compression class 12.- p bending 13.- r bending 14.- Bending class CLASS AXIS PC PF1 PF2 CLS_COMP CLS_FLEX RATIO LAMBDP_C LAMBDR_C CLASE_C LAMBDR_P LAMBDR_F CLASE_F
10-L.5.2
Member Properties
For N690-06 the checked data set used at member level is shown in the following table. All data, is stored with the section data in user units and in CivilFEM reference axis. (Parameters L, KXY, KXZ, KZ, CB, LB of ~MEMBPRO command). Table 10-L.5-6 Member Properties
Description Input data: 1.- Unbraced length of member (global buckling) 2.- Buckling factor in XY plane 3.- Buckling factor in XY plane 4.- Effective length factors for torsional buckling 5.- Lateral-torsional modification factor for nonuniform moment 6.- Length between lateral restraints Output data: 1.- Compression class 2.- Bending class CLS_COMP CLS_FLEX L KXY KXZ KZ Cb Lb Data
10L-8
10-L.5.3
Material Properties
In N690-06 checking, the following material properties are used: Table 10-L.5-7 Material properties
Description Steel yield strength Ultimate strength Elasticity modulus Poisson coefficient Shear modulus *th =thickness of plate G Property Fy(th) Fu(th) E
10L-9
b) Obtain the cross-section data corresponding to the element. c) Initiate the values of the plates reduction factors and other plates parameters to determine its class. d) Specific section checking according to the type of external load. e) Results. Checking results are available CivilFEM for each element end, grouping them into alternatives in the results file .RCV, in such way that the user may access them by indicating the number of the alternative using the CivilFEM command ~CFSET. In the tables included in the sections corresponding to the different types of checking, the necessary data corresponding to the each type of solicitation is described.
10-L.6.1
10-L.6.1.1
Design Requirements.
Design for Strength Using Load and Resistance Factor Design (LRFD)
Ru
Where: Ru Rn Required strength (LRFD). Nominal strength. Resistance factor.
Ru
10L-11
Rn
Design strength
10-L.6.1.2
Ra
Where: Ra Rn Required strength (ASD) Nominal strength. Safety factor
Rn /
10-L.6.2
Steel sections are classified as compact, noncompact or slender-element sections. For a section to qualify as compact its flanges must be continuously connected to the web or webs and the width-thickness ratios of its compression elements must not exceed the limiting width-thickness ratios p (see table NB4.1 of N690-06 Specification). If the width-thickness ratio of one or more compression elements exceeds p but does not exceed r, the section is noncompact. If the width-thickness ratio of any element exceeds r, (see table NB4.1 of N690-06 Specification), the section is referred to as a slender-element compression section. Therefore, the code suggests different lambda values depending if the element is subjected to compression, flexure or compression plus flexure. The section classification is the worst-case scenario of all its plates. Therefore, the class is calculated for each plate with the exception of pipe sections, which have their own formulation because it can no be decomposed into plates. This classification will take into account the following parameters: a) length of elements: The program will take as the element length (b or h) the length of the plate (distance between the extreme points), except when specifying otherwise. b) flange or web distinction: In the cases in which a distinction has to be made between flange or web the following criteria will be taken into account:
10L-12
Once the principal axis of bending is defined, the program will examine the sections plates. Fields Pty and Ptz of plates, indicate if they behave as flanges, webs or undefined, taking the correct one for each axis. In the case of been undefined, the following criterion will be taken into account to classify the plate as flange or web: if | y|<| z| (increments of end coordinates) and flexure is in the Y axis, it is considered as