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Assignment # 23 Name: Sabina Bacino Period: 6 Date: 2-12-13

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Will My Building Withstand an Earthquake? Architect Frank Lloyd Wright was an innovator in designing buildings that could withstand earthquakes. For example, Wright designed the Imperial Hotel in Tokyo, which withstood that citys severe 1923 earthquake with only minor damage. Many modern cities located in earthquake prone areas have enacted building codes designed to reduce damage to structures, thereby reducing the incidents of injury or death. Architects often go beyond these safety codes to ensure public safety. For example, the Transamerica Pyramid in San Francisco is stronger than required by the citys building code. It also has features built into its base that are designed to dramatically reduce how much the building will sway during an earthquake.

Problem: What design strategies keep structures safe in an earthquake? Hypothesis: If my structure of 16 centimeters tall can withstand an earthquake, then the design strategy of wide base (cross bracing, using a wide base, anchoring, a low center of gravity, rigid frame, or flexible frame) will be the most important factor in keeping it safe and minimizing damage. Materials: 40 Toothpicks 5 mini marshmallows or 25 grams of clay Sheet of paper (to build structure on and put names and group number on) Procedure: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Make your hypothesis if you havent already done so. On the back or bottom of this sheet, sketch a plan how you and your partner are going to build your structure. How are you going to use the materials? Draw an example of your structure. Have the teacher check and sign off on your drawing. Before you start building get a group number 2. Once the teacher has given you your group number, you may start building your model. After you have finished making your model, fill out the data table for your group below. Place your model on the counter with a piece of paper underneath it and be sure your names and group number are on it. Collect data from all the other groups so that your data table is filled out. Results: Class Data Table for Period # _____ Group Height of Width of # of Anchored to Low #2 model base cross the paper (yes center of (centimeters) (centimeters) braces or no) gravity (majorit y of the mass is lower than halfway down (yes or no) Rigid (clay) or Flexible (marshmallow) (choose one) Time lasted on the shake table (seconds)

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

22.2 13.7 .5 22.0 19.5 9.6 13.0 12.0 9.4 15.1

12.9 5.0 7.0 12.0 5.5 6.8 5.9 13.0 6.6 5.9

3 0 1 1 0 0 8 16 1 3

No No No No Yes Yes Yes Yes No Yes

No Yes No No Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes

Rigid Rigid Rigid Rigid Flexible Flexible Flexible Flexible Rigid Flexible

1 1 15 15 15 15 15 15 1 15

11 1512 13 14 15 16

10.5 12.5 14.0 16.2 8.0 16.0

10.5 5.6 11.0 4.0 7.0 10.5

0 0 5 0 4 0

Yes No No No No No

No Yes Yes Yes No Yes

Flexible Rigid Rigid Rigid Flexible Rigid

15 1 1 3 1 1

My structure was 13.7 cm. tall and 5.0 cm. wide. My structure was made out of clay and it was rigid. When it went onto the shake table, it all stayed together but it fell over right away. After 1 second, the structure fell over, but it did not crumble. After, Mr. Shern put it back up right to see what would happen out of curiosity. It fell over again and went side to side, and after a little bit, a toothpick came off, and then it all fell apart.

How did your design compare with other designs in the class? Conclusion According to the textbook on page 204-205 shear walls, tension ties, base isolators, cross braces, dampers, flexible pipes are good design strategies because these features strengthen a building and allow the building to move, or shield the building from the energy of the seismic waves. In this lab we were testing design strategies keep structures safe in an earthquake. I hypothesized that if my structure of 16 centimeters tall could withstand an earthquake, then the design strategy of wide base would be the most important factor in keeping it safe and minimizing damage. Over the course of 1 second my structure went onto the shake table and the structure fell over, but it did not crumble or break. My structure was 13.7 cm. tall and 5.0 cm. wide, it was made out of clay, it was rigid and it was not anchored. Six out of the six or 100% of the anchored structures lasted the whole 15 seconds. Anchoring is the single most important thing to do. Six out of the eight or 75% of the structures that made it were flexible. In conclusion my hypothesis was incorrect. Having the structure anchored and flexible are the most important factors in keeping the structures safe and minimizing damage during an earthquake.