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Lever rule

( )

( )
st st
1
number of moles number of moles
total number of moles
molefraction of molefraction of of the -phase of the -phase
of
the 1 component the 1 component
in the -phase in the -phase
1 1 n x n x n
o o | |
o |
o |
+ =



st
nd st
the1 component
in thesystem
2
number of moles molefraction of number of moles molefraction of
total
of the -phase of the -phase
the 2 component the 1 component
in the -phase in the -phase
n x n x n
o o | |
o |
o |
+ =

nd
number of moles
of the 2 component
in the system

(1)
Since mole fractions are normalized, it is immediately apparent from (1) that:

1
n n n n
o |
2
+ = + (2)

( )
( ) ( )
( )
1
1 2 1 2
2
1
1 1
1 1 1 1
n x
nx n x nx n x
n x
n
x x x x x x
x x x
x x
|
| | | |
|
o
o | | o o |
| o |
o |


= = =

x x x
o o |
+
( )
1 2
1 nx n x
x x
| |
| o

=

(3)

molefraction of
n
f
n n
o
o
o |
o
=
+
(4)
By using (2), one can rewrite (4) as:

1 2
n
f
n n
o
o
=
+
(5)
By substituting n from
o
(3) in (5), one gets:

( )
( )

( )
nd
st
molar fraction
molar fraction 1 2
of the 2 component
of the1 component
in thesystem
in thesystem
1 2
1 1
1
x x x x
nx n x
x xx
x x
f
n n
| |
| |
| |
| o
o

= = =
+

x xx
|
+ x x
x x x
|
x
| o | o

molefraction of
1
x x x
f
x x
| |
|
| o
|

= =

x x
o |
x x x
x x x x
o
| o |
+
=
o